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PCAP-31-02 PCAP Certified Associate in Python Programming

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Test Code : PCAP-31-02
Test cognomen : PCAP Certified Associate in Python Programming
Vendor cognomen : CPP-Institute
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MxCC fitness data management certificate nationally authorized | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This submit turned into contributed by using a neighborhood member.

Middletown, Conn.—Middlesex neighborhood faculty is ecstatic to publish that the health suggestions administration certificates software has been approved by means of the knowledgeable certificate Approval program (PCAP) Council of the American health tips administration affiliation (AHIMA) as of January 2018. The PCAP approval identifies clinical coding training courses that believe been evaluated through a peer overview technique against national minimum necessities for entry-stage coding professionals. This approval procedure makes it practicable for tutorial associations to exist mentioned as proposing an accredited coding certificate application. Middlesex is the best neighborhood college in Connecticut with this colossal difference.

"On the suggestions of their advisory board, they developed the coding-intensive fitness information administration certificates to address the unmet claim for coding gurus in Connecticut," defined Jill Flanigan, coordinator of the program at Middlesex. "AHIMA PCAP approval of their certificate creates unusual alternatives for professional certification for their college students so one can open up these career opportunities to them. The approval puts us in a higher position to serve each their college students and the employers in their group."

health care corporations depend on redress and skilled coding professionals since it impacts revenues and fitness consequences. This designation assures them that certificates holders of the Middlesex group college HIM certificate coding application possess the crucial job expertise to achieve success in entry-level coding positions. students are guided through a 30-credit complete coding curriculum featuring them with instruction in ICD-10-CM/PCS coding and CPT coding and reimbursement methodologies.

students who finished PCAP-approved courses are eligible for the CCA (certified Coding associate), the CCS (licensed Coding professional), and CCS-P (certified Coding expert—doctor's workplace) examinations. These credentials set them apart with edge that employers are searching for, leading to improved earnings and career enhancement.

in line with their website, the AHIMA knowledgeable certificates Approval program designation identifies specialized programs that meet based coding tutorial specifications and stimulates evolution of educational requirements via school evolution alternatives, and via involving faculty and team of workers in application assessment and planning. It additionally promotes an improved understanding of the goals of professional coding schooling and provides in your charge sweep assurance that practitioners possess the necessary job edge upon entry into the occupation

For extra counsel on the health suggestions administration certificate application at MxCC, delight discuss with http://mxcc.edu/catalog/certificates-programs/him.

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Avalue debuts VNS-series multifunctional handle panel workstation | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Versatile purposes from digital signage, interactive multi-media divulge to convention room management

Taipei, Oct. sixteen, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — TAIPEI, TAIWAN, Oct. 3rd 2018 – Avalue expertise Inc. (TAIEX: 3479-TW), international embedded reply company, associate member of Intel® web of things solutions Alliance. With the continual shove for smart connected gadgets, Avalue expertise has launched the VNS sequence of multifunctional handle panel computers, which integrates gadget interface, transmission, storage, and communication features. The enormously interactive handle panel notebook meets the requirements for home automation, conference room management system, and door entry manage in institutions, schools, clinics and inns. skinny and light-weight with an elegant design emphasised by immaculate lines, its multi-touch operation boosts more suitable agility, and it furthermore aspects programmable LED indicator lights on both sides of the body. Avalue VNS-collection multifunctional contact panel computer systems redefine traditional contact panel computer.

obtainable in 10-inch and 15-inch panels, Avalue VNS collection achieves computerized management via combining IoT know-how with cloud platform. superior communique expertise, constructed-in digital camera, speaker and microphone, and close-container communique (NFC), allow video verbal exchange at any time, visitor identification verification, and statistics transmission with other NFC devices, realizing peer-to-peer verbal exchange. The VNS succession uses multi-touch projected capacitive (PCAP) contact expertise for tremendously responsive sensing and facile operation, improving the ease and effectivity of facts and counsel processing, and election settings. built-in programmable LED indicator lights on each side of the frame improve enhanced-advised visible administration, sensible alert function is a useful feature in convention rooms, postnatal care facilities and health seat examination rooms, and might exist used to betoken door entry card popularity in motels.

The VNS-collection 10-inch is a modest touchscreen with a light, simple design. Converging precise-time assistance, the incredibly integrative and interactive platform is a immaculate unusual event for users. The 15-inch superior version in the VNS sequence, nonetheless, provides extra custom-made options, e.g. microphone, card reader, studying light, and so on. The VNS sequence helps home windows 10 IoT (64 bit) and Android 5.1 (64 bit) working techniques, making it totally redress for tremendous institutions and agencies, conference rooms and cellular purposes, enhancing consumer adventure, and enabling the deployment of a sensible management system each time, anywhere.

The VNS-series 10-inch https://www.avalue.com.tw/product/Panel-computer/Multi-touch-panel-computing device/Multi-touch-PCAP/VNS-10W01_2652

The VNS-sequence 15-inch https://www.avalue.com.tw/product/Panel-pc/Multi-touch-panel-computer/Multi-touch-PCAP/VNS-15W01_2651

For more guidance, delight consult with their web page at https://www.avalue-solutions.com/en, or contact us at [email protected] for extra particulars.

About Avalue know-how

Avalue technology (TAIEX: 3479-TW) is an expert industrial desktop manufacturing enterprise, who's dedicated to establishing the x86 and RISC architecture items, together with embedded computer systems, single board computer systems (SBC), techniques-on-Modules/ ETX (SoM/ ETX), industrial motherboards, all-aim panel PCs,, barebone items, cell options, industry 4.0 solutions, Retail solution and quite a few IOT ready items. Having multiplied, Avalue offers its scholarship on PCB/ meeting/ BIOS edition control and every kindly of after-income capabilities. An ISO 9001:2008, ISO 13485:2003, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007 certified business; Avalue presents assurance to clients in every point of business. With headquarter discovered in Taiwan, Avalue has global subsidiaries, together with places of toil in Shanghai, unusual Jersey, California and Tokyo. moreover, Avalue technology operates an intensive distribution community to accommodate and serve purchasers perfect around the area.

 

Media Contact:

e mail: [email protected]

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CONTACT: [email protected] Avalue expertise Inc [email protected] Nasdaq NewsFeed

GlobeNewswire, a Nasdaq company, is one of the world's greatest newswire distribution networks, specializing in the birth of company press releases financial disclosures and multimedia content to the media, investment community, individual investors and the regular public.

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All-in-one Panel PCs function IP65-rated aluminum front bezel. | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Press release summary:

outfitted with 18.5 and 15 in. LCDs, respectively, fashions ASTUT-1811S-computer and ASTUT-1511S-laptop invent the most of twin-core 1.86 GHz Intel® Atom™ processor D2550 in fanless enclosure with 4 GB DDR3 reminiscence and PCI enlargement slot. devices believe vandal-proof projected capacitive touchscreen with 3 mm glass that supports multi-touch operation and offers facile transmission rating as much as 90%. extra points consist of 2.5 in. HDD bay and a yoke of isolated RS-232/422/485 selectable serial ports.

long-established Press release: IBASE Unveils unusual ASTUT All-in-one Panel laptop sequence

Taipei, Taiwan, - IBASE expertise Inc. (TASDAQ: 8050), an international-leading manufacturer of commercial motherboards and embedded programs, unveils the unusual panel workstation succession - ASTUT, comprising all-in-one panel PCs with 18.5” (ASTUT-1811S-notebook) or 15” (ASTUT-1511S-workstation) liquid crystal parade display. the brand unusual sequence makes exhaust of the dual-core 1.86GHz Intel® Atom™ Processor D2550 in a fanless enclosure this is geared up with a PCI enlargement slot to provide excessive-computing and professional performance.

