HP2-B68 exam Dumps Source : HP AC Integration and champion Technical(R) - Job Accounting
Test Code : HP2-B68
Test designation : HP AC Integration and champion Technical(R) - Job Accounting
Vendor designation : HP
: 40 actual Questions
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HP has announced these days whatever lengthy-rumored and hoped for but not really available in stores: a Chromebook powered by using an AMD processor. They noticed it for ourselves, the Chrome OS-backed HP Chromebook 14 runs on a dual-core AMD A4-9120 CPU with built-in AMD Radeon R4 pictures. It begins at $269 and arrives later this month.HP Chromebook 14 Specs CPU & ground Frequency / BoostAMD A4-9210 @ 2.2 GHz / 2.5 GHzGraphicsAMD Radeon R4 (built-in)RAM4GB (DDR4-1866 SDRAM)Storage32GB (eMMC)Display14 inches, HD resolution SVA panel with anti-glare & WLED backlightPorts
2x USB class-C2x USB 2.01x MicroSD1x headphone out/mic in comboBattery47.4 WhConnectivityQualcomm Atheros QCA6174A-5 802.11a/b/g/ac 2x2 Wi-FiBluetooth four.2 combo (MU-MIMO guide)Audio2x B&O speakersWebcamHP TrueVision HD Dimensions (WxDxH)13.three x 8.9 in x 0.7 inches (33.8 x 22.6 x 1.8 cm)Weight3.four pounds (1.5 kg)PriceNon-touchscreen: $269Touchscreen: $299
Intel has been holding a difficult grasp on the Chromebook CPU area, with most Chromebooks nowadays sporting their Celeron, Pentium or older-technology Core i3 or i5 processors. but HP (in addition to Acer) has broken the mildew with its latest Chromebook. As a not pricey Chromebook, it’s meant for fundamental productiveness and only runs Android Apps, so that you can not are expecting HP to pack much efficiency power into the 3.four-pound light-weight. The Chromebook 14’s CPU has a 2.2-GHz clock pace and might attain 2.5 GHz at turbo boost. It has a great, for a Chromebook, 4GB of memory and integrated AMD portraits.
In-grownup the laptop become surprisingly light with the thick, rounded edges and the especially difficult exterior of a kid-friendly apparatus but the graceful colour and conclude of a grown-up workstation. HP calls it chalkboard gray with a textured conclude. It impressively has now not one, however two USB-C ports, for charging and records, and a one hundred eighty-diploma hinge for laying the desktop flat.
HP claims the desktop receives up to 9 hours and 15 minutes of battery lifestyles. besides its 802.11a/b/g/ac connectivity, the Chromebook additionally helps MU-MIMO for more advantageous cyber web connectivity.
With AMD below the hood, HP may besides Have just given some group crimson enthusiasts purpose to accept as proper with a Chromebook as a secondary or children' gadget.
Friday, October 26, 2018
Press release from the issuing enterprise
Amtech, a number one company of software options for the corrugated and folding carton manufacturing industries, is participating with HP to combine the Amtech ERP reply for the HP PageWide C500 Press.
The EnCore integration will capitalize HP PageWide C500 converters with automated job submission, tracking, handle, bilateral information retrieval and visibility to press reputation, plenary the disburse of the common JDF/JMF print protocol. The solution will allow converters to optimize construction, gain market-share and boost their company customers.
With the original HP PageWide C500 integration, Amtech is additionally including original performance to the EnCore All-In-One cloud-primarily based packaging solution, comparable to automatic time table downloads, construction reporting, job and press analytics. The solution creates an all-digital, conclusion-to-conclusion no touch workflow that makes it practicable for businesses to design, expense and order packaging on-line, whereas protecting everybody in the supply-chain suggested and collaborative.
“we are delighted to exist collaborating with HP on workflow options for the HP web page extensive C500 Press. This reply will champion converters meet demand from brands for digitally printed corrugated packaging in lofty quantity with short turnaround,” pointed out Cosmo DeNicola, Amtech Chairman.
The EnCore application system is produced from an impressive set of modules that address key add-ons of a packaging vegetation operations, procedures, and strategies. EnCore gives corporations with the tools imperative for making smart enterprise decisions that positively influence the bottom line.
The HP PageWide C500 Press produces offset fine for mainstream creation the disburse of water-primarily based, food compliant inks, printing on each primary and secondary food packaging devoid of an additional barrier which could disagree to even essentially the most stringent world meals protection laws, including Nestlé assistance and Swiss Ordinance.
The Amtech ERP integration to the HP PageWide C500 press is a Part of the HP One apparatus workflow suite, the holistic corrugated workflow reply for converters in the hunt for a clean transition into digital.
To establish up a remark Log In or revolve into a Member, doing so is basic and free
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Tesla Motors probably shouldn't exist.
The final successful American car startup was founded 111 years ago. It's called Ford.
Barely a decade old, Tesla is already gigantic and adored. Its market capitalization hovers around $28 billion. Morgan Stanley calls it "the world's most necessary car company," and a 2014 nationwide survey found that Tesla's Model S was the "Most Loved Vehicle in America."
So how has Tesla flourished where others Have flopped?
Today, everybody thinks Tesla was created by its charismatic CEO, Elon Musk, a PayPal cofounder who is the face of the company.
The verisimilitude is course crazier than that.
Tesla was the brainchild of a tiny troupe of obsessive Silicon Valley engineers who would travel on to collaborate with — and collide with — the juvenile billionaire.
This is the tale of that collision.
In reporting the story, traffic Insider conducted several in-depth interviews with most of the key players and pored over little-noticed documents made public in a lawsuit. They besides met with a inquisitive exigency of cooperation from the usually press-friendly Tesla Motors.
This is Tesla, the inception story.
Elon Musk celebrates Tesla's initial public offering on June 29, 2010. AP Photo/Mark LennihanTry And touch The Dashboard
In the summer of 2004, a product designer named Malcolm Smith got a convoke from a hardware guy he used to toil with, one Martin Eberhard.
"I can't bid you what we're doing," Eberhard said, "but why don't you approach check out this car I have."
Smith headed over to Eberhard's tiny office in downtown Menlo Park, California. Eberhard and his partner, Marc Tarpenning, showed Smith a jagged traffic system and some jagged specifications for a original car they wanted to build.
Not just any car: an electric car.
Smith was skeptical, quizzical, curious.
He realized that Eberhard and Tarpenning didn't exigency to reinvent physics; they just needed to combine barely available technologies to contour a technological breakthrough.
"Well," Eberhard said, "let's travel for a ride."
He hopped into this aberrant tiny yellow car with Eberhard.
The tzero by AC Propulsion. Wikimedia commons It felt handmade — because it was.
A decal on the side read "tzero," a reference to "To," a emblem that mathematicians disburse to denote the dawn of time within a system.
As they pulled onto Sand Hill Road, the now Famous thoroughfare that's home to Sequoia Capital, Kleiner Perkins, and every other venture capital difficult you've ever heard of, the hobby car was noticeably quiet.
Eberhard slowed the car to 10 mph.
"Try and touch the dashboard," he told Smith.
As Smith reached out, Eberhard hit the accelerator.
Smith's hand never made it to the dash. The tzero, an all-electric two-seater built by AC Propulsion, could leap from zero to 60 in under 4 seconds. G-forces threw Smith abysmal into his seat.
That's when it hit him. "I regain it," Smith thought. "This isn't a nice exiguous science experiment."
It was a highly technical vehicle.
No other car gives you 100% torque in an instant, he realized, but a high-performance electric ride does.
