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skill degree: foundation fame: active
low in cost: $320 (shortest track)
abstract:for people who've potential of the terminology and primary concepts of TOGAF 9 and gain in wit the core ideas of commercial enterprise structure and TOGAF. earning the TOGAF groundwork certification is the primary degree of the TOGAF Practioner application.
initial necessities:You requisite to run the TOGAF 9 section 1 exam ($320). The examination carries forty questions and has a 60 minute time limit. A passing rating of 55% is required.
continuing necessities:You must recertify every 2 years by pass of paying a $300 fee.
See every separate Open neighborhood Certifications
vendor's page for this certification
more than 25,000 individuals gain earned certification below the Open neighborhood's TOGAF 9 program, the group said recently, marking a milestone for what has become a benchmark framework and components for enterprise structure (EA).
Andrew Josey, director of standards for The Open community, introduced the milestone in his weblog. The number of certifications, he wrote, become facts of "a gigantic surge within the popularity of open necessities over the final few years." He additionally credited the recent fiscal downturn.
"…considering that the fiscal cataclysm begun," he wrote, "open necessities gain helped by proposing a framework that enables commercial enterprise Architects to shop their agencies cash, maintain and enhance profitability and drive company efficiencies. And, on knowledgeable level, certification has helped enterprise Architects to differentiate themselves, delivering improved job security and employment prospects via trying out instances."
TOGAF, which stands for The Open neighborhood architecture Framework, is designed to deliver organizations with a structured procedure for governing their implementations of know-how, primarily software. it be according to the U.S. offshoot of defense Technical architecture Framework for tips management (TAFIM), and turned into developed with the aid of a diverse neighborhood of member organizations, together with PG&E, Oracle, Rolls Royce and Microsoft. the primary version changed into launched in 1995, and TOGAF 9 was introduced in 2009.
"This framework is a synthesis of stuff that has labored for lots of people in lots of diverse contexts," Leonard Fehskens, the Open community's vice chairman of capabilities and capabilities, instructed ADTmag in an prior interview.
The Open neighborhood certifies individuals, service providers, equipment, and practising around TOGAF. In 2006 about 1,000 people were TOGAF-certified; that quantity had grown to well-nigh 9,000 via the birth of 2009.
presently in version 9.1, TOGAF comes with a group of assisting equipment, referred to as the TOGAF useful resource Base, but at its coronary heart it's a description of a step-with the aid of-step approach to the technique called the structure edifice components (ADM).
The certifications are available in two flavors: "TOGAF 9 foundation," which demonstrates knowledge of the terminology, constitution, and simple ideas of TOGAF 9, in addition to an knowing of the core ideas of EA and the TOGAF normal; and "TOGAF 9 licensed," which validates an potential to investigate and apply the foundation capabilities.
The Open community is a dealer- and expertise-neutral consortium focused on open necessities and "global interoperability inside and between businesses." The organization changed into shaped from the merger of the Open programs basis and XOpen within the mid-1990s. The community's initial focus became the edifice of Unix specifications and certification of Unix implementations. Over time, as the individuals' issues moved away from Unix as a strategy for multiplatform integration and into the realm of enterprise architecture, the neighborhood's actions and focus of attention besides shifted.
Posted on 09/09/2013 at eleven:22 AM
©The Open group August 2006, The Open community every separate rights reserved. No section of this e-book could be reproduced, kept in a retrieval equipment, or transmitted, in any configuration or by means of any skill, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording or in any other case, devoid of the prior leave of the copyright homeowners.
refer to situations of utilize for particular situations of utilize concerning TOGAF version eight.1.1.
Any feedback relating to the cloth contained during this doc can be submitted to The Open neighborhood at:
The Open GroupThames Tower37-45 Station RoadReadingBerkshire, RG1 1LXUnited Kingdom
or by electronic message to:
The Open community architecture Framework (TOGAF) - edition 8.1.1, commercial enterprise edition - is an open, industry consensus framework and mode for commercial enterprise structure.
TOGAF may be reproduced freely with the aid of any difficult wishing to execute utilize of it to develop an commerce architecture to be used inside that corporation.This document
There are four leading components to the TOGAF document:part I (Introduction) This half gives a excessive-stage introduction to one of the most key concepts in the back of commercial enterprise architecture and in selected the TOGAF strategy. half II (architecture development components) here is the core of TOGAF. It describes the TOGAF structure construction formulation (ADM) - a step-by means of-step approach to developing an commercial enterprise architecture. part III (enterprise Continuum) This half describes the TOGAF commercial enterprise Continuum, a digital repository of architecture belongings, which contains the TOGAF groundwork structure, and the built-in advice Infrastructure Reference mannequin (III-RM). part IV (materials) This section comprises the TOGAF resource ground - a collection of tools and techniques attainable to be used in applying TOGAF and the TOGAF ADM.
Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, together with a printable PDF file, are available beneath license from the TOGAF suggestions internet site (www.opengroup.org/structure/togaf). The license is free to any difficult wishing to utilize TOGAF absolutely for interior purposes (for example, to ameliorate an guidance system structure for utilize within that company).
The TOGAF documentation is freely attainable for viewing on-line with no license. on the other hand, the comprehensive TOGAF documentation set could be downloaded and kept under license, as explained on the TOGAF suggestions net site.