Industrial grade projected capacitive (PCAP) contact screen

The ASTUT collection has a projected capacitive contact monitor that supports multi-touch and extra accuracy than a resistive or floor-capacitive screen. It permits one hundred fifty million times single aspect contact, in comparison to resistive handle with best a million instances. A PCAP handle furthermore has a light transmission score of up to 90%. This capability that it will exist simpler to read the panel parade because best a minimal volume of panel brightness is reduced. The ASTUT sequence comes with a robust 3mm glass of PCAP contact screen which is extraordinarily durable and vandal proof. moreover, the handle screen has an isolation film to tender protection to from unintentional short circuit, and further EMI coverage layer to steer pellucid of electric powered noise. Its flat bezel design has an IP65 rating, to invent it dirt-tight and protected from moisture.

professional circuit design

The ASTUT collection helps a wide sweep of 12V~36V DC energy enter, that includes polarity reversed insurance design and continuous brief and overloading circuit insurance policy. Two isolated RS-232/422/485 selectable serial ports are available to fulfill various applications and give protection to your serial devices from singe outs and shorts. The ASTUT collection is very suitable for exhaust at high-usage scenario corresponding to in kiosk, ticketing, merchandising machine purposes, or semi-outdoor environments.

ASTUT-1811S-pc/ASTUT-1511S-pc features:

• 18.5”(16:9)/15”(4:three) industrial-grade liquid crystal parade panel

• Aluminum entrance bezel, IP65 rated

• Vandal-proof projected capacitive contact display

• dual-Core Intel® Atom™ Processor D2550

• 4GB DDR3 reminiscence

• with ease accessible 2.5” HDD bay

• CFast slot as 2nd storage

• 12V~36V DC wide-latitude vigour input

• One PCI enlargement slot

About IBASE expertise

founded in 2000, IBASE expertise (TASDAQ: 8050) is an ISO 9001, ISO 13485 and ISO 14001 licensed company that specializes within the design and manufacturing of trade laptop products. IBASE offers OEM/ODM services tailoring products to valued clientele' necessities. current product choices from IBASE embrace single board computers, Mini-ITX boards, Disk-measurement SBC, COM categorical CPU modules, embedded programs, panel computers and community appliance for a variety of applications within the automation, digital signage, gaming, amusement, scientific, defense compel and networking markets. IBASE is dedicated to delivering inventive, useful and accountable options for an ever-evolving industrial computing panorama. For extra tips, delight visit www.ibase.com.tw.

IBASE is an associate member of the Intel® information superhighway of things options Alliance. From modular components to market-in a position systems, Intel and the 250+ global member corporations of the Intel® cyber web of things solutions Alliance supply scalable, interoperable solutions that accelerate deployment of sagacious devices and conclusion-to-end analytics. nearby collaboration with Intel and every different permits Alliance members to innovate with the latest technologies, helping developers deliver first-in-market solutions. learn more at: intel.com/IoTSolutionsAlliance.

Contact advice:

IBASE technology Inc.

11F, No. 3-1, Yuan Qu St., Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (Nankang application Park)

Tel: 886-2-26557588     Fax: 886-2-26557388

e-mail: earnings@ibase.com.tw

www.ibase.com.tw

Intel and Intel Atom are emblems of Intel enterprise in the united states and different international locations.

linked Thomas trade replace Thomas For Industry

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Sulley: Fuzzing Framework | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the engage 

Sulley is a fuzzer evolution and fuzz testing framework consisting of multiple extensible components. Sulley (in their humble opinion) exceeds the capabilities of most previously published fuzzing technologies, both commercial and those in the public domain. The goal of the framework is to simplify not only data representation, but data transmission and target monitoring as well. Sulley is affectionately named after the creature from Monsters, Inc.26 because, well, he is fuzzy. You can download the latest version of Sulley from http://www.fuzzing.org/sulley.

Modern-day fuzzers are, for the most part, solely focused on data generation. Sulley not only has impressive data generation, but has taken this a step further and includes many other necessary aspects a modern fuzzer should provide. Sulley watches the network and methodically maintains records. Sulley instruments and monitors the health of the target, and is capable of reverting to a advantageous state using multiple methods. Sulley detects, tracks, and categorizes detected faults. Sulley can fuzz in parallel, significantly increasing test speed. Sulley can automatically determine what unique sequence of test cases triggers faults. Sulley does perfect this and more, automatically, and without attendance. Overall usage of Sulley breaks down to the following:

  • Data representation: This is the first step in using any fuzzer. flee your target and tickle some interfaces while snagging the packets. shatter down the protocol into individual requests and limn them as blocks in Sulley.
  • Session: Link your developed requests together to form a session, attach the various available Sulley monitoring agents (socket, debugger, etc.), and commence fuzzing.
  • Postmortem: Review the generated data and monitored results. Replay individual test cases.
  • Once you believe downloaded the latest Sulley package from http://www.fuzzing.org, unpack it to a directory of your choosing. The directory structure is relatively complex, so let's consume a notice at how everything is organized.

    Sulley Directory Structure

    There is some rhyme and judgement to the Sulley directory structure. Maintaining the directory structure will ensure that everything remains organized while you expand the fuzzer with Legos, requests, and utilities. The following hierarchy outlines what you will requisite to know about the directory structure:

  • archived_fuzzies: This is a free-form directory, organized by fuzz target name, to store archived fuzzers and data generated from fuzz sessions.
  • trend_server_protect_5168: This retired fuzz is referenced during the step-by-step walk-through later in this document.
  • trillian_jabber: Another retired fuzz referenced from the documentation.
  • audits: Recorded PCAPs, crash bins, code coverage, and analysis graphs for dynamic fuzz sessions should exist saved to this directory. Once retired, recorded data should exist moved to archived_fuzzies.
  • docs: This is documentation and generated Epydoc API references.
  • requests: Library of Sulley requests. Each target should entrap its own file, which can exist used to store multiple requests.
  • __REQUESTS__.html: This file contains the descriptions for stored request categories and lists individual types. Maintain alphabetical order.
  • http.py: Various Web server fuzzing requests.
  • trend.py: Contains the requests associated with the complete fuzz walkthrough discussed later in this document.
  • sulley: The fuzzer framework. Unless you want to extend the framework, you shouldn't requisite to handle these files.
  • legos: User-defined involved primitives.
  • ber.py: ASN.1/BER primitives.
  • dcerpc.py: Microsoft RPC NDR primitives.
  • misc.py: Various uncategorized involved primitives such as e-mail addresses and hostnames.
  • xdr.py: XDR types.
  • pgraph: Python graph abstraction library. Utilized in structure sessions.
  • utils: Various helper routines.
  • dcerpc.py: Microsoft RPC helper routines such as for binding to an interface and generating a request.
  • misc.py: Various uncategorized routines such as CRC-16 and UUID manipulation routines.
  • scada.py: SCADA-specific helper routines including a DNP3 conceal encoder.
  • __init__.py: The various s_ aliases that are used in creating requests are defined here.
  • blocks.py: Blocks and conceal helpers are defined here.
  • pedrpc.py: This file defines client and server classes that are used by Sulley for communications between the various agents and the main fuzzer.
  • primitives.py: The various fuzzer primitives including static, random, strings, and integers are defined here.
  • sessions.py: Functionality for structure and executing a session.
  • sex.py: Sulley's custom exception handling class.
  • unit_tests: Sulley's unit testing harness.
  • utils: Various stand-alone utilities.
  • crashbin_explorer.py: Command-line utility for exploring the results stored in serialized crash bin files.
  • pcap_cleaner.py: Command-line utility for cleaning out a PCAP directory of perfect entries not associated with a fault.
  • network_monitor.py: PedRPC-driven network monitoring agent.
  • process_monitor.py: PedRPC-driven debugger-based target monitoring agent.
  • unit_test.py: Sulley's unit testing harness.
  • vmcontrol.py: PedRPC-driven VMWare controlling agent.
  • Now that the directory structure is a bit more familiar, let's consume a notice at how Sulley handles data representation. This is the first step in constructing a fuzzer.