Another realization: Not plenary electric cars are clown cars or golf carts, even if the auto industry didn't Have the will to demonstrate otherwise.
Smith would become one of the first 20 employees of Eberhard's original car company. His official title: vice president of vehicle engineering for Tesla Motors.
As Eberhard's juvenile company grew, he'd continue to request would-be recruits to touch the dashboard, before throwing them into their seats with the torque of an electric sports car, properly unleashed.Mark Cuyler, an operations manager at Tesla, walks a Model S through the company's factory in Fremont, California, June 22, 2012. REUTERS/Noah Berger The Start
The Roadster, Tesla's flagship sports car, made waves when it was released in 2008. Car and Driver said, "It is not just a car, but one of the strongest automotive statements on the road."
The Model S, the sports sedan released in 2013, earned the distinction of Motor Trend Car of the Year. That year, the Model S outsold the Mercedes Benz S Class, the BMW 7 Series, and every other large luxury sedan.
But Tesla really began around 1990.
An engineer named Marc Tarpenning was working for Textron in Saudi Arabia. On a visit home to his aboriginal California, he met up with a longtime friend, Greg Renda, who worked for Wyse Technology in San Jose. Renda insisted that Tarpenning approach into his office to discern the terminals that Wyse was working on.
There he met Martin Eberhard, an engineer whose energy, thoughtfulness, volubility, and charisma were immediately apparent. Eberhard commanded a room. Tall and lanky, he brought Abraham Lincoln to intellect for some, at least when he grew out his beard.
Tarpenning was a different animal: shorter, quieter, unassuming, but with an intensely dehydrate sense of humor.
They quickly became friends, having long dinner-party conversations about the nature of government.
Eberhard and Tarpenning nerded out with "Magic: the Gathering" cards. mordrack/flickr As the friendship went on, they would besides regain together every few weeks with a larger group of geeks and play "Magic: The Gathering," a vampire-and-dragon-filled collectible trading card game. Tarpenning recalls that Eberhard would always exist experimenting with one perspicacious strategy or another, some of which would toil to devastating effect, while others fell apart in histrionic fashion.
"He was always trying some original gambit to discern how to hack the rules," Tarpenning told traffic Insider.
Eberhard would rob the selfsame approach to entrepreneurship.
A PalmPilot. It used to exist the future. movestill/flickr After a while, Eberhard and Tarpenning's bromance blossomed into a traffic relationship. They started doing consulting together for disk-drive companies, working from cafés with some embryonic forms of mobile computing — early cellphones, laptops, PalmPilots.
Mobile products were clearly becoming a thing.
Crucially, battery efficiency was ramping up. Tarpenning called it "slow Moore's law." Instead of doubling in power every 18 month, as was the case with processors, batteries doubled in power every 10 years.
This got the two thinking: Could they start a company to rob advantage of plenary this technological momentum?
What product could capitalize from a better battery?
They settled on an electronic book.
After all, this internet thing was going to allow people to buy books. Displays weren't perfect, but they were getting better. Amazon.com was selling people physical books, Tarpenning remembers thinking, but you could besides buy an image of those pages, which at the time would download smoothly on 9,600-baud modems.
Martin Eberhard and NuvoMedia's Rocket eBook. AP On April 15, 1997, the pair founded NuvoMedia. In late 1998, they released the Rocket eBook. They made it through two holiday seasons, shipping 20,000 units in 1999. Then, in 2000, they got an unsolicited present to sell the company. Sensing a crash to come, they sold it, to the conglomerate Gemstar-TV Guide, for $187 million.
By late 2000, they had a sedate itch to start another company.
About the selfsame time, Eberhard got divorced.
"I was thinking that I should Do what every guy does and buy a sports car," he told traffic Insider, but "I couldn't bring myself to buy a car that got 18 miles to the gallon at a time when wars in the Middle East seemed to someway involve oil and the arguments for global warming were becoming undeniable."
The better option, a high-performance electric vehicle, didn't quite exist.
He started sorting through energy options, building out a spreadsheet with every power source he could assume of. Hydrogen fuel cells, various kinds of gasoline and diesel, natural gas, several types of batteries. His calculus: How much of the energy that comes out of the ground makes your car travel a mile?
"The results were quite startling," Eberhard recalled.
For one, "Hydrogen fuel cells are terrible. Their energy efficiency is no better than gas."
And two, "Electric cars were head and shoulders above everything else," he said, "even if you made the electricity out of coal."
He started looking into the electric-car hobbyist community and came upon AC Propulsion, a boutique electric-car maker that was doing lots of consulting for the major car companies in light of California's zero-emissions mandate. They had this bullet of an electric sports car called the "tzero."
The tzero. 24208255@N07/flickr Eberhard felt vindicated as soon as he drove it. With its Lamborghini-level acceleration, the car was proof that an electric car didn't Have to exist slow. Sure, you didn't want to drive it in the rain (water would leak in and short out the computer), but it definitely didn't behave love any other electric vehicle.
In the original Tesla traffic plan, Ian Wright, the company's first VP of vehicle development and original car guy, rhapsodized about the power of the tzero:
The first time I drove the AC Propulsion tzero, I was immediately struck by the course the power didn't fade as the car accelerated — it felt love a race car in first gear, but a first gear that just kept going and going, plenary the course to 100 mph.
The second revelation was how quickly I came just to hope the power or engine braking to exist there when I wanted it — not even to assume about downshifting. The power control had become as simple and instinctive as basic steering control.
Thirdly, at the nigh of the run, I was amazed at how smooth, precise and light the hurry control was at parking speeds. After all, I'm still in the selfsame gear I was just using to Do 100 mph, and there's not even a clutch! How can this be? But it is.
Intrigued by the tzero, Eberhard invested in AC Propulsion with hopes of getting a copy of the car.
He thought about joining forces with the company. With his skills and AC Propulsion's expertise, they could do a production-level electric car rather than a hobbyist vehicle. But he soon realized it might exist impossible to mesh his ambitions with the culture of the firm. He considered launching his own enterprise.
But if the electric car was so powerful, why wasn't the auto industry taking advantage of it?
Well, some of the imposing boys had taken a imposing waver and missed.
GM said it gave it its best shot with the EV-1, star of the 2006 documentary "Who Killed The Electric Car." The Washington Post reported that GM had spent over $1 billion developing it.
A commercial for the EV-1. Youtube
And there was a lingering problem: The EV-1 could never regain out of the green ghetto.
GM said it couldn't market the car to anyone other than environmentalists and tech enthusiasts.
"There is an extremely passionate, enthusiastic and loyal following for this particular vehicle," GM spokesman Dave Barthmuss told The Post. "There simply weren't enough of them at any given time to do a viable traffic proposition for GM to pursue long term."
Nearly plenary the EV-1s, which had been leased, were repossessed. Many were crushed. Many EV-1s were crushed. Plug In America, Wikimedia Commons.
To Tarpenning, the auto industry was sleeping on its would-be killer app: taking plenary advantage of electric power.
"One of the things they kept running across was these articles that would promulgate the judgement why electric cars will never succeed is that battery technology has not improved in a hundred years," Tarpenning said. "Literally, articles would promulgate that, and it's proper of lead acid batteries."
Yet it's not proper of lithium-ion batteries.
"They regain better, on average, at around 7% a year," Tarpenning said. "It goes in fits and starts as they roll out original chemistries ... They regain cheaper and better."
So if he and Eberhard positioned the company the perquisite way, they could ride the current of technological history.