In either case, the TOGAF documentation can be used freely by any organization wishing to accomplish that to strengthen an structure for utilize within that organization. No section of it could be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any configuration or by any potential, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or in any other case, for any other purpose together with, but now not by the utilize of hindrance, any utilize for commerce gain, without the prior leave of the copyright house owners.intended viewers
TOGAF is meant for IT architects and any one answerable for the structure characteristic within a firm.key phrases
structure, structure framework, architecture edifice method, architect, architecting, enterprise architecture, commerce structure framework, commerce architecture components, components, methods, open, neighborhood, technical reference model, requirements, requisites tips baseconcerning the Open group The Open community
The Open community is a dealer-impartial and know-how-neutral consortium, whose vision of Boundaryless suggestions current will permit entry to built-in assistance within and between companies in line with open requirements and global interoperability. The Open group works with customers, suppliers, consortia, and different necessities bodies. Its position is to capture, bear in mind, and exploit present and rising necessities, establish policies, and share superior practices; to facilitate interoperability, strengthen consensus, and evolve and integrate necessities and Open supply technologies; to proffer a finished set of services to enhance the operational efficiency of consortia; and to duty the business's premier certification provider, together with UNIX certification.
additional suggestions on The Open neighborhood is accessible at www.opengroup.org.
The Open neighborhood has over 15 years' adventure in developing and working certification courses and has wide journey establishing and facilitating trade adoption of verify suites used to validate conformance to an open simple or specification.
greater assistance is accessible at www.opengroup.org/certification.
The Open neighborhood publishes a gigantic orbit of technical documentation, the leading section of which is focused on construction of Technical and Product requisites and guides, however which besides contains white papers, technical stories, branding and checking out documentation, and enterprise titles. replete particulars and a catalog can be found at www.opengroup.org/bookstall.
as with any reside files, Technical requisites and standards require revision to align with unique traits and associated foreign standards. to distinguish between revised necessities which might be utterly backwards-compatible and those which aren't:
Readers should note that Corrigenda may besides apply to any publication. Corrigenda counsel is published at www.opengroup.org/corrigenda.trademarks
AdobeTM, AcrobatTM, and Acrobat ReaderTM are emblems of Adobe programs incorporated.
Boundaryless advice run TM is a trademark and UNIX® and The Open neighborhood® are registered logos of The Open neighborhood within the u.s. and different nations.
Java® is a registered trademark of solar Microsystems, Inc.
here are registered trademarks of the application Engineering Institute (SEI):
The Open neighborhood acknowledges that there may well be other company names and products that might be covered by pass of trademark coverage and advises the reader to check them independently.Acknowledgements
The Open group gratefully acknowledges:
members of The Open community structure discussion board.Referenced files
here files are referenced in this e book:
right here net websites supply positive reference fabric:
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The TOGAF document set is designed to be used with frames. To navigate across the document:
return to preempt of web page
Downloads of the TOGAF documentation, are available beneath license from the TOGAF tips web site. The license is free to any organization wishing to execute utilize of TOGAF entirely for inner purposes (as an instance, to boost an assistance system architecture for utilize within that organization). A hardcopy e-book is besides available from The Open group bookstall as doc G063.
Copyright © 1999-2006 The Open community, every separate Rights ReservedTOGAF is a trademark of The Open community
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Skill Level: Foundation Status: Active
Low Cost: $320 (shortest track)
Summary:For individuals who gain knowledge of the terminology and basic concepts of TOGAF 9 and understand the core principles of Enterprise Architecture and TOGAF. Earning the TOGAF Foundation certification is the first plane of the TOGAF Practioner program.
Initial Requirements:You must pass the TOGAF 9 section 1 exam ($320). The exam consists of 40 questions and has a 60 minute time limit. A passing score of 55% is required.
Continuing Requirements:You must recertify every 2 years by paying a $300 fee.
See every separate Open Group Certifications
Vendor's page for this certification
Never trust a discipline that is not able to predict its own demise.It seems that every system integrator, consultancy and analyst house has its own “maturity model.” They wait on organizations measure how far along they are in inevitable disciplines, such as in systems administration, security, content management, integration and so forth. These models typically start with a stage called ad hoc or reactive, then depart through stages such as departmental or focused, then almost invariably there is a stage indicating some kindly of integration, and finally the situation is optimized.There is No Such Thing as “Optimized” The appeal of these models is light to spot. Wouldn’t they every separate want to be in the optimized stage? And if there are consultants who can wait on us spot where they are, where they want to be, and plot how they procure there, isn’t this the groundwork for any first-rate strategy? Still, I account these models simply miss the mark. I don’t account that at one second you can inform that you’re done, that you gain reached a condition of being a high-performance organization, or being optimized in any way. I don’t believe that there is any even state, for that matter. Progress comes with ebbs and flows. At most moments in time, you will achieve some kindly of equilibrium, where the system, process, program or whatever supports what it needs to support. Then something changes again, disturbing the equilibrium. Technology moves on, user requirements progress, competitors raise the bar, customer demands shift, economic circumstances change, the regulatory environment tightens, and so forth. The list of potential changes is endless. These changes disrupt the current balance, and then you try to create a unique equilibrium. Sometimes this is an improvement, and sometimes it is a step back, fancy with many things in life.1 And if they must account in stages, where are the stages of crumble and death? Technologies procure absorbed into other ones, and some user requirements simply disappear. When was the ultimate time you sent a fax?
In short, everything you don’t set energy into decays – buildings, vital creatures, friendships, relationships, systems, processes, everything. If you withhold putting effort in, there may be improvement along the way, but you’re never done. There is no such thing as optimized. Every manager knows that if you run your attention to one area, another locality suffers. To utilize a metaphor, there is always one more plate turning than you can manage.