    Data Representation

    Aitel had it privilege with SPIKE: We've taken a advantageous notice at every fuzzer they can entrap their hands on and the block-based approach to protocol representation stands above the others, combining both simplicity and the flexibility to limn most protocols. Sulley utilizes a block-based approach to generate individual requests, which are then later tied together to form a session. To begin, initialize with a unusual cognomen for your request:

    s_initialize("new request")

    Now you start adding primitives, blocks, and nested blocks to the request. Each primitive can exist individually rendered and mutated. Rendering a primitive returns its contents in raw data format. Mutating a primitive transforms its internal contents. The concepts of rendering and mutating are distraught from fuzzer developers for the most part, so don't worry about it. Know, however, that each mutatable primitive accepts a default value that is restored when the fuzzable values are exhausted.

    Static and Random Primitives

    Let's inaugurate with the simplest primitive, s_static(), which adds a static unmutating value of capricious length to the request. There are various aliases sprinkled throughout Sulley for your convenience, s_dunno(), s_raw(), and s_unknown() are aliases of s_static():

    # these are perfect equivalent: s_static("pedram\x00was\x01here\x02") s_raw("pedram\x00was\x01here\x02") s_dunno("pedram\x00was\x01here\x02") s_unknown("pedram\x00was\x01here\x02")

    Primitives, blocks, and so on perfect consume an optional cognomen keyword argument. Specifying a cognomen allows you to access the named detail directly from the request via request.names["name"] instead of having to walk the conceal structure to reach the desired element. Related to the previous, but not equivalent, is the s_binary() primitive, which accepts binary data represented in multiple formats. SPIKE users will recognize this API, as its functionality is (or rather should be) equivalent to what you are already intimate with:

    # yeah, it can ply perfect these formats. s_binary("0xde 0xad exist ef \xca fe 00 01 02 0xba0xdd f0 0d")

    Most of Sulley's primitives are driven by fuzz heuristics and therefore believe a limited number of mutations. An exception to this is the s_random() primitive, which can exist utilized to generate random data of varying lengths. This primitive takes two mandatory arguments, 'min_length' and 'max_length', specifying the minimum and maximum length of random data to generate on each iteration, respectively. This primitive furthermore accepts the following optional keyword arguments:

  • num_mutations (integer, default=25): Number of mutations to invent before reverting to default.
  • fuzzable (boolean, default=True): Enable or disable fuzzing of this primitive.
  • name (string, default=None): As with perfect Sulley objects, specifying a cognomen gives you direct access to this primitive throughout the request.
  • The num_mutations keyword argument specifies how many times this primitive should exist rerendered before it is considered exhausted. To fill a static sized bailiwick with random data, set the values for 'min_length' and 'max_length' to exist the same.

    Integers

    Binary and ASCII protocols alike believe various-sized integers sprinkled perfect throughout them, for instance the Content-Length bailiwick in HTTP. fancy most fuzzing frameworks, a portion of Sulley is dedicated to representing these types:

  • one byte: s_byte(), s_char()
  • two bytes: s_word(), s_short()
  • four bytes: s_dword(), s_long(), s_int()
  • eight bytes: s_qword(), s_double()
  • The integer types each accept at least a single parameter, the default integer value. Additionally the following optional keyword arguments can exist specified:

  • endian (character, default='<'): Endianess of the bit field. Specify < for diminutive endian and > for colossal endian.
  • format (string, default="binary"): Output format, "binary" or "ascii," controls the format in which the integer primitives render. For example, the value 100 is rendered as "100" in ASCII and "\x64" in binary.
  • signed (boolean, default=False): invent size signed versus unsigned, applicable only when format="ascii".
  • full_range (boolean, default=False): If enabled, this primitive mutates through perfect practicable values (more on this later).
  • fuzzable (boolean, default=True): Enable or disable fuzzing of this primitive.
  • name (string, default=None): As with perfect Sulley objects specifying a cognomen gives you direct access to this primitive throughout the request.
  • The full_range modifier is of particular interest among these. consider you want to fuzz a DWORD value; that's 4,294,967,295 total practicable values. At a rate of 10 test cases per second, it would consume 13 years to finish fuzzing this single primitive! To reduce this vast input space, Sulley defaults to trying only "smart" values. This includes the plus and minus 10 border cases around 0, the maximum integer value (MAX_VAL), MAX_VAL divided by 2, MAX_VAL divided by 3, MAX_VAL divided by 4, MAX_VAL divided by 8, MAX_VAL divided by 16, and MAX_VAL divided by 32. Exhausting this reduced input space of 141 test cases requires only seconds.

    Strings and Delimiters

    Strings can exist found everywhere. E-mail addresses, hostnames, usernames, passwords, and more are perfect examples of string components you will no doubt near across when fuzzing. Sulley provides the s_string() primitive for representing these fields. The primitive takes a single mandatory argument specifying the default, convincing value for the primitive. The following additional keyword arguments can exist specified:

  • size (integer, default=-1). Static size for this string. For dynamic sizing, leave this as -1.
  • padding (character, default='\x00'). If an categorical size is specified and the generated string is smaller than that size, exhaust this value to pad the bailiwick up to size.
  • encoding (string, default="ascii"). Encoding to exhaust for string. convincing options embrace whatever the Python str.encode() routine can accept. For Microsoft Unicode strings, specify "utf_16_le".
  • fuzzable (boolean, default=True). Enable or disable fuzzing of this primitive.
  • name (string, default=None). As with perfect Sulley objects, specifying a cognomen gives you direct access to this primitive throughout the request.
  • Strings are frequently parsed into subfields through the exhaust of delimiters. The space character, for example, is used as a delimiter in the HTTP request entrap /index.html HTTP/1.0. The front slash (/) and dot (.) characters in that very request are furthermore delimiters. When defining a protocol in Sulley, exist certain to limn delimiters using the s_delim() primitive. As with other primitives, the first argument is mandatory and used to specify the default value. furthermore as with other primitives, s_delim() accepts the optional 'fuzzable' and 'name' keyword arguments. Delimiter mutations embrace repetition, substitution, and exclusion. As a complete example, consider the following sequence of primitives for fuzzing the HTML corpse tag.

    # fuzzes the string: <BODY bgcolor="black"> s_delim("<") s_string("BODY") s_delim(" ") s_string("bgcolor") s_delim("=") s_delim("\"") s_string("black") s_delim("\"") s_delim(">") Blocks

    Having mastered primitives, let's next consume a notice at how they can exist organized and nested within blocks. unusual blocks are defined and opened with s_block_start() and closed with s_block_end(). Each conceal must exist given a name, specified as the first argument to s_block_start(). This routine furthermore accepts the following optional keyword arguments:

  • group (string, default=None). cognomen of group to associate this conceal with (more on this later).
  • encoder (function pointer, default=None). Pointer to a function to pass rendered data to prior to returning it.
  • dep (string, default=None). Optional primitive whose specific value on which this conceal is dependent.
  • dep_value (mixed, default=None). Value that bailiwick dep must hold for conceal to exist rendered.
  • dep_values (list of mixed types, default=[]). Values that bailiwick dep can hold for conceal to exist rendered.
  • dep_compare (string, default="=="). Comparison system to apply to dependency. convincing options include: ==, !=, >, >=, <, and <=.
  • Grouping, encoding, and dependencies are powerful features not seen in most other frameworks and they deserve further dissection.

