ST0-149 exam Dumps Source : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Test Code : ST0-149
Test title : Storage Foundation and HA 6.0 Windows(R) Technical Assessment
Vendor title : Symantec
: 171 real Questions
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Symantec debuts Storage foundation 5.0; income slipSymantec Corp. announced Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 extravagant Availability (HA) for windows, which adds unusual embolden for multipathing that may subsist launched as a standard duty of home windows Vista later this year, and a characteristic analysts are praising referred to as hearth Drill, which permits for nondisruptive failover checking out within the Storage basis atmosphere.
"Ease of employ and clicks-to-deploy is getting caution out" in product differentiations, observed Greg Schulz, founder and analyst with the StorageIO neighborhood. The fire Drill feature, he said, goes further towards ease of employ by using allowing nondisruptive "what if" checking out in the environment. "I reckon you might subsist going to peer a lot of 'me toos' after this -- extra vendors are going to are looking to collect on the bandwagon," Schulz spoke of.also unusual to this free up is Veritas Storage basis basic for home windows, a free edition of Storage foundation for home windows, which contains Dynamic Multipathing (DMP) and runs on physical and digital servers with gadget configurations that conclude not exceed four volumes or two actual processors in a solitary physical equipment.
The utility will too encompass a brand unusual set of configuration wizards that gain setup faster and allow administrators to employ a GUI to agenda aspect-in-time copies when using the FlashSnap option. The utility additionally now includes dynamic optimization of storage volumes and load-balancing algorithms that labor throughout heterogeneous storage arrays.
meanwhile, youngsters, Symantec preannounced this week that it expects its revenue for the fourth quarter of 2006 to leave out aims, and CEO John Thompson mentioned publicly that the issue can too subsist attributed to disappointing sales from the Veritas information core administration utility group.
Analysts squawk Symantec should collect its product lines and the messaging around them straight; the commerce has a boatload of commonly overlapping items, many with intricate interdependencies. "I believe they're wrestling with the challenge of getting their message out," Schulz mentioned. "They necessity to collect every thing beneath one umbrella and proceed to build out their capabilities while integrating issues further."
Symantec will dangle a formal revenue convene Jan. 24. Symantec shares plummeted just over 13% between closing Friday and opening Wednesday on the heels of Thomas' statements.
Seagate introduces tiny, speedy SAS driveSeagate technology delivered the Savvio 15K power, a unusual 15K rpm addition to the Savvio line of 2.5-inch SAS commerce drive options. Seagate pointed out that the Savvio 15K pressure was recently validated as the world's fastest power within the latest HP ProLiant servers in benchmark checking out.
solar touts NAS customers, provides NAS boxSun Microsystems Inc. introduced that the California Institute of technology (Caltech) and the national Archive Publishing Co. (NAPC) occupy chosen solar StorageTek NAS appliances to host file facts. At Caltech, the core for advanced Computing analysis (CACR) heads up computational science and engineering research; NAPC focuses on upkeep, customized publishing and other academic functions.sun additionally introduced the sun StorageTek 5220 NAS appliance, an entry-degree community connected storage (NAS) appliance for departments, workgroups or far flung offices in giant organisations. The StorageTek 5220 NAS apparatus presents non-compulsory far flung records mirroring among StorageTek 5000 NAS home equipment, contains iSCSI goal advocate and begins at $28,990 (U.S. list price) for a 2 terabyte (TB) configuration.
legislations organizations installation RiverbedRiverbed know-how Inc. announced that two legislations corporations, Pepper Hamilton LLP and Loeb & Loeb LLP, in addition to digital facts Discovery Inc., an electronic discovery features enterprise, occupy deployed Riverbed's Steelhead broad-enviornment information services (WDS) appliances.Interstate hotels and motels improvements SepatonSepaton Inc. announced that probably the most nation's biggest unbiased inn administration agencies, Interstate resorts and resorts has deployed the S2100-ES2 digital tape library (VTL) to substitute the previous edition of Sepaton's product, the S2100-DS. Interstate makes employ of EMC's Legato backup utility to back up network Appliancefilers onto the Sepaton VTL.
Permabit presents grid storagePermabit Inc. introduced the provision of Permabit Dynamic assistance Grid, which mixes Permabit's Dynamic information features content-addressed storage (CAS) application and grid storage. A grid design eliminates fundamental statistics migration as the system is expanded, automates load balancing and automates deduplication. The system might subsist integrated and allotted via Avnet Computing systems (ACS).Scentric proclaims commercial enterprise Classification SuitesScentric introduced the availability of Scentric destiny commerce Suites for information privateness, e-Discovery and Compliance. each and every suite combines preconfigured application that has too been revised to manage more data. The product packages, which additionally consist of a 12 months's maintenance in the licensing price of $eighty,000, start with the aptitude to categorise 25 TB of information and are then sold in increments for 50 TB, 100 TB and one hundred fifty TB. The three packages are the commercial enterprise Suite for facts privacy, which can immediately flag, migrate, delete or avoid access to tips labeled as containing personally choice counsel. The commerce Suite for e-Discovery preclassifies data for viable future litigation applications. The Compliance Suite combines both the records privateness and e-Discovery items and adds 20 templates preconfigured to correspond with main company laws together with the health insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). A 150 TB Compliance Suite would start at $250,000, in response to the company. Hitachi to resell OnaroContinuing a technique of partnering for unusual commerce that began with the coincident announcement of an aftermarket rob reliance of BlueArc, Hitachi statistics programs (HDS) announced that it'll resell Onaro Inc.'s SANscreen storage administration utility. below the phrases of the settlement, HDS will market, promote and provide first-stage steer for HDS' SANscreen purchasers. HDS is already a member of Onaro's these days launched provider Connections software and will employ Onaro's SANscreen carrier connect utility program interface (API) to supply tips to its Hitachi HiCommandSuite software.
Symantec Corp. has released Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 extravagant Availability (HA) for home windows, a comprehensive solution that gives you data and application availability for Microsoft home windows environments. Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 elevated Availability combines two business-leading options-Storage groundwork for windows and Veritas Cluster Server-along side more advantageous usability tools to simplify storage administration, extravagant availability and catastrophe recuperation for mission-essential home windows applications corresponding to Microsoft alternate, SQL Server, and SharePoint Portal Server.
in response to IDC, purchasers are putting more of their mission faultfinding applications on the home windows platform. They necessity storage administration options that give better availability and enhanced catastrophe recuperation than ever before. Storage groundwork HA for home windows offers companies enjoyable capabilities in non-disruptive storage operations, scalable extravagant availability, and catastrophe restoration options-together with centralised storage visibility and control that are ought to-have requirements for windows environments.
application infrastructure standardisation for the information centre
Veritas Storage foundation helps exploit explosive facts increase, optimise storage hardware investments, supply unparalleled software availability and power down operational fees via a set of customary tools for windows, Linux, and UNIX environments. Storage groundwork for home windows introduces unusual capabilities to advocate users standardise their storage and extravagant availability software infrastructure.
New to this free up is Veritas Storage foundation primary for windows, a free version of Storage groundwork for windows, designed for area-tier and infrastructure workloads, enabling purchasers to leverage Storage foundation for home windows and capitalise on the merits of a typical infrastructure confess across every server in their data centre.
Storage groundwork simple for home windows includes Dynamic Multi-pathing (DMP) and runs on actual and digital servers with device configurations that conclude not exceed four volumes or 2 actual processors in a solitary physical system.
purchasers standardising on Storage foundation for home windows and DMP can leverage a extensive storage array steer of any multi-pathing solution-together with advocate for leading array households from EMC, HP, HDS, IBM, network appliance, and solar-to obtain agility and elevated recur on their storage hardware investments. purchasers even occupy the pliability to opt for the storage community infrastructure that fits their needs. Symantec is a supplier utterly licensed with Microsoft's MPIO framework for both Fibre Channel HBA StorPort and Microsoft iSCSI utility. additionally, Storage basis for windows introduces advanced iSCSI SAN management capabilities including automated discovery, administration, and configuration of IP-based SANs.
based on Symantec's Storage foundation community, standardisation on Storage groundwork HA for windows permits customers to occupy extra flexibility of their storage hardware choices and drives down operational charges by artery of enabling them to employ a solitary tool. This unlock has furthered the ROI of standardisation by using decreasing the can freight of deploying Storage groundwork on every server and enabling shoppers to occupy visibility and centralised control of storage administration, elevated availability, and catastrophe restoration capabilities throughout their entire statistics centre.
more desirable storage manageability and performance
Storage groundwork for windows enables shoppers to drive down operational cost whereas improving mission crucial application service degree agreements with the aid of introducing a group of unusual capabilities for improving manageability and efficiency. Symantec will add advocate for Storage basis administration Server, which gives finished visibility and control full through the records centre infrastructure.
This multi-host management aptitude permits IT companies to centrally manage their utility, server, and storage environments, resulting in swift problem decision, simplified records migrations, higher provider tiers, and reduced possibility of human error. Storage groundwork management Server will embolden Storage foundation for home windows 4.x and 5.0, Veritas quantity Replicator option, and Storage basis for home windows primary, which means purchasers can view and manage full such situations of Storage groundwork throughout their total statistics centre via a single, unified tool.
Administration fees are too reduced by means of a set of recent configuration wizards, which gain storage, cluster, and replication installing set up times more than 50 % faster and allow directors to employ an easy GUI to schedule aspect-in-time copies when the usage of the FlashSnap option.
To ensure that valued clientele can realize elevated levels of efficiency, Storage foundation for home windows adds a collection of latest software performance enhancing capabilities together with:
Ease-of-use is fundamental when settings up clusters, taking point-in-time copies, recuperating disk space and ensuring apposite server configurations. The wizards introduced in Veritas Storage basis 5.0 HA for home windows will advocate my group store time and reduce error, whereas taking the guesswork out of historically useful resource-intensive, yet crucial storage management initiatives.
Simplified clustering with Veritas Cluster Server
Veritas Cluster Server, a complicated elevated availability and catastrophe restoration confess for home windows environments additionally introduces unusual features designed to increase manageability and in the reduction of administration cross of presenting elevated availability.
Cluster Server's secure, net-primarily based Cluster administration Console simplifies the project of managing, monitoring, and configuring multiple clusters for home windows, Linux, and Unix, working in numerous data centres. Cluster Server significantly reduces operational expenses by presenting the identical complete protection throughout actual and virtual server environments together with home windows, VMware, and Microsoft digital Server.
Cluster Server too comprises hearth Drill, which allows corporations to continually peer at various catastrophe restoration situations without exposing construction purposes to risk and downtime. the unusual step-via-step wizard-pushed workflow simplifies the assignment of configuring hearth Drill, information replication, and extravagant availability/catastrophe healing options for change, SQL Server, Oracle, and different applications. Cluster Server too reduces risk to the company by preemptively and proactively opting for expertise configuration issues before they befall by artery of monitoring any configuration drift amongst cluster nodes.
For mission-vital applications that require coordination of software clustering and remote information protection, the Veritas extent Replicator (VVR) alternative has delivered the means to coordinate snapshots at each the primary and/or a faraway secondary plot for consistent backup or disk-based mostly catastrophe recuperation solutions.
additionally, with the brand unusual bunker replication characteristic of the VVR alternative, firms can perambulate with a data replication strategy of replicating facts over any distance with out losing a solitary transaction-a healing aspect purpose of zero over any distance. Symantec provides coverage for heterogeneous server and storage environments.
Marlene Iaquil Serra, fifty seven, is one of the fortunate ones. She escaped her home before the pestilential sludge engulfed it. Her aged mom, long past to consult with a relative’s unusual child, was spared as smartly, while others died, inundated via a wave of rust-colored sludge and rocky particles.
These fortunate escapes may relate routine during the January 2019 Brumadinho Vale mining disaster.
but they don’t. Serra escaped from Bento Rodrigues on November 5, 2015 when the Fundão tailings dam, operated through Samarco and owned through two of the world’s largest mining businesses, Vale and BHP Billiton, collapsed killing nineteen, including two children.
The 2015 Vale give artery dumped 50 million a total lot iron mining fritter into the Doce River, polluting it for 500 miles to the Atlantic Ocean, killing fish and other natural world, and contaminating the drinking water for roughly 1.6 million Brazilians – together with indigenous and conventional americans who relied on the river for their livelihoods.
The catastrophe in the genesis caused Vale’s share rate to tank as Brazilians condemned the enterprise and lax governmental oversight.
Three years later and Vale turned into once again booming, but it surely is additionally presiding over a brand unusual flood of toxic mud. At lunchtime on January 25th, some 70 miles from Bento Rodrigues, the Feijão dam ruptured, spilling the equal sort of iron mining waste, from the identical variety of failed tailings dam that destroyed Bento, with far more deadly effects.IBAMA, the Brazilian Institute of environment and Renewable elements, has already issued five fines totaling well-nigh US$68.5 million against Vale in view that the Brumadinho disaster. although, within the Bento Rodrigues dam descend down of 2015, the mining agencies involved which involve Vale, occupy resisted, and not paid any of the fines issued. photograph courtesy of Press office/IBAMA. Marchers protest towards Samarco, Vale and BHP Billiton after the 2015 Doce River catastrophe. The sign reads: “less mud, more existence.” photograph via Zoe Sullivan.
This unusual disaster, unleashing 11.7 million cubic meters (413 million cubic feet) of mining waste, obliterated sections of the community of Brumadinho. As of 6 February, a hundred and fifty bodies – along with unidentifiable physique parts – had been recovered, whereas 182 people are nonetheless lacking, feared lifeless.
“They necessity to reckon a Little more about americans, about human beings,” Serra said of Vale a few days after the latest disaster. “those are lives. Vale makes some huge cash. Lives occupy no expense. This has definitely affected individuals.”
Samarco, which operated the Fundão dam, has looked after Serra and different Bento survivors for the judgement that 2015. The company pays her employ and offers a pay as you perambulate credit card to cover her family costs. She is additionally waiting, patiently, for the unusual home the commerce promised to construct; she says it is suppositious to subsist in a position subsequent 12 months – 4 years after the rupture.
The commerce advised Mongabay it has spent 5.2 billion Reals (about US$1.four billion) repairing damages and compensating victims since the Bento dam crumple through the Renova foundation, created to deal with these tasks. Renova pointed out it has offered monetary advocate to approximately 300,000 americans.The route of destruction taken with the aid of the toxic mine fritter via Brumadinho knocked out a ample bridge and swept away full evidence of its wreckage. image by artery of Vinicius Mendonça/IBAMA. When lightning strikes twice
The Brumadinho tragedy has Brazilians asking: “How might this occupy happened again?” The reply is partly historical; the plot has relied on mining considering the Portuguese arrived in Brazil. but responsibility too lies with the screw ups of successive governments – each left and appropriate – to adequately alter and hang businesses to account.
There’s a further contributing cause: americans necessity their mining jobs, so regularly simply carry on when issues perambulate wrong. As of 2016, Minas Gerais, the state where both disasters came about, employed very nearly 54,000 americans within the mining business, based on IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and statistics.
In 2015, hefty commerce – especially mining – accounted for greater than R$four.6 billion (roughly US$ 1.2 billion) flowing in and out of the metropolis of Mariana the plot the Bento Rodrigues catastrophe came about. The provider industry, against this, accounted for under a third that plenty. This outsized fiscal footprint helps clarify the power and privilege that the mining industry enjoys in the state – despite repeated industrial disasters.
That overwhelming economic potential may too interpret why businesses equivalent to Vale rob potentially horrific socio-environmental hazards.
for instance, in response to one report, Samarco turned into trying to quintuple the dimension of the Fundão fritter reservoir by means of connecting two several tailing dams when the 2015 crumple happened. specialists squawk tailings dams are harmful because as an alternative of being developed on solid floor, they employ mine fritter as their groundwork and partitions. These substances can shift or “liquify,” as an investigation by using Vale and BHP neighborhood Ltd. institute came about on the Fundão dam. Video of the 2019 Brumadinho descend down exhibit what looks to subsist a similar liquefaction process in horrific detail, with cars and people swept to their deaths via a failed dam and a deluge of toxic mud.A diagram of the the Córrego conclude Feijão Mine upstream tailings dam, which isn’t in fact a dam within the common experience. instead of a stout dam wall made from concrete, solid mine fritter (darkish brown), is heaped to gain a berm; then semi-liquid and solid fritter is dumped in in the back of the berm. As stages elevate, extra stout mine fritter is heaped atop the first, and staggered, to carry the “dam,” then extra semi-liquid and solid fritter is dumped in behind, and so forth. The temptation is to gain the dam too high; despicable management, leaks, and hefty rains can full subsist complications with these class dams. lifelike by artery of Agricolax licensed below the inventive Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 Internationallicense.