"What that [dynamic] implies is that you can design stuff now, and unless that trajectory is broken for some reason, you can exist assured that, over the next 10 years, everything just gets better for you," Tarpenning said. "Everything becomes easier, and it just keeps getting easier and better, cheaper, higher energy density, perhaps higher power density depending on what you're looking for. You want to exist in industries where everything gets easier for you."
By the summer of 2003, Tarpenning and Eberhard knew that they wanted to found an electric-car company, starting with a two-seater sports car and then poignant into more accessible markets.
As their research — and Martin's ride in the original tzero — suggested, electric motors allow cars to Do things that internal-combustion engines are terrible at, such as generating oodles of torque the flash you stomp your foot on the accelerator, or employing regenerative braking, where the energy usually lost when the car slows down is fed back into the car's battery.
By the time summer hit, they knew they wanted to establish together a two-seater sports car with lithium-ion batteries and an induction motor.
"We had no sustain making cars, and they had a lot to learn," Eberhard said.
They had a realization: The automotive ecosystem had quietly made itself inviting to startups.
"We discovered that in the preceding 20 or 30 years, the car industry had completely refactored itself," Tarpenning said. "It turned out that no car company made windshields anymore. They always bought them from the windshield makers, and the rear-view mirrors were purchased from the rear-view-mirror makers."
The car companies had even outsourced their electronics people, he realized, since they didn't assume that was a Part of their core competency. They really only kept the internal-combustion-engine design, final assembly, and sales and marketing on the inside, plus auto financing, which is where they made most of their money anyway. Even styling was outsourced.
Everyone loved the DeLorean, but the company collapsed in seven years. rjshade/flickr The auto industry had developed into a segmented network, one that, if the founders played their cards right, Tesla could become a Part of.
They'd always been confident about the electronics half of things — that's what Silicon Valley does — but they'd worried about the Detroit stuff, the nuts and bolts of automobile manufacturing.
Now it seemed the manufacturing partners were already there. They just needed to connect with them.
"In previous iterations, whether it was DeLorean or Tucker or whatever, which they were constantly asked about, those people really had to either sell their souls to regain into GM's Part bin, love DeLorean did, or they had to actually manufacture their own windshield wiper blade," Tarpenning said. "All of that stuff you can just buy now. You Have to exist Ford to regain a excellent price, but at least you don't Have to Have an engineering group trying to do a windshield wiper motor. That would Kill us."
After plenary this education, Tarpenning was convinced it was time to start an electric-car company.The Incorporation
On Jan. 25, 2003, Eberhard went on a date to Disneyland with Carolyn, his now wife. They walked around the park, settling into the Blue Bayou, a restaurant inside the Pirates of the Caribbean ride.
It was about as romantic you could regain at Disneyland.
He had been pitching her on car-company names for months, but the perquisite branding proved elusive. This was to exist a high-performance car that happened to exist electric, so any overly "eco" or "engineery" designation sounded tone-deaf — volts, surges, and leaves would exist set aside. It would Have to exist light to promulgate and remember, and sound love a car company, not another high-tech startup.
Eberhard wanted to give credit to the man who patented the type of motor he planned on using, the AC induction motor, invented by the Serbian-American genius Nikola Tesla. Tesla's incorporation papers with the condition of Delaware. Tesla Incorporation
He said to her, "What about Tesla Motors?"
Her reply: "Perfect! Now regain to toil making your car."
On April 23, 2003, Tarpenning bought the domain designation Teslamotors.com.
On July 1, 2003, they incorporated.
That August, Eberhard and Tarpenning moved into the company's first office in a professional office building in downtown Menlo Park, California. Eberhard said that before they rented the office the mark said "Bushtracks African Expeditions," whatever that was. So they just turned the mark over and wrote the car company's designation on the back: Tesla Motors.Workshopping The High-Performance Electric Car
Heading into the Fall of 2003, Eberhard and Tarpenning set upon refining their conception before making formal pitches to investors, people they would Have one shot at showing their outlandish idea.
They came up with an alternative strategy for workshopping the Tesla traffic plan. They would mock-pitch it to VCs who would never deem Tesla, acquaintances they knew from three rounds of NuvoMedia financing who invested only in optical routing or website designs.
By looking through their original plan, they can discern the arguments they made to would-be investors.
The executive summary of the original Tesla traffic plan. Martin Eberhard v. Elon Musk, Tesla Motors
In the opening lines of the executive summary, the company promised it would build high-performance electric sports cars.
"This sounds impossible — both the conception of building cars in the first place, and further, the conception of building a lofty performance electric car," the system read. "But key technologies Have recently been developed that do electric cars suddenly very attractive, and the international traffic climate makes it now practicable to build a 'fab-less' car company — a car company without a factory."
The summary went on to enumerate the promised Roadster's vitals:
● 0-60 mph in less than 3.9 seconds
● World-class handling
● 100 mpg equivalent
● Zero tailpipe emissions
● 300 mile range
● Zero maintenance for 100,00 miles (other than tires).
● A selling price less than half that of the cheapest competitive sportscar.
The system described the electric sports car as a "disruptive" technology, borrowing a phrase from Harvard professor Clayton Christensen. The Roadster would provide the value of a high-end sports car at a lower cost to the customer and a lower resource cost to the planet.
Martin Eberhard v. Elon Musk, Tesla Motors
The system argued that "with a gasoline engine, performance comes with a imposing penalty — if you want a car that has the aptitude to accelerate quickly, you exigency a high-horsepower engine, and you will regain needy gas mileage when you are not driving hard."
This would not exist the case with Tesla.
"On the other hand, doubling the horsepower of an electric motor from 100 hp to 200 hp only adds about 25 pounds, and efficiency is, if anything, improved. It is therefore quite light to build an electric car that is both highly efficient and besides very fast."
Therein lies the disruption.
"At one nigh of the spectrum, the Tesla Roadster has higher efficiency and lower total emissions than the best of the most efficient cars," the report said. "At the other nigh of the spectrum, the Tesla Roadster accelerates at least as well as the best sports cars, but it's six times as efficient and produces one tenth of the pollution."
With the traffic system finally completed, the pitch honed, and the presentations prepared, Eberhard and Tarpenning were ready to try raising money in earnest.
As VCs volleyed back with challenges, Eberhard and Tarpenning saw that there were details they hadn't thought through.
Tesla realized it didn't want to deal with dealerships. Justin Sullivan/Getty For one, they didn't fully grasp the franchise sales model of the auto industry. After talking with a few dealership owners, they realized that a startup didn't want to exist selling through dealerships — you'd lose opportunities to accumulate feedback from customers. Moreover, they erudite that a company has few options if a franchisee fails to deliver, since plenary 50 states Have laws on the books protecting franchisees.
The Tesla partners besides realized that they'd exigency to position themselves as palatable to both Democrats and Republicans. Those on the left would discern benefits in decreased fossil-fuel use, while those on the perquisite would discern a path to energy independence.
Another breakthrough: They quickly realized they couldn't possibly build an entire car — the human and financial costs would exist course too much. They wouldn't Have to. Instead, they'd simply build on top of, and within, an existing car.
That appropriation is not uncommon in the auto industry. The tzero was built upon the Piontek Sportech kit car.
The car needed to exist small. The batteries were barely excellent enough, Eberhard recalled, and any heavier automobiles would rein in the car's range. Plus, he reasoned that the motor should exist behind the driver for the sake of weight distribution and safety, so he focused the search on companies that made lightweight midengine cars.
