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construction projects for carrier-oriented options are, on the floor, plenty relish some other customized evolution projects for dispensed functions. functions are designed, developed, and deployed alongside the commonplace supporting forged of entrance and returned-end technologies. when you dig slightly deeper below the layers of carrier-orientation, although, you're going to locate that as a passage to competently construct and position capabilities as a participate of a standardized SOA, tolerable job cycles require some alterations.
As they will behold in determine 1 (see under), tolerable beginning lifecycles encompass processes peculiarly tailor-made to the introduction of capabilities in uphold of SOA. within the service-oriented evaluation stage, for instance, services are modeled as service candidates that comprise a preparatory SOA. These candidates then rotate into the starting aspect for the provider-oriented design phase, which transforms them into privilege world carrier contracts.
provider-oriented evaluation (and a connected sub-system known as provider modeling) symbolize a crucial a participate of carrier beginning that requires the involvement of industry analysts and extremely a worthy deal demonstrates how company evaluation in time-honored is littered with SOA. we'll debate these tactics in more factor later during this collection. For now, their focus is on the job lifecycle and its relationship to enterprise analysis.
figure 1: regular phases of an SOA delivery lifecycle.
The lifecycle tiers displayed in determine 1 picture an easy, sequential direction to constructing particular person functions. actual world beginning, although, is hardly ever that essential. These levels generally should exist prepared into a delivery cycle that can accommodate the dreams and constraints associated with assignment necessities, schedules, and budgets.
The challenge frequently lies in balancing these concerns. The success of SOA within an commercial enterprise is increasingly associated with the extent to which it is standardized when phased into enterprise and software domains. although, the success of a venture delivering a carrier-oriented retort is traditionally measured through the extent to which the solution fulfills anticipated necessities within a given funds and timeline.
To address this difficulty, they want a technique. This approach should exist in accordance with a firm's priorities in order to set up the apropos stability between the delivery of lengthy-time age migration desires with the success of extra immediate, tactical requirements.
in this article they contrast two tolerable concepts used to build capabilities known as backside-up and right-down. Neither is ideal, however each supply us with insight as to how the SOA birth lifecycle may likewise exist configured.
The bottom-up approach is at present probably the most tolerable diversity, where services are created on an "as want" basis to meet generally tactical requirements. The exact-down strategy, on the other hand, is one in uncouth evaluation, profound thought, and endurance. provider-orientation is infused into company layers so that functions may likewise exist modeled in alignment with enterprise models. In other phrases, it is passage more strategic.
since the theme of this progression is about how SOA pertains to company evaluation they are greater interested in what lies at the back of the precise-down process. The backside-up strategy is described essentially to supply contrast.
the vast majority of companies which are presently pile capabilities as internet features comply with a technique similar to the one proven in determine 2. The primary intent being that many just add net capabilities to their current application environments with a view to leverage the open net functions expertise set (essentially for integration applications). in spite of the fact that the ensuing architecture is commonly referred to as SOA, it definitely continues to exist greater harking back to tolerable disbursed architectural fashions, as carrier-orientation is rarely considered.
figure 2: tolerable bottom-up procedure steps.
although backside-up designs permits for the efficient advent of capabilities they can interpose some massive penalties down the highway. enforcing a "suitable SOA" after a wide unfold implementation of tactical functions can impose a very expedient deal of retro-becoming.
here's very a expedient deal an "evaluation first" mode that requires no longer handiest industry approaches to develop into carrier-oriented, it likewise promotes the creation (or realignment) of an organization's typical enterprise models. This manner is for this understanding intently tied to or derived from a firm's existing company logic, and it frequently outcomes in the advent of a lot of reusable company and application features.
The exact-down strategy will usually comprise some or uncouth the steps illustrated in pattern 3.
determine three: usual accurate-down manner steps.
The aspect of this mode is to invest within the up-front analysis and planning travail required to build a elevated attribute carrier structure. The border and parameters of each service are utterly analyzed to maximise reuse skills and alternatives for streamlined and complicated compositions. uncouth of this lays the groundwork for a standardized and federated commercial enterprise where features maintain a state of adaptability, while carrying on with to unify current heterogeneity.
The barriers to following a excellent-down strategy are usually associated with time and funds. agencies are required to Make investments drastically in up-front evaluation projects that can hold a worthy deal of time to divulge tangible, ROI-type benefits. There are additional risks linked to over planning, the space by the time the evaluation initiatives are achieved, they could develop into outdated.
accurate-down strategy and commercial enterprise models
Of particular activity to industry analysts are the enterprise fashions referenced in Step 1 of determine 3. These are inclined to vary across diverse groups, each of in order to absorb models which are effulgent to its company domains.
average forms of commercial enterprise model documents include a proper ontology, an industry entity model, an enterprise-wide analytic statistics model, a standardized statistics representation structure (frequently realized through a group of standardized XML Schemas), and different kinds of fashions generally associated with commercial enterprise guidance structure.
Some of those supply enterprise-centric views of a firm that prove extraordinarily positive sources for deriving enterprise capabilities. company entity models principally tie at once into the subsequent definition of entity-centric enterprise capabilities.
besides the fact that children listed as only a separate step within the typical procedure, the requirements to thoroughly define industry models can effectively outcome in the want for one or extra sever strategies, each of which can likewise require its own assignment and working group. however, if the required commercial enterprise industry models already exist, then this step may likewise readily include their identification.
The option of beginning strategy will assess the extent to which enterprise analysts can uphold configuration a carrier portfolio conceptually, before services are corporal implemented. it is hence rewarding to give serious consideration to the professionals and cons associated with each strategy.