A 2017 United international locations Environmental Programme (UNEP) report, taking a peer at tailings dams globally, discovered that “moist storage” of the sort that destroyed both Bento Rodrigues and Brumadinho is in freight for many accidents and easily too unhealthy to use. UNEP and its impartial evaluate panel, which together with mining engineers, suggested a world shift to “dry inventory storage” then, but mine operators occupy resisted as a result of damp tailings disposal is more affordable than the dry storage formula.
although elected officials, NGOs and indigenous activists pushed for stricter dam regulations after the 2015 catastrophe, the former Governor of Minas Gerais as a substitute approved a rapid approval manner for industrial tasks, together with mines and dams. The B1 dam that failed in Brumadinho become a fragment of a fancy that Vale acquired approval to expand below this unusual fast-song equipment.In November 2015, a great wave of pestilential mud swept away the lives of individuals dwelling under the Fundão mining fritter impoundment. The 2019 Brumadinho catastrophe is hauntingly identical, however with many times improved loss of life. photo by Romerito Pontes from São Carlos licensed below the artistic Commons Attribution 2.0 everyday license. Brazil’s response to the 2015 disaster
The Brazilian govt did rob some steps to respond to the Fundão dam crumple. Samarco’s Fundão mine is quiet closed, and in 2016, the national Mining production department (DNPM) – now renamed the country wide Mining company (ANM) – suspended approval of mining concessions which deliberate to employ unusual upstream tailings dams of the class that destroyed Bento Rodrigues.
although, that action best included dams that appropriate the country wide Dam security coverage requisites – that means upstream tailings dams taller than 15 meters (forty nine feet) that dangle greater than 3 million cubic meters (more than three.9 million cubic yards) of mining waste, with that fritter regarded to subsist despicable or with dams having been discovered to occupy medium or extravagant dangers of deadly accidents within the event of collapse. The 2016 measure didn´t point out or alter the dozens of existing upstream tailings dams across the nation, including the now collapsed B1 dam in Brumadinho.
As for human and companionable losses, if the nation’s response to the 2015 Fundão dam cave in is any indication, then the residents of Brumadinho and those animated alongside the now polluted Paraopeba River may emerge as waiting many years to remark their distress claims resolved.
After the 2015 Fundão accident, instead of counting on the notoriously dilatory Brazilian judicial device to adjudicate compensation, the Renova basis, a private entity, became created as fragment of a judicial agreement (phrases of Transaction and habits Adjustment, TTAC), as a means to greater instantly gain reparations to impacted communities.although, “The Renova foundation has confirmed to subsist a farce,” says Neto Barros, the mayor of Baixo Guandu, a city of 31,000 individuals on the Doce River closely impacted with the aid of the toxic flood. The basis “defends the pursuits of polluters,” Barros asserted.
He referred to that the registration gadget that Samarco deploy to record affected americans, organising eligibility for fiscal compensation and guide, grossly undercounts the quantity harmed. “There are fisherfolk, there are farmers, there are a lot of people who haven’t been helped. The pollutants they created in their river is absurd,” referred to Barros.americans, wildlife, fish and other aquatic creatures died when toxic mud destroyed Bento Rodrigues and polluted 500 miles of the Doce River in 2015. photograph through Romerito Pontes from São Carlos licensed under the creative Commons Attribution 2.0 established license.
Documented impacts consist of polluted drinking water drawn from the Doce River (clean united stateshave failed to gain the water potable in many areas). A November report from Minas Gerais water company, (IGAM), institute that the circulation quiet has extravagant degrees of metals similar to manganese, aluminum and iron.
Early reviews from local communities squawk that the Paraopeba River downstream of Brumadinho is in a similar artery polluted. The Vale dam rupture has already destroyed at least 269 hectares (665 acres) of indigenous Atlantic wooded area, in keeping with satellite tv for pc facts analyzed by means of Brazil’s IBAMA country wide Environmental Monitoring and suggestions middle.
looking again on the 2015 Fundão dam failure, Samarco has paid precisely not one of the 25 govt fines, totaling 350.7 million Reals (US$ninety five.eight million), assessed against it via IBAMA, the country’s environmental agency. “The enterprise insists on appealing administrative decisions, in quest of to remove its accountability for the disaster. zilch of the environmental fines occupy been paid to date,” proven IBAMA’s press crew.
The group of Baixo Guandu, to maintain away from the long prison wait time and the low caps on potential compensation that apply in Brazil, has joined with 24 cities in a US$6.5 billion lawsuit filed in the uk against BHP Billiton, which co-owned the Fundão dam with Vale. additionally signing onto this UK swimsuit are 240,000 individuals, 11,000 agencies, 200 Krenak indigenous americans, and a Catholic archdiocese.
ultimate November, just weeks earlier than the latest dam catastrophe, the Renova foundation reacted to the BHP Billiton court docket continuing by offering fifty three million Reals (round US$14.4 million) in compensation to Doce River municipalities, however best on the situation they withdraw from the uk lawsuit.Nineteen people died within the Fundão mining fritter catastrophe of 2015. Had Brazil and mining groups acted full of a sudden and decisively then to ban and decommission latest upstream tailings dams, the 2019 Brumadinho catastrophe could occupy been averted. picture through Romerito Pontes licensed under the artistic Commons Attribution 2.0 widespread license. criminal investigation stalled
Prosecution of these allegedly dependable within the Fundão dam crumple has too foundered. Brazilian prosecutors filed a crook case against 22 americans and 4 corporations in 2016. the bulk of the witnesses for the prosecution testified in mid-2018. youngsters, in October two defendants occupy been granted habeas corpus rulings that removed them from the crook continuing. because of this, a judge cancelled the closing scheduled hearings, halting the case.
Gustavo Oliveira, a Federal Public Ministry prosecutor in Minas Gerais, observed that his workplace has filed a movement asking for the case movement forward once again. On the civil aspect, a different prosecutor instructed Mongabay that in 2017 the organizations agreed to pay for reports to determine the extent of the damage inflicted by means of the dam´s cave in.
A plodding tempo isn’t the only problem facing Fundão felony complaints. In December 2016, a bit over a 12 months after the dam’s give way, a unusual Minas Gerais attorney customary transferred six prosecutors working on the case to other posts. These prosecutors were totally qualified with years of taste on technical environmental circumstances.The incredible compel of the toxic mud wave that hit Bento Rodrigues is attested to by artery of this photograph showing a automobile carried straight through a residence. Samarco and some of its executives had been charged with qualified murder, but the case is at the minute in limbo. picture by Romerito Pontes licensed below the creative Commons Attribution 2.0 ordinary license. probability of future tailings dam screw ups unknown
2016 records, gathered via states’ environmental groups for Brazil’s integrated Mining Dam protection management system, institute that 147 mining dams rated with the highest hazards of mortal accidents occupy been observed in Minas Gerais state. This total represents greater than sixty five % of the highest risk category across full of Brazil.
some of the maximum-chance Minas Gerais dams are in populated areas, together with the state capital Belo Horizonte and the town of Ouro Preto, a UNESCO World legacy site wide-spread for its ancient structure. This raises faultfinding security concerns.
As of 2016, nine other states had seventy seven tailings dams with the very flush of elevated haphazard for mortal accidents. according to the ANM,
immediately following January’s Brumadinho catastrophe, the countrywide Mining agency (ANM) up-to-date Brazil’s dam safeguard information. suddenly, this unusual information doesn’t appropriate up with the previous 2016 document
best a solitary gold mine dam within the Rio Acima municipality of Minas Gerais is discovered on both the 2016 and 2019 studies. Some of those dams, listed as extravagant risk just three years ago, aren't even mentioned in the latest statistics.
“These dams may additionally were re-classified, but i can’t assure you [of] their balance. they are nonetheless engaged on this records,” cited Eduardo Leão, a member of the ANM director board and Vale’s former environment Director for the Carajás venture, the greatest iron mine on this planet, observed within the Amazonian state of Pará.Vale’s Córrego conclude Feijão Mine iron mine in Brumadinho earlier than the tailings dam descend down. Even when such dams remain intact, they and the mining amenities round them are nevertheless very environmentally harmful, inflicting foremost deforestation and doubtlessly leaking pestilential mining fritter into aquifers and streams. photograph credit: midianinja on visual hunt / CC by-NC-SA. inadequate executive inspections
regardless of full of this uncertainty, the Brazilian govt has concluded that mining impoundments in Minas Gerais and in different states pose a earnest risk of cave in. In 2016, one year after the Samarco dam rupture, a Brazil courtroom of Auditors (TCU) introduced the outcomes of its investigation: “The nation,” the TCU warned, “has latent and talents hazards for brand unusual tailings-dams accidents.”
based on that record, the former federal government’s Mining production department (DNPM) inspection process turned into “fragile, faulty and didn't achieve the dreams of the countrywide Dam defense coverage.”
one of the crucial greater damning criticisms mentioned that while the department got and demonstrated receipt of dam protection declarations about Brazil’s mining dams, it didn’t analyze the contents of these inspection stories. Dam safeguard inspections had been additionally sporadic, finished full the artery through rare onsite visits by DNPM inspectors.
“There can subsist dams in operation that are [defaulting on] the requirements of Dam safety Plans and Emergency action Plans, together with dams that didn't prepare the respective files, because the DNPM does not evaluate these files, or even [know] whether they exist, apart from via on-the-spot inspections, when and if they rob place,” illustrious the 2016 auditors’ file.Fabio Schvartsman, Vale’s CEO, became chosen to steer the commerce within the aftermath of the Fundão catastrophe of 2015. The street forward for Vale, after the Brumadinho catastrophe, could subsist complicated because the company and its management faces exceptional indignant from Brazilians. picture by Valter Campanato/Agência Brasil.
In 2012, as an instance, Samarco delayed sending counsel concerning the steadiness of the Fundão dam that at last failed in Mariana. The commerce was simplest fined two years later, after irregularities were found.
The auditors’ investigation additionally revealed systemic considerations in the company that undermine its capacity to fulfill its responsibilities. “the issues and irregularities uncovered prerogative through this audit accommodate the company’s institutional operations,” says the report.
ANM’s Leão instructed Mongabay that: “due to the fact 2016, their scenario hasn’t modified tons: they nonetheless occupy finances considerations and other challenges to conducting on-website monitoring. The file highlighted a few shortcomings, and it’s now not possible to fix the problems in such a brief era of time.”more than eleven million cubic meters of mining fritter swept Vale’s administrative headquarters and bucolic communities beneath the Córrego conclude Feijão Mine dam. Many americans are nevertheless missing. picture courtesy of the Minas Gerais fire department. Accidents ready to spin up
one of the leading critiques after the 2015 mining accident changed into that Samarco was allowed to pomp screen its personal dam security. The dam slay in Brumadinho followed the identical script: Vale become liable for dam security audits and for monitoring the steadiness of the Córrego conclude Feijão dam. This self-legislation system, although, turned into well inside Brazilian legislations.
Brazil’s present country wide Dam protection policy become created in 2010, and it practically allows the deepest sector to modify itself. subsequently, companies are accountable for the safeguard experiences of greater than seven hundred mining tailings dams in Brazil. consultants squawk this is a contest of activity. definitely, two engineers from a German exterior auditing company hired with the aid of Vale, gave “declarations of the circumstance of balance” for the Brumadinho dam last yr earlier than its crumple. each were arrested in reference to the catastrophe however occupy because been launched. an identical considerations were raised related to wonderful external safety audits preceding the Fundão catastrophe.
How does the executive justify self-regulation and inspection via the mining business? “The [mining] company has been in necessity of experts for years, and they now occupy pronounced that. There hasn’t been a civil carrier exam to rent unusual specialists due to the fact that 2010, which effects in duties collecting,” defined Paulo Ribeiro de Santana, a Mining national company geologist.
Santana serves as an instance of the company’s overburdened staff. The geologist handles both technical and communique features in the agency. “We at present occupy 851 personnel. of these, simply over 300 are about to retire. They labor longer to evade worsening the condition,” he stories.
“For full dams labeled as high-risk – whether on account of structural conditions or edge linked damage – they now occupy decided responsive inspections with full-time video monitoring,” says Leão. “we've 740 mining tailings dams across the nation and best 35 ANM inspectors. It’s impossible to computer screen full of them: with this variety of [self-regulating] programs they may minimize these considerations,” concludes the ANM director.The Pataxó Hã-hã-hãe indigenous neighborhood lives in Brumadinho’s neighbor metropolis, São Joaquim de Bicas, which turned into downstream from the Vale dam spoil and impacted via it. they squawk that the pestilential mining tailings occupy “killed” the Paraopeba River, which offered meals for his or her community. picture by using Lucas Hallel/FUNAI. guidelines primed for extra tailings-dam failures
A countrywide trauma just fancy the Samarco tailings-dam failure may occupy acted as a turning point for dam security in Brazil. instead, laws weren’t tremendously toughened, and episodes with smaller socio-environmental influences occupy came about on the grounds that then – including the 2018 leaks from the Hydro Alunorte aluminum processing fritter dam within the Amazonian state of Pará, and two returned-to-again Anglo-American iron mine slurry pipeline spills in Minas Gerais.
within days of the Brumadinho disaster, the ANM responded through issuing a press release announcing that “organizations with excessive-possibility dams should hold full-time monitoring when the dams occupy upstream building and people of their flood map area.” however with an implementation time confine of June sixteen, 2019, the order lacked urgency.
On February 7th, one of the crucial directors of Brazil´s country wide Mining agency (ANM) said it plans to ban upstream tailings dams. to date, no details were released about how the sort of measure would subsist carried out, nor how the nation´s 88 present upstream tailings dams can subsist dismantled or transformed.
IBAMA has issued 5 fines thus far totaling $250 million Reals (just about US$68.5 million) in the Brumadinho case. youngsters, seeing that that zilch of the 2015 fines charged to Samarco were paid, accumulating such fines would require extended executive enforcement and corporate compliance.President Bolsonaro (middle) overflies the Brumadinho dam catastrophe. past governments, each left and right, occupy failed to address Brazil’s dam safeguard difficulty, largely because of the tremendous dash wielded by artery of massive mining agencies such as Vale. Bolsonaro’s administration is lamentable impulsively to reduce environmental regulation, but its full response to the Vale catastrophe continues to subsist to subsist seen. photo Presidency of the Republic.
The newly inaugurated Bolsonaro government has taken another steps since the brand unusual Vale dam rupture. On January 29, a presidential decree recommended a vast contrast of tailings dam safety in full states. The day after, the Water aid country wide Council (CNRH) too suggested that state organizations update their tailing dams statistics. unusual studies are expected in three months. These thoughts full hoist much less weight than a federal administrative order.
In recent years there were legislative expenses aimed at strengthening the businesses charged with monitoring tailings dams, such as the CNRH. but up to now, mining pastimes occupy derailed these efforts, despite the fact the mode in which the industry workouts its occupy an repercussion on on govt did shift between the administrations of Dilma Rousseff and Michel Temer.
“as a result of electoral campaigns may well subsist financed with corporate cash full through the Dilma administration, mining agencies had been strengthened in the course of the legislative department. They influenced politicians formulating bills, such as the unusual Brazilian Mining Code,” explained Bruno Milanez, a researcher at the Federal university of Juiz de Fora, in Minas Gerais.
One illustration of trade repercussion contains a circumstance through which unusual mining code legislation became written on a computer belonging to a legislation enterprise that counts Vale Mining as a shopper. Deputy Leonardo Quintão, then accountable for shepherding the code in the course of the legislative method, admitted that his flee for Congress become funded by using mining organizations, Vale covered.
in keeping with Milanez, as soon as Michel Temer grew to become president, the mining trade’s mode to controlling policymaking modified. a professional-company regulatory approach was certain by means of appointing mining company executives to faultfinding positions within the countrywide Mining company and the Ministry of Mines and energy. Bolsonaro’s trade-pleasant appointments had been similar.