    Groups

    Grouping allows you to tie a conceal to a group primitive to specify that the conceal should cycle through perfect practicable mutations for each value within the group. The group primitive is useful, for example, for representing a list of convincing opcodes or verbs with similar argument structures. The primitive s_group() defines a group and accepts two mandatory arguments. The first specifies the cognomen of the group and the second specifies the list of practicable raw values to iterate through. As a simple example, consider the following complete Sulley request designed to fuzz a Web server:

    # import perfect of Sulley's functionality. from sulley import * # this request is for fuzzing: {GET,HEAD,POST,TRACE} /index.html HTTP/1.1 # define a unusual conceal named "HTTP BASIC". s_initialize("HTTP BASIC") # define a group primitive listing the various HTTP verbs they wish to fuzz. s_group("verbs", values=["GET", "HEAD", "POST", "TRACE"]) # define a unusual conceal named "body" and associate with the above group. if s_block_start("body", group="verbs"): # shatter the residuum of the HTTP request into individual primitives. s_delim(" ") s_delim("/") s_string("index.html") s_delim(" ") s_string("HTTP") s_delim("/") s_string("1") s_delim(".") s_string("1") # conclude the request with the mandatory static sequence. s_static("\r\n\r\n") # nearby the open block, the cognomen argument is optional here. s_block_end("body")

    The script begins by importing perfect of Sulley's components. Next a unusual request is initialized and given the cognomen HTTP BASIC. This cognomen can later exist referenced for accessing this request directly. Next, a group is defined with the cognomen verbs and the practicable string values GET, HEAD, POST, and TRACE. A unusual conceal is started with the cognomen corpse and tied to the previously defined group primitive through the optional group keyword argument. Note that s_block_start() always returns True, which allows you to optionally "tab out" its contained primitives using a simple if clause. furthermore note that the cognomen argument to s_block_end() is optional. These framework design decisions were made purely for aesthetic purposes. A succession of basic delimiter and string primitives are then defined within the confinements of the corpse conceal and the conceal is closed. When this defined request is loaded into a Sulley session, the fuzzer will generate and transmit perfect practicable values for the conceal body, once for each verb defined in the group.

    Encoders

    Encoders are a simple, yet powerful conceal modifier. A function can exist specified and attached to a conceal to modify the rendered contents of that conceal prior to return and transmission over the wire. This is best explained with a real-world example. The DcsProcessor.exe daemon from Trend Micro Control Manager listens on TCP port 20901 and expects to receive data formatted with a proprietary XOR encoding routine. Through invert engineering of the decoder, the following XOR encoding routine was developed:

    def trend_xor_encode (str): key = 0xA8534344 ret = "" # pad to 4 byte boundary. pad = 4 - (len(str) % 4) if pad == 4: pad = 0 str += "\x00" * pad while str: dword = struct.unpack("<L", str[:4])[0] str = str[4:] dword ^= key ret += struct.pack("<L", dword) key = dword return ret

    Sulley encoders consume a single parameter, the data to encode, and return the encoded data. This defined encoder can now exist attached to a conceal containing fuzzable primitives, allowing the fuzzer developer to continue as if this diminutive hurdle never existed.

    Dependencies

    Dependencies allow you to apply a conditional to the rendering of an entire block. This is accomplished by first linking a conceal to a primitive on which it will exist subject using the optional dep keyword parameter. When the time comes for Sulley to render the subject block, it will check the value of the linked primitive and behave accordingly. A subject value can exist specified with the dep_value keyword parameter. Alternatively, a list of subject values can exist specified with the dep_values keyword parameter.

    Finally, the actual conditional comparison can exist modified through the dep_compare keyword parameter. For example, consider a situation where depending on the value of an integer, different data is expected:

    s_short("opcode", full_range=True) # opcode 10 expects an authentication sequence. if s_block_start("auth", dep="opcode", dep_value=10): s_string("USER") s_delim(" ") s_string("pedram") s_static("\r\n") s_string("PASS") s_delim(" ") s_delim("fuzzywuzzy") s_block_end() # opcodes 15 and 16 await a single string hostname. if s_block_start("hostname", dep="opcode", dep_values=[15, 16]): s_string("pedram.openrce.org") s_block_end() # the leisure of the opcodes consume a string prefixed with two underscores. if s_block_start("something", dep="opcode", dep_values=[10, 15, 16], dep_compare="!="): s_static("__") s_string("some string") s_block_end()

    Block dependencies can exist chained together in any number of ways, allowing for powerful (and unfortunately complex) combinations.

    Block Helpers

    An necessary aspect of data generation that you must become intimate with to effectively utilize Sulley is the conceal helper. This category includes sizers, checksums, and repeaters.

    Sizers

    SPIKE users will exist intimate with the s_sizer() (or s_size()) conceal helper. This helper takes the conceal cognomen to measure the size of as the first parameter and accepts the following additional keyword arguments:

  • length (integer, default=4). Length of size field.
  • endian (character, default='<'). Endianess of the bit field. Specify '<' for diminutive endian and '>' for colossal endian.
  • format (string, default="binary"). Output format, "binary" or "ascii", controls the format in which the integer primitives render.
  • inclusive (boolean, default=False). Should the sizer import its own length?
  • signed (boolean, default=False). invent size signed versus unsigned, applicable only when format="ascii".
  • fuzzable (boolean, default=False). Enable or disable fuzzing of this primitive.
  • name (string, default=None). As with perfect Sulley objects, specifying a cognomen gives you direct access to this primitive throughout the request.
  • Sizers are a crucial component in data generation that allow for the representation of involved protocols such as XDR notation, ASN.1, and so on. Sulley will dynamically calculate the length of the associated conceal when rendering the sizer. By default, Sulley will not fuzz size fields. In many cases this is the desired behavior; in the event it isn't, however, enable the fuzzable flag.

    Checksums

    Similar to sizers, the s_checksum() helper takes the conceal cognomen to calculate the checksum of as the first parameter. The following optional keyword arguments can furthermore exist specified:

  • algorithm (string or function pointer, default="crc32"). Checksum algorithm to apply to target conceal (crc32, adler32, md5, sha1).
  • endian (character, default='<'). Endianess of the bit field. Specify '<' for diminutive endian and '>' for colossal endian.
  • length (integer, default=0). Length of checksum, leave as 0 to autocalculate.
  • name (string, default=None). As with perfect Sulley objects, specifying a cognomen gives you direct access to this primitive throughout the request.
  • The algorithm argument can exist one of crc32, adler32, md5, or sha1. Alternatively, you can specify a function pointer for this parameter to apply a custom checksum algorithm.

    Repeaters

    The s_repeat() (or s_repeater()) helper is used for replicating a conceal a variable number of times. This is useful, for example, when testing for overflows during the parsing of tables with multiple elements. This helper takes three mandatory arguments: the cognomen of the conceal to exist repeated, the minimum number of repetitions, and the maximum number of repetitions. Additionally, the following optional keyword arguments are available:

  • step (integer, default=1). Step import between min and max reps.
  • fuzzable (boolean, default=False). Enable or disable fuzzing of this primitive.
  • name (string, default=None). As with perfect Sulley objects, specifying a cognomen gives you direct access to this primitive throughout the request.
  • Consider the following specimen that ties perfect three of the introduced helpers together. They are fuzzing a portion of a protocol that contains a table of strings. Each entry in the table consists of a two-byte string ilk field, a two-byte length field, a string field, and finally a CRC-32 checksum bailiwick that is calculated over the string field. They don't know what the convincing values for the ilk bailiwick are, so we'll fuzz that with random data. Here is what this portion of the protocol might notice fancy in Sulley:

    # table entry: [type][len][string][checksum] if s_block_start("table entry"): # they don't know what the convincing types are, so we'll fill this in with random data. s_random("\x00\x00", 2, 2) # next, they insert a sizer of length 2 for the string bailiwick to follow. s_size("string field", length=2) # conceal helpers only apply to blocks, so encapsulate the string primitive in one. if s_block_start("string field"): # the default string will simply exist a short sequence of Cs. s_string("C" * 10) s_block_end() # append the CRC-32 checksum of the string to the table entry. s_checksum("string field") s_block_end() # repeat the table entry from 100 to 1,000 reps stepping 50 elements on each iteration. s_repeat("table entry", min_reps=100, max_reps=1000, step=50)

    This Sulley script will fuzz not only table entry parsing, but might discover a vice in the processing of overly long tables.