The subsequent article during this collection continues this exploration via explaining a gauge deliverable of the exact-down evaluation ail conventional as the commercial enterprise carrier model. they are able to likewise then picture how the both tactical and strategic necessities will likewise exist addressed in an option strategy referred to as "agile" or "meet-in-the-center."
this article carries excerpts from "service-Oriented structure: concepts, technology, and Design" via Thomas Erl (792 pages, Hardcover, ISBN: 0131858580, Prentice hall/Pearson PTR, Copyright 2006). For extra assistance, talk over with www.soabooks.com.
in regards to the writer
Thomas Erl is the realm's appropriate-selling SOA creator and progression Editor of the "Prentice corridor carrier-Oriented Computing sequence from Thomas Erl" (www.soabooks.com). Thomas is likewise the founding father of SOA programs Inc., a firm focusing on strategic SOA consulting, planning, and practising services (www.soatraining.com.) Thomas has made colossal contributions to the SOA trade in the areas of provider-orientation research and the construction of a mainstream SOA methodology. Thomas is involved with a pair of technical committees and research efforts, and travels generally for talking, practising, and consulting engagements. To learn greater, talk over with www.thomaserl.com.
this text introduces an exceptional mode for relocating your SOA application ahead through an incremental, challenge-based mostly strategy.
this text turned into initially posted within the SOA journal (www.soamag.com), a reserve officially linked to “The Prentice corridor service-Oriented Computing sequence from Thomas Erl” (www.soabooks.com). Copyright SOA techniques Inc. (www.soasystems.com).Like this text? They intimate
abstract: tasks are the lifeblood of an IT branch. pretty much every thing in it is measured via a challenge lens. SOA, because of its international-centric nature, is commonly viewed as incompatible with task-based application start lifecycles. as a result, most groups determine themselves with the spot of the passage to with no difficulty help an SOA initiatives and proceed to convey tasks at the identical time.
The retort is to combine carrier lifecycle management, structure, SOA governance, funding, and SOA metrics privilege into a separate comprehensive software. The premiere remonstrate is to Make sure that via addressing mission needs capabilities are being conveniently designed and applied and that leverage takes district and is verifiable and that the tolerable SOA application goals are being accomplished. this article introduces a superior technique for poignant your SOA program ahead through an incremental, task-primarily based strategy.Introduction
all and sundry, from the CEO to the developer, understands the advantages of SOA and why it is going to exist used. youngsters, many businesses nevertheless fight with questions about a passage to correctly beginning, form, and forward an SOA program. Even with careful and skilled information, SOA initiatives visage mounting challenges. essentially the most valuable barrier to SOA success is the very simple unit of IT operations – a undertaking. projects are the oldest and most generally approved solution to deliver travail in an IT corporation. projects are time bound and oriented against supplying inevitable outcomes for limited audiences. SOA initiatives span varied groups and businesses and are geared towards addressing the huge needs of leveraging present belongings or developing original reusable assets. hence, challenge-based mostly travail is essentially considered incompatible with SOA.
Most corporations that absorb embarked on the SOA journey find themselves within the unenviable space of trying to reconcile tactical project travail with the strategic SOA initiatives. mission travail requires start of customized functions or third party applications, whereas SOA’s goal is to set up a ground of reusable services. tasks only keeping about their necessities. Shared functions absorb to hold the necessities throughout numerous initiatives into consideration to exist basically reusable. venture’s funding comes from the road of industry (LoB) that is reputed to odds from it. because SOA efforts can span varied LoB’s, a separate company can likewise now not exist the basic funding supply. Merging these diametrically opposing views into a comprehensive approach has proved complicated for most IT retail outlets.
The methodology outlined listed here bridges the gap between mission travail and SOA. It introduces a group of ideas that no longer best enable the initiatives to obtain their goals but additionally promote the introduction and reuse of shared features. moreover, it addresses the funding, reward, and enforcement concerns that are vital to achieve both project and SOA goals.The service ownership difficulty
some of the greatest political barriers facing SOA in any corporation is provider possession. considering the fact that job groups force the start of custom code or integrations, they trust that it is their domain and accountability to build features that tackle venture wants. backyard groups are seen with mistrust, in spite of the fact that they travail alongside the mission crew (as an instance, code created through others is commonly brushed aside or brushed aside). mission teams accept as privilege with themselves the specialists on the district enviornment coated by using the mission requirements while pushing aside the potential that exists backyard of the team.
ownership can likewise exist a sensitive discipline. Many job groups and IT managers subscribe to the silo mentality where they accord with the entire stack – from the UI down to the records sources – as their property. hence, they accord with any services, shared or now not, that tackle challenge or application wants as a participate of the entire stack. Any dialogue or initiative that can exist construed as an infringement on their territory can trigger irrational habits or illogical conversations. alas, the fact of it's commonly such that empire pile and territorialism are seen through the core management as the most useful approach in opposition t success.
in an ail to develop into a hit with SOA, IT businesses necessity to smash these silos. Shared capabilities that may likewise exist consumed by means of a pair of tasks absorb to exist owned and managed one after the other. features necessity to exist regarded unbiased utility products which absorb their own lifecycles diverse from those of tasks or functions they serve. Their code has to exist saved one after the other from different code. They ought to absorb their own verify instances and contemplate at various suites. Shared capabilities may soundless tarry on a dedicated, independently scalable infrastructure to exist inevitable applicable levels of responsiveness, scalability, and performance. Ideally, even the information accessed by the shared services ought to exist industry caliber and tarry on an commercial enterprise scalable infrastructure. pattern 1 depicts how an exemplar SOA infrastructure should soundless appear following these instructions.
determine 1: An "premiere" SOA infrastructure environment.
one of the most censorious reasons for breaking down silos and managing capabilities independently is incongruence between SOA and venture dreams. initiatives simplest keeping about their personal timelines and goals. If a project or application group creates a provider and assumes possession over it, the equal crew will should exist accountable for making changes crucial via its future consumers. it'll must address original necessities that are coming from a unique group, comply with that group’s timeframes, and Make sure that adjustments don't absorb an outcome on current consumers. These responsibilities signify a complete departure from usual undertaking dreams and hence are conveniently now not exist adhered to in many instances. as a result, the decentralized possession of features ends up leading to elevated duplication and an usual failure of the SOA software.
the passage to address this difficulty is patent – create a centralized team liable for shared service design, building, testing, and assist. it is going to hold accountability for reconciling uncouth of the carrier-related requirements, designing services to address them, setting up and imposing SOA requisites, ensuring apropos scalability of functions, and managing the services as independent software products. Gartner regularly calls this class of a team the mixing Competency middle (ICC). This strategy eliminates the in the past outlined problems and minimizes the project-centric focus as a result of services are delivered by a sever neighborhood whose fundamental purpose is the advancement of SOA. moreover, a centralized group is stronger impeccable for driving the adoption of shared features within the greatest and positive way.service Lifecycle management
Most agencies carry industry initiatives by the spend of IT projects. for this reason, projects will most frequently drive the exact for capabilities. there is, of path, a much better mode to identify what reusable functions are mandatory, through whom, and when. A finished industry technique mapping will create a transparent roadmap for carrier identification and demand. sadly, many groups nonetheless elect no longer to circulation in this route and continue to permit tasks to continue to exist the riding force in the back of provider identification and implementation.