Even a cursory examine of the three years separating the Fundão and Brumadinho mess ups suggests that – with out the variety of ban now being proposed – extra disasters may comply with.
comments: employ this contour to forward a message to the creator of this post. in case you are looking to publish a public remark, that you would subsist able to conclude that at the backside of the page.Minas Gerais firefighters were working steadily given that January 25, searching for victims of the Brumadinho industrial catastrophe. Some bodies will possible on no account subsist recovered, leaving grieving households devoid of closure. photograph via Douglas Magno/Minas Gerais fireplace department. Controversial, corporate Environmental Transgressors, corporate accountability, Corruption, Dams, disasters, environment, Environmental Crime, environmental justice, Environmental law, Environmental Politics, Featured, Forests, Governance, executive, eco-friendly, Human Rights, Indigenous Cultures, Indigenous corporations, Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Rights, Infrastructure, Land employ trade, law, law Enforcement, Mining, Monitoring, NGOs, rules, Rivers, companionable conflict, companionable Justice
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Truelove K (1997) Australia: Policy options for fisheries bycatch. In: Towards sustainable fisheries: Issue papers. OCDE/GD(97)54 OECD Paris 1997
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This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. please remark their unusual website at http://lib.berkeley.edu/EART
This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. please remark their unusual website at http://lib.berkeley.edu/EART
DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND REMOTE SENSING By Philip Hoehn and Mary Lynette Larsgaard (Map & Imagery Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara Library). Designed by John CreaserA Army A IN B Auto in basement AA Antiaircraft artillery; Automobile Assn. AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration; American Automobile Assn. AACR Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules AACR2 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules 2d. ed. AACCCM Anglo-American Cataloguing Committee for Cartographic Materials AAES American Assn. of Engineering Societies AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAGS American Assn. for Geodetic Surveying AAG Assn. of American Geographers AAPG American Assn. of Petroleum Geologists AARLS Arkansas Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors AARS Asian Assn. on Remote Sensing AARSE African Association for the Remote Sensing of the Environment AASG Assn. of American state Geologists AASP American Assn. of Stratigraphic Palynologists AB Air base ABAG Assn. of Bay locality Governments (California) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. ABN American Bank Note Company ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics ABSM Alberta Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Abzw Abzweigstelle AC Aerospace Center; Air Corps; American Cartographer (journal) A.C. Antonio Castro A/C Aircraft ACA American Cartographic Assn.; American Conservation Assn.; Automovil Club Argentino; Aerial Cartographics of America (Firm) ACACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives cartographiques du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACAPS Automated Chart Production System (C&GS) ACC Assn. des cartoth`eques et archives du Canada = Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives; Academia de Ciencias de Cuba ACC Association canadienne de cartographie AC&C Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography (U.S.) ACCDTS Advisory Committee on Canadian Digital Toponymic Services AccuDEM High-accuracy DEM Accu-DRAPE High-accuracy DEM Draped Images ACD Aeronautical Charting Division (C&GS) ACDDS Advanced Cartographic Data Digitizing System ACE Advanced Cartographic Equipment; Advanced Cartographic Environment (PCI Carto Inc.) ACEC American Consulting Engineers Council ACG Association canadienne des geographes; Address Coding Guides ACI Assn. Cartographique Internationale = International Cartographic Assn. ACIC Aeronautical Chart and Information hub (U.S.); Automated Cartographic Information hub (Univ. of Minnesota Library) ACIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, distinguished Britain) ACLS Assn. of Canadian Lands Surveyors ACM Assn. for Computing Machinery ACMGIS Assn. for Computing Machinery Geographic Information Systems ACML Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries ACMLA Assn. of Canadian Map Libraries and Archives ACMS Automated Census Mapping System ACM- SIGGRAPH Assn. for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Graphics ACOE Army Corps of Engineers (U.S.) ACRES Australian Centre for Remote Sensing ACRS Asian Conference on Remote Sensing ACS Advanced Cartographic Systems; Agricultural Cooperative Service; Automated Cartographic Systems; Automatic chemical sprinklers; Attitude Control Subsystem (Landsat); American Community Survey (USBC) ACSAD Arab hub for the Studies of Arid Zones and dry Lands ACSC Automobile Club of Southern California ACSM American Congress on Surveying and Mapping ACSTTO Assn. of Certified Survey Technicians and Technologists of Ontario ACT Administration du Cadastre et de la Topographie (Luxembourg); Australian Capital Territory AD Administrative Division (USGS); Aeronautical data A/D Analog to digital ADAC Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club ADAR Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration (Positive Systems, Inc.) ADC Alexandria Drafting Company; American Digital Cartography Inc A-DCS Advanced/Data Collection System ADDA American Design Drafting Assn. ADE AutoCAD Data Extension ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite ADEPT Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype ADF Application progress Facility (GeoVision Corp.) ADFG Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game ADI Areas of Dominent Influence (USBC TIGER) ADK Arealdatakontoret (Denmark) ADL Alexandria Digital Library Adm. Admiral; Admiralty ADM1 First-order administrative division ADM2 Second-order administrative division ADNR Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources ADOT Arizona Dept. of Transportation ADOTPF Alaska Dept. of Transportation and Public Facilities ADP Automated data processing ADPDP Alaska Division of Policy progress and Planning ADR Aerial Data Reduction Associates Inc. ADRG ARC-digitized raster graphics (USDMA) ADRGs Arc digitized raster graphics(USDMA) ADS Aerial Data Service (firm) ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Ad. St. Aldolf Stieler ADT Advanced Data Technologies, Inc.; Abstract Data Type AdV Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Lander der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ADW Agricultural drainage well ADWR Arizona Dept. of Water Resources A/E Architectural/engineering A&E Architect and Engineering AEC Architecture, engineering and construction AED Analysis and Evaluation Div. AEF Alliance for Environmental Education; Accurate Environmental Forecasting, Inc. AEG Association of Engineering Geologists AEI Aerial Exposure Index AEIDC Arctic Environmental Information Data Center AEM Atmospheric Explorer Mission AERS Advanced Earth Resources Satellite AES Analysis and Evaluation Staff AESE Association of Earth Science Editors Aest. Aestuarium = Estuary AE2S Advanced Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc. AFA American Forestry Assn.; Automatic fire alarm AFB Air compel base; Aerial FotoBank (Firm) AFCEA Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Assn. AFE Automated feature extraction AFF American Fact Finder (DADSO) AFFRC Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research hub (Japan) AFI American Forest Inst. AFLAG Asean Federation of Land Surveying and Geomatics AFREF African Geodetic Reference Frame AfRL Akademie fur Raumforschung und Landesplanung (Germany) AFS Air compel station AFT Ambiguity duty technique AFWA Air compel Weather Agency (U.S.) AG Attorney General AGC Army Geospatial hub (US); Assn. Geologique du Canada; Arkansas Geological Commission AGCHO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office AGCO Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Office AGDS Automated Graphics Digitizing System AGI American Geological Inst.; Assn. for Geographic Information (London); Analytical Graphics, Inc. AGIC Alabama Geographic Information Council; Arizona Geographic Information Council AGILE Association of Geographic Information Laboratories AGIO Arkansas Geographic Information Office AGIS Automated Geographic Information System AgRI- STARS Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing AGS American Geographical Society; Alberta Geological Survey AGSL American Geographical Society Library AGSO Australian Geological Survey Organisation AGSS American Geographical and Statistical Society AGU American Geophysical Union AHAP Alaska High-altitude Aerial Photography (program) AHCPR U.S. Agency for Health reliance and Policy Research AHDAS Adaptable Hydrologic Data Acquisition System AHDS Arts and Humanities Data Service AHRS Attitude and Heading Reference System AHS Automated Highway System AI Artificial intelligence; Appraisal Inst. AIA American Inst. of Architects AI/ANA American Indian/Alaska indigenous Area AIC Australian Institute of Cartographers AICP American Inst. of Certified Planners AID Agency for International Development; Aeronautical information data AIH American Inst. of Hydrology AILESP American Indian Lands Environmental advocate Project AIMS Airborne Integrated Mapping System; Automated Investigation Measurement System (Nikon) AIPG American Inst. of Professional Geologists AIPP Ambroziak illimitable Perspective Projection AIR American Indian reservation AIRB Alabama Inspection and Rating Bureau AIRS Atomspheric Infrared Sounder AIREA American Inst. of real Estate Appraisers AIRS Atmospheric infrared sounder AISH Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques = International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences AJG African Journal of Geoinformation AK Alaska AL Alabama Ala. Alabama ALA American Library Assn. ALAE Atmospheric LymanAlpha Emissions ALARS Alaska Land and Resources System ALI Advanced Land Imager ALIS Automated Land Information System (TVA) ALMRS Automated Land and Mineral Record System (US BLM) ALOHA Aerial Locations of hazardous Atmospheres (model) ALP Automated Lands Project ALSA Alberta Land Surveyors Association Alt. Altitude ALTA American Land Title Assn. ALTM Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper (Optech) ALTMS Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping System AM Automated Mapping AMA Associacion Mexicana Automovilistica AMAD Airborne Missions and Applications Division (NASA-Ames Research Center) AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program AMC Assn. Mineralogique du Canada; Australian Map clique Inc. AME Aero-Metric Engineering Inc. AM/FM Automated mapping/facilities management AMG Australian Map Grid; Automated machine guidance AMI Applied Mapping Inc. AMIE Airglow Measurements of Infrared Measurements Emissions AMIS Aviation Management Information System AMISAR Active Microwave ImagerSynthetic Aperture Radar AML ARC Macro Language AMPR American Map price Record AMPS Automatic Mapping and Planning System AMS Army Map Service; American Meteorological Society; Attitude Measurement Sensor; Automated Mapping System AMSD Adjusted Mapping advocate Data AMSR Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (JPL) An. Anno = year A.N.A. Asociacion Nacional Automovilistica (Mexico) ANA Area Navigation Approach ANAE Atlas of North American English ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions ANGEL Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ITT) ANTGS Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System ANMS Automated Notice to Mariners System ANOVA Analyses of variance ANRC Alaska indigenous Regional Corp. ANSI American National Standards Inst. ANV Alaska indigenous village ANVSA Alaska indigenous village statistical area ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANZLIC Australia unusual Zealand Land Information Council ANZMapS Australian and unusual Zealand Map Society AO Area of Operations AOA Allen Osborne Associates, Inc. AODC Australian Oceanographic Data Centre AOI Area of Interest AOIPS Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System AOL America On Line AOLS Assn. of Ontario Land Surveyors AOML Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory AOO American Oceanographic Organization AOSS Ashtech Office Suite for Survey AP Analytical Plotter APA American Planning Assn. APCA Air Pollution Control Assn. APBEL Atlantic Provinces Board of Examiners for Land Surveyors APCM Aerial Photography shrink Management System APD Automated Plat Design (ConneXt, Inc.) A.P.D.R. Avec privilege du Roi = By license of the King APE Allen Precision Equipment APEGGA Assn. of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta APFO Aerial Photography sphere Office (USDA) API American Petroleum Inst.; Application programming interface APIS Aerial Photography Information System APMI Aerial Photography Micrographic Index System (USGS) Apo. Apogee APPSR Aerial Photography Progress Summary Report APQF Aerial Photography Quad File APR Airborne Profile Recorder APS Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor APSR Aerial Photography Summary Record APSRS Aerial Photography Summary Record System (USGS) APT Automatic picture transmission; locality proportional to APTS Aerial Profiling of Terrain System APWA American Public Works Assn. APWWA American Public Water Works Assn. AR Arkansas ARA Address Register Area; Algemeen Rijksarchief (Netherlands) ARAMCO Arabian American Oil Company Arb. Arbeiter ARC Ames Research hub (NASA); Appalachian Regional Commission ARCC American Rivers Conservation Council ArcFM Arc Facilities Manager (ESRI) Arch. Architect; Architecture Arc-SDE Arc Spatial Data Engine ARG American Resources Group ARIA Arizona Regional Image Archive ARIS Alabama Resource Information System; Arizona Resources Information System Ark. Arkansas ARM Administracion de Recursos Minerales (Panama); Airborne Remote Mapping ARMIS Arkansas Resource Management Information System ARMS Agricultural Resource Management System (Canada) Arr. Arrondissement ARRSTC Asian Regional Remote Sensing Training Centre ARS Agricultural Research Service (USDA) ARSC Australian Remote Sensing Conference ARSP Applied Remote Sensing Program (Univ. of Arizona) Artil. Artillery ARZ AutoRestricted Zone AS Anti-spoofing; locality source; automatic sprinklers A-S Anti-spoofing ASA American Standards Assn. ASAP Advanced Scientific Array Processor; Agricultural Sciences Advisory Panel ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASB. CL. Asbestos-covered frame building ASC American Society of Cartographers ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE SMD American Society of Civil Engineers Surveying and Mapping Division ASCF Ames Satellite Communications Facility ASCIE American standard Code for Information Exchange ASCII American standard Code for Information Interchange ASCLA Assn. of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ALA) ASCP America Society of Consulting Planners ASCS Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (USDA) ASDD Australian Spatial Data Directory ASDI Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure ASEE American Society for Engineering Education ASF Alaska SAR Facility ASFE Assn. of Soil and Foundation Engineers ASFPM Assn. of state Floodplain Managers ASGA Assn. des Services Geologiques Africains ASGC Australian Statistical Geographical Classification ASGS Australian Statistical Geography Standard ASHTD American Assn. of state Highway and Transportation Officials ASI Analytical Surveys, Inc. ASLA American Society of Landscape Architects ASLO American Society of Limnology and Oceanography ASMC Alaska Surveying and Mapping Conference ASO Australian Survey Office ASP American Society of Photogrammetry; Application service provider ASPG American Society for Professional Geographers ASPLS Alabama Society of Professional Land Surveyors; Alaska Society of Professional Land Surveyors ASPRS American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ASPS Arkansas Society of Professional Surveyors ASRL Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory Ass. Association Assn. Association AST Atlantic standard Time; Automated Summary Tables ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTM American Society for Testing Materials AT Aero-Triangulation ATC Air Target Chart; promote Technology Corp. ATID Attribute ID ATISRoads Arizona Transportation Information System (ADOT) ATKIS Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informationssystem ATM Adaptive triangular mesh ATMET Atmospheric, Meteorological and Environmental Technologies, LLC ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder ATON Aids to Navigation ATR1 Automatic Target Recognition module (Leica) ATS Advanced Technology Satellite; Applications Technology Satellite; Automated Technical Systems (Firm) AU Astronomical unit AURISA Australasian Urban and Regional Information Systems Assn. AUSDEC Australasian Data Exchange Centre AUSLIG Australian Surveying and Land Information Group AUV Autonomous underwater vehicle AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Av. Avenue AV Audio-visual; AmericaView AVCA Audio-visual and Cartographic Archives Div., National Archives of Canada Ave. Avenue AVHRR Advanced Very elevated Resolution Radiometer AVI Audio Visual Interleave AVIRIS Advanced Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer AVL Automatic Vehicle Location AVNIR Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer AVO Alaska Volcano Observatory; Audio/visual object; Amplitude Versus Offset; AVRI Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory AVS Application Visualization System (Visual Systems, Inc.) AWAR Area weighted indifferent resolution AWG Association for Women Geoscientists AWIPS Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System AWLS American West Land Surveying (Firm) AWMC Ancient World Mapping Center AWMSAS ArcView Marine Spill Analysis System AWRA American Water Resources Assn. AWS Air Weather Service AWWA American Water Works Assn. AZ Arizona A.Z. Alexander Zakreski AzMAP Arizona Mapping Advisory Council b Battalion B Brigade; Bulletin B&L Boggs and Lewis BA Booksellers Assn. of distinguished Britain & Ireland BAAMA Bay locality Automated Mapping Assn. BADGER Bay locality Digital GeoResource BAKOSUR- TANAL Badan Koordinasi Survey dan Pemetaan Nasional (Indonesia) = National Coordination Agency for Surveying and Mapping (Indonesia) Banobras Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios Publicos (Mexico) BAOR British Army of the Rhine BAOSC Bay locality Open Space Council BARCIS BARCode Information System BARD San Francisco Bay locality Regional Database BARP Bundesamt fur Raumplanung (Switzerland) BART Bay locality Rapid Transit District (California) BAS British Antarctic Survey BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; Bay locality Shared Information Consortium BASINS Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Systems (USEPA) BATCO Boulder locality Trails Coalition BB Band-by-band; Blattbereich BBS Bulletin board system BC British Columbia; Ballistic camera; Bureau of the Census (U.S.) BCC Bibliographic Control Committee (ACMLA) BCDC Bay Conservation and progress Commission BCGS Board of Coast and Geodetic Survey (Philippines) BCH Beach BCSS Battlefield Command advocate System (Australian Army) BDC Base de donnees sur les collectivities (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) BDET