The Lotus Elise makes its debut at the Frankfurt IAA International car show, Sept. 12, 1995. Reuters After some deliberation, Eberhard and Tarpenning settled on the Elise, an elf of a sports car built by Lotus, the boutique British carmaker.
Founded in 1952, Lotus had made a designation for itself by building Formula One race cars and slick consumer sports cars.
Lotus had its financially divide Lotus Engineering division, so they were already working with other carmakers. Eberhard briefly considered going after Porsche, which has a similar consulting arm, but he remembers the German company's rate being three times that of Lotus.
So the Lotus Elise it was.
The tiny British sports car had already been used as a ground by other companies. The Vauxhall VX220, besides known as the Opel Speedster in Europe and the Daewoo Speedster in Asia, was built on the Elise chassis.
The Lotus Elise S1. nicolas-serre/flickr Eberhard and Tarpenning found a course to insert themselves. At the Los Angeles Auto demonstrate onDec. 28, 2003, the two founders muscled their course into the Lotus booth, introduced themselves, and invited a member of the Lotus team to drive the tzero.
That selfsame winter, Eberhard went back to AC Propulsion and sketched out a license to disburse some of the company's technology in the development of Tesla's motor and controller.
With those pieces establish together, the original year of 2004 became the time to start pitching to VCs in earnest.Actually Raising Funds
The thing about having a product that's really "out there" — love building an electric sports car, as opposed to launching a messaging app — is that it screams risk to practicable investors.
In raising their first round in 2004, Eberhard and Tarpenning secured minute investments from family, friends, and a handful of VCs, but there wasn't anybody to lead the round, to do the gigantic keystone investment to allow the juvenile company to rapidly start maturing.
But there was this one guy.
Peter Thiel, left, and Musk in the early 2000s. AP Back in 2001, Tarpenning, being a bit of a space nerd, had dragged Eberhard along to discern a PayPal cofounder speak at a Mars Society conference held at Stanford. His designation was Elon Musk, and his ideas about what to Do in the space industry were strikingly clear. Tarpenning and Eberhard introduced themselves.
By this time in 2004, Musk was already abysmal into SpaceX, though the company had yet to successfully launch anything into orbit.
Eberhard had previously made a handshake deal with the head of AC Propulsion, agreeing that they wouldn't pitch to the selfsame investors.
A juvenile Elon Musk.Orlando SentinelMusk turned AC Propulsion down, so Tesla stepped to the plate.
On March 31, 2004, Eberhard sent him an email.
"We would supervision for to talk to you about Tesla Motors," he wrote, "particularly if you might exist interested in investing in the company. I believe that you Have driven AC Propulsion's tzero car. If so, you already know that a high-performance electric car can exist made. They would love to convince you that they can Do so profitably, creating a company with very lofty potential for growth, and at the selfsame time breaking the compromise between driving performance and efficiency."
Musk replied that evening.
"Sure," he said. "Friday this week or Friday next week would work."
Eberhard and Ian Wright, the third member of their team, flew to Los Angeles, where SpaceX was based, and pitched Musk in his SpaceX office.
The pitch was reputed to exist 30 minutes, Eberhard recalled. It lasted two hours.
Eberhard realized that Musk was the first guy he had met who shared his vision for electric cars: do a vastly superior car, not just a car that sucks less.
A car love that would redefine what an electric car could be. And given the relatively minute size of the sports-car market, a original automaker could Have an effect on its first at bat, rather than trying to compel its course into the crowded economy market.
Then, once the Roadster had destroyed the myth that electric cars had to apologize for being cars, Tesla could dart into more accessible price points.
Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, introduces the SpaceX Dragon V2 spaceship at the SpaceX headquarters on Thursday, May 29, 2014, in Hawthorne, California. AP Photo/Jae C. Hong Eberhard and Wright walked Musk through their traffic plan. For plenary their shared enthusiasm, Wright remembers Musk being skeptical about what the production and design of the car would cost.
Tarpenning was out in Washington, D.C., and he spent the weekend getting peppered with due-diligence questions:
"How Do you know you're going to regain your partnerships in line?"
"Can you really build the electronics for the proposed amount of money?"
Tarpenning returned to California, and he and Eberhard made a final pitch at SpaceX. Musk said he was in, but they would Have to do it quick. His then wife was pregnant with twins, and once those boys came into the world he wouldn't Have time to deal with the guys from Tesla.
The paperwork was quickly drawn up and finalized on April 23, 2004.
Musk led the $7.5 million round and became the chairman of the board.
It was time for Tesla to grow.Funding
The course Ian Wright describes it, working with Lotus was an education in Tesla's ignorance.
A 1970 Lotus Europa. 28370466@N05/flickr The Tesla team had a long-standing relationship with the English automaker's work. Eberhard and Wright first bonded on a flight to Tokyo where they took turns damning and praising the Lotus Europa, an idiosyncratic 1970s-era sports car they had each owned.
The original Zealand-born Wright, who used to build and race sports cars back in the day, had approach on as the "car guy" for Tesla when he joined as the third member of the team in 2003. Thin, thoughtful, and unavoidably from Down Under, Wright had equal parts Gandalf and Crocodile Dundee.
As Part of the fellowship of Tesla, Wright's biggest responsibility was nurturing the relationship with Lotus.
The first time he visited the Lotus factory, in Hethel, England, he was amazed by two things. The first was the ingenious course Lotus had managed to intersperse Vauxhall 220s with Lotuses on the assembly line. The second was what a ridiculously difficult project Tesla had signed up for.
He was shocked when a Lotus engineer told him that it was easier to redesign an engine than remake a door. In what would become a theme for Tesla, seemingly simple parts revealed unending intricacies. You Have to appropriate locks, switches, and windows into the confines of a door, plenary while keeping rain and wind out and getting that satisfying thunk when you nigh it. Perhaps most maddeningly, a would-be carmaker has to navigate manufacturing tolerances.
In car manufacturing, a tolerance is the allowed variation of some measurement in a part, whether it exist a dimensional factor such as length or an electrical one love resistance. Part of an engineer's job is to do certain that the car's design will toil within those tolerated variations — so that, for instance, the longest length of one Part still works when mated with the shortest allowable version of another.
"All these things that they thought were light were really not that easy," Wright said. "We didn't know anything about building cars."
What made things harder, of course, was that Tesla was trying to build a original kindly of car. The Elise chassis would require tons of modifications — with Tesla's electric powertrain and battery pack included.
The other imposing chore for Wright, who would amiably leave the company about a year after joining, was to contour a relationship with AC Propulsion, the manufacturer of the tzero, which was so efficacious at convincing people that electric cars didn't Have to suck. Tesla's original system was to acquire the company and regain its powertrain technology, motor tech, and the management system. The AC Propulsion executives didn't want to exist acquired, but they agreed to a license deal instead.
With those partnerships in place, Tesla could start creating cars.Designing The Roadster
The Roadster quarter-scale clay model, circa January 2005. Martin Eberhard Malcolm Powell had been working as a project manager at Lotus for over 15 years when he walked into a meeting with Eberhard and Wright in early 2004. They were in England to talk about building a car.
Powell couldn't back feel skeptical. While Lotus was always a progressive company, he said lots of people would approach the carmaker trying to do their ill-conceived ideas into a reality.
"Most people outside of the industry Have exiguous conception how intricate and difficult it is to design and develop a production vehicle, even one using conventional technology," Powell told traffic Insider. "Don't forget, at that time, no one was making a high-performance electric vehicle, nor was anyone achieving adequate range. Their product was therefore out of the ordinary."
And Eberhard and Tarpenning — two dudes who blew up by making an e-book — were unconventional automakers, to promulgate the least.