When a provider is designed and developed to tackle particular project needs, it isn't utterly reusable. original consumers consistently necessity adjustments delivered to the carrier to conform to their necessities. This typically comprises box adjustments or additions, original operations, addition or elimination of foremost entities, and even expertise enterprise common sense changes. The greatest SOA underhand is that capabilities are nearly on no account reused as-is – changes and integration costs are virtually unavoidable.
in order to Make features really reusable and Make sure maximum leverage, the service lifecycle necessity to exist centrally managed. The significant crew answerable for the start of services necessity to even exist charged with service identification, lifecycle management, and pipelining activities. uncouth the disparate service requirements offered by distinctive projects necessity to exist collected collectively to create a comprehensive view of the carrier pipeline and roadmap. determine 2 depicts the relationship between mission needs and a carrier roadmap.
determine 2: A carrier roadmap as influenced through tasks.
the key to the pipelining activity is accurate and timely guidance. this may Make it feasible to include diverse job requirements into the provider that is reputed to exist created for a selected assignment. If the undertaking timelines are immediate enough and the necessities are well defined, service designers should soundless try to include as many of them as viable into the current release. This introduces efficiencies, scalability, and agility into the birth mechanism through accumulating procedures and information gathering throughout distinctive projects. Centralized and consistent provider lifecycle management could Make this a fact.Minimizing absorb an repercussion on of changes and Maximizing Reuse
due to the fact adjustments to functions are inevitable, the architecture and design patterns ought to exist based with trade in mind. features ought to exist designed in such a means that many of the adjustments brought as participate of its evolution could absorb minimal, if any absorb an outcome on on its latest patrons. an extra remonstrate of provider design should soundless exist to maximize carrier reuse as this represents the cornerstone of SOA. both of these dreams will likewise exist completed through the spend of the service Façade and Concurrent Contracts design patterns [REF-1] at the side of a canonical modeling method.
Canonical modeling is a well known and based mode for abstracting provider patrons from the backend information sources and introducing a common entity representation. Many SOA proponents accord that canonical modeling is a vital participate in the success of the SOA program. A canonical, or normal, mannequin attempts to set up a single, constant representation of the entire entities that could exist passed through a shared provider. This representation should exist independent from the backend information constructions and service customer specifics, which will slice the influence on buyers when both one adjustments. additionally, as a result of LoBs may additionally signify the identical entities in a unique manner, a separate canonical mannequin will befriend reconcile these variations and permit diverse materials of the firm to converse the identical language. This, in flip, maximizes the competencies and privilege reuse of services constructed across the business.
The provider Façade sample is used to slice the absorb an repercussion on of carrier changes on its consumers. each provider, whether it's developed using a canonical mannequin or not, should expose a façade interface by passage of Concurrent Contracts inevitable to each purchaser. patrons would no longer entry the carrier at once however moderately via its uncovered façade contract. each and every façade may soundless exist designed in such a mode that it presents statistics in a kind without problems understood and ingested by using individual or group of service buyers. pattern three shows how the façade sample may soundless exist used to design and construct shared features.
determine 3: The carrier Facade sample in action.
because every façade condense is specific to at least one or many carrier consumers and doesn't expose inner (canonical) carrier contract, alterations to the provider implementation or even to the canonical mannequin will absorb minimal, if any repercussion on the customer. The mappings between the façade condense and canonical structure may wish to exist up-to-date however this activity might exist transparent to the buyers. From their standpoint, no adjustments will hold area. The carrier Façade pattern additionally ensures optimum reuse of the carrier because the identical carrier illustration is getting used beneath the covers notwithstanding numerous façade interfaces can exist uncovered.SOA Governance
the entire most reliable tactics and architectures can't exist helpful if they don't appear to exist being adopted. here's the space governance comes into play. establishing and enforcing useful governance mechanisms and procedures is paramount to the success of any SOA program. The secret's to exist sure minimal overhead, highest compatibility with the current IT governance methods, and unreasonable flush of synergy with uncouth the software evolution Methodologies (SDM) being adopted within the organization. The success of the SOA program is stylish on how effective it is, how closely it may likewise exist integrated with the current strategies, and how strongly its options can likewise exist enforced.
SOA governance and the project-based mostly IT subculture are largely incompatible. SOA governance inserts checkpoints into the gauge circulation of application construction, whereas tasks are essentially worried with hitting their timelines in any respect expenses. If the governance mechanisms solemnize a problem and quiz a assignment to Make changes, this can lead to unpleasant conversations at even the govt degree. Confrontations relish these may often exist unavoidable; despite the fact, the premier mode to Make inevitable that each governance and project goals are met is to acquire visibility into the project pipeline as early as possible and repercussion each assignment’s direction to exist in keeping with the centered SOA guidelines. SOA governance doesn’t should exist focused essentially on enforcement and catching non-compliers however as an alternative should soundless pay attention to exploiting synergies with the already centered SDM tactics and influencing the solutions.
figure four depicts a pattern SOA governance mode that can likewise exist employed to satisfy each undertaking and SOA application dreams. exist vigilant that it's designed to exist conveniently integrated with the commonplace waterfall SDM. The governance checkpoints are very gentle and may exist achieved in a short age of time, in order that tasks don't lose advantageous time navigating advanced governance strategies. on the identical time, however, the entire governance steps are well timed and ensure apropos compliance privilege through the application start procedure. they're designed with influence, not enforcement in intellect.