There is an underlying law of nature called entropy. Everything in nature flows from a concentrated configuration into some kindly of disorder. In fact, entropy is a force of evolution. Evolution is based on a number of principles. First, there needs to be genetic variation. Every plant or animal, although belonging to a species, needs to be slightly different. Otherwise, there is no competitive advantage. Then, it needs to be practicable to create unique random permutations, based on inheritance. Lastly, there needs to be a competitive natural environment, in which only the most adaptive survive and in which the random permutations that Do not gain an environmental apt die. In a way, entropy drives change in nature and, at the very time, allows random permutations to occur.Evolution and Enterprise Architecture Evolution and enterprise architecture are very much related. From a cynical point of view, you could inform that the forces of evolution gain shaped most enterprise architectures. To quote one notorious analyst2: “Most of you gain an accidental architecture. I mean, I can only hope you didn’t deliberately design what you gain in place.”
Enterprise architecture (EA) can formally be defined as “a rigorous description of the structure of an enterprise, which comprises enterprise components (business entities), the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships (e.g., the behavior) between them. EA describes the terminology, the composition of enterprise components, and their relationships with the external environment, and the guiding principles for the requirement (analysis), design, and evolution of an enterprise. This description is comprehensive, including enterprise goals, commerce process, roles, organizational structures, organizational behaviors, commerce information, software applications and computer systems.”
This definition already contains the word “evolution.” When they focus on that, they can define enterprise architecture as every separate activities to counter the forces of entropy and withhold their enterprise focused and composed. Enterprise architecture maintains order and battles the crumble and chaos that entropy causes. This means an enterprise architecture needs to be resilient to resist entropy. In many cases, this is done by edifice a rigorous and robust enterprise architecture that will stand the test of time. Obviously, an enterprise architecture is a reference model. It takes time to procure there, and practicalities under pass may force you to execute decisions that are not supported by the enterprise architecture. For instance, inevitable commerce applications may gain their own workflow or content management, or arrive with their own reporting tools. But the goal of the enterprise architecture is to arrive as immediate as practicable to an benchmark state. Again, fancy with maturity models, they account in states.Aristotle has the Answer This thinking in states is deeply rooted in Western philosophy. Parmenides (5th century BC), a Greek philosopher predating Plato, felt that any motion and change in nature were nothing more than manifestations of an unchanging reality. In reality, everything “is.” If something changes, it needs to run from what it is to something else that “is.” In between, change would value a blend between “to be” and “to not be.” Impossible, according to Parmenides. Plato continued on this path. true knowledge about objects in this world is universal too, and doesn’t change. Plato felt the process of such objects becoming was not accessible to human beings. The notion of the underlying truth of being has dominated Western philosophy ever since. Heraclitus (535 – 475 BC) took a different approach. He is most notorious for his words “panta rhei, kai ouden menei,” acceptation “everything flows, and nothing remains still.”3 Heraclitus didn’t account in states, but rather much more in terms of continuous movement. Unfortunately, the toil of Heraclitus has been less influential.
But Aristotle (384–322 BC) argues that they can besides celebrate every separate the changes in the world around us. Aristotle starts, fancy Plato and Parmenides, by pointing out that the most famous characteristic of any demur is its existence. But change and movement – in other words the becoming of the demur – is a transition from its potential to be to the act of being, with a inevitable degree of perfection. This transition has a inevitable internal or external cause. In short, Aristotle suggests for each change or movement, they should quiz four questions. What did change? What caused that change? What is the result of the change? What is the purpose of the change?
To retort these questions, Aristotle identified four “causes.” Causes are best translated as "explanatory conditions and factors." The four causes are the material cause (causa materialis), the efficient cause (causa efficiens), the formal cause (causa formalis) and the final cause (causa finalis).
It turns out that these causes are a very useful framework for a resilient enterprise architecture. Not resilient in terms of being robust, but built in terms of cause and effect. Not based on an benchmark condition that is to be pursued, but built on the assumption of continuous change and movement.The First Two of the Four Causes Aristotle was not the first to quiz the question “why” in trying to understand the world. In fact, “why” is one of the most famous philosophical questions one can ask. Others before Aristotle had explored the “why” of things. Although, according to Aristotle, others had arrive up with every separate elements of causality that Aristotle mentioned but Aristotle was the first to picture the four causes as a comprehensive theory.
The term that Aristotle used was aition, which is “an explanation for how something came to be.” This is a wider term than the English term “cause,” which comes the closest. Today “cause” is very much connected to “effect,” through cause-and-effect relationships. If they enlarge prices by x%, sales will depart down by y%. If they bump their head, they procure a bruise. If they leave the steak on the barbeque too long, it will burn. This is what Aristotle would convoke the efficient cause, but there are other causes as well.
The four causes are usually explained with the instance of a statue. The material cause of the statue is marble, the material of which the statue is made. The efficient cause is the sculptor and his chisel, how the statue was made. The formal cause consists of what the statue portrays, for instance a woman. The final cause describes the purpose of the statue, such as depicting appreciate or, more mundane, highlighting the focus of a square.
Or pick the instance of mankind itself. A human being is made of flesh and bones, which constitutes the material cause. It is produced by its father and mother, which is the efficient cause. A human being is recognizable by its features. They every separate gain legs and arms, a nose and the ability to reason, which is the formal cause. For what purpose, the final cause, is a question that has many different answers, ranging from simply sustaining the species (biological) to fulfilling your replete potential (humanistic) to vital a life worthy of deserving a region in heaven (religious).
Finally, let’s pick another example, a microscopic closer to enterprise architecture, by asking “Why did the house collapse?” The material cause might be the attribute of the stones that were used. The efficient cause is that the builders didn’t Do a first-rate job using the materials or that contemptible weather caused the collapse. The formal cause might be the blueprint that contained errors. The final cause in this instance is that cost was preferred over quality.