Bengston, DeBell, Elkin & Titus Ltd. BDG Bridge Bdy Boundary BE Brick enclosed elevator BEA Bernhard, Eisenbraun and Associates; Bureau of Economic Analysis (US) B.E.F. British Expeditionary Force BEG Bureau of Economic Geology (Texas) BEICIP Bureau d'Etudes Industrielles et de Cooperation de l'Institut Francais du Petrole bes. besonders BES Bureau of Environmental Service (Portland, Oregon) Betrbf Betriebsbahnhof BETS Brunson Electronic Triangulation System BEV Bundesamt fur Eich- und Vermessungswesen (Austria) BFE Base flood elevation BfGR Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Germany) BfLR Bundesanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumentwicklung (Germany) BG Block group BGC Business Geographics Conference BGHT Bight BGN Board on Geographic Names (U.S.) bgs Below ground surface BGS British Geological Survey Bgw. Bergwerk = mine Bhf. Bahnhof = Railway station BHIC Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum = Brabant Historical Information Centre BHS Boston Harbor Software, Inc. BI Big concept (NIMA); commerce intelligence BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs (U.S.) BIC Borderlands Information hub (Texas) BICI Book particular contribution identifier BIG Brunei Institution of Geomatics BIL Band Interleaved by Line BIM Building information modeling BIMCC Brussels International Map Collectors' Circle BIOMAPS Biodiversity Mapping for Protection and Sustainable employ of Natural Resources BIOTROP Regional hub for Tropical Biology (Indonesia) BIP Band Interleaved by Pixel Bl. Boulevard BLDG Building BLG Binary line generalization BLIS Brownfields Location Information System (Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce) BLM Bureau of Land Management (U.S.) BLOB Binary great object BLPU Basic land and property unit BLS Bahamas Lands and Surveys Dept. BLT Bundesamt fur Landestopographie (Switzerland) BLVA Bayerisches Landesvermessungsamt Blvd. Boulevard BM Bench mark; Bureau of Mines BMA Botswana Ministry of Agriculture BMAC Bactria Margiana Archaeology Complex BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (U.S.) BMG Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (Philippines) .BMP Bitmapped image format (Microsoft Corp.) BMR Bureau of Mineral Resources (Australia, Papua unusual Guinea) BMW Barclay Mapworks, Inc. BN Biblioth`eque Nationale BNA Block numbering area BND Stream bend BNDT Base nationale de donnees topographiques (Canada) BnF Bibliotheque national de France BNPC Bathymetric navigation planning chart BNPD Bivariate established Probability Density BNSC British National Space Centre BOA Building omission area BOC Bureau of the Census BOFRS Books and Open-File Report Section (USGS) BOLS BADGER On-line Service BOM Bureau of Mines BOP Bureau of Printing BOR Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.) BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study BORPELS Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors (Calif.) BOSS Behavior of Offshore Structures, Conference on BOTUS Best of the U.S. (Space Imaging) BP Boundary marker (USDMA) BPA Bonneville Power Administration BPI Bits per Inch BPPT Badan Pembinaan dan Penerapan Teknologi (Indonesia) BPR Bureau of Public Roads BPS Bits per Second BR Bureau of Reclamation br. breit Br. Breite Brck. Brucke = bridge BRFD Bidirectional reflectance distribution function BRGM Bureau de recherches geologique et minieres (France) BRICMICS British and Irish Committee for Map Information and Catalogue Systems BRH Bush, Roed & Hitchings (Firm) BRS Bibliographic Retrieval Service BS Bureau of Statistics (Japan) Bs. As. Buenos Aires BSB Bayerische Staatsbibliothek BSC Boston Survey Consultants BSE Base flood elevation BSNH Headwater basin BSQ Band Sequential BSR Bibliographic standard Record BSU Base Spatial Unit BT Base Topo BTA Basic Trading Areas (FCC) BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics (US) BUIS Beihai Urban Information Center BUPMIS Beihai Urban Planning Management Information System BUPNIS Beijing Underground-Network Information System BUTE Butte BVG Berliner Verkehrs Gesellschaft BVU Brightness Value Unit B/W Black and white BWC Bandwidth Compression BWE Bandwidth Expansion c Company C Cartography; Celsius (degrees) ca. Circa CA California; Cartographic and architectural; Census agglomeration (Canada) C/A Coarse-Acquisition (code) CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration (U.S.); Civil Aviation Authority (Great Britain) CAAD Cartographic and Architectural Archives Div., National Archives of Canada CAC Center for Advanced Computation (Univ. of Illinois); Compressed Aeronautical Chart (U.S. government) CACS Canadian lively Control System CAD Computer-aided drafting; Computer assisted design CADD Computer-aided design and drafting CADMAP Computer-aided drafting, mapping, and photogrammetry CADRG Compressed ADRG CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna CAFM Computer-aided facility management CAG Canadian Association of Geographers CaGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Science (journal)); Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (journal) CAGIS Cartography and Geographic Information Society Cal. California Calif. California CALMIT Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln) CALS Connecticut Assn. of Land Surveyors; Computer-aided acquisition and logistic support; Computer Assisted Land Survey System (SPDK) CALTRANS California Dept. of Transportation CAM Computer aided mapping CAMA Computer-aided mass appraisal system (Montana) CAMEO Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations System (U.S.) CAMFER Center for the Assessment & Monitoring of Forest & Environmental Resources (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley) CAN Controlled locality Network CANRI Community Access to Natural Resources Information CanSIS Canadian Soil Information System CANSPACE Canadian Space Geodesy Forum CanVec Canadian Vector Data CAP Cooperative Agreements Program (FGDC) CAPCO Capital locality Planning Council (Texas) CAPDU Canadian Assn. of Public Data Users CAR Curriculum, Accreditation and Registration Committee (ACSM); Central African Republic CARES Center for Agricultural, Resource, and Environmental Systems (Univ. of Missouri) CARL Canadian Assn. of Research Libraries CARS Computer-Assisted Reproduction; hub for Applications of Remote Sensing (Oklahoma state Univ.) CASA Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (Univ. College, London) CASE Computer-Aided Software Engineering CASI Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager CaSIL California Spatial Information Library CASS Coding and Accuracy advocate System (USPS) CAST Center for Advanced and Spatial Technologies (Univ. of Arkansas) CAT Computer Assisted Thermography CATS Consequences Assessment implement Set (FEMA) CAVA Cartographic and Audio-Visual Archives Div. = Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles (DACA), National Archives of Canada CAZRI Central Arid Zone Research Institute CB Column builder C.B. Hollow concrete or cement shroud construction CBD Central commerce district CBEP Community-Based Environmental Protection (USEPA program) CBEPS Canadian Board of Examiners for Professional Surveyors CBET Concrete shroud enclosed elevator CBF Cartographic frontier file CBI China Burma India Theatre of Operations (WW II) CBL Centraal Bureau Luchtkartering (Suriname); Calibration (or calibrated) groundwork line cbm Kubikmeter (cubic meter) CBM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming state Geological Survey) CBN Cooperative groundwork Network CBP Chesapeake Bay Project C. BR Concrete, lime, cinder or cement brick CBS Community groundwork Station CBWE Corn Blight Watch Experiment CC Cartographic Catalog C.C. Chain carrier CCA Canadian Cartographic Assn. CCAFS Cape Canaveral Air compel Station (Florida) CCAP Competative Cooperative Agreements Program (U.S.) CCBCCM Canadian Committee for the Bibliographic Control of Cartographic Materials CCC Canadian Committee on Cataloging; Cataloging and Classification Committee (MAGERT) CCCELS California Council of Civil Engineers and Land Surveyors CCD Census county division; Computer hub Div. (USGS); Charged brace device; Charged-coupled device; Charge-coupled device CCDM Core Cadastral Domain Model CCELC Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification CCGE Canadian Council on Geographic Education CCGM Center for Computing Graphics (Delft Univ. of Technology) CCIG Centre canadien d'information sur la geoscience CCID Chain component ID CCISA Congress of Cartographic Information Specialist Associations CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee CCK Centrale Catalogus Kartografie (National Library of the Netherlands) CCLS Canadian Council of Land Surveyors CCM Canada Centre for Mapping; Compressed County Mosaic (USDA) CCNS4 Computer Controlled Navigation System (E. Coyote Enterprises, Inc.) CCPS Central Colorado Professional Surveyors CCPR California hub for Population Research CCRS Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CCS Census consolidated subdivision (Canada) CCT Computer Compatible Tape; Centro de Ciencia Tropical CD Compact disc; Conservation Div. (USGS); Committee Draft (ISO) CDA Colorado Dept. of Agriculture CDC California Dept. of Conservation; Control Data Corporation CD-CINC CD-ROM Consistent Interface Committee (U.S.) CDED Canadian Digital altitude Data CDF Cumulative distribution function; California Dept. of Forestry (and Fire Protection) CDFG California Dept. of Fish and Game CDFS Cloud Depiction and Forecast System CDH Communications and data handling CDi Compact Disk interactive CDIS Coordinated Design and Information System CDL Cropland data layers (USDA NASS) CDMG California Div. of Mines and Geology CDN Coordinates, definitions and notations CDOT Colorado Dept. of Transportation CDOW Colorado Division of Wildlife CDOWG CD-ROM Data Origination Working Group (U.S.) CDP Cartographer progress Program; Census designated place; Colorado Division of Planning .CDR CorelDraw format CD-R Compact disk-recordable CD-ROM Compact disk-read only memory CDRS Collaborative Digital Reference Service CDS Catalogue of Data Sources CDT Computer pomp terminal; Central Daylight Time; Constrained Delaunay triangulation CDTED Compressed digital terrain altitude data CDV Cartographic data visualizer CD-W Compact disk-- re-writable CDWR California Dept. of Water Resources CE Corps of Engineers C.E. Civil Engineer CEAL Centro Editor de America Latina CEAO County Engineers Association of Ohio CEBAF Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility CECO Consulting Engineers Council of Ohio CECSVB Comit pour l'Etablissement de la Carte des Sols et de la Vegetation de la Belgique CECW Consulting Engineers Council of Washington CEDAC Comprehensive Economic Data Atlas of China CEDARE Centre for Environment and progress for the Arab Region and Europe CEDD Committee on the Exchange of Digital Data CEE Comite Estatal de Estadisticas (Cuba) CEGET Centre d'Etudes de Geographie Tropical (Bordeaux) CEGIS Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (USGS) CELSOC Consulting Engineers and Land Surveyors of California Cem. Cemetery CEMA Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Assn. CEMAR Centro de Estudos conclude Mar CEN Comite europeen de normalization electronique CENREN Centro de Recursos Naturales (El Salvador) CENTA Centro Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (El Salvador) CENTAUR Civil Engineering Technologies for Automatic Roadmaking (DSNP) CEO European Centre for Earth Observation CEONet Canadian Earth Observation Network CEP Celestial Ephemeris Pole CERCLIS Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (US EPA) CERCO Comite Europeen de Responsibles de la Cartographie Officielle CERD Catalog of Environmental Resource Data CERES California Environmental Resource Evaluation System CERCG Centre d'Etudes et de Realisations Cartographiques Geographiques (France) CERR Centre d'Ecologie des Ressources Renouvelables (France) CES Committee on Earth Sciences CET Commission on Education and Training (IGA) CETENAL Comision de Estudios del Territorio Nacional (Mexico) CEU Continuing education unit CFC Comite francais de cartographie CFCC Census Feature Class Code CFF Cartographic Feature File CFUA Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association C.G. Coast Guard CGA Color Graphics Adaptor CGC Commission geologique du Canada CGDB Central Geographic Data Base CGDI Canadian Geomatics Digital Initiative ; Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure CGE Comision Geografico-Exploradora (Mexico) CGI Computer Graphics Interface; Common gateway interface; hub for Geographic Information CGIC Canadian Geoscience Information Centre CGIS Center for GIS (Qatar) .CGM Computer graphics metafile CGMW Commission for the Geological Map of the World CGNHS Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey CGNS Canadian Geographical Names Service GCN1 Canadian Geographical Names, flush 1 CGPM Conference generic des Poids et Mesures CGPS Continuous global positioning system CGRG Canadian Geomorphology Research Group CGS California Geological Survey; Civil GPS Service; Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Colorado Geological Survey C&GS Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.); Commercial & Government Systems (Kodak) CGSB Canadian generic Standards Board CGSB-COG Canadian generic Standards Board Committee on Geomatics CGSIC Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGSICO Civil GPS Service Interface Committee CGTP Cartographic and Geospatial Technology Programs CGU Canadian Geophysical Union CGW Computer Graphics World (journal) CH; Ch. Chief Hydrologist; Church; Chapel CHA Canadian Hydrographic Association CHEEC Center for the Health Effects of Environmental Contamination (Univ. of Iowa) CHEST Combined Higher Education Software Team (UK) CHGIS China Historical Geographic Information System (Harvard University) CHIA Cumulative Hydrologic repercussion Assessment CHNM Marine channel CHS Canadian Hydrographic Service CI Compass and inclinometer; Coal Investigations Map (USGS) CIA Central Intelligence Agency (U.S.) CIAF Centro de Investigaciones en Percepcion Remota CIAS CD-ROM Index Architecture Specification Working Group (U.S.) CIACER Centro de Investigacion y Aplicacion de Sensores Remotos (Bolivia) CIB Controlled image base CIBESA Cartografica Iberica S.A. CICAEDAS Committee Investigating Cartographic Entity, Definitions, and Standards CICLOPS Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations CID Community Information Database (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) CIDAMM Centro de Informacion y Documentacion del locality Metropolitana de Madrid CIE Iompair Eireann Coras; Classified image editor CIESIN Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network CIG Canadian Inst. of Geomatics; Climate Interest Group; Centro de Investigaciones Geotecnicas (El Salvador) CIGF Centre d'Information Geographique et Fonci`ere Ministre de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec) CIGNET Cooperative International GPS Network CIKM Conference on Information information Management CIM Collection insertion map; Council on Information Management (Virginia) CIMIS California Irrigation Management Information System CINDI Center for Integration of Natural catastrophe Information (USGS) CIO Central Imagery Office (U.S.) CIP Contour Interpolation Program; Canadian Institute of Planners CIR Color infrared CIRSS California Integrated Remote Sensing System CIS Canadian Inst. of Surveying; Color Imaging Systems (Barneyscan Corp.) CISD Cook Islands Dept. of Survey CISIG Conservational International GIS CISM Canadian Inst. of Surveying and Mapping CIST Centre d'information sur les sciences de la Terre (Canada) CITYG City Graphic CIU Central Interpretation Unit (Royal Air Force, distinguished Britain) CK-PL Check plotter CLA Canadian Library Association CLD Center line data CLDB Common Land Data Base CLDS Canada Land Data System(s) CLI Canada Land Inventory CLICK Center for LiDAR Information Coordination (USGS) CLID Class identifier CLIRSEN Remote Sensing hub (Ecuador) Clk. Clerk CLL Corrected line length CLOMA Confidential letters of map amendment CLS Canada Lands Surveyor CLSA California Land Surveyors Assn. CLSR Canada Lands Surveys Records CLU Common land units CLUMP Canada Land employ Monitoring Program cm Centimeter CM Cartographic material; Configuration management CMA Census Metropolitan locality (Statistics Canada); Central Mapping Agency (New South Wales) CMAP Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning CMAS Circular subsist of value Accuracy Standard CMCC California Mapping Coordinating Committee CMD Current meter digitizer; Command CMEDS Comprehensive Mapping and Engineering Data System (LES) CMI Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. CMIB Controlled multispectral image base CMIS Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder CMM Coalbed Methane Map (Wyoming state Geological Survey) CMO Canada Map Office CMOTS Cartographic Material Order and Tracking System (USGS) CMP Coastal Mapping Program; Camp CMS California Map Society; Cavity Monitoring System (Optech); Clay Minerals Society CMSA Consolidated metropolitan statistical area CMSDU Commission on Map employ and Spatial Data employ (ICA) CMSM Committee on Marine Surveying and Mapping CMT Corvallis Microtechnology Inc. C&MT Communication & Measurement Technologies Ltd. CMYK Cyan-magenta-yellow-black CNA Comiss~ao Nacional conclude Ambiente (Portugal) CNIDR Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (USA) CNES Centre national d'etudes spatiales (France) CNEXO Centre National pour l'Exploitation des Oceans (France) CNFL Confluence CNI Coalition for Networked Information CNIG Centro Nacional de Informac~ao Geografica = Portuguese National hub for Geographic Information CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche (Italy); Canadian National Railway CNRA Commission on National and Regional Atlases (ICA) CNRG Centre National de Recherches Geomorphologiques (Belgium) CNROA Centro Nacional de Reconhecimento e Ordenamento Agrario (Portugal) CNRS Centre National de Recherches Scientifique (France) CNRST Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (Burkina Faso) CNSTAT Committee on National Statistics (U.S.) Co. Company; County CO Cartometric operations; Colorado COBOL Common commerce Oriented Language COBRIG Council of British Geography COE Corps of Engineers (US Army) COEB Coastal and Estuarine Oceanography branch (US NOS) COFPAES Committee on the Federal Procurement of Architect and Engineer Services COFRS Chinese Operational Earth Resources Satellite COG Council of Governments COGNA Council of Geographic Names Authorities COGO Coordinate geometry; Coalition of Geospatial Organizations C.O.I. Office of Coordinator of Information (U.S.) col. Color; colored Col. Colonel; Colorado COL Agricultural colony COLD Computer Output to Laser (optical) Disc Com. Committee; Commission; Commodore COM Component demur Model (Microsoft) COMAP Continuous locality pattern mapping Comdg. Commanding COMIS Cartographic Operations Management Information System COMPAS Coastal Ocean Management, Planning and AssessmentSystem COMSAT Communications Satellite (Corp.) CONAE Comision nacional de actividades espaciales (Argentina) CONC. Concrete or reinforced concrete construction Cong. Congress Conn. Connecticut CONRIM Committee on Natural Resource Information Management(Alaska) CONUS Continental United States CO-COPS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (NOAA) COP/BOP City of Portland Bureau of Planning CORBA Common demur Request Broker Architecture CORC Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (OCLC) Corp. Corporal; Corporation CORS Continuously operated reference station(s); Continuously operating