seeing that the entire projects that utilize existing or create original functions necessity to solemnize these governance mechanisms, many dreams of expedient SOA governance will likewise exist performed. Getting publicity to the apropos tasks as early as the evaluation participate offers the means for SOA governance to absorb an repercussion on their route. This likewise makes it possible for the Shared capabilities team to profit perception into the comprehensive functions pipeline, accumulate uncouth of the linked requirements together, and draw provider releases correctly. each governance checkpoint represents an occasion to validate even if develope techniques were carried out and, if now not, reject the project from poignant forward. most importantly, the SOA governance manner should soundless accept an occasion to fully shut the loop on uncouth the adjustments or original functions being deployed, which should soundless exist represented within the formal approval or rejection of poignant the code into construction.
one more vital factor of the SOA governance process that's depicted on pattern 4 but no longer yet mentioned is the role of the Registry/Repository (RegRep). each checkpoint prompts an motion involving carrier registration or merchandising. here's vital not most effective to document a privilege state of the provider however likewise to formalize and automate the entire SOA governance procedure. Many RegRep tools comprise governance automation capabilities. Exploiting them is extraordinarily effective due to the fact that it streamlines the entire manner and eliminates inefficient manual steps. organising a policy that each one capabilities should exist registered to exist consumable closes any loophole projects can are attempting to hold odds of. because registration and promoting steps are tightly coupled with the SOA governance checkpoints, which deserve to exist performed by passage of an unbiased birthday celebration, tasks carry out not necessity an option to sidestep any of them. in the event that they do, services will effectively contemplate relish unavailable for consumption or in a state incompatible with the assignment wants. finally, registries may likewise exist used to bring together run-time carrier utilization metrics, the magnitude of which is discussed almost immediately.carrier Funding
Funding for the SOA program should forward from a valuable supply. it would cowl every slight thing from the shared infrastructure, expertise, equipment, and methodologies. the space the money involves construct particular person functions, although, items a much bigger challenge. due to the fact initiatives are the primary drivers behind exact for capabilities, special consideration may soundless exist given to venture needs and budgets. As discussed previous, particular person carrier’s pipeline and roadmap should soundless exist unbiased from these of a challenge. consequently, service design and implementation can include further requirements that plunge outside of the project scope. yet another gauge undertaking-connected difficulty stems from the shared nature of services. it's unfair to burden a undertaking with the complete cost of a carrier that can exist utilized by a number of different buyers.
There are three feasible tips on how to tackle the service funding considerations.
If option 1 is selected, a pair of techniques for recouping the preparatory investment can likewise exist used.
As outlined above, it is unfair for the venture to raise the complete prices of the carrier build-out, in particular if it comprises further necessities. as a result, until the challenge implements one of the most alternate options to recoup its preparatory funding, funding alternative #1 is not going to exist attainable. now not getting better the money isn't a practical alternative both as it doesn't incent the initiatives to build in fact reusable services. The different suffuse healing concepts may additionally travail but require special metrics to exist captured on the provider leverage and/or transactional quantity.
organising a principal funding source for uncouth projects to spend when pile reusable services is likely the optimal strategy. Few corporations, despite the fact, would exist willing to write what in essence could exist a clean check for the tasks to Make spend of of their service start efforts. The occasion for mistreat and misappropriations can exist too tempting. unless powerful governance and control mechanisms are in place, this funding formula will most likely rotate out to exist costing the industry extra cash and provide unrealistically diminutive revert on funding.
proposing supplementary funding to tasks constructing functions is likely essentially the most practical approach. A valuable fund has to exist established to cowl the efforts falling outdoor of the project scope. since shared services would typically include other initiatives’ and enterprise necessities, the exact cost finally ends up being larger than what tasks budgeted for their wants. hence, the easiest passage to divide supplementary funding is to enable the projects to pay for performance already blanketed in their budgets and canopy uncouth of the additional fees during the valuable fund.
some thing the funding mode is used, it needs to exist cautiously administered. a celebration no longer concerned in daily venture travail is most fulfilling proper to play the administrative role. The Shared capabilities group is the most likely candidate to control the funds and spend it accurately to extra the SOA program adoption, raise provider leverage, and evade political influences.SOA Metrics
once the SOA program is up and working, its effectiveness, stage of adoption, and outcomes should exist measured. This can exist done during the assortment and conversation of the crucial metrics. the most everyday SOA measurements are the number of services created, volume of service reuse, and expense avoidance/mark downs.
due to the fact that the valuable Shared features team has an entire view of uncouth of the current and future carrier advent or reuse opportunities, it's in the premier space to collect and record on the metrics. in order to accumulate accurate metrics and produce censorious studies, here steps necessity to exist performed.
all the steps above should exist accomplished for every assignment that both creates or leverages services. Any adjustments to the existing service should reckon towards the entire can suffuse of the construct.
once the entire data has been accrued, cost avoidance will likewise exist calculated. The simple formulation for individual service suffuse avoidance as concerning a particular project is supplied beneath.
carrier cost Avoidance = carrier build can suffuse – challenge’s carrier Integration cost
carrier build suffuse = initial carrier build cost + cost of uncouth Subsequent adjustments
To compute the complete undertaking’s can suffuse avoidance amount, quite simply add the cost avoidance for uncouth of the services being leveraged. To forecast the overall expertise can suffuse avoidance at any point of time, multiply the variety of instances every service is envisioned to exist leveraged by using its build can suffuse and add it uncouth together. in view that the combination expenses for each ongoing or future mission can best exist estimated, a common reuse factor can likewise exist applied to the provider construct charge. eighty% is the tolerable number utilized in these instances. word that projects creating services should soundless no longer import number towards suffuse avoidance.