In every separate examples, multiple causes can play a role in the explanation of an demur or an event. Leaving out one cause, or choosing a different explanation as a result of one of the four causes, would lead to different results.Material Cause There has to be an unmoved mover, the thing that comes first. In Aristotle’s view, what they can assume to be present are the materials of which the demur is composed. They can define this broadly and mention to bronze as the raw material of a statue, or define multiple levels of material causes, where the bronze is caused by its elements, ultimately leading to the atomic plane of the material. The statue is caused by its raw materials because without the bronze it wouldn’t be there. As Aristotle tries to picture change through his four causes, the raw material undergoes change as well. For instance, the bronze needs to be melted and molded to become section of the statue. The material cause is not limited to a separate ilk of material. The material cause of the house, in the instance I used, includes concrete, wood, glass and spikes (notice that a spike in itself has four causes as well – it consists of material, it was produced, it has a form, and a meaning). Materials can cause inevitable things, but others not. Bronze is only suitable for a inevitable ilk of statue; from the point of view of the other causes, another statue might benefit more from marble.
The link with enterprise architecture is pretty obvious. The material cause describes the technology level. every separate technologies in utilize by the organization together configuration the material cause. This includes commerce technologies such as content management and commerce intelligence; hardcore technologies such as development environments and integration tools; and supporting technologies taking keeping of systems management, security and so forth. If you want inevitable technologies, it is not practicable to create enterprise architectures that deem those technologies necessary. Some organizations may be able to invest in their own technologies, but for most organizations the technologies available are indeed the unmoved mover. They are assumed to be there.
Yet, it is not that simple. Others would bicker that technologies are not the cause of an architecture. They are the effect. One would pick the technologies needed to compile a inevitable enterprise architecture. Still, they are the material cause, as Aristotle defined “cause” in a broader sense. The technologies, chosen or already available, configuration a description of the enterprise architecture envisioned or in place. Furthermore, enterprise architects toil within inevitable paradigms as well. It is difficult to embrace technologies you are not awake of. In strategy, this debate was summarized as “strategy follows structure,” or “structure follows strategy.” The only conclusion that remains in such a heated debate is that both are interdependent. unique strategies arrive out of existing structures, and unique structures are the result of unique strategies. The relationship between enterprise architecture and technologies is the same.
I besides embrace skills and organizational capabilities in the material cause. This seems to be in contradiction to Aristotle. He regarded the sculptor and his skills as the efficient cause. However, there is an famous difference. In the case of a statue, the sculptor is external to the statue; he creates it. In the case of organizational capabilities, they are section of the enterprise architecture itself and therefore section of the material cause. Obviously, it is not enough to own technologies. It is equally famous to master them or to know where to procure the privilege skills. Another essential organizational capability in an adaptive enterprise architecture is being able to spot unique and innovative technologies, and utilize them in a meaningful way. Consequently, organizations requisite to be able to absorb those unique technologies into the architecture, as section of absorbing every separate external and internal change to existing systems and processes.Efficient Cause The efficient cause comes closest to what they today would convoke cause-and-effect. The contemptible weather causes the house to be flooded or the sculptor with his chisel creates a statue. To be more precise, according to Aristotle, it is the knowledge and the skills of the sculptor that configuration the efficient cause, the expertise of sculpting in general. The efficient cause is the primary source of change.
This cause is different from what I gain seen in other enterprise architecture frameworks. Most frameworks pick a closed-system approach, describing only the elements within the frameworks, every separate other things being equal. If the primary source of change is the efficient cause, then the external factors that shape and reshape the organization deserve quite some attention. Understanding the efficient cause of enterprise architecture can be accomplished through a stakeholder analysis. A very useful framework to Do this is the Performance Prism that was developed at Cranfield University in the UK. This framework defines both stakeholder contributions and requirements. Stakeholders embrace customers, suppliers, employees, investors, authorities and society at large.
Stakeholders each gain contributions. As a stakeholder, they gain an interest in the success of the organization. By offering their business, opinions and trust, customers fuel the organization's growth. In addition to first-rate products and services, suppliers should proffer an efficient buying process that is reliable, fast, light and leads to the privilege price. Employees proffer their hands, their minds, their hearts and their voices in the market. Investors proffer capital and their support, but besides pick credit risk. Authorities ensure there is a objective market, with pellucid rules, and can provide advice. Lastly, the community provides an infrastructure within which to Do business. This includes access to skills and the means to create positive public relations through the media.
An enterprise architecture describes the repercussion of these contributions on the organizational structure, its systems and processes; and it describes how changing contributions move the enterprise architecture. But there is more. In order to weigh on stakeholder contributions, they requisite to pick stakeholder requirements into account as well.
Customers require what you require from your suppliers. Next to first-rate products and services, you should proffer an efficient buying process that is reliable, fast, light and leads to the privilege price. Suppliers require what you gain to proffer as a customer: profit, growth, your opinion and trust. Employees require pay and care, but besides the occasion to build skills and receive feedback on how their toil is contributing to organizational success. Investors obviously anticipate a return, but besides transparency so they can withhold faith in their investment. Authorities anticipate organizations to obey the law, conduct commerce in a objective way, sprint safe operations and be truthful in their reporting. The community is looking for jobs, a share of the wealth that is created and a inevitable amount of fidelity.
As the Performance Prism describes these stakeholder contributions and requirements in noteworthy detail, the change that they bring can be detected, to a inevitable extent predicted, and taken into account to build an agile enterprise architecture. It is famous to recollect that relationships with the environment are reciprocal. Simply extracting value from the larger ecosystem is not sustainable.The Formal cause and Final Cause The formal cause describes how the demur of analysis looks – its form. A statue can depict a human being, a horse, or an abstract three-dimensional pattern called “happiness.” Understanding an object’s configuration is needed to picture that particular object. In order for something to be called a house, it usually has a roof, a door, windows and, in some houses, a chimney and a garden. Without this explanation and a pellucid blueprint, the house could glimpse totally different or – in the absence of any formal cause – be just a collection of materials neatly packed on a piece of land.