GPS reference stations CORSE Conference on Remote Sensing Education COS Central Office of Statistics (Malta) COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information Center COSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries COSPAR Committee on Space Research COTS Commercial-off-the-shelf COVIS Commonwealth of Virginia Information Systems CP Cartographic Perspectives (journal); color printer CPFS Colorado Plateau sphere Station (USGS) CPH Cartographic Publishing House (China) CPID Composite ID CPLAR Community Perspectives on Land and Agrarian Reform (South Africa) CPLC Court of Private Land Claims CPS Characters per second; Contour plotting system; Cartographic production system C.P.S.C.R.A.M. Cum Privilegio Sacrae Caesareae Regiaeque Apostolicae Majestatis = With the privilege of the Holy Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty CPSO Cataloging Policy and advocate Office (Library of Congress) CPU Central processing unit CR Central Region; Coordinate reader CRA Common Resource Area CRADA Cooperative Research and progress Agreement (U.S) CRAG Columbia Region Association of Governments CRAIGES Cartographic Reproduction and Interactive lifelike Editing System CRBT Centre de Recherches Biologiques Tropicales (Algeria) CREPUQ Conference des recteurs et des principaux des universites du Quebec CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (U.S.) CRG Centre de Recherche en Geomatique (Universite Laval) CRIB Computerized Resources Information Bank CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (US) CRISTA Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere CRKT Tidal creek CRL Cartographic research laboratory CrlMSS Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite CrlS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CSD Census subdivision (Canada) CRM Consejo de Recursos Minerales (Mexico); Customer relationship management CRN Canadian Road Network CRPD City real Property Database CRREL Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratories CRTR Crater CRSA Canadian Regional Science Association CRSC California Remote Sensing Council CRSS Canadian Remote Sensing Society CRT Cathode ray tube CRV Cloth, rolled, varnished CS Color scanner; Cubic splines C.S. Charles Simonneau CSA Canadian Space Agency CSAA California state Automobile Association CSAC Census Statistical locality Committee (U.S.) CSAV Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences CSC Computer Sciences Corporation; Commercial Space hub (NASA); Coastal Services hub (NOAA); California Surveying Corporation CSDGM Content standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata CSDMS Centre for Spatial Database Management and Solutions CSDS California Surveying and Drafting Supply CSFS Colorado state Forest Service CSG Cartography Special Group, Assn. of American Geographers; Council of state Governments CSIG Cyberinfrastrucure Summer Institute for Geoscientists CSIN Computer Systems Information Network CSIP Continental Scale International Project CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain) CSISS Center for Spatially Integrated companionable Sciences (UCSB) CSML Committee on Southern Map Libraries CSOC Consolidated Space Operations Center CSP Conformal Space projection CSPA Council of state Planning Agencies CSPG Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists CSR Center for Space Research (Univ. of Texas at Austin) CSRS Canadian Spatial Reference System CSUF California state University, Fresno CSUN California state University, Northridge CST Central standard Time; Chicago Steel Tape Co.; Coast; Certified Survey Technician CSVNS California Surveying Virtual Survey Network (California Surveying and Drafting Supply Ct. Court CT Census tract; Connecticut CTA Crafton, Tull & Associates CTC Cartoteca de Catalunya; Cooperating Technical Communities CTCUQ Commission de transport de la Communaute urbaine de Quebec CTD Chief, Topographic Division; Conductivity-temperature-depth CTI Critical Technologies Inst. (RAND Corp.) CTI-S Centre for Topographic Information - Sherbrooke CTL Cartographic Technology Lab. CTOG Contour to Grid CTS Communications Technology Satellite (Canadian); Conventional terrestrial system CUA Canadian Underwriters' Association CUAC Cartographic Users Advisory Council (U.S.) CUBE Combined dubiety and Bathymetry Estimator CUET Cuesta CUGiK Centralny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) CUR Council on Undergraduate Research CUSEC Central United States Earthquake Consortium CUSMAP Conterminous United States Minerals Assessment Plan CVO Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS) CWHR Califoria Wildlife Habitat Relationships CWRA Canadian Water Resources Program CWS Cartographic workstation CYP Cape York Peninsula CYPLUS Cape York Peninsula Land employ Strategy CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner CZM Coastal Zone Management (U.S. federal act of 1972) C4G Center for GeoInformatics (Louisiana state University) D Division; Dwelling DA Data Acquisition; Dept. of the Army; Dissemination locality (Canada) D/A Digital to Analog (converter) DAAC Div. des archives audiovisuelles et cartographiques, Archives nationales du Canada; Distributed lively Archive Center DAAS Defense Automatic Addressing System (USDMA) DAASC Defense Automated Addressing System hub (USDMA) DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter DACA Div. des archives cartographiques et audio-visuelles, Archives nationales du Canada DACH Deputy helper Chief Hydrologist DADS Digital Assisted Data groundwork System DADSO Data Access and Dissemination System Office (USBC) DAESA Dual Axis Fourier Shape Analysis DAFIF Digital Aeronautical Flight Information Files (NGA) DAG Directorate of Geographic Affairs (Lebanon) DAIS-1 Digital Airborne Imagery System (Space Imaging (Firm)) DAISIDS Distributed Ad-hoc brilliant Sensor-Intrusion Detection System DAL Data Analysis Laboratory DAM Detection and mapping DAMES Defense Automated Message Exchange Service (USDMA) DANE Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (Colombia) DAR Data acquisition request DARDC Device for Automatic Remote Data Collection DARO Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (U.S.) DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (U.S.) DAS Delaware Assn. of Surveyors; Digial Aerial Solutions, LLC DA&SM Data Acquisitions & Systems Maintenance DAT Digital audio tape DATIS Digital Airborne Topographic Imaging System DATPE Direction de l'Amernagement du Territoire et de la Protection de l'Environnement (Haiti) D.A.V. Deutscher Alpenverein DAVE-G Dialogue Assisted Virtual Environment for Geoinformation DB Data base; Dissemination shroud (Canada) DBB Deutsche Bundesbahn DBDB Digital Bathymetry Data groundwork (U.S. government) DBH Diameter at breast height DBI Database Indexing; Database Interface DBMS Database management system DBPPWG Data groundwork Population Planning Working Group DBPWG Data groundwork Population Working Group DBR Dienst Bodemkartering (Suriname) DBS Data groundwork Specifications; Direct broadcast satellites DC District Chief; District of Columbia; Div. Chief; Dublin Core D.C. District of Columbia DCA Dept. of Community Affairs (Montana) DC&A Data Collection and Analysis DCASS Digital Cartographic Software System DCDB Digital Cartographic Data Base DCDSTF Digital Cartographic Data Standards chore compel (U.S.) DCE Data Communication Equipment; Distributed Computing Environment DCF Digital Cartographic File DCHUM Digital Chart Update Manual (USDMA) DCI Differential Corrections, Inc.; Director of Central Intelligence DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative DCN Direccion de Cartografia Nacional (Venezuela); Document control number DCP Dept. of city planning; Digital Cartographic Production; Data collection platform DCPS Digital Cartographic Production Segment DCR Design Concept Review DCRM Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials DCRM(C) Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Cartographic) DCS Digital Cartography Section; Digital color separate; Directorate of Colonial Surveys (U.K.); Data collection system; Digital Cartographic Studio DCSE Diba Consulting Software Engineers DCS/RSE Data collection system receiving site equipment DCST Data collection system tape DCT Direction Topographique et du Cadastre (Congo) DCW Digital Chart of the World (USDMA) DD Data dictionary; Dewey Decimal; Decimal degrees DDA Data descriptive area DDAC Deutscher Automobil-Club DDC Dewey Decimal classification; Digital data conversion DDCMP Digital Data Communication Message Protocol DDE DOE Data Explorer (US Dept. of Energy) DDES Digital Data Editing System DDF Data descriptive file DDG La direction des documents gouvernementaux (La Bibliotheque et des Archives du Canada) DDI Design Data Inc. DDIS Depository Distribution Information System (USGPO) DDL Data Definition Language DDM Documents Data Miner; Digital Distance Model; Dynamic Digital Map DDN Defense Data Network DDPO Defense Dissemination Program Office (U.S.) DDPS Desktop Digital Photogrammetry System (3D Mapper Pty. Ltd.) DDR Data descriptive record DDS Digital Data Storage DDTI Digital Data Technologies, Inc. DE Data extraction; Delaware DEA David Evans and Associates, Inc. dec. Declination DEC Digital apparatus Corp. DED Data ingredient Dictionary DE-DEM Drainage-Enforced DEM DEIS Draft environmental repercussion statement del. Delineation; delineator Del. Delaware delt. Delineator DEM Digital altitude Model; Digital altitude matrix DEM-G Digital altitude Model--Graphic (coordinates) DEM-P Digital altitude Model--Planar (coordinates) DEMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada DEMVFY Digital altitude Model Verify (verification software) Dep. Deputy; Departement DEP Dept. of Environmental Protection Dept. Department DES Digital Editing Station DE/S Data Extraction Segment DESI Diversified Energy Services, Inc. DEW Distant Early Warning Line DFAD Digital Feature Analysis Data (U.S. government) DFC Digital Futures Coalition DFG Dept. of Fish and Game DFLIP Digital Flight Information Publication DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DFO Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada) DFW Dept. of Fish and Wildlife DGC Direct Geodetic Constraint (software) DGCM Direct Geodetic Constraint Method DGDF Digital Geospatial Data Files DGEC Direccion generic de Estadistica y Censos (Costa Rica) DGF Dept. of Game and Fish DGG Direccion generic de Geografia (Mexico) DGGM Direccion generic de Geologia y Minas (Colombia) DGGS Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (Alaska); Directorate generic of Geological Surveys (Iraq) DGI Direktorat Geologi (Indonesia) DGIAI Direccion generic de Integracion y Analisis de la Informacion (Mexico) DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard DGIWG Digital Geographic Information Working Group DGfK Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kartographie DGK 5 Deutsche Grundkarte 1:5 000 DGM Div. des Gites Mineraux de l'Assn. Geologique du Canada; Direction de la Geologie et des Mines (Burkina Faso); Direccion generic de Mineria (Dominican Republic) DGMG Direccion generic de Minas y Geologia (Venezuela) DGMP Direccion de Geologia, Minas y Petrolio (Costa Rica) DGN Domestic geographic name DGNR Domestic Geographic Names Report (U.S.) DGO Direccion generic de Oceanografia (Mexico) DGP Digital lifelike Product DGPA Direccion generic de la Produccion Agraria (Spain) DGPS Differential Global Positioning System; Differential Global Positioning Satellite DGRM Direccion generic de Recursos Minerales (Panama) DGS Dept. of Geological Survey (Botswana); Delaware Geological Survey DGSE Dept. of Geological Survey and Exploration (Burma) DGU Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse DH Drill hole D.H. Double hydrant DHI Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut; Defense Hydrographic Initiative (USDMA) DHN Directoria de Hidrografia e Navegac~ao (Brazil) DI Data Integration; Digital image DIA Defence Intelligence Agency (U.S.); Dept. of Indian Affairs; Dept. of International Affairs DIAL Digital Image Analysis Laboratory (Univ. of Arizona); Differential Absorption LiDAR (Optech) diam. Diameter DIAM Defense Intelligence Agency Manual DiAP Digital Image Analytical Plotter (ISM) DID Data information delivery; Data information description; Digital Image Data DIDS Digital Information pomp System (U.S.) DIELOG DAASC Integrated E-Mail Logistics System (USDMA) DIES Digital Image Enhancement System DIF Data Integration Function; Data Interchange Format; pomp Information Facility; Document Interchange Format (U.S. Navy) difSAR Differential SAR DIGCAT Digital Catalog DIGEST Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard DIGIT Digitally Integrated Geographic Information Technologies (laboratory, Univ. of Utah Geography Dept.) DILIGENT Digital Library Infrastructure on Grid Enabled Technology (EC) DIM Digital Image Matching DIME Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Bureau of the Census) DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung Dinageca Direcc~ao Nacional de Geografia e Cadastro (Mozambique) DINO Data in Ontario (organization) DIP Data Integration Program DIPS Digital Image Processing System DIRS Digital Image Rectification/Registration System DIS Distributed Information System; Draft International standard (ISO) DISGIS Distributed Geographical Information Systems DISHIDROS Dinas Hidro Oceanografi (Indonesia) Dist. District DISTDAHS Distributed Satellite Telemetry Data Handling System Div. Division DKDGS Det Kongelige Danske Geografiske Selskab DL Data logging DLA Diffusion-limited aggregation DLCW Department of Land and Water Conservation (NSW) DLG Digital Line Graph DLG-E Digital Line Graph--Enhanced DLGF Digital Line Graph--Framework DLG-O Digital Line Graph--Optional DLG2DEM Digital Line Graph to Digital altitude Model (production software) DLG-3 Digital Line Graph--level 3 DLI Digital Library Initiative (U.S.); Data Liberation Initiative (Canada); Dept. of Land Information DLL Windows Dynamic Link Library DLMS Digital Landmass System DLNR Dept. of Land and Natural Resources DLO Document-like object DLR Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. DLS Dominion Land Survey (Canada); Dept. of Lands and Survey (Guyana); Dept. of Lands and Surveys (Cyprus) DLT Digital linear tape DLWC Dept. of Land and Water Conservation (Australia) DM Departamento de Minas (Honduras); Data mining DMA Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.); Designated Market Areas (USBC TIGER) DMAAC Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center DMAFF Defense Mapping Agency Feature File; Defense Mapping Agency Feature Format DMAHTC Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Topographic Center DMAIAGS Defense Mapping Agency Inter-American Geodetic Survey DMAODS Defense Mapping Agency Office of Distribution Services DMASPOEM Defense Mapping Agency Special Program Office for Exploitation Modernization DMA TC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic hub (U.S.) DMATC Defense Mapping Agency Topographic hub (U.S.) DMAUSE DMA Utility Software Environment (USDMA) DMC Disaster Monitoring Constellation (BNSC) DMCA Digital Millenium Copyright Act DME Distance measuring equipment; Dept. of Mines and Energy (Nova Scotia) DMGIS Data, Map and Government Information Services (Univ. of Toronto Library) DMI Digital Mapping, Inc. DMMG Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia (Uruguay) DMMR Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources (Saudi Arabia) DMP Digital Map Products (Firm) DMR Dept. of Mineral Resources (New South Wales) DMRS Data Management and Retrieval System DMRT Dept. of Mineral Resources of Thailand DMS Data Management System; Desktop Mapping System (R-WEL, Inc.); Drawing Management System; Defense Mapping School (USDMA); Defense Message System (USDoD); Distribution Management System; Degrees, minutes, seconds DMSI Data Management Segment Interface Control Document DMSO Defense Mapping School Operations Office (USDMA) DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DMT Digital Mapping Techniques DMTI Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. DMU Defense Mapping Unit (Singapore); Distance measuring unit DMW Daft, McCune, Walker DN Digital Number DNC Digital maritime Chart DNPM Departamento Nacional de Produc~ao Mineral (Brazil) DNPCT Direction National de Production Cartographique et Topographique (Mali) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources DNRC Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation (Montana) DNREP Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (Kentucky) DNT Direccion Nacional de Topografia (Uruguay) DNR Dept. of Natural Resources Do. Ditto (the same) DO Digital Ortho; District office DOA Dept. of Agriculture Doc. Document DOC Dept. of Commerce DOD Dept. of Defense DOE Dept. of Energy DOGAMI Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries (Oregon) DOH Dept. of Health DOI Dept. of the Interior; Digital demur identifier; Document demur identifier DOM Document demur Model DOMSAT Domestic Communications Satellite System DOQ Digital orthophoto quadrangle DOQQ Digital orthophoto quarter quadrangle DORIS Decision-Oriented Resource Information System (Ventura County, Calif.); Doppler obitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite DOS Directorate of Overseas Surveys (U.K.); Dept. of State; Digital Orthophoto System; Disc Operating System DOSLI Dept. of Survey and Land Information (New Zealand) DOT Dept. of Transportation DP Data production; Digital Photogrammetry DPE Data processing environment; data processing equipment DPED Dept. of Planning and Economic Development dpi Dots per inch DPI Dots per inch DPIE Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy (Australia) DPL Data Programming Language; Designated place DPMA Data Processing Management Assn. DPPDB Digital Point Positioning Data Base DPS DEM Production System; Digital Production System (USDMA) Dpt. Department DPW Dept. of public works DPWS Digital Photogrammetric labor Station DQDB Distributed-Queue Dual Buses DQQ Digital Quarter Quadrangle Dr. Drive DR Data record(s); Direct Reflex (Trimble) DRAPE Digital Raster Acquisition Project for the East DRAPP Denver Regional Aerial Photography Program DRBC Delaware River Basin Commission DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DRCOG Denver Regional Council of Governments DRF Digital Raster File DRG Digital Raster Graphic; Davey Resource Group DRGM Direction des Recherches gologiques et minires (Niger) DRGP Digital Representation of lifelike Products DRGS Direct Readout Ground Station DRIS Digital Research and Instructional Services (Univ. of Virginia) DRO Digital Revision Overlay DS Digital subsystem D.S. District Surveyor DSD Digital Sailing Directions DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project DSF Delivery sequence file (U.S. Postal Service) DSGM Direcc~ao de Servicos de Geologia e Minas (Angola); Direccion del Servicio Geografico Militar (Paraguay) DSGZ Dept. of the Surveyor generic (Zimbabwe) DSIR Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research (Australia, unusual Zealand) DSL Dept. of Surveys and Lands (Botswana); Data Service Laboratory DSM Directorate of Surveys and Mapping (South Africa); Dept. of Surveys and Mapping (Botswana); Digital stereo model; Digital surface model DSN Deep Space Network; Dataset Name; Data source name DSNP Dassault-Sercel NP DSP Dept. of state Planning; Depository Services Program (Canada) DSPW Digital Photogrammetric Workstation (USCE) DSS Digital Sensor System (Applanix or EMERGE ) DS/S Data Services Segment DSSSL Document Style Semantic and Specification Language DSU Digital standard Update DTAD Digital Terrain Analysis Data DTD Digital Terrain Data; Digital Topographic Data (Natural Resources Canada); Document sort Definition