"They didn't Have sustain building production cars," he said, but "they knew they didn't Have that experience."
After serving as the point of contact within Lotus for Tesla, Powell moved to the other side, taking a job as the VP of vehicle integration about six months after that first meeting. He acted as a bridge between the companies — he knew everything you could about the Elise, and he had worked intimately with the all team at Lotus.
In those days, Lotus held a lot of the cards. Tesla was an unheard-of startup; Lotus was an established designation in racing. Powell recalls that Lotus didn't want to Do anything that might dent the reputation of its ace product.
The Roadster was to exist original in a course that almost every other original car was not, Powell recalls, because when GM or Ford or Toyota wanted to roll out a product line, they were limited to a pool of parts from preexisting vehicles.
In that sense, a original car from one of the major manufacturers couldn't exist truly new.
But the Roadster — with parts sourced from the dispersed ecosystem of auto manufacturers and Tesla's proprietary technology — was legitimately new.
With that came headaches and opportunities.
How would it look? Equally as important, how would it feel?
The following summer, Eberhard had a clear understanding of what he wanted the Roadster to notice like, so he sent out his first convoke for design submissions.
The proposals that came back were "awful," he recalled. They were plenary loaded with doodads and thingamajigs that screamed "electric."
No matter how clearly he could picture the Roadster in his mind, he couldn't communicate the vision to designers.
IDEO cofounder Bill Moggridge helped shape the Roadster's styling. AP In the Fall of 2004, Bill Moggridge, a long-time friend who happened to exist a legend in design, had Eberhard over to his elegant, modernist home two doors down from Eberhard in rural San Mateo, California.
The London-born Moggridge, now deceased, was something of an elder statesman of industrial design. He was a cofounder of IDEO, the legendary design consultancy. He's credited with styling the first modern laptop. He served as the director of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in original York City.
In his upper-crust English accent, the Santa Claus-looking Moggridge spent two afternoons with Eberhard talking about what he wanted out of the car and the status it would Have in the world.
The Tesla intrigued Moggridge because IDEO had designed almost every consumer product the world had seen, but never a car.
Ignoring the view of the Pacific stretched out before them, the two slowly untangled what this mystery car would notice like. After a few glasses of wine, Moggridge suggested a course for Eberhard pinpoint his vision.
"OK, let's deem this axis, from retro to futuristic," Moggridge said. "On one nigh here's a car that's an electric car and on the other end, here's the car that's futuristic. Where would you want your car to exist on that axis?"
Eberhard leaned toward retro. The Roadster needed to promulgate "sports car" the flash you laid eyes on it, plus anything futuristic would establish the vehicle in the uncomfortably crunchy territory of the Prius or Leaf.
"Here's another axis, masculine to feminine" Moggridge said. "Where Do you imagine your car on that axis?"
In the middle, Eberhard replied. It should exist appealing to men, but it didn't exigency to exist a Mustang.
"Curvaceous or boxy," Moggridge said. "You could notice at the classic customary Ferraris, which are very curvaceous, and the modern Lamborghinis, which are very boxy."
"Where Do you discern your car?" he asked.
"Somewhere in between, but closer to the curvaceous end," Eberhard replied.
While the Roadster certainly leaned toward the future, it was designed to exist rooted in timeless forms.
After plenary that articulation, Moggridge created a presentation. It was "magic," Eberhard said. Moggridge had translated his engineerspeak into something design people could understand.
Eberhard establish out another convoke for styling, and this time people understood it.
Submissions came back, and he knew just the course to evaluate them.
For the company Christmas party, Eberhard invited the 15 other members of the Tesla team, advisers, and their families to a company holiday party at his home in San Mateo County. Aside from Elon Musk, everyone who mattered to the company was there.
Eberhard stripped his guest bedroom of anything but the white walls. On those walls he placed the sketches and computer renderings from the four design finalists. The guests were each given three red Post-it notes and three green Post-it notes.
The contestants for the Roadster design contest. Martin Eberhard
He told his guests that red was bad, green was good, and they could establish the Post-its wherever they wanted.
Throughout the course of the night, guests drifted down to the guest room, studied the designs, and placed their Post-its.
By the nigh of the night, one wall was plenary of green: that of Barney Hatt, then principal designer for Lotus Design Studio.
The Roadster had found its form.
Barney Hatt of Lotus Engineering won the design contest. Martin EberhardThe Roadster's First Flight
By November 2004, Tesla built their first "mule," an Elise stuffed plenary of Tesla technology.
The Mule being built. Martin Eberhard Malcolm Smith recalled that when the time finally came to rob the mule for a spin, there was some debate about who should drive. A few people suggested that Eberhard Do it, but the CEO thought that JB Straubel, now the CTO, would love to rob the wheel.
In interviews with other employees, Straubel was repeatedly described as a wunderkind. The guy rebuilt an electric golf cart when he was 14. He had cofounded the Aerospace difficult Volacom. The MIT Tech Review wrote that "more than anyone else, [Straubel] is answerable for the car's impressive acceleration," the engineer who engineered the Roadster's electronic controls, electric motor, and battery pack.
Pretty fitting, then, that he got the first ride in the first proper Tesla.
The car was missing plenary its carcass panels, but it had a revised battery pack, software, and hardware.
Straubel hopped in and stepped on the accelerator. The mule rocketed down the pavement.
Everybody stood slack-jawed.
The wheels didn't Fall off, the software didn't crash.
The Roadster, embryonic as it was, could drive, and drive love hell.
"The first fully functioning mule was the actual proof of concept and would lead us to the production design," said Smith. "Any time you Have some original tech that you're not certain is going to toil or not, you regain a exiguous bit of that Wright Brothers emotion — it did regain off the ground."
That proof helped secure more funding too. A $13 million string B came in February 2005, led by Valor Equity Partners and Elon Musk.
Tesla Roadster wireframe, June 2006. Martin EberhardThe Roadster Meets The World
In the spring of 2006, Tesla was still in stealth mode.
But it's difficult to abide stealthy when you're making something as crazy as a high-performance electric vehicle. The creators of the documentary film "Who Killed The Electric Car" had already approach a-knocking, and more buzz was gathering around Silicon Valley.
Though it wasn't his quite his job, Mike Harrigan, who was brought in as VP of customer service and support, realized that the time for staying reserved had passed. Tesla needed to promulgate itself to the world. It would exigency to Do something spectacular.
A publicity system was hatched. Tesla hired one PR difficult to set up the event and another to wrangle Hollywood stars.
On July 19, 2006, the Roadster had its debutante's ball at the Barker Hangar in Santa Monica.
For Eberhard, the day was a "complete panic," between setting up the event, getting the all team arranged, and taking supervision of the friends and family who had flown in from plenary over the world for the imposing day.
It was showtime.
Hollywood responded. The 350-strong guest list included Ed Begley Jr., Michael Eisner, and Arnold Schwarzenegger, who was then governor of California. Everybody who came to the party was told to bring a checkbook. Tesla would exist taking preorders for what they called the "Signature One Hundred" — 100 cars sold at $100,000 each with the signature of the company's principles written on a plaque inside.
At the hub of the hangar was a stage. A track looped around the inside of the hanger, went out the door, ran down the airport runway, looped around on a straightaway, then back into the hanger, as if you took a long rubber band, made a jagged T shape out of it, and laid it on the tarmac of Santa Monica Airport.
A fan shot of the Tesla launch party in Santa Monica on July 19, 2006. ori/flickr Most guests got a short ride in the prototype, piloted by Tesla engineers who had establish long hours into test drives.