With the knowledge they gain today, the formal cause doesn’t gain to be a static result, fancy a statue, a house or – in terms of an enterprise architecture – a description of every separate the organizational functions the architecture supports.
With the advent of service-oriented architectures, they can pick the formal cause one step further and create an agile enterprise architecture that is continuously being recomposed. Service-oriented architecture may configuration the technology component, but the thinking behind it can besides be applied to organizations, creating a service-oriented organization. If every separate activities are seen as a commerce service, not as a step in a process, they can be set together in multiple, probably countless, ways. A commerce service is a unit of toil that leads to a transferable result: The result is adequate for the next person to continue, even if the next person is the customer. Viewed from the IT perspective, a commerce service represents the functionality to be developed to champion the task. From the perspective of the organization model, a commerce service represents the role an employee performs to complete the task. commerce services are not focused on specific processes and products, but focused on competencies that can be used for a multitude of things. There are many commerce examples available. Since the beginning, breweries gain realized that their distilling process can be used for other spirits as well, such as whisky. Amazon realized its infrastructure is not only capable of selling books, but besides of selling second-hand books, goods other than books, and even IT capacity itself (cloud computing). Utility companies, such as the electricity company, sometimes proffer invoicing services for other utilities, such as water and gas. The capability is at the center, not the product.4
Seen this way, it is not very exciting to define the formal cause as a replete description of every separate commerce services. This can be done on an aggregated level, and other than that the enterprise architecture can declare to “let there be commerce services.” A far more exciting approach would be to picture how commerce services should glimpse (the configuration they have!), how they can be standardized and how they can interact.
If you account this through, this approach actually reconciles the opposing forces of entropy and evolution on one hand and enterprise architecture on the other. Enterprise architecture is no longer fighting evolution and entropy, but rather embraces it. In fact, service orientation on any plane is very much fancy evolution. In order for biological components to mix, they requisite extreme standardization on the DNA plane too. Random variation is nothing other than trying every separate kinds of DNA combinations.
It should be said that you can bicker whether evolution belongs in the formal cause. Evolution creates random variation and doesn’t concern itself with how something should look. And evolution certainly doesn’t look to belong in the final cause, as there is no acceptation to random variation. Aren’t the latter two causes more the territory of “intelligent design”? This controversy is relatively light to counter. Adaptation exists by the grace of evolution, and the configuration that fits its natural environment best will succeed and procreate.Final Cause The final cause is the most important. It describes the purpose of the object, the essence of its being. Once a final cause is in place, the material cause, efficient cause and formal cause can, in principle, be derived. They supervene from the goal. If the final cause of a statue is to note the magnificence of the emperor going to battle on his horse, the first step is to execute a wax model. Then the bronze is melted, poured, and further treated. Each and every step is bringing the notion of the statue closer to becoming reality.
At first, it is a bit odd that the final cause is a cause. Isn’t it the result? The final effect? Aristotle maybe called the final cause the most famous one because it is the initial notion that triggered the other causes. Because you wanted it to be reality, it becomes reality. Because you want to be an entrepreneur, you start your own business.
Still, the causality isn’t that simple. Let’s recrudesce for a second to the “structure follows strategy” debate. You may want to be the world’s best basketball player; but if you are not tall and athletic, it is unlikely it is going to happen. And if you don’t gain an athletic posture, you probably would never gain the notion to become the world’s best basketball player. The final cause closes the loop. It is what triggers change, and it is the result of change.
One of the best books I read on the subject, Enterprise Architecture as Strategy, by Jeanne Ross, Peter Weill and David Robertson, elaborates greatly on different commerce operating models (different final causes) and how that leads to different enterprise architectures. Ross et al picture a two-by-two matrix, with one axis describing an increasing integration of commerce processes and the other describing increased commerce process standardization. Low standardization and low integration value a diversified commerce strategy and operating model. The key capability for any enterprise architecture is to provide economies of scale, without limiting independence.
A lofty plane of standardization with low integration is the main characteristic of a commerce model based on replication. commerce units share best practices, and the enterprise architecture focuses on creating, managing and disseminating benchmark components.
A lofty plane of integration with a low plane of standardization is the hallmark of a coordinated business, where various specialized commerce units requisite to collaborate. Enterprise architecture in this model is every separate about providing access to shared data and data exchange. Highly integrated and standardized businesses benefit most from an enterprise architecture that reinforces benchmark processes and enterprise systems.
Depending on the operating model you have, a inevitable enterprise architecture will follow. The final cause. Yet, unique technologies and more agile enterprise architectures besides enable unique blends in operating models, and once in a while completely unique commerce models. The final effect.The Ultimate Enterprise Architecture Framework? Aristotle aimed to justify every separate configuration and matter with his four causes. This includes enterprise architecture, even though obviously the concept didn’t exist in Aristotle’s time. Does this value that the four causes are the ultimate enterprise architecture framework? Probably not. Existing leading frameworks such as Zachman and TOGAF are generic frameworks to cover every separate sorts of enterprise architectures, while at the very time being very specific in covering aspects of enterprise architecture only. They are not theories-of-everything. This makes existing enterprise architecture frameworks particularly valuable.
In fact, the Zachman Framework is almost structured in terms of causes. It introduces a number of levels (contextual, conceptual, logical, physical and detailed) and then introduces a sequence of questions for each level. These questions are: Why? How? What? Who? Where? When? This is a very structured approach toward creating a minute explanation, very much fancy Aristotle’s causes but practically applied and offering much more guidance specifically toward creating an enterprise architecture.