    Legos

    Sulley utilizes legos for representing user-defined components such as e-mail addresses, hostnames, and protocol primitives used in Microsoft RPC, XDR, ASN.1, and others. In ASN.1 / BER strings are represented as the sequence [0x04][0x84][dword length][string]. When fuzzing an ASN.1-based protocol, including the length and ilk prefixes in front of every string can become cumbersome. Instead they can define a lego and reference it:

    s_lego("ber_string", "anonymous")

    Every lego follows a similar format with the exception of the optional options keyword argument, which is specific to individual legos. As a simple example, consider the definition of the tag lego, helpful when fuzzing XMLish protocols:

    class tag (blocks.block): def __init__ (self, name, request, value, options={}): blocks.block.__init__(self, name, request, None, None, None, None) self.value = value self.options = options if not self.value: raise sex.error("MISSING LEGO.tag DEFAULT VALUE") # # [delim][string][delim] self.push(primitives.delim("<")) self.push(primitives.string(self.value)) self.push(primitives.delim(">"))

    This specimen lego simply accepts the desired tag as a string and encapsulates it within the usurp delimiters. It does so by extending the conceal class and manually adding the tag delimiters and user-supplied string to the conceal via self.push().

    Here is another specimen that produces a simple lego for representing ASN.1/ BER27 integers in Sulley. The lowest common denominator was chosen to limn perfect integers as four-byte integers that succeed the form: [0x02][0x04][dword], where 0x02 specifies integer type, 0x04 specifies the integer is four bytes long, and the dword represents the actual integer they are passing. Here is what the definition looks fancy from sulley\legos\ber.py:

    class integer (blocks.block): def __init__ (self, name, request, value, options={}): blocks.block.__init__(self, name, request, None, None, None, None) self.value = value self.options = options if not self.value: raise sex.error("MISSING LEGO.ber_integer DEFAULT VALUE") self.push(primitives.dword(self.value, endian=">")) def render (self): # let the parent enact the initial render. blocks.block.render(self) self.rendered = "\x02\x04" + self.rendered return self.rendered

    Similar to the previous example, the supplied integer is added to the conceal stack with self.push(). Unlike the previous example, the render() routine is overloaded to prefix the rendered contents with the static sequence \x02\x04 to fill the integer representation requirements previously described. Sulley grows with the creation of every unusual fuzzer. Developed blocks and requests expand the request library and can exist easily referenced and used in the construction of future fuzzers. Now it's time to consume a notice at structure a session.

    Session

    Once you believe defined a number of requests it's time to tie them together in a session. One of the major benefits of Sulley over other fuzzing frameworks is its capability of fuzzing profound within a protocol. This is accomplished by linking requests together in a graph. In the following example, a sequence of requests are tied together and the pgraph library, which the session and request classes extend from, is leveraged to render the graph in uDraw format as shown in pattern 21.2:

    from sulley import * s_initialize("helo") s_static("helo") s_initialize("ehlo") s_static("ehlo") s_initialize("mail from") s_static("mail from") s_initialize("rcpt to") s_static("rcpt to") s_initialize("data") s_static("data") sess = sessions.session() sess.connect(s_get("helo")) sess.connect(s_get("ehlo")) sess.connect(s_get("helo"), s_get("mail from")) sess.connect(s_get("ehlo"), s_get("mail from")) sess.connect(s_get("mail from"), s_get("rcpt to")) sess.connect(s_get("rcpt to"), s_get("data")) fh = open("session_test.udg", "w+") fh.write(sess.render_graph_udraw()) fh.close()

    When it comes time to fuzz, Sulley walks the graph structure, starting with the root node and fuzzing each component along the way. In this specimen it begins with the helo request. Once complete, Sulley will inaugurate fuzzing the mail from request. It does so by prefixing each test case with a convincing helo request. Next, Sulley moves on to fuzzing the rcpt to request. Again, this is accomplished by prefixing each test case with a convincing helo and mail from request. The process continues through data and then restarts down the ehlo path. The competence to shatter a protocol into individual requests and fuzz perfect practicable paths through the constructed protocol graph is powerful. Consider, for example, an issue disclosed against Ipswitch Collaboration Suite in September 2006.28 The software vice in this case was a stack overflow during the parsing of long strings contained within the characters @ and :. What makes this case absorbing is that this vulnerability is only exposed over the EHLO route and not the HELO route. If their fuzzer is unable to walk perfect practicable protocol paths, then issues such as this might exist missed.

    When instantiating a session, the following optional keyword arguments can exist specified:

  • session_filename (string, default=None). Filename to which to serialize persistent data. Specifying a filename allows you to desist and resume the fuzzer.
  • skip (integer, default=0). Number of test cases to skip.
  • sleep_time (float, default=1.0). Time to sleep in between transmission of test cases.
  • log_level (integer, default=2). Set the log level; a higher number indicates more log messages.
  • proto (string, default="tcp"). Communication protocol.
  • timeout (float, default=5.0). Seconds to wait for a send() or recv() to return prior to timing out.
  • Another advanced feature that Sulley introduces is the competence to register callbacks on every edge defined within the protocol graph structure. This allows us to register a function to convoke between node transmissions to implement functionality such as challenge response systems. The callback system must succeed this prototype:

    def callback(node, edge, last_recv, sock)

    Here, node is the node about to exist sent, edge is the final edge along the current fuzz path to node, last_recv contains the data returned from the final socket transmission, and sock is the live socket. A callback is furthermore useful in situations where, for example, the size of the next pack is specified in the first packet. As another example, if you requisite to fill in the dynamic IP address of the target, register a callback that snags the IP from sock.getpeername()[0]. Edge callbacks can furthermore exist registered through the optional keyword argument callback to the session.connect() method.

    Targets and Agents

    The next step is to define targets, link them with agents, and add the targets to the session. In the following example, they instantiate a unusual target that is running inside a VMWare virtual machine and link it to three agents:

    target = sessions.target("10.0.0.1", 5168) target.netmon = pedrpc.client("10.0.0.1", 26001) target.procmon = pedrpc.client("10.0.0.1", 26002) target.vmcontrol = pedrpc.client("127.0.0.1", 26003) target.procmon_options = { "proc_name" : "SpntSvc.exe", "stop_commands" : ['net desist "trend serverprotect"'], "start_commands" : ['net start "trend serverprotect"'], } sess.add_target(target) sess.fuzz()

    The instantiated target is bound on TCP port 5168 on the host 10.0.0.1. A network monitor agent is running on the target system, listening by default on port 26001. The network monitor will record perfect socket communications to individual PCAP files labeled by test case number. The process monitor agent is furthermore running on the target system, listening by default on port 26002. This agent accepts additional arguments specifying the process cognomen to attach to, the command to desist the target process, and the command to start the target process. Finally the VMWare control agent is running on the local system, listening by default on port 26003. The target is added to the session and fuzzing begins. Sulley is capable of fuzzing multiple targets, each with a unique set of linked agents. This allows you to deliver time by splitting the total test space across the various targets.

    Let's consume a closer notice at each individual agent's functionality.

    Agent: Network Monitor (network_monitor.py)

    The network monitor agent is accountable for monitoring network communications and logging them to PCAP files on disk. The agent is hard-coded to bind to TCP port 26001 and accepts connections from the Sulley session over the PedRPC custom binary protocol. Prior to transmitting a test case to the target, Sulley contacts this agent and requests that it inaugurate recording network traffic. Once the test case has been successfully transmitted, Sulley again contacts this agent, requesting it to flush recorded traffic to a PCAP file on disk. The PCAP files are named by test case number for facile retrieval. This agent does not believe to exist launched on the very system as the target software. It must, however, believe visibility into sent and received network traffic. This agent accepts the following command-line arguments:

    ERR> USAGE: network_monitor.py <-d|—device DEVICE #> device to sniff on (see list below) [-f|—filter PCAP FILTER] BPF filter string [-p|—log_path PATH] log directory to store pcaps to [-l|—log_level LEVEL] log plane (default 1), increase for more verbosity Network Device List: [0] \Device\NPF_GenericDialupAdapter [1] {2D938150-427D-445F-93D6-A913B4EA20C0} 192.168.181.1 [2] {9AF9AAEC-C362-4642-9A3F-0768CDA60942} 0.0.0.0 [3] {9ADCDA98-A452-4956-9408-0968ACC1F482} 192.168.81.193 ... Agent: Process Monitor (process_monitor.py)