DTED Digital Terrain altitude Data (U.S. government) DTG Digital tape generation DTM Digital Terrain Model (or Modeling) DTOP Digital Topographic Data DTS Digital transmission system DTSS-P Digital Topographic advocate System Prototype DTW Desk-top Workstation DUMC Dutch Union Map Catalogue DV Daily Value DVD Digital video disc; Digital all-around disc DVNP Death Valley National Park DVP Digital Video Plotter DW Data warehousing DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst DWF Drawing Web Format DWM Digital Web Map (Idaho Geological Survey) DWR Dept. of Water Resources DXF Drawing Interchange File; Digital Exchange Format DXM Data eXchange Manager DySIS Dynamic Software and Integrated Solutions, Inc. D-2 National Interest Lands, Section D-2, Alaska indigenous Claims Settlement Act D3 Digital Design Data E East; Electronic; Elevator (open); Einwohner = inhabitant EA Environmental assessment EAC Engineering Accreditation Commission (ABET) EAF East African compel (UK) EAFS Effective Aerial Film Speed EAOS Environment Australia Online Service EAP Environmental Affairs Program Earthsat Earth Satellite Corp. EAS-E Engineering and Survey-Exchange EBAMCO Electronic book and Map Company EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBR Electron Beam Recorder EBRPD East Bay Regional Park District (California) EBX Electronic book exchange EC Electronic control; European Community; European Commission ECAI Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative ECDIS Electronic Chart pomp and Information System (U.S.) ECE E. Coyote Enterprises ECEF EarthCentered EarthFixed ECEY Every City, Every Year (Aerials Express) ECI Election Commission of India ECPD Engineering Council for Professional Development ECRF Earth Centered Reference Frame ECS Electronic Charting Systems (NOAA) Ed. Editor; edition ED Elevation data; Enumeration district E.D. Eastern District EDA Electronic design automation; Exploratory data analysis EDC EROS Data hub (LIA); Electronic digital computer; Environmental Data hub (California) EDD Environmental Data Directory (Australia) EDGE Energy Data Geographical Explorer (Petroconsultants, Inc.) EDI Electronic Data Interchange; Electronic Devices Inc. EDIES EROS Digital Image Enhancement Systems EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport EDINA Edinburgh Data and Information Access EDIPS EROS Digital Image Processing System EDIS Environmental Data and Information Service; Electrical Distribution Information System (Santee Cooper) EDITOR ERTS Data Interpretation and Tenex Operations Recorder EDM Electronic distance measurement; Electronic distance meter EDMAS Environmental Dose Modeling and Analysis System EDMI Electronic distance measuring instrument(s) EDMS Electronic document management system(s) EDP Electronic data processing EDS Electronic Data Systems Corp.; Engineering Design System; Environmental Data Service (NOAA) EDT Eastern Daylight Time EdUC Education User Conference (ESRI) EEC European Economic Community EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone E.F. Eisenbahnfaehre EFFIS European Forest Fire Information System EGA Enhanced Graphics Adaptor EGII European Geographic Information Infrastructure EGIS European GIS EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service EGS European Geophysical Society; Economic geology series EGSMA Geological Survey and Mining Authority (Egypt) EHS Extremely hazardous materials EIGS Ethiopian Inst. of Geological Survey EIM Environmental information management eingesch. eingeschossig eis. eisern = iron EIS Environmental repercussion Statement; Environmental information system Eisb. Brck. Eisenbahnbrucke = Railroad bridge EIWG Earth Imaging Working Group ELC End of line code ELMO Electronic Map Ordering El.W. Elektrizitatswerk = electric power station EM Electromagnetic E.M. Mining Engineer EMA Environmental Management Agency; Ethopian Mapping Authority EMAIL Electronic Mail EMAP Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (U.S. EPA) EMC Eastern Mapping hub (USGS) EMF Enhanced Meta Files (Windows) EMIP European Market for Infrastructural Projects EMMMA Environmental Mercury Mapping, Modeling and Analysis EMPS Elevation Matrix Processing System EMR Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada; Electromagnetic radiation EMS Electromagnetic spectrum; Engineering Mapping Solutions (Firm) ENC Electronic Navigational Charts (NOAA) E.N.E. East-northeast Eng. Dept. Engineering Dept.; Dept. of Engineers Engr. Bn. Engineer Battalion ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ENID Endnote ID E-N&N Electronic advice and Notes (WAML) ENSG Ecole Nationale des Sciences Geographiques ENTR Entrance entw. Entworfen = Drawn entworf. Entworfen = Drawn ENVISAT Environmental Satellite EO Earth observation EOCAP Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program EODMS Earth Observations Data Management Systems EOF End of File EOS Earth Observing System; Greek National Mountaineering Assn. EOSAT Earth Observation Satellite (Company) EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System EOT End of Text EOTD Enhanced observed time difference EP End Point EPA Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.) EPB Earth Physics branch (Canada) EPI Electronic Position Indicator EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon EPP Educational Partnership Program (Topcon) EPS Encapsulated PostScript ER Economic region (Canada) ERA Electric Records Archives (NARA) ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (or Sensor) ERCE Groupe d'Etudes de Recherches Critiques d'Espace (Universite du Quebec, Montreal) ERDAS Earth Resources Data Analysis System ERDC Earth Resources Data hub (ERIM); Engineer Research and progress hub (USACE) ERDL Engineer Research and progress Laboratories EREP Earth Resources Experiment Package (Skylab) ERIM Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan ERIN Earth Resources Information Network; Environmental Resource Information Network (Australia) ERIS Earth Resources Inventory System; Earth Resources Infomation System ERL Environmental Research Laboratories (NOAA); Earth Resources Laboratory (NASA) ERLAS Earth Resources Laboratory Application Software ERM Earth Resource Mapping (Firm) EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite; Earth Resources Observation System ERP Enterprise resource planning ERPANET Electronic Resource Preservation and Access Network ERR Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg fur die Besetzten Gebiete ERRSAC Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications hub (NASA) ERS Earth Remote Sensing (satellite) ERSAC Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Centre (United Arab Emirates) ERSAL Environmental Remote Sensing Analysis Laboratory (Oregon state Univ.) ERSAR Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar ERSC Egyptian Remote Sensing Center ERSP Epipolar Rectified Stereo Pair ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERSUN Environmental Remote Sensing Unit (British Aerospace Space Systems, Ltd.) ESA Egyptian Survey Authority; European Space Agency; Earth Sciences Associates ESC European Seismological Commission ESCAP Economic and companionable Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESD Engineering Services Dept. (Qatar) ESDA Earth Sciences Data Standards (council); Exploratory spatial data analysis ESDD Earth Science Data Directory (USGS) ESDI Earth Science Data Interface ESE Earth Science Enterprise E.S.E. East-southeast ESEM Earth Systems Engineering and Management ESI EagleScan Inc.; Enironmental Sensitivity Index ESIC Earth Science Information hub (USGS); Earth Sciences Information Centre (Canada) ESIG Exemplary Systems in Government award (URISA) ESIM Earth Science Information Manager ESIN Earth Science Information Network ESIO Earth Science Information Office ESIP Earth Science Information Partners ESIS Earth Science Information System ESL Electromagnetic Systems Laboratories, Inc. ESMI European Spatial Metadata Infrastructure ESR Engineering Surveys Reproduction Ltd. ESRI Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc. ESSA Environmental Science Service Administration ESSC Earth System Science hub (Pennsylvania state Univ.) ESSHC European companionable Science History Conference ESSI Earth Search Sciences Inc. ESSIC Earth System Science Interdisciplinary hub (Univ. of Maryland) E. St. Eisenbahn Station = railway station EST Eastern standard Time ES&T Environmental Science and Technology ESV EarthSystemsVisualizer ET Frame enclosed elevator with self-closing traps ETF European Transfer Format ETL Engineer Topographic Laboratories (USCE); Extract, transform, load ETM Enhanced Thematic Mapper ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus EU European Union EUB Alberta Energy and Utilities Board EUROGI European Umbrella Organisation for Geographic Information EVC East View Cartographic (Firm) EVI Enhanced vegetation index EVO Ernst Volker (Oldenburg, Germany) EWP Executive Wilderness Programmes Ex. doc. Executive document EXIF Extensible Image File Format F Fahrenheit; Flat FA Fire alarm box FAA Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) FAAT Fully Analytical Aerotriangulation FAC Feature analysis code(s) FACC Feature and credit Coding Catalog FACE Field Ancillary Computer Effort FACM Florida Assn. of Cadastral Mappers FACS Feature credit Coding Standard; Feature credit Coding System Fahrb. Fahrbahn = roadway FAO Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations) FAPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically lively Radiation FAQ Frequently Asked Question(s) FARC Federal Archives and Record Center FAS Foreign Agricultural Service(USDA) FAST Faceted Application of theme Terminology Fb. Fabrik = Factory FB Freytag-Berndt und Artaria FBN Federal groundwork network (U.S.) FC Field component; sphere completion FCC False color composite; Federal Communications Commission (U.S.) FCM Feature change map FCT Forestry Commission Tasmania FCW Federal Computer Week (journal) FDDI Fiber Digital Data Interface FDEP Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection FDIS Formal Draft International standard (ISO) FDLP Federal Depository Library Program (US GPO) FDLS Fiji Dept. of Lands and Survey FDPP Framework Demonstration Projects Program (FGDC) FE Feature extraction; sphere engineer; Frame enclosed elevator F.E. Forest Engineer fe. Fecit (maker) FEAT Alternate Feature Identification Code fec. Fecit (maker) FED Federal electoral district (Canada); Field-emission displays FedUC Federal User Conference (ESRI) FEE Feature Extraction Environment FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.) FEP Feature Extraction Processor FES Feature Extraction Segment FESWMS Finite ingredient Surface Water Model System FEWS Feature Extraction Workstation FGCC Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S.) FGCS Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (U.S.) FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) FGEF Federal Geographic Exchange Format (U.S.) FGI Free Government Information (US) F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society FGS Florida Geological Survey FGT Federal Geographic Technology (U.S.) FH Field headquarters FHA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FHWA Federal Highway Administration (U.S.) FICCDC Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography (U.S.) FIG Federation Internationale des Geom`etres = International Federation of Surveyors FII Fundacion Instituto de Ingeneiria FILS Federal Government Information Locator System FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard(s); Flagstaff Image Processing System FIRM Flood Rate Insurance Map FIRMS Flood Rate Insurance Maps FL Florida; Focal length; duty libraries Fla. Florida FLHO Federal Lands Highway Office (U.S.) FLI-IWG Future of Land Imaging Interagency Working Group (US) FLIMAP Fast Laser Imaging Mapping and Profiling (system) FLIP Flight Information Publication (NGA) FLIR Forward-looking Infrared FLL Waterfall FLOPS Floating Point Operations per Second FM Facilities management; sphere manual F.M. Field Marshall FMC Federal Maritime Commission (U.S.) FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (US) FME Feature Manipulation Engine (Safe Software Inc.) FMGIS Flight management geographic information system FMLIS Federal Mineral Lands Information System FMP Field Pack Mobile Professional (All Points Software) FMS Facility Mapping Systems Inc.; Flight Managing System FMS/AC Facility Mapping System for AutoCAD FNC Foreign Names Committee (USBGN) FNESA Federation of unusual England Surveyors Assn.s FNIB Foreign Names Information Bulletin FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography hub (U.S.) FO Field office F.O. Field Officer; strange Office FOC Full operational capability FOF Filtering optical fiber FOGs Fiber Optic Gyros FOM Field Operations Manual FORTRAN Formula Translation (computer language) FOUO For official employ only FOV Field of view fPAR Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically lively Radiation FPC Federal Power Commission; Federal Publishers Committee FPT Full production training FPU Floating point unit FRA Federal Railroad Administration (U.S.) FRAP Fire and Resource Assessment Program (Calif. Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection) FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (IFLA) FRC Federal Records hub (U.S.) F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society FRI Forest Resource Inventory Map (Ontario) FRM Farm FRP Federal Radio-navigation Plan F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society FS Fire station; Forest Service (U.S.); Federal Survey Div. (Nigeria) FSA Farm Service Agency (USDA) FSLUPC Federal/State Land employ Planning Commission for Alaska FSMS Florida Surveying and Mapping Society FSO Field advocate Office (U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories) FSPLS Florida Society of Professional Land Surveyors FSR Flight Summary Report FSRAMIS Forest Service range Management Information System FT Field terminator FTA Federal Transit Administration (US) Fth. Fathom FTL Future Temporal Logic FTM Foiben Taosarintanin' i Madagasikara FTP File Transfer Protocol FU Field unit Fur. Furlong Fw. Fussweg = Footpath FWPCA Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (U.S.) FWS Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S.) FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia FZDS Flood Zone Determination Services G Geometry; Imperial guards G&M Geography and Map; geography and Map Div. G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara Inc. Ga. Georgia GA Georgia; Geographic access; Geographical Association GAC Geological Assn. of Canada; Global locality Composite; Geospatial Advisory Committee (USFS) GAF Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Fernerkundung GAMS GIS azimuth measuring system GANS Geomatics Association of Nova Scotia GAP Gap Analysis Program (USNBS); Geographic Application Program; Google Ancient Places GAT Geography Assn. of Thailand GB Gigabyte; Geologische Bundesanstalt (Austria) GBA GeoBusiness Assn.; George Butler Associates, Inc. GBAMS GBS Master Series, Inc. GBAUG Greater Boston Autodesk User Group GBf Guterbahnhof = freight depot GBF Geographic groundwork File GBFP Georgia Basin Futures Project (Digital Library) GBI Green biomass index GBIS Geo-Based Information System; Global commerce Intelligence Solutions (IBM) Gbo. Grabador = engraver GBS Geograpic groundwork System GCCS Global Command, Control System (USDMA) GCDB Geographic Coordinate Data groundwork (U.S.) GCDIS Global Change Data and Information System GCG Geocartographics Subdivison (Canada) GCHC Gulf Coast Hydroscience hub (U.S.) GCLI GIS in Canadian Libraries Initiative GCM General circulation model; Global climate model; generic Command of Mapping (Turkey) GCMC Geospatial hub and Map Collection (Ball state University) GCP Ground control point(s); Geodetic control point(s) GCRA Geographic and Cartographic Research and Applications Section GCRS Gulf Centre for Remote Sensing (Firm) GCSS Global Combat advocate System GCT Greenwich Civil Time GCTP General Coordinate Transformation Package (software); Geographic Coordinate Transformation Package (software) GD Geologic Div. (USGS); Geospatial data; lifelike digitization GDA Geographic Data Analysis System GDAL Geospatial Data Abstraction Library GDC Geographic Data Council GDD Graphics Data pomp Manager; GIS Data Depot GDDD Geographical Data Description Directory GDE Graphic Developer's Engine (FCAD Software, Inc.) GDF Geographic data file GDHS Ground Data Handling System (GFSC) GDM Geospatial data management GDN Geography Discipline Network GDS Graphic Data Systems Corp; Grumman Data Systems; Geo-Data System; Geographic Data Service (U.S.) GDT Geographic Data Technology Inc.; Geophysical diffraction tomography GDTA Groupement pour le Developpement de la Teledetection Aerospatiale (France) GE General Electric; Geographic equivalent; Google Earth GEBCO General bathymetric chart of the oceans = Carte generale bathymetrique des oceans GECCo Geospatially Enabling Community Collaboration (program, GITA) GEDS General Environmental Data groundwork System (Florida) GEGMR General Establishment of Geology and Mineral Resources (Syria) GEHC Grup d'Estudia d'Historia de la Cartografia GEM Graphical Environment Manager GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System; GeoMap Society GEO Geospatial Metadata Application Profile (USA); Geostationary Earth orbit; Global Environment Outlook GEOBAL Servicio Geologico de Bolivia GEO-CAT Geographic catalog of political and statistical areas Geocorr Geographic Correspondence Engine GEODESY Geospatial Data and Exploration System (Harvard Univ.) Geog. Geography GEOINT Geographical intelligence Geol. Geology GEOLAN Geological (survey) local locality network GeoLoB Geospatial Line of Business GEOREF Geological Reference (system) GEOS Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite GEOSAT Geodesy Satellite GEOSEC Geographic Security GeoTMS Geographic Town Management System (Des Lauriers & Assoc. Inc.) GEOZAVOD Zavod za Geoloska i Geofizicksa Istrazivanja (Yugoslavia) GEP Google Earth Pro Ges. Gesamt- GES Geographic Entry System gest. Gestechen = Engraved gez. Gezeichnet = Designed GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (U.S.) GFOSS Geospatial Free and Open Source Software GGBR Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve (Calif.) GGMC Guyana Geology and Mines Commission GGNRA Golden Gate National Recreation locality (Calif.) GGRF Galileo Geodetic Reference Frame GGS Georgia Geologic Survey GGU Gronlands Geologiske Undersogelse GI Geographic information; Geospatial information GIA Geographic information analysis; Geographic information and analysis; GPS International Assn.; Geomatics Industry Association GIAA Geometrics Industry Assn. of America GIAC Geomatics Industry Assn. of Canada; Geographic Information Advisory Council (Kentucky) GIAL Geographic Information and Analysis Laboratory (State Univ. of unusual York, Buffalo) GIB Geographic Information Board (Florida); Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin; G.I. Barnett & Son GICC Geographic Information Coordinating Committee (Colorado) GICS Geographic Identification Code Scheme GID Geodaetisk Institut (Denmark) GIDW General inverse-distance weighted interpolation model .GIF Graphics Interchange File; Graphics Interchange Format GIFTS Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GIG Geologic Inquiries Group GILS Government Information Locator Service GIMS Geographic Information Management Systems Committee (ASCM/ASPRS) GINIE Geographic Information Network in Europe GIO Geographic Information Officer; Geographic Investigations Office (USGS); Geospatial Information Office (USGS) GIPS Generalized Image Processing Sytstem GIR Geographic information