By the nigh of the day, both cars were making some alarming noises.
The drivers were hearing a earsplitting clunk in the back of the car whenever they punched the accelerator. The upper motor mount — which they had built out of magnesium — had broken. You couldn't discern it by popping open the trunk; you had to crawl around inside the car.
"The cars nonetheless did a consummate service," Eberhard said. "From the audience perspective they didn't Have a problem. Anybody who got into one of those cars had their view of electric cars instantly changed."
Stephen Casner was a friend of Eberhard's and a colleague when they both worked at Packet Design, attended the event. Now retired, Casner had a long-time interest in electric vehicles; he had once given Martin a ride in his own EV-1.
Another fan shot of the Tesla launch party in Santa Monica on July 19, 2006. ori/flickr Both Musk and Eberhard spoke at the event. But Eberhard made by far the bigger impression, according to those who were present.
At the time, Eberhard was Mr. Tesla, Harrigan said. He was confident and knowledgeable enough to inspire a following, but nerdy enough to feel accessible.
Musk, who had nowhere near the cult following that he has today, was still finding his footing as a public figure. His presentation wasn't as free-flowing. He seemed nervous.
"Elon's aptitude to speak in public and convey the sense of the company was not nearly as excellent as what Martin had done," Casner said. "I don't know if its a matter of what language is used or colorful phrases. He just didn't look to exist nearly as efficacious in making people excited and believe in this trend."
As a result, Casner remembered, Eberhard was the one doing one media interview after another. He did dozens that day — some in front of a camera, some for radio, some for print, with some reporters just listening while he spoke with others.
In any case, the event worked.
Within two weeks of the event, Tesla had sold 127 cars, Harrigan recalled.
One of those was Stephen Casner's. On July 28, he and his wife gave Tesla a $100,000 check to become "Signature One Hundred Members," which meant they had a reservation for one of the Signature One Hundred special-edition Roadsters.
People establish the money down to regain the Signature One Hundred string cars received this thank-you note. Stephen Casner They received the following thank-you note from Tesla:
Congratulations on becoming a member of the Tesla Signature One Hundred
You Have joined an elite circle of automotive visionaries who Have chosen to reserve the world's first lofty performance, electric sportscar.
We notice forward to delivery dates in summer of 2007 and will preserve in touch with you on a regular basis regarding the status of the Tesla Roadster as well as Tesla Motors company updates.
As a Signature One Hundred Member, they welcome you to the Tesla Motors Family
The note was signed by Eberhard, Tarpenning, and Musk.
Meanwhile, the media system appeared to exist working.
The reverse. Stephen Casner Harrigan remembered putting together three plenary binders of clippings. He said the company was watchful not to limit itself to the automobile press but besides toil difficult to regain attention in financial magazines love Fortune and landed a massive, splashy spread in Wired.
The press was glowing. CNET reported that "as soon as the driver hits the accelerator, you are thrown back against the seat." The Washington Post raved "This is not your father's electric car. The $100,000 vehicle, with its sports car looks, is more Ferrari than Prius — and more about testosterone than granola."
The original York Times told readers that Tesla was making a car that was "very specialized, very expensive and very, very fast."
Eberhard was becoming a star. He was featured as a face of Research in Motion's crusade for the BlackBerry Pearl in 2006. His claim to fame, according to the ad, was that he "created the first electric sports car."
While the media attention may Have been excellent for Tesla, it left Musk emotion neglected.
In an email to Harrigan on July 18, 2006, he wrote that he would "like to talk with every major publication within reason."
The course that my role as been portrayed to date, where I am referred to merely as 'an early investor' is outrageous. That would exist love Martin [Eberhard] being called an 'early employee.'
Apart from me leading the string A & B and co-leading the string C, my influence on the car itself runs from the headlights to the styling to the door sill to the trunk, and my strong interest in electric transport predates Tesla by a decade. Martin should certainly exist the front and hub guy, but the portrayal of my role to date has been incredibly insulting.
I'm not blaming you or others at Tesla — the media is difficult to control. However, they exigency to do a sedate pains to amend this perception.
Two days later, after The Times ran its write-up of the Signature One Hundred event, Musk felt slighted again.
"I was incredibly insulted and embarrassed by the NY Times article" — he wrote in an email cc'd to Eberhard and Harrigan on July 20, 2006 — "where I am not merely unmentioned, but where Martin is actually referred to as the chairman. If anything love this happens again, gladden deem the PCGC [public relations firm] relationship with Tesla to nigh immediately upon publication of such a piece. gladden ensure that the NYT publishes a correction as soon as possible."
In a column about Tesla a week later, the paper of record gushed that "Martin Eberhard, the company's chief executive, recognizes that original technologies usually start out as high-end products. He and his team are making their car the newest peppery gadget, a status symbol. If rappers and football stars buy them, maybe the company can do a dent in the market."
There was no mention of Musk.
"The first time they really bumped heads was over that press coverage of the debut," Eberhard said. "We had technical disagreements that they worked through, and it was always very collegial. They would toil through their opinions and approach to a conclusion. That was the first time where it was this emotional."
Shortly thereafter, Musk took Harrigan aside, letting him know that if he wanted to preserve his job with Tesla, he'd Have to start getting him some recognition.A Bump In The Road
Eberhard thought that Tesla would start shipping the Roadster in 2006, ramp up to 500 cars by 2007, and exist profitable by 2008.
He was off by a few years. The Roadster wouldn't ship until February 2008.
In October 2006, it seemed to Musk that the Roadster was at a crossroads: Tesla could either "sacrifice a six month first mover advantage in a market that is love the Internet circa 1992 (but slower moving) or focus every bit of energy on getting their product right," he said in an email.
"We Have a tremendous number of difficult problems to unravel just to regain the car into production," Eberhard wrote to Musk that November, "everything from sedate cost problems to supplier problems (transmission, air conditioning, etc.) to their own design immaturity to Lotus's stability. I abide up at night worrying about simply getting the car into production sometime in 2007."
When he'd originally promised a 2006 delivery date, Eberhard said, the Roadster was a lower-risk proposition. The original system was simple: Tesla would supply the drivetrain components for Lotus to build. Production would exist low cost and low friction. As Smith remembers, the conception was to reduce cost and headcount by sourcing as complete a vehicle as possible, then adding a few pieces of swank technology and finishing the car. They'd toss on a few carcass panels and do certain it didn't notice love a Lotus.
But that didn't happen, thanks to what Smith called "elegance creep." They could preserve making the car a exiguous nicer, so they did.
The original system called for Tesla to exist answerable for five or so subassemblies in the car — discrete chunks of car that approach in complete and are bolted on. Tesla would exist in suffuse of the battery-pack subassembly, for instance, then Lotus would rob supervision of most of the chassis (wheels, tires, shock absorbers) and Tesla would bolt on the parts.
But instead of Tesla being answerable for five assemblies, it wound up taking supervision of hundreds of them.
The complications began piling up.
The custom headlight determination naturally pushed the Roadster's delivery back. Martin Eberhard
They decided to travel with a carbon-fiber carcass instead of a polyester glass composite. At Musk's request, they lowered the doorsills — the lowermost Part of the door — to do it easier to regain in and out of the car. They switched out touchstone headlights for bespoke ones. Musk thought that the seats were uncomfortable, so they were retooled. Musk didn't love the material of the dashboard, Eberhard recalls, "and wanted something less cheap." Then there was the transmission, which got delayed again and again. As Musk establish it, the transmission "is not an inherently difficult item, but if you Have two suppliers screw the pooch on you," then you're looking at some tardiness.