Still, there is always margin for improvement, even when the advice is 2500 years old. For instance, it took TOGAF until version 9 to become more commerce focused, and therewith interpose what they here convoke the final cause. Before version 9, TOGAF was really IT focused, architecture for its own sake. And although Zachman offers a comprehensive framework, it could Do better in emphasizing the efficient cause. The “who” question is noiseless very much about the material cause, identifying the roles and skills within the organization. The very goes for the stakeholders that are connected to the various levels in the framework – largely internal to the business. The contextual plane could (should?) develop more into the direction of the efficient cause.
One thing is certain: Enterprise architecture and philosophy are very much related. One of the oldest fascinations in philosophy is about what defines beauty. Aesthetics. A fascination that most enterprise architects will share.
Frank's professional background in strategy, performance management and organizational deportment gives him a tough perspective across many domains in commerce and IT. He is an entertaining speaker at conferences every separate over the world, and was recently called an “intellectual provocateur” and described as “having an unusual warm tone of voice.” His toil is frequently labeled as provocative, deep, truly original, and out of the box. More down to earth, his daughter once described it as “My daddy sits in airplanes, stands on stages, and tells jokes.” candid is a former Gartner Research VP, and a seasoned IT executive. candid is besides a visiting fellow at Cranfield University School of Management, and author of various books, including Performance Leadership (McGraw-Hill, September 2008), and Dealing with Dilemmas (Wiley & Sons, August 2010). Frank's newest book, Socrates Reloaded, is now available and is highly recommended. Click here for more information on how to procure your copy today.
Editor's Note: More articles and a link to his celebrated blog are available in Frank's BeyeNETWORK Expert Channel. Be positive to visit today!
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I was recently asked a very simple, but very famous question: “What is the repercussion of setting SET ANSI_WARNING OFF in a stored procedure?”
My immediate reaction was to understand why the team was trying to set ANSI_WARNINGS to OFF because setting ANSI_WARNINGS to OFF can gain an repercussion on the data attribute and system behaviour. This article demonstrates how setting ANSI_WARNINGS of OFF impacts system behaviour.What is the SET option ANSI_WARNINGS?
The ANSI_WARNINGS controls the benchmark ISO deportment of the SQL Server database engine for various mistake conditions. When ANSI_WARNINGS is set to ON, the engine follows the benchmark ISO deportment for the following situations:
When ANSI_WARNINGS is OFF, the engine follows a non-standard behavior, which reduces data attribute and depending upon your commerce context, may generate contemptible data.
The examples below demonstrate the benchmark and non-standard ISO deportment when ANSI_WARNINGS is ON v/s OFF for each of the scenarios mentioned above.Null value is eliminated by an aggregate or other SET operation
In their system, most aggregates are performed over revenue values, which would rarely be NULL. One would either gain a 0, signifying no revenue, or some value (negative or positive), signifying a balance amount.
However, when aggregations (SUM, AVG, MAX, MIN, STDEV, STDEVP, VAR, VARP, or COUNT) are performed over columns that may contain NULLs (lap timings for example) a warning will be returned. This code sample demonstrates the issue.
In this example:
The results are shown below. While the aggregation worked, they besides procure a warning in the "Messages" tab of SSMS:
The warning simply notifies the user that the rows with NULL values were ignored when performing the aggregation, which should be expected because one cannot accomplish any mathematical operation on an unknown value (NULL indicates an unknown value). Therefore, this deportment is not an error, but a note that the system is actually working as expected.
However, when ANSI_WARNINGS is set to OFF, no warning is returned and SQL Server silently ignores the rows with NULL values. Here is the very code with the ANSI_WARNINGS set to OFF.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO DECLARE @lapTiming TABLE (LapNumber INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), RunnerId INT NOT NULL, LapTime DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO @lapTiming (RunnerId, LapTime) VALUES (1, '1.10'), (2, '1.12'), (3, NULL ), --Assume this player is DNF (4, '1.05'); SELECT MIN(lt.LapTime) AS FastestLap FROM @lapTiming AS lt; GO
The results and Message tabs are shown here.
This is especially confusing when performing a weigh on a column with NULL values and the result does not match the number of rows available in the result set. This is because the rows with NULL values would gain been eliminated from the aggregation without any notification of the elimination.
Conclusion #1: As can be seen from the instance above, setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can eliminate warnings being logged if the aggregations are being done as section of a nightly job. However, it may cause confusion when validating the results of the aggregation.Msg 8134 Divide by zero mistake encountered
Typically, a division by zero mistake is a classic indication of contemptible data. One would anticipate that the offending statement in the batch is terminated and that the transaction encountering the divide by zero mistake is rolled back.
This is the ISO benchmark deportment enforced when both ARITHABORT and ANSI_WARNINGS are set to ON. ARITHABORT ON terminates the statement as soon as the divide by zero mistake is encountered and ANSI_WARNINGS ON takes keeping of reporting the mistake to the client application.
We can notice this in the code sample below which performs a simple division operation on a set of values. One of the divisors is a zero and will result in a divide by zero error. When the mistake is encountered, the entire transaction will be rolled back because ANSI_WARNINGS is set to ON and the client application will be notified accordingly.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; --Setting this to ON will automatically rotate ARITHABORT to ON GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO IF OBJECT_ID('#mathOps','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE #mathOps; END GO CREATE TABLE #mathOps (RowId INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), OpA DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, OpB DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, MathResult DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO #mathOps (OpA, OpB) VALUES (1.0, 2.0), (1.0, 3.0), (1.0, 0.0), (1.0, 33.0); GO UPDATE mops SET mops.MathResult = (mops.OpA/mops.OpB) FROM #mathOps AS mops GO SELECT mops.RowId, mops.OpA, mops.OpB, mops.MathResult FROM #mathOps AS mops; GO
The screenshot below confirms that not one of the records were updated (the statement was indeed terminated and that transaction rolled back) with the following mistake message being returned:
SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.Msg 8134, plane 16, condition 1, Line 36Divide by zero mistake encountered.The statement has been terminated.