    The process monitor agent is accountable for detecting faults that might occur in the target process during fuzz testing. The agent is hard-coded to bind to TCP port 26002 and accepts connections from the Sulley session over the PedRPC custom binary protocol. After successfully transmitting each individual test case to the target, Sulley contacts this agent to determine if a vice was triggered. If so, high-level information regarding the nature of the vice is transmitted back to the Sulley session for parade through the internal Web server (more on this later). Triggered faults are furthermore logged in a serialized "crash bin" for postmortem analysis. This functionality is explored in further detail later. This agent accepts the following command-line arguments:

    ERR> USAGE: process_monitor.py <-c|—crash_bin FILENAME> filename to serialize crash bin class to [-p|—proc_name NAME] process cognomen to search for and attach to [-i|—ignore_pid PID] ignore this PID when searching for the target process [-l|—log_level LEVEL] log plane (default 1), increase for more verbosity Agent: VMWare Control (vmcontrol.py)

    The VMWare control agent is hard-coded to bind to TCP port 26003 and accepts connections from the Sulley session over the PedRPC custom binary protocol. This agent exposes an API for interacting with a virtual machine image, including the competence to start, stop, suspend, or reset the image as well as take, delete, and restore snapshots. In the event that a vice has been detected or the target cannot exist reached, Sulley can contact this agent and revert the virtual machine to a known advantageous state. The test sequence honing tool will faith heavily on this agent to accomplish its chore of identifying the exact sequence of test cases that trigger any given involved fault. This agent accepts the following command-line arguments:

    ERR> USAGE: vmcontrol.py <-x|—vmx FILENAME> path to VMX to control <-r|—vmrun FILENAME> path to vmrun.exe [-s|—snapshot NAME> set the snapshot name [-l|—log_level LEVEL] log plane (default 1), increase for more verbosity Web Monitoring Interface

    The Sulley session class has a built-in minimal Web server that is hard-coded to bind to port 26000. Once the fuzz() system of the session class is called, the Web server thread spins off and the progress of the fuzzer including intermediary results can exist seen. An specimen screen shot is shown in pattern 21.3.

    The fuzzer can exist paused and resumed by clicking the usurp buttons. A synopsis of each detected vice is displayed as a list with the offending test case number listed in the first column. Clicking the test case number loads a detailed crash dump at the time of the fault. This information is of course furthermore available in the crash bin file and accessible programmatically. Once the session is complete, it's time to enter the postmortem phase and analyze the results.

    Postmortem

    Once a Sulley fuzz session is complete, it is time to review the results and enter the postmortem phase. The session's built-in Web server will provide you with early indications on potentially uncovered issues, but this is the time you will actually part out the results. A yoke of utilities exist to animate you along in this process. The first is the crashbin_explorer.py utility, which accepts the following command-line arguments:

    $ ./utils/crashbin_explorer.py USAGE: crashbin_explorer.py <xxx.crashbin> [-t|—test #] dump the crash synopsis for a specific test case number [-g|—graph name] generate a graph of perfect crash paths, deliver to 'name'.udg

    We can exhaust this utility, for example, to view every location at which a vice was detected and furthermore list the individual test case numbers that triggered a vice at that address. The following results are from a real-world audit against the Trillian Jabber protocol parser:

    $ ./utils/crashbin_explorer.py audits/trillian_jabber.crashbin [3] ntdll.dll:7c910f29 mov ecx,[ecx] from thread 664 caused access violation 1415, 1416, 1417, [2] ntdll.dll:7c910e03 mov [edx],eax from thread 664 caused access violation 3780, 9215, [24] rendezvous.dll:4900c4f1 rep movsd from thread 664 caused access violation 1418, 1419, 1420, 1421, 1422, 1423, 1424, 1425, 3443, 3781, 3782, 3783, 3784, 3785, 3786, 3787, 9216, 9217, 9218, 9219, 9220, 9221, 9222, 9223, [1] ntdll.dll:7c911639 mov cl,[eax+0x5] from thread 664 caused access violation 3442,

    None of these listed vice points might stand out as an obviously exploitable issue. They can drill further down into the specifics of an individual vice by specifying a test case number with the -t command-line switch. Let's consume a notice at test case number 1416:

    $ ./utils/crashbin_explorer.py audits/trillian_jabber.crashbin -t 1416 ntdll.dll:7c910f29 mov ecx,[ecx] from thread 664 caused access violation when attempting to read from 0x263b7467 CONTEXT DUMP EIP: 7c910f29 mov ecx,[ecx] EAX: 039a0318 ( 60424984) -> gt;&gt;&gt;...&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;(heap) EBX: 02f40000 ( 49545216) -> PP@ (heap) ECX: 263b7467 ( 641430631) -> N/A EDX: 263b7467 ( 641430631) -> N/A EDI: 0399fed0 ( 60423888) -> #e<root><message>&gt;&gt;&gt;...&gt;&gt;&amp; (heap) ESI: 039a0310 ( 60424976) -> gt;&gt;&gt;...&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;(heap) EBP: 03989c38 ( 60333112) -> \|gt;&t]IP"Ix;IXIox@ @x@PP8|p|Hg9I P (stack) ESP: 03989c2c ( 60333100) -> \|gt;&t]IP"Ix;IXIox@ @x@PP8|p|Hg9I (stack) +00: 02f40000 ( 49545216) -> PP@ (heap) +04: 0399fed0 ( 60423888) -> #e<root><message>&gt;&gt;&gt;...&gt;&&gt;& (heap) +08: 00000000 ( 0) -> N/A +0c: 03989d0c ( 60333324) -> Hg9I Pt]I@"ImI,IIpHsoIPnIX{ (stack) +10: 7c910d5c (2089880924) -> N/A +14: 02f40000 ( 49545216) -> PP@ (heap) disasm around: 0x7c910f18 jnz 0x7c910fb0 0x7c910f1e mov ecx,[esi+0xc] 0x7c910f21 lea eax,[esi+0x8] 0x7c910f24 mov edx,[eax] 0x7c910f26 mov [ebp+0xc],ecx 0x7c910f29 mov ecx,[ecx] 0x7c910f2b cmp ecx,[edx+0x4] 0x7c910f2e mov [ebp+0x14],edx 0x7c910f31 jnz 0x7c911f21 stack unwind: ntdll.dll:7c910d5c rendezvous.dll:49023967 rendezvous.dll:4900c56d kernel32.dll:7c80b50b SEH unwind: 03989d38 -> ntdll.dll:7c90ee18 0398ffdc -> rendezvous.dll:49025d74 ffffffff -> kernel32.dll:7c8399f3

    Again, nothing too obvious might stand out, but they know that they are influencing this specific access violation as the register being invalidly dereferenced, ECX, contains the ASCII string: "&;tg". String expansion issue perhaps? They can view the crash locations graphically, which adds an extra dimension displaying the known execution paths using the -g command-line switch. The following generated graph (Figure 21.4) is again from a real-world audit against the Trillian Jabber parser:

    We can discern that although we've uncovered four different crash locations, the source of the issue appears to exist the same. Further research reveals that this is indeed correct. The specific flaw exists in the Rendezvous/Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) messaging subsystem. Trillian locates nearby users through the _presence mDNS (multicast DNS) service on UDP port 5353. Once a user is registered through mDNS, messaging is accomplished via XMPP over TCP port 5298. Within plugins\rendezvous.dll, the following logic is applied to received messages:

    4900C470 str_len: 4900C470 mov cl, [eax] ; *eax = message+1 4900C472 inc eax 4900C473 test cl, cl 4900C475 jnz short str_len 4900C477 sub eax, edx 4900C479 add eax, 128 ; strlen(message+1) + 128 4900C47E shove eax 4900C47F convoke _malloc

    The string length of the supplied message is calculated and a stack buffer in the amount of length + 128 is allocated to store a copy of the message, which is then passed through expatxml.xmlComposeString(), a function called with the following prototype:

    plugin_send(MYGUID, "xmlComposeString", struct xml_string_t *); struct xml_string_t { unsigned int struct_size; char *string_buffer; struct xml_tree_t *xml_tree; };