In cost avoidance calculations and projections, realizing each and every provider operation instead of the complete service reuse will lead to greater accurate results. To obtain this, current and future reuse alternatives should soundless exist tracked on the carrier operation degree. This degree of granularity can exist tough to obtain, youngsters, mainly when maintaining tune of the build prices. for this reason, approximation ideas will likewise exist used that check the operation build suffuse based on some manipulations of the entire provider build charge. Dividing the total carrier construct can suffuse by using the amount of operations produced may exist the least difficult strategy. If tracking is performed at the carrier operation stage, the cost avoidance formulas above should alternate to indicate operation rather than carrier inevitable metrics.
as soon as metrics are accumulated, they deserve to exist distributed to uncouth the SOA program stakeholders. reckoning on the firm, it will likewise exist IT managers and executives, enterprise executives, and partners. Metrics may soundless now not exist reported effectively for the sake of sharing the progress made with the aid of the SOA application however fairly to uphold SOA program’s dreams and influence the habits resulting in reaching them. inevitable goals necessity to exist set through the IT executives and metrics may soundless exist used to investigate even if they've been effectively reached or no longer. Metrics collection and reporting should soundless exist performed by a significant crew with a purpose to exist sure that the complete mode can not exist compromised to misrepresent the fact or serve individual team’s or group’s interests.Conclusion
despite what the expertise companies would such as you to consider, SOA is a fancy idea. a pair of points should forward collectively to basically obtain service orientation. lots of travail needs to exist executed to set up a a success SOA program. Yet, uncouth of this needs to exist executed along side providing projects. The industry does not stop. It doesn't and can't watch for the SOA software to exist dependent, fully constructed out, and uncouth of the services delivered. hence, most SOA programs visage the challenge of dealing with initiatives while at the identical time attempting to carry on their unreasonable stage guarantees.
To tackle the SOA and project train incompatibilities, carrier lifecycle administration, architecture, SOA governance, funding, and SOA metrics should exist brought together in a comprehensive program. creating a vital team to control this procedure will influence in more constant deliverables, more productive operations, much less haphazard for political absorb an outcome on, and quicker attainment of SOA merits.
projects with SOA erudition should soundless exist regarded participate of the usual features pipeline. Cumulative necessities should soundless power provider design and construction. The provider architecture needs to exist flexible adequate to accommodate alterations, lower the influence of carrier adjustments on the current patrons, and maximize carrier reuse potential. SOA governance should soundless feel the initiatives to Make the confiscate decisions and capture non-compliers if essential. A finished view of the project pipeline should soundless Make this mode streamlined and productive. exceptionally exact funding options should dispose of the disincentive for tasks to construct reusable functions. at last, the SOA metrics should divulge the finished consequences and influence the confiscate conduct. pattern 5 demonstrates the relationship between uncouth of the task-oriented SOA features.
these groups that embrace the venture-oriented strategy to SOA can absorb more advantageous success in SOA adoption and offering outcomes. at the conclusion of the day, the company doesn’t keeping how many services were constructed or leveraged. What really makes the company executives tick are the income, original product introductions, original purchasers, precise impress downs, done efficiencies, and everything else that deals with growing to exist profits and impacting the ground line. Enabling industry agility is the primary train of SOA. setting up an strategy that grants both the SOA application benefits and company desires of quicker time to market and value reductions will certainly Make IT and the entire company a hit.References
[REF-1] SOA Design Patterns (Prentice hall), www.soapatterns.com
la--(business WIRE)--SOA utility, a leading issuer of API management options, announced nowadays that its Semantics manager Product has been chosen by means of the medical data Interchange specifications Consortium (CDISC) to vigour its Shared health And medical research digital (SHARE) Library mission. CDISC participate will give a world digital repository for constructing, integrating and having access to CDISC metadata standards for scientific analysis in digital format. counsel on CDISC participate will likewise exist discovered at http://www.cdisc.org/cdisc-share.
SOA utility's Semantics manager™ is a comprehensive metadata and standards management retort that organizations spend to quite simply meet governance, regulatory and requisites compliance (GRC) necessities for guidance model definition and administration (e.g., in BioPharma, Finance and many others.), whereas improving common industry efficiency. Semantics supervisor helps businesses outline and align their several interior counsel models to both trade typical definitions and to a gauge inside illustration. by using aligning with trade specifications and with the aid of mapping data to domain concepts, companies can achieve semantic interoperability - a key train of any API administration initiative that comprises data alternate. Semantics supervisor enables a collaborative, metadata-pushed tips lifecycle by passage of providing corporations a centralized, requirements-based metadata repository and governance process automation platform.
For the BioPharma industry, Semantics manager enormously improves the capacity to hold note the influence of adjustments to each necessities and operational facts representations as they evolve. Semantics manager combines existing requisites (e.g., CDISC, BRIDG and ISO 21090) with a multifarious metamodel definition framework that easily contains original requisites. requirements evolution businesses (SDOs) can leverage the federation capabilities of Semantics supervisor to instantly disseminate necessities to business.
"We at CDISC are delighted to exist working with SOA utility as their expertise accomplice on this vital initiative," stated Wayne Kubick, Chief know-how Officer for CDISC. "After an intensive evaluation system, it grew to exist transparent that SOA software's solution supplied CDISC with the greatest possibility to privilege now deliver on the pledge of participate for realizing the various advantages of CDISC specifications and enhancing interoperability with healthcare."
“we are excited to exist chosen by using CDISC and are alive to to spend their huge event in metadata management, exceptionally in the context of features and API's, to allow CDISC's imaginative and prescient of semantic interoperability for the BioPharma business,” illustrious Brent Carlson, SVP expertise, SOA software.
Semantics supervisor is constructed on trade necessities such as remonstrate management group's (OMG) Reusable Asset Specification (RAS) and ISO’s 11179 gauge for Metadata registries. the ground library includes uncouth CDISC Terminologies, CDASH 1.1, SDTM 1.2, BRIDG three.1, and ISO 21090, giving BioPharma businesses a jumpstart towards aligning their inside tips models with domain necessities and regulatory requirements. As a centralized requirements-based repository, Semantics manager gives a separate supply of governed content material to implement facts requisites, strategies and guidelines whereas making inevitable regulatory compliance and effective records trade each throughout the firm and externally with companions and regulators. content material can exist readily discovered and reused by the spend of extensive in-built search mechanisms. Collaboration is built-in as neatly and is feasible at any flush - metadata, governance or at the repository level, with uncouth actions tracked via a totally configurable audit path that offers counsel about develope choices and facts lineage. greater suggestions may likewise exist discovered at http://www.soa.com/options/semantics-management.