"Each of these is a reasonable decision," Eberhard said. "You Have to deem that it's going to cost more money and cost on the schedule, and that was never accounted for."
With plenary those switches, Tesla became answerable for the entire supply chain of a diverse set of automobile ingredients.
"We had to design out how to supply hundreds of components for a company in England by a team in Silicon Valley that had never done that before," Eberhard said. "That was the hardest thing that I didn't expect."
While plenary this was going on, Eberhard realized that Tesla would Have to switch its bookkeeping to the enterprise software management system SAP, a project he recalls as a "bloody nightmare." plenary the while, Tesla rolled along without a chief financial officer. Between those factors, the finances at the company were getting "very murky," Eberhard said.
"I had never dash a company that was getting that big," he added. "It was time for us to bring in some professional management capability."
Over dinner with Musk in San Carlos the following January, the night before the board of directors meeting, Eberhard floated the conception of bringing in a original CEO, pointing out that sorting out the company's financial picture and getting SAP up and running was beyond his skill level. He couldn't draw SAP together because of its complexity, and he couldn't regain a ply on costs because SAP wasn't working.
And, oh yeah, there was the challenge of running the organization, which had grown to 140 people.
The next day at the board meeting, Musk and Eberhard pitched the conception of bringing in a original CEO so that Eberhard could focus on product, particularly the next car, codenamed "Whitestar," what they know today as the Model S sedan.
Eberhard received a lot of support.
"Several board members thanked me for my service thus far, and encouraged me to remain with the company in a technical and visionary role," he recalled. "It was a completely friendly discussion, with a pair of speeches from board members about how it was very much the regular course of a startup for the entrepreneur-founder to dart into a different role as the company grew. Someone on the board cited Google as an example."
That selfsame month, Musk traveled to Lotus Engineering headquarters to check on the progress of the Roadster — without Eberhard. According to Powell, the purpose of the visit would Have been to "give Lotus self-confidence in the financial commitment so that Lotus would continue supporting the program."
"I'm certain you can imagine I find this a rather gauche situation where Elon has asked for Lotus' own view of the production timing of the project," Lotus Engineering director Simon Wood subsequently wrote to Eberhard.
According to Lotus, which bore much of the responsibility for the success of the Roadster and Tesla as a whole, the car that would change the world was already three months behind schedule.
In his presentation to Musk, Wood famed that Lotus was worried about the number of "concerns," or outstanding issues, with the Roadster, from production design to procuring parts to reliability testing. While 94 had already been taking supervision of, 846 remained incomplete in the tracking system.
Musk's voice grew more urgent after the visit to England.
Musk with original Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson in February 2007. AP "There are several burning Roadster issues that exigency Martin's attention perquisite now," he wrote in an email on Jan. 24. "We Have slipped delivery significantly already and are at risk of slipping even more. I feel strongly that Martin should minimize any optional activity, particularly low to temper value PR and finance meetings, and focus on company execution, which will Have a major effect on their financing and valuation."
Musk said the greatest value he saw in hiring a CEO is that it would allow Eberhard to concentrate on making the Whitestar and future models "superlative."
Stress was building — as is perhaps to exist expected given the magnitude of Tesla's ambitions — but, fortunately, Musk and Eberhard were still on speaking terms.
"We certainly disagree sometimes," Musk wrote to Eberhard, "but 90% of the time are on the selfsame page or can regain there with a short discussion."
But according to employees who worked at Tesla at the time, Musk himself bore some responsibility for the Roadster's delays. While he had a keen eye for styling and always offered constructive feedback, he was rarely present in the office — which meant that his infrequent dictates created chaos.
"Musk wasn't the CEO, and he wasn't the president," Malcolm Smith, the VP of vehicle engineering, told traffic Insider. He would "sweep in every few weeks" to discern the development, learn the details, then want changes for a variety of reasons. And disrupt the workflow.
"It wasn't the most efficient course of working, because the development teams and the marketing teams poignant along trying to regain the job done," Smith said. "It was three steps forward, one and half steps back."
Tesla employees cited the doorsills, the door handles, and the seat as the primary Musk-related delays.
Powell said that the biggest challenge was the doorsill.
Doors, as they now know, are rather complex.
The shape of the aluminum chassis made getting in and out of the vehicle difficult, and Musk was adamant that they needed to lower the side rails by three plenary inches, Smith said. The original design required some yoga-style contortions on the Part of the driver. If you had the ragtop on, you had to regain in butt-first, fold yourself over your legs, regain your head under the ragtop, and waver your legs into the footwell. Pretty difficult to Do gracefully.
Elon had spent some time with one of the mule prototypes, and Smith recalls that he was really trying to shove the car into a swankier space — more accessible to potential buyers who were used to more elegant cars.
"This was going to exist a $100,000 car," Smith said. "In that marketplace you're dealing with nicely refined vehicles, yet we're forcing their users to travel through this gymnastics exercise."
Still, the structure of Elon's involvement made it a difficult situation to toil in. While employees promulgate that his reasoning for making changes was nearly always quite sound, he wasn't able to deliver his feedback in actual time. The feedback came in chunks.
Meanwhile, Musk had heeded Eberhard's request to dart out of the CEO role. Musk emailed about getting the CEO search started in earnest in February 2007. The executive search difficult Russell Reynolds was engaged to draw in a successor.
But no Part of the candidates were excellent enough. And neither, apparently, was Eberhard.
Emails indicated that on June 13 he began receiving calls from reporters asking if Tesla's board was planning to hire a original CEO to replace him.
The "best strategy would exist to regain out in front of this and embrace it, just as Larry and Sergey did at Google," Musk advised in an email.
"I would exist pleased to amend the perception that you are being fired," he wrote later that day. "The objective fact is you brought up the CEO search yourself several months ago."
In August, Eberhard was speaking at a conference establish on by the Motor Press Guild, the trade group for automotive magazines, when he got a convoke from a nervous-sounding Musk.
Michael Marks. Riverwood Capital The chairman had some tough tidings for him: Michael Marks, the former CEO of the manufacturer Flextronics and early Tesla investor, was taking over as CEO.
The Tesla board had held a meeting without him, Eberhard said, and decided that it was time for him to go.
"There was no discussion," Eberhard said. "I didn't regain to hear what they said. I didn't regain to preserve myself. I felt totally stranded."
Eberhard had an uncle who was a lawyer, so he sought some insight from him. He erudite that the board meeting had been held in violation of the company's bylaws. So the board agreed to Have another board meeting via conference convoke so Eberhard could actually step down.
On Aug. 8, 2007, Eberhard resigned from his executive position, taking the title "president of technology."
Marks became the original CEO.
"I never figured out what was said about me to those people," Eberhard said.
Though he stayed on the board and remained on staff with the company, Martin was off everything but troubleshooting and tending to peripheral issues.
He'd been shut out of the company he founded.
The all exchange was classic Musk, said Harrigan, the VP of customer service and champion who would become the VP of marketing.
"[Musk] is the kindly of boss where day to day you don't know if you Have a job or not," he said.
"Once he's convinced that you can't Do the job, there's no course you can convince him back again," Harrigan added. "That happened many times to many people, and that's what happened with Martin. Once he determined that Martin couldn't exist the CEO of Tesla any longer, that was it. He was fired."The Roadster Is Born
Then-US Secretary of condition Condoleezza Rice gets a ride in a Roadster in May 2007. AP
The divorce between Eberhard and Musk got messy — suits and countersuits were thrown in either direction.
It was messy inside the organization, too.