    The xmlComposeString() routine calls through to expatxml.19002420(), which, among other things, HTML encodes the characters &, >, and < as &, >, and <, respectively. This conduct can exist seen in the following disassembly snippet:

    19002492 shove 0 19002494 shove 0 19002496 shove offset str_Amp ; "&amp" 1900249B shove offset ampersand ; "&" 190024A0 shove eax 190024A1 convoke sub_190023A0 190024A6 shove 0 190024A8 shove 0 190024AA shove offset str_Lt ; "&lt" 190024AF shove offset less_than ; "<" 190024B4 shove eax 190024B5 convoke sub_190023A0 190024BA push 190024BC push 190024BE shove offset str_Gt ; "&gt" 190024C3 shove offset greater_than ; ">" 190024C8 shove eax 190024C9 convoke sub_190023A0

    As the originally calculated string length does not account for this string expansion, the following subsequent in-line reminiscence copy operation within rendezvous.dll can trigger an exploitable reminiscence corruption:

    4900C4EC mov ecx, eax 4900C4EE shr ecx, 2 4900C4F1 rep movsd 4900C4F3 mov ecx, eax 4900C4F5 and ecx, 3 4900C4F8 rep movsb

    Each of the faults detected by Sulley were in response to this logic error. Tracking vice locations and paths allowed us to quickly postulate that a single source was responsible. A final step they might wish to consume is to remove perfect PCAP files that enact not hold information regarding a fault. The pcap_cleaner.py utility was written for exactly this task:

    $ ./utils/pcap_cleaner.py USAGE: pcap_cleaner.py <xxx.crashbin> <path to pcaps>

    This utility will open the specified crash bin file, read in the list of test case numbers that triggered a fault, and erase perfect other PCAP files from the specified directory. To better understand how everything ties together, from start to finish, they will walk through a complete real-world specimen audit.

    A Complete Walkthrough

    This specimen touches on many intermediate to advanced Sulley concepts and should hopefully solidify your understanding of the framework. Many details regarding the specifics of the target are skipped in this walkthrough, as the main purpose of this section is to demonstrate the usage of a number of advanced Sulley features. The chosen target is Trend Micro Server Protect, specifically a Microsoft DCE/RPC endpoint on TCP port 5168 bound to by the service SpntSvc.exe. The RPC endpoint is exposed from TmRpcSrv.dll with the following Interface Definition Language (IDL) stub information:

    // opcode: 0x00, address: 0x65741030 // uuid: 25288888-bd5b-11d1-9d53-0080c83a5c2c // version: 1.0 error_status_t rpc_opnum_0 ( [in] handle_t arg_1, // not sent on wire [in] long trend_req_num, [in][size_is(arg_4)] byte some_string[], [in] long arg_4, [out][size_is(arg_6)] byte arg_5[], // not sent on wire [in] long arg_6 );

    Neither of the parameters arg_1 and arg_6 is actually transmitted across the wire. This is an necessary fact to consider later when they write the actual fuzz requests. Further examination reveals that the parameter trend_req_num has special meaning. The upper and lower halves of this parameter control a pair of jump tables that expose a plethora of reachable subroutines through this single RPC function. invert engineering the jump tables reveals the following combinations:

  • When the value for the upper half is 0x0001, 1 through 21 are convincing lower half values.
  • When the value for the upper half is 0x0002, 1 through 18 are convincing lower half values.
  • When the value for the upper half is 0x0003, 1 through 84 are convincing lower half values.
  • When the value for the upper half is 0x0005, 1 through 24 are convincing lower half values.
  • When the value for the upper half is 0x000A, 1 through 48 are convincing lower half values.
  • When the value for the upper half is 0x001F, 1 through 24 are convincing lower half values.
  • We must next create a custom encoder routine that will exist accountable for encapsulating defined blocks as a convincing DCE/RPC request. There is only a single function number, so this is simple. They define a basic wrapper around utisl.dcerpc.request(), which hard-codes the opcode parameter to zero:

    # dce rpc request encoder used for trend server protect 5168 RPC service. # opnum is always zero. def rpc_request_encoder (data): return utils.dcerpc.request(0, data) Building the Requests

    Armed with this information and their encoder they can inaugurate to define their Sulley requests. They create a file requests\trend.py to hold perfect their Trend-related request and helper definitions and inaugurate coding. This is an excellent specimen of how structure a fuzzer request within a language (as opposed to a custom language) is advantageous as they consume edge of some Python looping to automatically generate a part request for each convincing upper value from trend_req_num:

    for op, submax in [(0x1, 22), (0x2, 19), (0x3, 85), (0x5, 25), (0xa, 49), (0x1f, 25)]: s_initialize("5168: op-%x" % op) if s_block_start("everything", encoder=rpc_request_encoder): # [in] long trend_req_num, s_group("subs", values=map(chr, range(1, submax))) s_static("\x00") # subs is actually a diminutive endian word s_static(struct.pack("<H", op)) # opcode # [in][size_is(arg_4)] byte some_string[], s_size("some_string") if s_block_start("some_string", group="subs"): s_static("A" * 0x5000, name="arg3") s_block_end() # [in] long arg_4, s_size("some_string") # [in] long arg_6 s_static(struct.pack("<L", 0x5000)) # output buffer size s_block_end()

    Within each generated request a unusual conceal is initialized and passed to their previously defined custom encoder. Next, the s_group() primitive is used to define a sequence named subs that represents the lower half value of trend_req_num they saw earlier. The upper half word value is next added to the request stream as a static value. They will not exist fuzzing the trend_req_num as they believe invert engineered its convincing values; had they not, they could enable fuzzing for these fields as well. Next, the NDR size prefix for some_string is added to the request. They could optionally exhaust the Sulley DCE/RPC NDR lego primitives here, but because the RPC request is so simple they pick to limn the NDR format manually. Next, the some_string value is added to the request. The string value is encapsulated in a conceal so that its length can exist measured. In this case they exhaust a static-sized string of the character A (roughly 20k worth). Normally they would insert an s_string() primitive here, but because they know Trend will crash with any long string, they reduce the test set by utilizing a static value. The length of the string is appended to the request again to fulfill the size_is requirement for arg_4. Finally, they specify an capricious static size for the output buffer size and nearby the block. Their requests are now ready and they can ride on to creating a session.

    Creating the Session

    We create a unusual file in the top-level Sulley folder named fuzz_trend_server_protect_5168.py for their session. This file has since been moved to the archived_fuzzies folder because it has completed its life. First things first, they import Sulley and the created Trend requests from the request library:

    from sulley import * from requests import trend

    Next, they are going to define a presend function that is accountable for establishing the DCE/RPC connection prior to the transmission of any individual test case. The presend routine accepts a single parameter, the socket on which to transmit data. This is a simple routine to write thanks to the availability of utils.dcerpc.bind(), a Sulley utility routine:

    def rpc_bind (sock): bind = utils.dcerpc.bind("25288888-bd5b-11d1-9d53-0080c83a5c2c", "1.0") sock.send(bind) utils.dcerpc.bind_ack(sock.recv(1000))

    Now it's time to initiate the session and define a target. We'll fuzz a single target, an installation of Trend Server Protect housed inside a VMWare virtual machine with the address 10.0.0.1. We'll succeed the framework guidelines by saving the serialized session information to the audits directory. Finally, they register a network monitor, process monitor, and virtual machine control agent with the defined target:

    sess = sessions.session(session_filename="audits/trend_server_protect_5168.session") target = sessions.target("10.0.0.1", 5168) target.netmon = pedrpc.client("10.0.0.1", 26001) target.procmon = pedrpc.client("10.0.0.1", 26002) target.vmcontrol = pedrpc.client("127.0.0.1", 26003)

    Because a VMWare control agent is present, Sulley will default to reverting to a known advantageous snapshot whenever a vice is detected or the target is unable to exist reached. If a VMWare control agent is not available but a process monitor agent is, then Sulley attempts to restart the target process to resume fuzzing. This is accomplished by specifying the stop_commands and start_commands options to the process monitor agent:

    target.procmon_options = { "proc_name" : "SpntSvc.exe", "stop_commands" : ['net desist "trend serverprotect"'], "start_commands" : ['net start "trend serverprotect"'], }

    The proc_name parameter is mandatory whenever you exhaust the process monitor agent; it specifies what process cognomen to which the debugger should attach and in which to notice for faults. If neither a VMWare control agent nor a process monitor agent is available, then Sulley has no election but to simply provide the target time to retrieve in the event a data transmission is unsuccessful.