About SOA software
SOA utility’s mission is to energy the API financial system with items that enable their customers to devise, construct, elope and participate APIs via complete cloud and on-premise solutions for API lifecycle, protection, administration and developer engagement. the world’s greatest companies together with bank of the united states, Pfizer, and Verizon spend SOA software products to harness the punch of their expertise and seriously change their businesses. Gartner positioned SOA software within the Leaders Quadrant for the 2011 “Magic Quadrant for SOA Governance technologies.” The industry is likewise diagnosed as a “leader” by using the Forrester research Waves for integrated SOA Governance, SOA administration, and SOA lifestyles Cycle management. For greater counsel, tickle debate with http://www.soa.com.
All product and industry names herein can exist trademarks of their registered house owners.
SOA utility, Semantics supervisor, OAuth Server, Lifecycle manager, neighborhood manager, policy supervisor, Portfolio manager, carrier supervisor, API Gateway, and SOLA are emblems of SOA utility, Inc.
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Construction began this month on a third apartment complicated in Jacksonville's Brooklyn district, more progress for a formerly blighted participate of town that has held mixed fortunes for developers and that experts Tell is soundless a tricky space to revitalize.
Sandwiched between downtown and Riverside, and laden with pedestrian hazards, the Brooklyn neighborhood presents significant challenges to developers, but the newest residential evolution signals continued interest in pile there despite mixed results for the two retail projects already in place.
The Vista Brooklyn project will exist the neighborhood's third major complicated in six years. adding another 308 apartments and 13,000-square-feet of retail space to the revitalized neighborhood.
Experts Tell it will exist a challenge to develop a complementary restaurant and retail arm of the housing projects because of inherent pedestrian and surface road conditions and its location between Riverside and Downtown.
The reality is that at 220 Riverside, an apartment complicated next door where Vista Brooklyn is being built, the attempt to jump-start retail evolution fizzled.
Despite the closing of multiple businesses, mostly restaurants, at 220 Riverside, Vista Brooklyn developers want to link their residential project — slated for completion in 2021 — with retail.
“We assume for walkable urban neighborhoods to thrive it is valuable for there to exist ground-floor retail creating energy at the pedestrian-street level,” said Keith Goldfaden,managing partner for NAI Hallmark, the evolution firm managing Vista Brooklyn's construction.
Goldfaden said it’s too early to Tell what companies will occupy Vista Brooklyn retail spaces. He said they'll target local, regional and national retailers as tenants.
“We envision having a pair of restaurants along with service-oriented retailers that can service both the big day-time workforce and the ever-growing residential ground and future hotels guests,” Goldfaden said.
Apartment complexes built in Brooklyn absorb had no problems with occupancy rates for tenants. Recently-opened apartment complexes in the LaVilla district to the east and north of Brooklyn are likewise thriving in terms of attracting tenants.
A MIXED BAG
Retail in the original Brooklyn developments is a mixed bag.
The Brooklyn Station shopping heart to the east of Vista Brooklyn anchored by The Fresh Market grocery store has thrived. Even when retail tenants leave the urban shopping plaza, they’re quickly replaced.
220 Riverside opened in 2016 with a plenary slate of first-floor retail tenants adjoining an amphitheater called union Plaza. In May, Brixx Wood Fired Pizza closed, the ultimate retailer operating in the building's commercial space.
The union Plaza decline has been unrelenting, according to multiple Times-Union reports. The first restaurant to immediate was Sbraga & Company, which survived just eight months. A year ago, a restaurant called Hobnob said it would no longer operate as a dine-in restaurant.
Twenty-two months later, Brixx was shuttered.
It’s a far bellow from the urban culture heart promised when Hallmark broke ground on the amphitheater in 2013. union Plaza’s amphitheater, which holds about 2,000 people, was built with $2.6 million in taxpayer money and envisioned as an event-driven gathering spot for people from around the city.
“We’ll absorb their very own central park with their own activities with their own identity,” said Alex Coley, principal and co-founder of Hallmark Partners in an April 2013 report. “It is their credence that we’ll contemplate back on this day, the dedication of union Plaza, as a censorious milestone and evolution of their downtown.”
That glowing prediction fizzled.
Few events absorb been held at the amphitheater and some restaurant owners blamed the want of cultural activity on the closing of their businesses at 220 Riverside.
NOBLE EFFORT, titanic HURDLES
Don Capener, dean of the Jacksonville University Davis College of Business, said Hallmark’s plans for mixed-use tenants at Vista Brooklyn are noble, but they visage serious hurdles to Make a Go at retail.
“I assume there are challenges. The pent-up exact they uncouth hoped for downtown — or housing directly adjacent to downtown — is an valuable conception or concept. It’s time will come,” Capener said.
“The question is if that will exist in the next two or three years or a five-to-10-year timetable. Certainly, uncouth of us hope it’s the shorter one. ... I absorb my doubts,” Capener said.
Brooklyn is in an ungainly geographic location — not directly in downtown’s urban core and on the outskirts of the Riverside that thrives in places such as Five Points.
Brooklyn was likewise blighted for decades before Brooklyn Station and 220 Riverside along with other projects were built in the ultimate half of this decade. Pockets of blight soundless elope along Park Street and other nearby locations.
Residents in the increasing number of apartments in the LaVilla district likewise absorb to cross sedulous and hazardous high-traffic overpasses on Riverside Avenue and Park Street to come by to Brooklyn, making pedestrian access formidable if not frightening.
Given those considerations, Capener said the retail space being built into apartment complexes may exist ahead of its time, making the prospect of sustaining retailers in residential complexes tough.
Jake Gordon, CEO of Downtown Vision Inc., a nonprofit organization that works with the city to foster commercial evolution downtown, acknowledged Capener’s point that Brooklyn faces unique challenges.