retrieval GIRAS Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (USGS) GIS Geographic(al) information system(s); Geohydrologic Information System; Geoscience Information Society; Global Indexing System GISCI GIS Certification Institute GISCO Geographic Information System of the European Commission GISDEX Federal Geographic Information and Spatial Data Exposition and Conference (U.S.) GIScience Geographic information science GISIC Geographical Information Systems International Group GISMO GIS MOdeling (ERDAS) GISOM Generating Information and Scanning Ohio Maps (Ohio state Univ. hub for Mapping) GISP GIS professional GISS Goddard Institude of Space Studies GISS-SG Geographic Information Systems and Science Specialty Group (AAG) GIST Geographic Information System for Transportation GIT Geomatics information technology; generic Information Technology; Global Imaging Technologies (Firm) GITA Geospatial Information & Technology Assn. GITC Geomatics Information Trading Center GITCO Government Information Technology Committee (GODORT) GIU Geographic Information Unit (US Dept. of State) GIV Geologic Information Visualization (software) GKP Geodeticky a Kartograficky Podnik v Praze GKS Graphics Kernal System Gl. Gleis GLAB Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt GLAB-W Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg GLAI Green leaf locality index GLAN-W Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System; Geologisches Landesamt des Saarlandes GLAS-H Geologisches Landesamt Schleswig-Holstein GLCF Global Land Cover Facility GLDAS Global Land Data Assimilation System (NASA) GLI Global Imager GLIS Geographic Land Information System (USGS); Geographic and Land Information Society GLM General linear model; GEO Lightning Mapper GLO General Land Office (U.S.) GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to capitalize the Environment GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (Russia) GLOSS Global Observation Surveillance System GLR-P Geologisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz GLRS Geoscience Laser Ranging System GLT Geospatial Light Table (ERDAS IMAGINE) GLTN Global Land implement Network GM Geography and Map; Geologic map GMAT Greenwich subsist of value Astronomical Time G.M. Grist mill GMD Geologisch Mijnbouwkundige Dienst van Suriname GMDC Geospatial Map and Data Centre (Ryerson University) GME Geohydrologic Map Editor GML Geography Markup Language GMR Government Micro Resources Inc. GMS Geostationary meteorological satellite(s); Geographic Measurement Systems (Firm) G.M.S.I. Ground Modeling Systems Inc.; Gandalf Mobile Systems Incorporated; GMSI Inc. is a arduous (not an abbreviation) GMT Greenwich subsist of value Time; Generic Mapping Tools G.M.T. Giuseppi Maria Terreni GN Grid north GNC Geologic Names Committee; Global navigation chart GNDB Geographic Names Data groundwork (US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) GNIAG Geomatics Niagara Information Advisory Group GNIS Geographic Names Information System (U.S.) GNMP Gettysburg National Military Park GNS GEOnet Names Server (USNIMA) GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GNU Geologic Names Unit (USGS) GNULEX Geologic Names Unit Lexicon (USGS) GO Geometric Operations G&O Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc. GoC Government of Canada GODORT Government Documents Round Table (ALA) GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NASA) GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOMS Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite(s) GoMMapP Gulf of Maine Mapping Portal GOS Geospatial One-Stop GOS-PI Geospatial One-Stop Portal Initiative (Open GIS Consortium) Gov. Governor Gov. Gen. Governor General GP Graphic production; Graphics processor; Geography Program (USGS) GPF Geospatial Prototype Facility GPG Graphic Product Generation GPH Geological Publishing House (China) GPI Graphics Programming Interface; Greenman Pedersen Inc. GPIP General Purpose Image Processor GPM Gestalt Photo Mapper GP.MC Geoprocessing Map Call GP.MCD Geoprocessing Map convene Deamon program GPO Government Printing Office GPOS Government Printing Office Style Manual GPPU Graphic Polygon Processing Utilities GPR Ground-Penetrating Radar GPS Global positioning system(s) GPSDR Global positioning system demonstration receiver GPSIC Global Positioning System Information hub (U.S. Coast Guard); GPS Industry Council GPSOS Global Positioning System Occultation Sensor GPST Global positioning system time GPT GIS Portal Toolkit (ESRI) GPW2 Gridded Population of the World (dataset) GQ Geologic quadrangle GQL Graphical Query Language gr. gross Gr. Grosse GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAMPS Graphic Map Production System GRASS Geographic Resource Analysis advocate System GRB Government Records branch (Library and Archives of Canada; National Archives of Canada) GRC Generation of reproducible copy; Geoscience Research Corp. GRD Ground Resolved Distance GRDL Geodetic Research and progress Laboratory GRE Geologic Resources Evaluaion (program, US NPS) GRF-N Geographic Reference File-Names GRIDS Grid Referenced Information pomp System; Gridded Resource Inventory Data System GRS Geodetic Reference System GRS 80 Geodetic Reference System of 1980 GRSU Geography Remote Sensing Unit (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara) GS Geological Survey (U.S.); Gray scale GSA General Services Administration (U.S.); Geological Society of America; Geological Survey of Alabama GSC Geological Survey of Canada; Geographic Systems Corp.; Geotronics Service Center; Geocode Service hub (HUD) GSD Ground sample distance; Geological Survey Dept. (Malawi); Geological Survey Div. (Jamaica); Geodetic Survey Div. (Natural Resources Canada) GSDI Global Spatial Data Infrastructure GSDM Global Spatial Data Model GSDS Global spatial data system GSF Generic Sensor Format GSFC Goddard Space Flight hub (NASA) GSGS Geographical Section, generic Staff (U.K.) GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program GSI Geographical Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of India; Geological Survey of Iran; Geological Survey Inst. (Japan); Geological Survey of Ireland; Geophysical Services Inc.; Geospatial Systems, Inc. GSJ Geological Survey of Japan GSK Geological Survey of Kenya GSL Geographic Sciences Laboratory (USCE) GSM Graphic standard Metafile GSMD Geological Survey and Mines Dept. (Swaziland) GSN Geological Survey of Namibia GSNI Geological Survey of Northern Ireland GSP Geological Survey of Pakistan; Geographical statistics program GSPB Geodetic Satellite Policy Board GSPNG Geological Survey Papua unusual Guinea GSRC Geological Survey Research Committee GSS Geographic advocate system GSSA Geological Survey South Africa GST Galileo System Time GSTC Geospatial Service and Technology hub (USFS) GSW Geological Survey of Wyoming; GeoScienceWorld GSWA Geological Survey of Western Australia GSZ Geological Survey of Zambia GT Geometry and topology; Greater than; Geologian Tutkimuskeskus = Geological Survey of Finland G.T. Gas tank GTA Greater Toronto Area GTCM Geospatial Technology Competency Model (US Dept. of Labor) GTE Greater than or equal GTI GIS Technology Inc. GTS GPS Timing Simulator (NovAtel Inc.); distinguished Trigonometrical Survey of India GTUB Geographic tabulation unit base GU Government unit; Guam GUDS Geologicky ustav Dionyz Stur GUGiK Glowny Urzad Geodezji i Kartografii (Poland) GUGK Glavnoe Upravlenie Geodezii i Kartografii (USSR) GUGKK Glavno Upravlenie po Geodezia I Kartografia y Kadaster (Bulgaria) GUI Graphical User Interface GUID Globally unique identifier GUIDE Geomatics Utilization Inventory and Design Environment GUNI Goteborgs Universitet Naturgeografiska Institutionen GUNO Glavnoe Upravlenie Navigatsii i Okeanografii (USSR) GVF Goodness of variance fit GVI Green vegetation index GVis Geographic Visualization GVIS Geographic Visualization GW Gas well (natural); Ground water GWE Global Weather Experiment GWEN Ground Wave Emergency Network (U.S.) GWSI Groundwater site inventory GXL-A GeoImaging Accelerator Aerial (PCI Geomatics and Vexcel Imaging GmbH) GZD Grid Zone Designation h. hoch = high H. Hohe = height; Howitzer ha. Hectare; Hektar HA Hydrologic Investigations Atlas or Hydrologic Atlas (USGS) HABS Historic American Buildings Survey HAC Harbor and Approach Chart HALS Hawaii Assn. of Land Surveyors HANDGPS High Accuracy Nationwide Differential GPS HARN High-Accuracy Reference Network (U.S.) Hauptm. Hauptmann = Captain HAZUS Hazards U.S. HAZUSMH Hazards U.S. multihazard version Hbf Hauptbahnhof = main railway station HBCA Hudson Bay Company Archives HBF Herbert Bismarck Foster HBGN Hawaii Board on Geographic Names HBM Hydrologic bench mark HBMN Hydrologic Bench ticket Network HC Hard copy HCC Heat Capacity Mapping Mission HCDN Hydroclimate Data Network HCFCD Harris County (Texas) Flood Control District HCMM Heat-capacity Mapping Mission HCMR Heat-capacity Mapping Radiometer HCRS Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (U.S.) HD Hydrographic Dept. (Great Britain) HDDT High-Density Digital Tape HDLD Headland HDOP Horizontal Dilution of Precision HDS High-Definition Surveying (Leica Geosystems) HDT High density tape HDT-A High density tape (not geometrically corrected) HDTR High density tape recorder HDTV High-definition television HEIRS Historic Environmental Reporting System (IAO) HEPS High Energy Particle Sensor HeRMIS Heritage Resource Management Information System (PAA) Herst. Herstellung HE/S Hardcopy Exploitation Segment HF High frequency HFA Hydrologic sphere assistant HFI Hall & Foreman, Inc. Hfn Hafen = port, harbor H-GAC Houston-Galveston locality Countil Hgbf Hauptgueterbahnhof HGCSD Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (U.S.) .HGL Newlett-Packard Graphics Language format HGML Hyper lifelike Markup Language HGS Halliburton Geophysical Services HHG Household goods (Rand McNally MileMaker) HI Hawaii HIA Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HID Historical Imagery Declassification (NIMA) HIF Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility Hind. Hindustan HIND Geographical Section generic Staff (India [Headquarters India]) HIRAN High range Navigation HIRS High-resolution Infrared Sounder HIS Hydrologic Information System; Hyperspectral imagery HISS Heritage Information Statistical System HIT Horizons Technolgy Inc. HIU Hydrologic Information Unit HJW Hammon, Jensen, Wallen & Associates; HJW GeoSpatial, Inc. HKGA Hong Kong Geographical Assn. HLAB Hessisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung HLfB Hessisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung HLL Hill HLLS Hills HLR High flush radiation; elevated flush radioactivity HLRS Highway Location Reference Standard HLS Hue, lightness and saturation HLVA Hessisches Landesvermessungsamt HLW High flush fritter (radioactivity) Hm. Bgs. Hermann Berghaus HMCK Hummock HMGS Hellenic Military Geographical Service HMSO Her/His Majesty's Stationery Office (Great Britain) H.O. Hochofen = nip furnace HOGG History of Geology Group HOM Hotine oblique Mercator Hon. Honorable Hp Haltepunkt = stopping place HP Hewlett-Packard (corp.) HPFS High pressure fire service HPGL Hewlett Packard Graphics Language HPGN High-Precision Geodetic Network HPP High Precision Photogrammetry HPRASA High Plains Regional Aquifer System HQ Headquarters HR House of Representatives; elevated resolution HRB Highway Research Board HRD High-resolution data HRDB High-resolution Data Base HRDI High-resolution Doppler Imager HRFRS High-resolution Film Recorder Subsystem HRGA High Rate Geographical Areas HRIR High-resolution Infrared Radiometer Hrm. Bghs. Hermann Berghaus HRMSI High Resolution Multispectral Stereo Imager HRV High Resolution Visible HRVIR High Resolution Visible Infrared (scanner) HS High school H.S. H. Schleifmann HSB Humidity Sensor for Brazil (JPL) HSDL High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line HSGT Hitachi Software Global Technology, Ltd. HSI Horizontal Situation Indicator; Habitat Suitability Index HSRC Hydrographic Science Research Center HSRP Hydrographic Services Review Panel (US) H. St. Eisenbahn Haltstelle = railway stop HSV Hue Saturation Value HTC Hydrographic Topographic hub (USDMA) H., T.C. Thomas Campanius Holm HTDP Horizontal Time-Dependent Positioning HTI Horizons Technology, Inc. HTML Hypertext (or HyperText) Markup Language HTS Human terrain systems HUA Hydrologic Unit Area HUC Hydrologic Unit Code HUD Dept. of Housing and Urban progress (U.S.) Hund. Hundred HURRDAT Hurricane Data Set HVC Hue-Value-Chroma H.W. Hochwasser H/W Hardware i Infantry I. Island IA Infrastructure Analyst (BaySys Technologies Inc.); Iowa IACWD Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data IADO Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAEG International Assn. of Engineering Geologists IAEGS Institute for Advanced Education in Geospatial Sciences IAG International Assn. of Geodesy IAGS Inter-American Geodetic Survey IAH International Association of Hydrogeologists IAHS International Assn. of Hydrological Sciences = Assn. Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques IAHWG Intergovernmental Ad Hoc Working Group IAKAR Inertially aided kinematic ambiguity resolution IALA International Assn. of Lighthouse Authorities IALS Idaho Assn. of Land Surveyors IAMA International Antiquarian Mapsellers Association IAO Insurers' Advisory Organization IAOO International Assn. of Assessing Officers IAS Image Assessment System IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IASSIST International Association for companionable Science Information Service & Technology IAT Image Annotation Tape; International Atomic Time IATO Italian atlas assembled to order IAWPRC International Assn. for Water Pollution Research and Control IB Isobar IBC International frontier Commission (U.S.-Canada) IBDF Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal IBG Inst. of British Geographers IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estadistica IBIS Image-Based Information System IBM International commerce Machines (corp.); International frontier marker IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and progress (World Bank) IBSP Idaho Bureau of state Planning IBWC International frontier and Water Commission (Mexico-U.S.) IC Integrated circuit(s) I.C. Johannes Condet (engraver) ICA International Cartographic Assn. = Assn. Cartographique Internationale ICACET International Cartographic Assn. Committee on Training ICAITI Instituto Centro Americano de Investigacion y Tecnica Industrial ICAO International Civil Aviation Organiztion ICA-USNC International Cartographic Assn. U.S. National Committee ICC Institut Cartografic de Catalunya; Interstate Commerce Commission (U.S.); International Cartographic Conference ICCP Inst. for Certification of Computer Professionals ICE Information hub for the Environment (UCD); Imagery Cooperative Exchange ICED Intraprofessional Council on Environmental Design ICES Institution of Civil Engineers (UK); Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications ICEX Ice and Climate Experiment ICGC Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografia ICGI Interagency Committee on Government Information (US) ICGRS Internet-Enabled Continuous Geodetic Reference Station ICGWM International Clearinghouse for Ground Water Models ICHC International Conference on the History of Cartography ICIS Integrated Cadastral Information Society ICITV Institut de la Carte International du Tapis Vegetale ICM Instituto Cartografico Militar ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol ICMSSR Interagency Committee on Meteorological Services and Supporting Research ICONA Instituto Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza (Spain) ICP Interactive closest points ICR Intelligent Character Reader ICRSE International hub for Remote Sensing Education ICT Information and communication technologies ICW International Computer Works, Inc. ID Identification; Interface device; Idaho; Island IDAS Image Data Analysis Systems IDC International Data Corp. IDCCC Interior Digital Cartographic Coordination Committee (U.S.) IDD Information and data dissemination; Initiative de democratisation des donnees de Statistique Canada IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics IDEN Identification module IDFG Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game IDIMS Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System IDIQ Indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity IDL Idaho Dept. of Lands; Interactive Data Language; Interface Definition Language IDLH Immediately risky to life and health IDLS Internet Data Library System (Univ. of Western Ontario) iDNA Integrated Dataset for North America (Rand McNally) IDOT Illinois Dept. of Transportation IDR Interface drawing IDS Information conclusion Systems (firm) IDWO Intelligence Div., War Office (U.K.) IDWR Idaho Dept. of Water Resources IEGDR Initial Experimental Gridded Data Record(s) IEMVT Institut d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux IENC Inland Electronic Navigation Charts (USCE) IEOS Integrated Earth Observation System IEP Independent electric plant IERS International Earth Rotation Service IES Inst. for Environmental Sciences IF Frame identification IfAG Institut fur Angewandte Geodasie IFF Interchange Format File (Commodore Amiga) IFLA International Assn. of Library Asociations and Institutions IFN Service de l'Inventaire Forestier National (France) IFOV Instantaneous sphere of View IFP Institut Francais de Pondicherry; Institut Francais du Petrole IFR Instrument Flight Regulation IFREMER Institut francais de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer iFS Internet File System (Oracle Corp.) IFSAR Inter-ferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar IFSARE Inter-ferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar for Elevation IG Instytut Geologiczny (Poland) IGA Istituto Geografico de Agostini IGAC Instituto Geografico "Agustin Codazzi" IGBF Institut Geographique de Burkina Faso IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme IGC International Geologic Congress; brilliant Graphics Controller; Informative Graphics Corp. IGCI Institut Geographique de la Cote d'Ivoire IGCP International Geological Correlation Program; Instituto Geografico e Cadastral (Portugal) IGDC Interagency Geographic Data Committee (U.S.) IGDS Interactive Graphics Design System (software); Intergraph Design Software IGEBU Institut Geographique de Burundi IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification; International Graphics Exchange System IGF Inset Graphics Format IGFCOT Institutul de Geodezie, Fotogrammetrie, Cartografie si Organizarea Teritoriului (Romania) IGG Institutul de Geologie si Geofizica (Romania) IGGSP Instituto Geografico e Geologico de S~ao Paulo IGIF International Geographic Information Foundation IGIS Integrated Geographic Information System; brilliant GIS IGL Interactive Graphics Library IGLD 85 International distinguished Lakes Datum of 1985 IGM Instituto Geografico Militar IGME Inst. of Geology and Mineral Exploration (Greece); Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espa~na IGMI Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano IGN Institut geographique national; Instituto Geografico Nacional IGNB Institut Geographique National (Belgium) IGNC Institut Geographique National Congolaise IGNTG Instituto Geografico Nacional "Tommy Guardia" (Panama) IGPT Interagency Geospatial Preparedness Team (US) IGS Information & Graphics Systems Inc.; International GPS Service; Idaho Geological Survey; Indiana Geological Survey; Geological Survey of Israel I.G.S. John Gaspar Scheuchzer IGSN71 International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 IGT Integrated GPS Technologies Inc. IGU International Geographical Union; Instituto Geografico Universitario (Dominican Republic) IGUG Intergraph Graph Users Group IGWMC International Ground Water Modeling Center IGY International Geophysical Year IGZa Institut Geographique du Zaire IHA Instituto Hidrografico de la Armada (Chile) IHAC Instituto Hidrografico de la Armada, Chile IHB International Hydrographic Bureau IHD International Hydrological Decade IHDC Iowa legacy Digital Collection IHGC International Health Geographics Conference IHO International Hydrographic Organization IHP International Hydrologic Program IHSI Institut Haitien de Statistique de d'Informatique IIAF Idaho Image Analysis Facility IICT Instituto de Investigac~ao Cientifica Tropical (Portugal) IIGS Initial Image Generating System IIPL Interactive Image Processing Laboratory IIS Internet Information Server IJAGR International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research IJC International Joint Commission (U.S. & Canada) IKCS I.K. Curtis Services, Inc. IKU Institutt for Kontinentalsokkelundersokelse (Norway) IL Illinois ILC Interim Library Catalog ILEX Interactive Landsat Executive (NASA software) ILH Internationales Landkartenhaus (Stuttgart) ILI Inst. for Land Information ILIM Inst. for Land Information Management (University of Toronto) Ill. Illinois ILLIAC Illinois Institute for Advanced Computation ILMF International LiDAR Mapping Forum ILRIS-3D Intelligent Laser range Imaging Scanner (Optech) ILS Intelligent Library System (Lockheed Martin) ILWIS Integrated Land and Water Information System (ITC) IM Information management IMA Intermap Analytic IMACS Integrity Monitoring and Control Software (Javad Positioning Systems) IMACUAC Information Management and Computer Utilization Advisory Committee IMADS Interactive Map and Data Server (USFWS) IMAG Information Management Advisory Group IMAGE Integrated Mapping and Geographic Encoding System IMAGE 100 Interactive Multispectral Image Analysis System (GE) IMAN Image Analysis (system); Intermap Analytic Nucleus IMAP Input, Management, Analysis, and Presentation IMC Image Motion Compensator IMCoS International Map Collectors Society IMDA International Map Dealers Assn. .IMG ADRG image format (USDMA) IMGW Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej (Poland) IMLS Institute of Museum and Library Services (US) IMO International Maritime Organization IMP Integrated Micro Products Inc. IMPAC Image Analysis Computer Package (Egbert Scientific) IMS Intermediate map scale; Image Manipulation System; Internet Map Server (ESRI) IMSI International Microcomputer Software, Inc. IMT Information Management Technologies (Firm); Internet Media Type IMTA International Map Trade Assn. IMU Inertial measurement unit IMW International Map of the World in. Inch; inches IN Indiana INC Institut National de Cartographie INCA Indian National Cartographic Society INCG Institut National de Cartographie du Gabon; Institut Geographique National Guineen INCITS International Committee for Information Technology Standards Ind. Indiana INDEC Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos (Argentina) INE Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (Ecuador, Guatemala) INEAC Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas, Geografia e Informatica (Mexico) INETER Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales INFORM Information Network for Operational Resources Management (Arizona) INGEMMET Instituto Geologico Minero y Metalurgico (Peru) INGEO- MINAS Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (Colombia) INGM Instituto Nacional de Geologia INLT Inlet INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite (organization) INMG Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (Portugal) INMH Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia y Hidrologia (Ecuador) INPE Instituto das Pesquisas Espaciais (Brazil) INQUA International Union for Quaternary Research INRA Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (France) INRAT Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie INS Inertial Navigation System InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar INSEE Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (France) INSIDE Interactive Numeric Spatial Information Data Engine (Univ. of Idaho) INSMAP International Symposium on Marine Positioning INSPIRE Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe Inst. Institute INSTAAR Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research (Univ. of Colorado) INTA Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (Argentina) INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite (organization) InterPARES International Research on Permanent unquestionable Records Electronic Systems INTRISCA Integrated Resource Inventory for South-Central Alaska INUPAL Informaciones Unidas para America Latina (Chile) IO Input/output; Interior orientation I/O Input/output IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; Initial operational capability ION Institute of Navigation IOP International Organisation of Palaeobotany; Interagency Operating Picture (USGS) IOS Institute of Oceanographic Science (Great Britain) IP Internet protocol; Image point IPA Imagery Product Archive (USDMA) IPAM Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPCS Image Production Control System IPE Image processing engine IPF Image Processing Facility (GSFC) IPGP Institut de physique du Globe de Paris IPRG Inst. for Petroleum Resources and Geophysics (Israel) IPLSA Illinois Professional Land Surveyors Assn. IPOSTEL Instituto Postal Telegrafico (Venezuela) IPP Integrated Plotting Package IPS Image processing system; Inertial Positioning System IPT Informatica per il Territorio; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (Sao Paulo, Brazil); Integrated Product Team IPX Internet Packet Exchange IPY International Polar Year IR Imaging Radiometer; Infrared I.R. Imperiale Reale IRAT Institut de Recherches en Agronomie Tropicale (France) IRC Intergraph Registered Consultant IR. CH. Iron chimney IR. CH.S.A. Iron chimney with spark arrestor IRD Information Resources Division (Arizona) IRDB Integrated regional database IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System IRF Internal Raster File; Internal Raster Format IRG Inter-Record Gap IRICC Interagency Resource Information Coordination Council IRIS Infrared Interferometer/Spectrometer; Interim Research and Intelligence Service (U.S. Dept. of State); Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology IRIS R&A Research and Analysis Branch, Interim Research and Intelligence Service (U.S. Dept. of State) IRLSA Illinois Registered Land Surveyors Assn. IRRI International Rice Research Inst. IRS Internal Revenue Service (U.S.); Information retrieval system; Indian Remote Sensing (Satellite) IRSA Inst. of Remote Sensing Applications IRWA International prerogative of artery Assn. IRWD Irvine Ranch Water District Is. Island IS International Standard I.S. John Speed ISA Institute of Surveyors of Australia; Internet Starter Applications; Integrated Survey locality (British Columbia) ISABU Institut des Sciences Agronomiques au Burundi ISAMS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder ISAPI Internet Server Application Programming Interface ISBD(CM) International standard Bibliographic Description for Cartographic Materials ISBD(ER) International standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources ISC Information Systems Council ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project ISCEM International Society of Curators of Early Maps ISD Information Services Div. ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISEA Icosahedral Snyder equal locality (projection) ISERT Institut Superieur pour les Etudes et Recherches Scientifique et Techniques (Djibouti) ISGS Illinois state Geological Survey ISHM International Society for the History of the Map ISI Image Subsystem Interface; Information Systems Inventory (EPA); Interpretation System, Inc. I-SITE Intelligent Screening of Imagery for Teleophthalmology Isl. Island ISL Island; Illinois state Library ISLP Land-tied island ISLS Islands ISM Interpretive Structural Modeling ISMS International Society for Mine Surveying ISO Imaging Spectrometer Observatory; International Standards Organization ISP Internet service provider ISPI Intermediate-scale Product Inventory ISPLS Indiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors ISPRS International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ISR Information Storage and Retrieval ISRO Indian Space Research Organisation IS&T Information Systems and Technology ISTAT Istituto Centrale di Statistica (Italy) ISTD Inter-Services Topographical Dept. (Great Britain) ISTH Isthmus ISU International System of Units ISURL Indiana state Univ. Remote Sensing Laboratory IT Information technology; Integration Technologies Inc. I.T. Idaho Territory ITA Intelligent Traverse Adjustment ITAA Information Technology Assn. of America ITC International Inst. for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands; formerly International Training Centre for Aerial Survey); International Trade Commission ITCA International Topographic Composition Assn. ITD Interim Terrain Data ITE Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Great Britain) ITF INTERLIS Transfer Format ITFE Inductive terrain feature extraction ITRF International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF00 International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 ITRM Information Technology Resouces Management (standard, Virginia) ITRS International Terrestrial Reference System ITS Intelligent transportation system ITSA Independent Travel Stores Assn.; Ingeneria y Topografia, S.A. de C.V. ITU Image Transfer Unit; International Telecommunications Union IUE International Ultraviolet Explorer IUGG International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics IUGS International Union of Geological Sciences IUSM International Union for Surveying and Mapping IVHS Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems IW Information Warfare IWARDS Iowa Water Resources Data System IWIS International Water Information System IWPC Inst. of Water Pollution Control IWRA International Water Resources Assn. I2S International Imaging Systems Inc.
Copyright � 2011 The Regents of the University of California.All rights reserved. Document maintained on server by: Earth Sciences & Map Library1996. last updated 2/09/2011.
WARREN, Mich.--Less than one year after generic Motors CIO Randy Mott announced that the automaker would cease outsourcing its IT labor to other companies, GM today launched a unusual $130 million data hub of its own.
The company is betting that a thoroughly modernized approach to IT—consciously modeled in many ways on advances made by Google and Facebook—will embolden accelerate the turnaround led by chief executive Dan Akerson. "If they are going to win, they must spin IT into a competitive edge and not deal it as something that is just a utility," Mr. Akerson said Monday at a press conference at the company’s technical hub in Warren, where the data facility is based.
The company’s unusual data hub has been designed to subsist easier to maintain and expand, and less expensive to nonchalant than older, conventional data centers. It too supports a blend of conventional and experimental technologies that the company hopes will measurably ameliorate its capacity to innovate by doubling the number of IT projects it is able to undertake. But those capabilities will not transform the company unless the repose of the company undergoes an accompanying cultural shift, one that Mr. Mott says has “just begun.”
The company’s government-sponsored bailout allowed the company to survive, but the turnaround of the commerce is quiet in its infancy. The company shut down brands such as Pontiac and Saturn after it emerged from bankruptcy in 2009, but the current IT overhaul is the biggest internal initiative that the company has undertaken in years. To pellucid the artery for the complex, in Warren, GM had to unwind a massive IT services shrink with Hewlett-Packard, and reverse an outsourcing model that goes back to its acquisition of EDS nearly 30 years ago.
“We believe they can grow faster with stronger IT. That is why they are making investments in their own data centers and innovation centers,” Mr. Mott said in an interview conducted last week at GM’s technical center. “The bankruptcy positioned us to invest on a regular basis and win in the marketplace. They occupy the wherewithal to invest capital in their products.”
Until recently, GM was spending up to $3 billion a year on IT services from H-P and other companies. Those outsourcers handled about 90% of GM’s IT work. Mr. Mott and Mr. Akerson want to spin that around, so that 90% of the company’s IT labor is done in-house within a few years. The company is building two data centers, of which Warren is the first. It too has built four innovation centers that are creating software used in product development, in Warren; Austin, Texas; Chandler, Ariz., and Roswell, Ga. The company already has hired about 1,500 software developers and engineers, up from “close to zero” just one year ago, according to Tim Cox, CIO of global progress services, and leader of the four innovation centers. He said that the company will occupy an IT staff of about 10,000 when it is fully staffed in about five years.
About 70% of that staff will subsist focused on innovation, with the residuum providing support—an about-face from the conventional IT budget ratio, he said.
The data hub in Warren—the first of two redundant facilities—has been “benchmarked” to the best of the technology available at Google, Facebook Amazon.com and other tech companies, according to GM data hub chief Jeff Liedel, who led CIO Journal on a tour of the facility last week. Indeed, Mr. Mott’s design of the unusual data hub is inspired in great fragment by efforts at Google and Facebook, a sign that cutting-edge information technology is lamentable from early adopters in the tech sector into the mainstream of the corporate world.
Until recently, GM was using 23 different data centers, which were managed by vendors. Now the company is lamentable to two, including Warren and a future site at its Milford Proving Ground, in Milford, Mich., where ground is scheduled to subsist broken this summer. GM said Monday it will disburse a total of $546 million on the Warren and Milford sites, including apparatus for two out of four data halls in each location.
The Warren data hub has been constructed with enough floor space to serve the company for 20 years, according to Mr. Liedel. Hardware is stored in four rooms, or quads, each about 10,000 square feet. Two of them occupy been completed. Everything about the centers is unusual in design—from the hardware and software, to the artery the temperature is controlled and artery in which steady, trustworthy electrical power is maintained, according to Mr. Liedel.
Instead of relying on expensive, proprietary servers, the company is now stringing together multiple clusters of cheaper, commodity “x86” servers, according to Mr. Liedel. The site in Warren has the capacity to hold more than 10,000 ‘pizza box’ size servers, as well as smaller-size servers and larger mainframes.
--The subfloor of the quads are wired with 1,600 miles of fiber cable and more than 400 miles of copper cable. The color-coded cables are visible from hardened windows in the floor, making it easier to maintain them. The cables are pre-connected to 432 server cabinets, so that unusual apparatus can subsist rushed from the unloading dock, to a prep room, and then popped into a rack in the quad.
--The rows of cabinets are arranged in 24 server clusters. They generate a lot of heat. Instead of relying on traditional Computer scope Air Conditioners, or CRACs, the system is cooled more efficiently by massive chilly water pipes that flee through the sub floor. The nonchalant air is fanned into the rows of computers. Should the temperature in a given row exceed 130 degrees, the roof of the row is designed to blow off, so red air can escape.
--The backup power systems involve “flywheels,” which store energy in quickly rotating parts. They supersede conventional computer scope backup batteries, which accommodate acid, require lots of maintenance, and can snare fire, according to Mr. Liedel. Another backup power source: two 20-cylinder diesel engines.
--The main source of electricity, which comes from a utility, is regenerated on site to provide a stable, surge-resistant flow, and uses a three-phase “European” standard that is 7-8% more efficient than the solitary aspect “American” standard, according to Mr. Liedel.
About half of the computing environment includes IBM and H-P servers running Oracle software and the Java programming language, GM’s main software progress platform, according to Mr. Liedel. But the computing hub too uses the cutting-edge Hadoop software framework, which was derived from Google technology and is used for distributed, data-intensive applications. GM has created a unusual data warehouse so that the very data is accessible through a private cloud, from a solitary source to people located in disparate locations. That data warehouse incorporates both the cutting edge Hadoop technology as well as more traditional Massively Parallel Processing technologies historically used for data warehousing, according to GM. For Hadoop, GM has deployed IBM's ample Insights platform. GM has integrated ample Insights with Teradata's MPP-based 6700 Enterprise Data Warehouse platform, to create an advanced, custom data warehouse, according to Mr. Liedel.
As the technology is rolled out, Mr. Mott says he wants IT to boost its measurable value to the commerce by a factor of 10. For starters, he expects IT to handle twice as many projects as it did when he began the overhaul—and to collect them done three times as posthaste as before.
“What they are focused on is building highly efficient data centers. It is a dominant trend prerogative now,” said David Cappuccio, director of research at Gartner Inc. “In general, these ideas first emerged in hyper scale data centers, fancy those of Google,” Cappuccio said. “We are seeing more and more companies interested in these ideas.”
Early adopters of unusual data hub technology, such as Facebook, occupy reduced operating expenses for such facilities by 25% to 30%, according to Cappuccio.
When GM bought outsourcer EDS in 1984, the rife wisdom in management was that companies should focus on their “core competencies” and outsource other tasks, such as IT. H-P later acquired EDS, signification that GM’s outsourcing of its IT was near total. Since its bankruptcy and government bailout, the company has been led by two CEOs with profound technology backgrounds— former AT&T CEO Ed Whitacre, and then Mr. Akerson, a former Navy officer who has led technology companies including Nextel and generic Instrument. The two men occupy turned that philosophy on its head.
“I reflect one of the worst things this company did in its post-WW II era was buying EDS and outsourcing and essentially going, ‘you guys manage full their IT,’ “ Mr. Akerson told the Wall Street Journal in an interview earlier this year. “In the mid-‘80s they buy EDS and essentially say, ‘we are car guys.’ That’s fancy Wal-Martying ‘we’re retailers.’ If you want to occupy competitive advantage, you occupy to conclude multi-faceted functions extraordinarily well. I don’t reliance what industry you are in, I don’t reliance what company--if they ignore IT, (they are) on a fool’s errand."
Now that the IT apparatus and the staff are being Put in place, Mr. Mott and Mr. Akerson too must gain certain that the company has a culture that can derive full value from the investments.
“This is a journey that has just begun. There is a lot to subsist learned,” Mott said.
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