However, when both ARITHABORT and ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF, the statement is not aborted. Instead of a rollback, what they notice is that when a divide by zero is encountered, the output of the division is a NULL, i.e. unknown.
The setting of ARITHABORT to OFF prevents the statement from rolling back and the ANSI_WARNINGS causes a divide by zero to be evaluated as a NULL.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; --This will NOT set ARITHABORT to OFF SET ARITHABORT OFF; --Hence, manually setting it to OFF GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO IF OBJECT_ID('#mathOps','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE #mathOps; END GO CREATE TABLE #mathOps (RowId INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1), OpA DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, OpB DECIMAL(19,4) NULL, MathResult DECIMAL(19,4) NULL ); INSERT INTO #mathOps (OpA, OpB) VALUES (1.0, 2.0), (1.0, 3.0), (1.0, 0.0), (1.0, 33.0); GO UPDATE mops SET mops.MathResult = (mops.OpA/mops.OpB) FROM #mathOps AS mops GO SELECT mops.RowId, mops.OpA, mops.OpB, mops.MathResult FROM #mathOps AS mops; GO
The screenshots below note that the transaction completed successfully and the data condition resulting in a divide by zero mistake returned a NULL or an unknown. The client application only receives a warning message that it can discard (and most systems will).
The client application will therefore never realize that an erroneous data scenario just occurred and contemptible data will be persisted due to the success of the transaction.
Conclusion #2: Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can cause the database engine to accept possibly contemptible data.
One of the things they notice very frequently when exchanging data between systems is unlikeness in the sizes of various fields. When trying to insert a string into a territory in a table which is smaller than the length of the input string, the benchmark deportment with ANSI_WARNINGS ON is to recrudesce a string truncation error.
In the instance provided below, they are inserting more than 10 characters (the author's surname) into a territory that only allows 10 characters.
The insert fails and the statement is rolled back because they would want to either insert every separate of the data of the input string into the table, or not one (I would not want my ultimate denomination to be stored as incomplete in any database).USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO --String Truncation Errors DECLARE @personTable TABLE (FirstName CHAR(10), LastName CHAR(10) ); --Conduct the test insert INSERT INTO @personTable (FirstName, LastName) VALUES ('Nakul', 'Vachhrajani'); SELECT pt.FirstName, pt.LastName FROM @personTable AS pt; GO
This following mistake message is returned:
SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.Msg 8152, plane 16, condition 14, Line 23String or binary data would be truncated.The statement has been terminated.
Now, when ANSI_WARNINGS are turned OFF, reticent truncation of the input string happens when the input string is longer than the territory into which it is being inserted or updated.
The instance provided below is very as the one above, with the exception that ANSI_WARNINGS is explicitly set to OFF.USE tempdb; GO SET NOCOUNT ON; SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO --Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO --String Truncation Errors DECLARE @personTable TABLE (FirstName CHAR(10), LastName CHAR(10) ); --Conduct the test insert INSERT INTO @personTable (FirstName, LastName) VALUES ('Nakul', 'Vachhrajani'); SELECT pt.FirstName, pt.LastName FROM @personTable AS pt; GO
Notice the incomplete LastName in the screenshot above. The input data was silently truncated without the client system ever knowing about the truncation. Such reticent truncation of string data can lead to data attribute issues – which can depart undetected when ANSI_WARNINGS are kept OFF untill halt users notice names, addresses or other notes being frustratingly truncated and convoke the product champion helpline.
Conclusion #3: Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can cause the database engine to silently generate contemptible data. reticent truncation of strings can depart unnoticed unless cross-verification of stored data is done at each stage of a data transfer. Storing truncated strings ultimately results in destitute data attribute in cases where names, addresses, warning messages, incident reports or other notes and notices are being stored.Impact on Table Design and Index Management
So far, they gain seen that setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can generate potentially contemptible data. contemptible data conditions are generally reticent and are not immediately detected. The repercussion of ANSI_WARNINGS on table design and index management is a more visible one - in the sense that indexes on computed columns or indexed views requisite ANSI_WARNINGS to be ON.
If ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF, attempting to exploit data in tables with indexed computed columns or indexed views results in an error. The instance provided below creates a table with a non-clustered index on a computed column. This is done with ANSI_WARNINGS set to ON. When inserting data, ANSI_WARNINGS are set to OFF for the purposes of this test.USE tempdb; GO --Confirm ANSI_WARNINGS is noiseless ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) = 8 BEGIN PRINT 'ANSI_WARNINGS is ON'; END GO --Now, create a table with some computed columns --Safety Check IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.MathematicalTables','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables; END GO CREATE TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables (intA INT NOT NULL, intB INT NOT NULL, intC AS (intA * intB), CONSTRAINT pk_MathematicalTables PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (intA, intB) ); GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX nc_MathematicalTables ON dbo.MathematicalTables (intC); GO --Now, rotate ANSI_WARNINGS OFF SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO INSERT INTO dbo.MathematicalTables (intA, intB) SELECT set1.intA, set2.intB FROM (VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10)) AS set1(intA) CROSS associate (VALUES (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8),(9),(10)) AS set2(intB); GO --Revert Back the environment SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO
When the code provided above is executed, they receive the following error:
Msg 1934, plane 16, condition 1, Line 34INSERT failed because the following SET options gain incorrect settings: 'ANSI_WARNINGS'. Verify that SET options are reform for utilize with indexed views and/or indexes on computed columns and/or filtered indexes and/or query notifications and/or XML data ilk methods and/or spatial index operations.