“When you carry out these developments, your focus is on the housing,” Gordon said. “Although, people want to live where there are amenities.
“A lot of times you behold these bigger residential projects … include retail because that helps them lease up. You want to live near amenities relish stores,” Gordon said.
The problem, Gordon said, is that the nature of retail has undergone rapid change just since 2015. The internet, restaurant home delivery and other factors add substantial competition to traditional retailers.
“I don’t fault union [Plaza] at uncouth for bringing in a pair of high-end restaurants. ... I assume they did the best that they could in terms of the assumptions they had at the time and it just is a challenging location.
“But there are definitely other things that could potentially thrive there with uncouth the people vital there,” Gordon said.
Ultimately, the risk of opening an apartment complicated with retail space is soundless a solid prospect, Gordon said. If developers don’t include commercial units when they open, it’s much more difficult to add retail later, he said.
BROOKLYN STATION SHOWS SUCCESS
The Brooklyn Station shopping heart proves retail can thrive in the neighborhood.
Gordon said the bigger challenge is to come by the mixed-use developments to piggy-back off of that success.
The key to jump-starting success for mixed-use developments that tender retail space in downtown will absorb to exist aided by the actual estate industry.
“The retail is arduous to fill and it’s likewise a totally different job [from residential]. If you contemplate at retail brokers in downtown, they effectively don’t absorb any retail brokers because the sizes are so small, the commission you come by isn’t worth your time as a broker … . It’s kind of the ultimate thing to forward along,” Gordon said.
“I would Tell to a original developer, you absorb to absorb retail in your ground floor. But also, it’s really arduous to reckon on that retail to Make you a bunch of money to befriend you complete your project,” Gordon said.
Lower-cost restaurants — though not hastily food — and service-oriented shops such as computer stores, hair salons and work-out centers will likely lead to an upward transition for more sustainable businesses in mixed-use Brooklyn developments, Gordon said.
The Brooklyn Station shopping heart can serve as a template, Gordon said.
Capener agreed on that end. He said Brooklyn Station should exist seen as an impetus for businesses to operate in mixed-use developments such as Vista Brooklyn.
“I believe they can travail together. There can exist synergy, even competition,” Capener said. “It adds what I call censorious mass. Getting some of those retailers to add to that censorious mass I assume makes a significant contribution to the success of the neighborhood.”
Development projects for service-oriented solutions are, on the surface, much relish any other custom evolution projects for distributed applications. Services are designed, developed, and deployed alongside the usual supporting cast of front and back-end technologies. Once you dig a bit deeper under the layers of service-orientation, though, you'll find that in order to properly construct and position services as participate of a standardized SOA, traditional project cycles require some adjustments.
As they can behold in pattern 1 (see below), common delivery lifecycles include processes specifically tailored to the creation of services in uphold of SOA. In the service-oriented analysis stage, for example, services are modeled as service candidates that comprise a preparatory SOA. These candidates then become the starting point for the service-oriented design phase, which transforms them into actual world service contracts.
Service-oriented analysis (and a related sub-process known as service modeling) picture an valuable participate of service delivery that requires the involvement of industry analysts and very much demonstrates how industry analysis in generic is affected by SOA. We'll debate these processes in more detail later in this series. For now, their focus is on the project lifecycle and its relationship to industry analysis.
Figure 1: Common phases of an SOA delivery lifecycle.
The lifecycle stages displayed in pattern 1 picture a simple, sequential path to pile individual services. actual world delivery, however, is rarely that simple. These stages generally necessity to exist organized into a delivery cycle that can accommodate the goals and constraints associated with project requirements, schedules, and budgets.
The challenge often lies in balancing these considerations. The success of SOA within an enterprise is increasingly associated with the extent to which it is standardized when phased into industry and application domains. However, the success of a project delivering a service-oriented solution is traditionally measured by the extent to which the solution fulfills expected requirements within a given budget and timeline.
To address this problem, they necessity a strategy. This strategy must exist based on an organization's priorities in order to establish the remedy equilibrium between the delivery of long-term migration goals with the fulfillment of more immediate, tactical requirements.
In this article they contrast two common strategies used to build services known as bottom-up and top-down. Neither is perfect, but both provide us with insight as to how the SOA delivery lifecycle can exist configured.
The bottom-up approach is currently the most common variety, where services are created on an "as need" basis to fulfill mostly tactical requirements. The top-down approach, on the other hand, is one of analysis, profound thought, and patience. Service-orientation is infused into industry layers so that services can exist modeled in alignment with industry models. In other words, it is far more strategic.
Because the theme of this progression is about how SOA relates to industry analysis they are more interested in what lies behind the top-down process. The bottom-up approach is described primarily to provide contrast.
The majority of organizations that are currently pile services as Web services supervene a process similar to the one shown in pattern 2. The primary understanding being that many just add Web services to their existing application environments in order to leverage the open Web services technology set (primarily for integration purposes). Even though the resulting architecture is often referred to as SOA, it really is soundless more reminiscent of traditional distributed architectural models, as service-orientation is rarely taken into consideration.
Figure 2: Common bottom-up process steps.
Though bottom-up designs allows for the efficient creation of services they can interpose some massive penalties down the road. Implementing a "proper SOA" after a wide spread implementation of tactical services can impose a worthy deal of retro-fitting.
This is very much an "analysis first" approach that requires not only industry processes to become service-oriented, it likewise promotes the creation (or realignment) of an organization's overall industry models. This process is therefore closely tied to or derived from an organization's existing industry logic, and it commonly results in the creation of numerous reusable industry and application services.
The top-down approach will typically hold some or uncouth of the steps illustrated in pattern 3.
Figure 3: Common top-down process steps.
The point of this strategy is to invest in the up-front analysis and planning travail required to build a elevated attribute service architecture. The border and parameters of each service are thoroughly analyzed to maximize reuse potential and opportunities for streamlined and sophisticated compositions. uncouth of this lays the groundwork for a standardized and federated enterprise where services maintain a state of adaptability, while continuing to unify existing heterogeneity.