    Next, they instruct the target to start by calling the VMWare control agents restart_target() routine. Once running, the target is added to the session, the presend routine is defined, and each of the defined requests is connected to the root fuzzing node. Finally, fuzzing commences with a convoke to the session classes' fuzz() routine.

    # start up the target. target.vmcontrol.restart_target() print "virtual machine up and running" sess.add_target(target) sess.pre_send = rpc_bind sess.connect(s_get("5168: op-1")) sess.connect(s_get("5168: op-2")) sess.connect(s_get("5168: op-3")) sess.connect(s_get("5168: op-5")) sess.connect(s_get("5168: op-a")) sess.connect(s_get("5168: op-1f")) sess.fuzz() Setting Up the Environment

    The final step before launching the fuzz session is to set up the environment. They enact so by bringing up the target virtual machine image and launching the network and process monitor agents directly within the test image with the following command-line parameters:

    network_monitor.py -d 1 -f "src or dst port 5168" -p audits\trend_server_protect_5168 process_monitor.py -c audits\trend_server_protect_5168.crashbin -p SpntSvc.exe

    Both agents are executed from a mapped partake that corresponds with the Sulley top-level directory from which the session script is running. A Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF) filter string is passed to the network monitor to ensure that only the packets they are interested in are recorded. A directory within the audits folder is furthermore chosen where the network monitor will create PCAPs for every test case. With both agents and the target process running, a live snapshot is made as named sulley ready and waiting.

    Next, they shut down VMWare and launch the VMWare control agent on the host system (the fuzzing system). This agent requires the path to the vmrun.exe executable, the path to the actual image to control, and finally the cognomen of the snapshot to revert to in the event of a vice discovery of data transmission failure:

    vmcontrol.py -r "c:\\VMware\vmrun.exe" -x "v:\vmfarm\Trend\win_2000_pro.vmx" —snapshot "sulley ready and waiting" Ready, Set, Action! And Postmortem

    Finally, they are ready. Simply launch fuzz_trend_server_protect_5168.py, connect a Web browser to http://127.0.0.1:26000 to monitor the fuzzer progress, sit back, watch, and enjoy.

    When the fuzzer completes running through its list of 221 test cases, they discover that 19 of them triggered faults. Using the crashbin_explorer.py utility they can explore the faults categorized by exception address:

    $ ./utils/crashbin_explorer.py audits/trend_server_protect_5168.crashbin [6] [INVALID]:41414141 Unable to disassemble at 41414141 from thread 568 caused access violation 42, 109, 156, 164, 170, 198, [3] LogMaster.dll:63272106 shove ebx from thread 568 caused access violation 53, 56, 151, [1] ntdll.dll:77fbb267 shove dword [ebp+0xc] from thread 568 caused access violation 195, [1] Eng50.dll:6118954e rep movsd from thread 568 caused access violation 181, [1] ntdll.dll:77facbbd shove edi from thread 568 caused access violation 118, [1] Eng50.dll:61187671 cmp word [eax],0x3b from thread 568 caused access violation 116, [1] [INVALID]:0058002e Unable to disassemble at 0058002e from thread 568 caused access violation 70, [2] Eng50.dll:611896d1 rep movsd from thread 568 caused access violation 152, 182, [1] StRpcSrv.dll:6567603c shove esi from thread 568 caused access violation 106, [1] KERNEL32.dll:7c57993a cmp ax,[edi] from thread 568 caused access violation 165, [1] Eng50.dll:61182415 mov edx,[edi+0x20c] from thread 568 caused access violation 50,

    Some of these are clearly exploitable issues, for example, the test cases that resulted with an EIP of 0x41414141. Test case 70 seems to believe stumbled on a practicable code execution issue as well, a Unicode overflow (actually this can exist a straight overflow with a bit more research). The crash bin explorer utility can generate a graph view of the detected faults as well, drawing paths based on observed stack backtraces. This can animate pinpoint the root antecedent of unavoidable issues. The utility accepts the following command-line arguments:

    $ ./utils/crashbin_explorer.py USAGE: crashbin_explorer.py <xxx.crashbin> [-t|—test #] dump the crash synopsis for a specific test case number [-g|—graph name] generate a graph of perfect crash paths, deliver to 'name'.udg

    We can, for example, further examine the CPU state at the time of the vice detected in response to test case 70:

    $ ./utils/crashbin_explorer.py audits/trend_server_protect_5168.crashbin -t 70 [INVALID]:0058002e Unable to disassemble at 0058002e from thread 568 caused access violation when attempting to read from 0x0058002e CONTEXT DUMP EIP: 0058002e Unable to disassemble at 0058002e EAX: 00000001 ( 1) -> N/A EBX: 0259e118 ( 39444760) -> A..... AAAAA (stack) ECX: 00000000 ( 0) -> N/A EDX: ffffffff (4294967295) -> N/A EDI: 00000000 ( 0) -> N/A ESI: 0259e33e ( 39445310) -> A..... AAAAA (stack) EBP: 00000000 ( 0) -> N/A ESP: 0259d594 ( 39441812) -> LA.XLT.......MPT.MSG.OFT.PPS.RT (stack) +00: 0041004c ( 4259916) -> N/A +04: 0058002e ( 5767214) -> N/A +08: 0054004c ( 5505100) -> N/A +0c: 0056002e ( 5636142) -> N/A +10: 00530042 ( 5439554) -> N/A +14: 004a002e ( 4849710) -> N/A disasm around: 0x0058002e Unable to disassemble SEH unwind: 0259fc58 -> StRpcSrv.dll:656784e3 0259fd70 -> TmRpcSrv.dll:65741820 0259fda8 -> TmRpcSrv.dll:65741820 0259ffdc -> RPCRT4.dll:77d87000 ffffffff -> KERNEL32.dll:7c5c216c

    You can discern here that the stack has been blown away by what appears to exist a Unicode string of file extensions. You can pull up the archived PCAP file for the given test case as well. pattern 21.5 shows an excerpt of a screen shot from Wireshark examining the contents of one of the captured PCAP files.

    A final step they might wish to consume is to remove perfect PCAP files that enact not hold information regarding a fault. The pcap_cleaner.py utility was written for exactly this task:

    $ ./utils/pcap_cleaner.py USAGE: pcap_cleaner.py <xxx.crashbin> <path to pcaps>

    This utility will open the specified crash bin file, read in the list of test case numbers that triggered a fault, and erase perfect other PCAP files from the specified directory. The discovered code execution vulnerabilities in this fuzz were perfect reported to Trend and believe resulted in the following advisories:

  • TSRT-07-01: Trend Micro ServerProtect StCommon.dll Stack Overflow Vulnerabilities
  • TSRT-07-02: Trend Micro ServerProtect eng50.dll Stack Overflow Vulnerabilities
  • This is not to sing that perfect practicable vulnerabilities believe been exhausted in this interface. In fact, this was the most rudimentary fuzzing practicable of this interface. A secondary fuzz that actually uses the s_string() primitive as opposed to simply a long string can now exist beneficial.


    Elo Introduces IntelliTouch Pro PCAP Touchscreen Solution | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    Available worldwide, samples of the IntelliTouch Pro solution can exist requested and feature a measure 3-year warranty. Elo will exist demonstrating IntelliTouch Pro at SID parade Week ’14 June 1-6 in San Diego, California and COMPUTEX June 3-7 in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Copyright © 2009 trade Wire. perfect rights reserved. Republication or redistribution of trade Wire content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of trade Wire. trade Wire shall not exist liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.

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    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





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