As the mistake suggests, their INSERT failed because ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF. Keeping ANSI_WARNINGS OFF prevents us from XML and spatial data manipulation and working with filtered index in addition to issues with computed columns demonstrated above.
If ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF at the time of index creation, the index creation itself will fail.This is demonstrated by the code provided below, which is very as the one above, but with an exception that ANSI_WARNINGS are turned OFF when the index is being created.USE tempdb; GO --Confirm ANSI_WARNINGS is noiseless ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) = 8 BEGIN PRINT 'ANSI_WARNINGS is ON'; END GO --Now, create a table with some computed columns --Safety Check IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.MathematicalTables','U') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables; END GO --Now, rotate ANSI_WARNINGS OFF SET ANSI_WARNINGS OFF; GO CREATE TABLE dbo.MathematicalTables (intA INT NOT NULL, intB INT NOT NULL, intC AS (intA * intB), CONSTRAINT pk_MathematicalTables PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (intA, intB) ); GO CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX nc_MathematicalTables ON dbo.MathematicalTables (intC); GO --Revert Back the environment SET ANSI_WARNINGS ON; GO
The following mistake is reported if ANSI_WARNINGS are OFF when an index is being created.
Msg 1934, plane 16, condition 1, Line 31CREATE INDEX failed because the following SET options gain incorrect settings: 'ANSI_WARNINGS'. Verify that SET options are reform for utilize with indexed views and/or indexes on computed columns and/or filtered indexes and/or query notifications and/or XML data ilk methods and/or spatial index operations.
Conclusion #4: Index creation on computed columns, filtered indexes, data manipulation of XML and Spatial data requires that ANSI_WARNINGS be set to ON in addition to other SET options (ARITHABORT, CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER, ANSI_NULLS, ANSI_PADDING, and ANSI_WARNINGS).Testing for ANSI_WARNINGS
The following code demonstrates how to check whether ANSI_WARNINGS is ON or OFF. The @@OPTIONS duty returns a bitmap of the various SET options that can be turned ON or OFF, converted to a ground 10 (decimal) integer. every separate they requisite to Do is utilize binary AND operation to check whether the bit at the preempt binary position is 1 (i.e. option is ON) or 0 (i.e. option is OFF).--Confirm that the option SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON IF (@@OPTIONS & 8) > 0 BEGIN PRINT 'SET ANSI_WARNINGS is ON.'; END GO How to configure ANSI_WARNINGS for every separate sessions on the server?
We simply utilize the transpose logic used to test for a set option being ON. The system stored procedure sp_configure can be used to set the preempt option by specifying the decimal representation of the preempt bit position.
In case of ANSI_WARNINGS, the bitmap for decimal value 8 represents that the option is ON.EXEC sp_configure 'user options', 8 ; GO RECONFIGURE ; GO
The SET option ANSI_WARNINGS controls the ISO deportment of the SQL Server database engine. Setting ANSI_WARNINGS OFF can eliminate warnings being logged if the aggregations are being done as section of a nightly job.
However, it may cause confusion when validating the results of the aggregation. When divide by zero or string length mismatch issues are encountered, the database engine may successfully accept, process, generate and confide data of a particular transaction with possibly destitute data attribute (i.e. data may be incorrect or incomplete).
Having destitute attribute data in a system may create problems when such data is migrated over to or integrated with another system (maybe another on-premise or a cloud system) and the target system enforces strict data attribute standards. It may besides cause dissatisfaction among users if an organization incorrectly addresses them or their shipments Do not achieve them due to reticent truncation of their data.
In addition to data truncation, turning ANSI_WARNINGS OFF besides has a serious repercussion on table design and index maintenance such that SQL Server prevents insertion of data in the affected tables.Further Reading Disclaimer
A few disclaimers about this information and code:
Nakul Vachhrajani is a Microsoft Certified Professional (MCTS: SQL 2008, MCP: SQL 2012), TOGAF 9 certified Technical Architect and systems development professional with Capgemini (formerly, IGATE) having a total IT sustain of more than 12 years. He has more than a decade of dedicated sustain on Data Quality, Data Management and Database Administration. He has a comprehensive grasp on data migrations to Salesforce.com, and product development, implementation and sustenance (including handling of production champion escalations) on products using MS SQL Server and C, C++, Visual C++/C#.
Nakul is the author of 12 technical articles on database technologies (published worldwide in edited journals & communities) and 3 whitepapers (one of which has been published nationwide). Nakul is an lively blogger (more than 370 blogs on https://nakulvachhrajani.com, besides syndicated on ToadWorld - a software community by Dell), and can besides be found on forums at SQLServerCentral and Experts-Exchange. He has been a guest columnist for SQLAuthority.com and SQLServerCentral.com. He has besides presented a webcast in Microsoft Virtual Tech Days.
In addition to his ardor about SQL Server, Nakul besides contributes to the academia out of personal interest. He visits various colleges and universities as an external faculty to arbitrator project activities being carried out by the students.
When not working occupied with work, Nakul likes to expend time with his family. His hobbies embrace travelling, listening to music and reading till late into the night.
Specialties: Microsoft SQL Server - Administration, Development, Data attribute & Data Management, migration of on-premise SQL Server data to Salesforce.comProduct Development, Sustenance & escalation management in an agile environment
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BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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