The obstacles to following a top-down approach are usually associated with time and money. Organizations are required to invest significantly in up-front analysis projects that can hold a worthy deal of time to demonstrate tangible, ROI-type benefits. There are further risks associated with over planning, where by the time the analysis projects are completed, they can become outdated.
Top-down approach and enterprise models
Of particular interest to industry analysts are the enterprise models referenced in Step 1 of pattern 3. These watch to vary across different organizations, each of which will absorb models that are unique to its industry domains.
Common types of enterprise model documents include a formal ontology, an enterprise entity model, an enterprise-wide analytic data model, a standardized data representation architecture (often realized through a collection of standardized XML Schemas), and other forms of models generally associated with enterprise information architecture.
Some of these provide business-centric perspectives of an organization that prove extremely valuable sources for deriving industry services. industry entity models especially tie directly into the subsequent definition of entity-centric industry services.
Although listed as just a separate step in the overall process, the requirements to properly define enterprise models can easily result in the necessity for one or more sever processes, each of which may require its own project and working group. On the other hand, if the required enterprise industry models already exist, then this step may simply consist of their identification.
The option of delivery strategy will determine the extent to which industry analysts can befriend shape a service portfolio conceptually, before services are physically implemented. It is therefore worthwhile to give serious consideration to the pros and cons associated with each approach.
The next article in this progression continues this exploration by explaining a common deliverable of the top-down analysis ail known as the enterprise service model. They will likewise then picture how the both tactical and strategic requirements can exist addressed in an alternative strategy known as "agile" or "meet-in-the-middle."
This article contains excerpts from "Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design" by Thomas Erl (792 pages, Hardcover, ISBN: 0131858580, Prentice Hall/Pearson PTR, Copyright 2006). For more information, visit www.soabooks.com.
About the author
Thomas Erl is the world's top-selling SOA author and progression Editor of the "Prentice Hall Service-Oriented Computing progression from Thomas Erl" (www.soabooks.com). Thomas is likewise the founder of SOA Systems Inc., a firm specializing in strategic SOA consulting, planning, and training services (www.soatraining.com.) Thomas has made significant contributions to the SOA industry in the areas of service-orientation research and the evolution of a mainstream SOA methodology. Thomas is involved with a number of technical committees and research efforts, and travels frequently for speaking, training, and consulting engagements. To learn more, visit www.thomaserl.com.
Easier, cost-effective, better perfoming irrigation systems for the farmers, environmentally frendlier and economically sound for uncouth water users. This is MASSCOTTE: "MApping System and Services for Canal Operation TEchniques."What is MASSCOTE?
The MASSCOTE is a step-wise methodology to evaluate and anatomize different components of an irrigation system and then develop a modernization plan. The modernization draw consists of physical, institutional, and managerial improvements in different components to help water delivery service and cost effectiveness of operation and management.
While the overall goal of MASSCOTE is modernization of management with the users as central actors, canal operation is the focus and entry point: modern design and management concepts are based on the definition of an operation draw to achieve specific service and performance objectives. Users are central to this Service Oriented Management (SOM) approach.What carry out they intend by modernization of irrigation systems?
FAO defines the modernization as following: A process of technical and managerial upgrading (as opposed to mere rehabilitation) of irrigation schemes with the objective to help resource utilization (labor, water, economics, environmental) and water delivery service to farms.Why the focus on canal operation?
As they often Tell “Canals don’t lie”: they reflect the existing performance and express the constraints, limits and opportunities of the management. Thus the entry point of MASSCOTE is canal operation but the scope is modernization and the goal is to promote Service Oriented Management (SOM) with specific targets that are categorical in terms of cost, water and other resources spend effectiveness, and for the environment.
Canal operation is a censorious entry point because: (i) it is the activity that puts management decisions into tangible outputs; and (ii) it is there thatmasscote in india the current management performance is sanctioned and expressed in the most obvious manner (its symptoms). MASSCOTE evolves from canaloperation to management options (institutional partitioning, organization, and SOM). A longer-term draw will address more systematically other issues related to management such as incentive structure, governance, and financing in a full-fletched asset management planHow does MASSCOTE work?
MASSCOTE methodology consists of 11 steps (click here to view steps) which are grouped into two main parts
The steps in the first participate deal with evaluation and analysis of the current situation, practices and processes. In the second participate a vision for the irrigation system is developed and targets are established. The modernization improvements are then planned to achieve these targets.
An valuable feature of the methodology concerns the revolving nature of MASSCOTE. This might imply iterative circles before reaching a consolidated stage of analysis and project – several rounds of MASSCOTE at different levels of the system (main supply, subunits) before integrating at the main supply and subunit level.Is Modernization a one shot process?
Certainly not, successful modernization programs exhibit that modernization is a continuing process that likewise needs a lot of maturation age before stakeholders converge towards a common understanding and tangibles interventions. Using RAP and MASSCOTE appears to exist a expedient approach in investing in the initial stages of the process and insufflate a expedient momentum
The different time frames of the interventions:
The MASSCOTE aims to assist technical experts, irrigation managers and masscote in chinamore broadly irrigation professionals, in seriously addressing modern needs, issues and challenges, analyzing uncouth the associated details, and embarking upon the difficult road of modernization or re-engineering of irrigation management of medium to big irrigation canal systems, with practical and minute objectives, plans and solutions.Who can conduct MASSCOTE for modernization
MASSCOTE methodology can exist applied by any skilled professionals, however FAO recommends whenever possible to associate MASSCOTE with a training that allows participants to exist familiarized with the various steps of the process as well as with some modern techniques of canal control.Whose benefits?
Modernization focuses in on making it easier, simpler and more economical to achieve improved overall economic, water-related and environmental performance through improved service delivery to uncouth users especially the farmers, thanks to improved irrigation management. masscote in indiaIt pays particular attention to buy-in from irrigation service provider staff (in agencies and water users associations that employ them) in terms of benefits that accrue to them, in addition to the core objective of improving performance and service to farmers. Those who provide funding (agencies, tax payers and farmers) are likewise intended as censorious beneficiaries together with:
MASSCOTE is already used in:
...and who is interested in adopting it:
More on Masscote >>
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CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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