"There was a lot of turmoil after Martin left, " Harrigan said. "Everybody knew Marks was a temporary CEO until they supposedly found the perquisite guy. He didn't know anything about electric vehicles or their traffic — he's a manufacturing guy. He didn't try to Do a lot of house cleaning. He just ensured that the company kept running."
Michael Marks had made a designation for himself running Flextronics. In the 13 years he served as CEO, he expanded the company into 35 countries, made 100 acquisitions, and grew the manufacturer's annualized revenue from $93 million to about $16 billion. love Eberhard and Musk, Marks was the kindly of guy who could walk into a room and command everybody's attention. With a forelock of dusky brown hair, Marks was your classic California executive. You could toil with him for years and never discern him wear a tie.
He had invested about $2.5 million in Tesla in 2007, simply because he had worked with Malcolm Smith at Flextronics, and stopped by to visit every few months.
Earlier in the summer of 2007, Musk had asked if he'd approach in and serve as interim CEO. It wasn't going to exist an light gig.
"Clearly the cost of the product was going to exist well beyond the break to do any money," Marks told traffic Insider. Plus, projections were being missed on a regular basis.
"That created a lot of distress in the company," he said, and so "Elon was concerned and asked if I would exist willing to approach in and stabilize it. I had made an investment in the company and it was obvious that my skill set would exist valuable there in the near term."
Marks was never an elected officer of the company. He didn't rob any pay, he never signed any paperwork to exist the executive, and he wasn't officially "hired to exist the CEO," he said.
The account of Eberhard's exit is the account of Silicon Valley, Marks said.
"Martin is a very excellent technical guy, and he had a vision, but he wasn't a particularly excellent CEO," Marks said. "But that's not the least bit unusual. Martin is an engineering visionary, not the guy to dash a business. If he was, he would Have done the things I did. He came up with a lot of the technical aspects of the car. Most guys who can Do what Martin could Do aren't very excellent at running businesses. Maybe they should Have made that dart earlier. The company wasn't getting the best disburse out of him, he was spending a lot of time running the traffic where he wasn't well equipped."
Marks likened his time at Tesla to a relay race: In the months he helmed the company, he did what he had to Do to dart the baton forward before passing it along — as Eberhard did before him.
"When I got there, the economics, the traffic structure were terrible." Marks said. "If it wasn't terrible, they wouldn't Have brought me in."
Marks said he did three things for the company.
First, when he arrived that summer, Marks erudite that Tesla was planning on bringing $30 million worth of materials to build the car in their California office, even though the product design wasn't finished yet. Realizing that disconnect, Marks promptly killed the shipment.
Second, Tesla had started doing R&D for other companies, just love Lotus Engineering did. But Tesla still didn't Have its own car, so that had to go, too.
Third, within a few weeks of being hired on, he got plenary the executives in a room together and created what became known as the "Marks List," a tally of 30-some items that needed to exist completed before the Roadster could exist shipped. Then each item was assigned its own caretaker on the executive team, and weekly meetings were initiated to do certain that plenary those things got done.
"This is how you manage," Marks said. "I'm no rocket scientist. I had to regain my arms around what I needed to disburse my time on. Eventually those problems plenary got solved."
Ze'ev Drori took over as Tesla CEO on Nov. 27, 2007. Robert Galbraith/Reuters Marks was replaced by Ze'ev Drori, the former CEO of car-alarm maker Clifford Electronics, on Nov. 27, 2007.
"There is a lot of activity, and a lot of things to exist done," Drori said in an interview two weeks after he took over. "And they are doing it. They will regain the car out there into the hands of their customers."
He promised that Tesla was on schedule for shipping the Roadster in the first quarter of 2008.
Regular production started on March 18, 2008.
In keeping company style, Drori announced it in a blog post.
"Our key focus with the Roadster will exist on gradually ramping up their production in a deliberate and controlled manner, reaching a rate of over 100 Roadsters per month early next year," he wrote. "With this milestone, the Tesla Roadster is the only zero emission electric vehicle in production today."
The Roadster, love the Vauxhall VX-220 and the Opel Speedster before it, was slotted into the production schedule at Lotus.
Stephen Casner had plunked down the dough to snag No. 33 of the Signature One Hundred string back in the summer of 2006. It would finally exist delivered in the Fall of 2008.
That October, he and his wife flew to the UK to discern his car as it was being born. Eberhard helped order the tour with the Lotus team.
They arrived in Hethel about 10 o'clock for the hour-plus tour.
"It normally takes about two and a quarter days to complete the assembly process," Casner wrote in a blog post about his trip. "About 12 Roadsters regain started down the assembly line each week, and Tesla is steadily ramping up production starts. The number of vehicles finishing the line varies depending on parts availability, character controls and inspections, planned stops and other factors."
Lotus had a test track just beside the factory.
That's where Casner and his wife headed next.
A Roadster is assembled at the Lotus Factory in Hethel, England. Stephen Casner Casner got in the car.
The driver asked him if speedy driving made him feel concerned.
"Don't hold back," Casner replied.
And they were off.
"I assume they got up to about 115 on the straight," Casner said in the blog post. "This car sticks love glue in the corners. Coming around to the skid pad, he intentionally threw the car into oversteer to demonstrate recovery."
After about 15 minutes of careening around the test track, they were done.
"I enjoyed this immensely, and I only wish I had the time and break to develop some of that driving skill for myself," Casner wrote. "What I took away from this demo ride was that there is a significant margin between this car's limits and my own."
Casner's Roadster would meet him in California on Oct. 31, 2008.
He's been driving it ever since.
The Casners in their Roadster at the nigh of the assembly line at the Lotus factory in Hethel, England. Stephen CasnerThe Musk Era Begins
Drori stayed on as CEO until October 2008, when Musk took the helm and fired a quarter of Tesla's employees.
By that time, Musk had invested $55 million in Tesla himself.
Musk in December 2008. AP
"I've got so many chips on the table with Tesla," he said in an interview. "It just made sense for me to Have both hands on the wheel."
By May 2009, Tesla had recalled 75% of its Roadsters made between March 2008 and April 2009, promising to transmit technicians to people's homes to fix loosened bolts that were captious to handling.
The car's dependability was leaving a few of those high-profile customers disappointed.
George Clooney told Esquire he ended up selling his.
"I had a Tesla," he said. "I was one of the first cats with a Tesla. I assume I was, like, number five on the list. But I'm telling you, I've been on the side of the road a while in that thing. And I said to them, 'Look, guys, why am I always stuck on the side of the fucking road? do it work, one course or another.' "
Musk, who by this time was being treated in the media as the supervision for child of Tony Stark and Steve Jobs, had the consummate response.
"In other news, George Clooney reports that his iPhone 1 had a bug back in '07," he tweeted.
In 2010, Musk would navigate Tesla plenary the course to filing a $100 million initial public offering. The stock promptly went bonkers.The Future
On Oct. 1, 2014, Musk sent out a provocative tweet to his 1.2 million followers.
"About time to unveil the D and something else," he said, igniting a firestorm of poorly told penis jokes and automotive speculation.
What could it be? Tesla had taken long strides in making excellent on its proposal of delivering a supercar that changed everyone's minds about electric vehicles with the Roadster, then making a more affordable sedan in the Model S. The Model X SUV is next on the line-up — originally scheduled for 2013, then delayed to 2014, then delayed again to early 2015.
The unveiling happened at the Hawthorne Municipal Airport in Los Angeles on Oct. 9.
The Tesla D at the reveal. Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images
The tech, business, and automobile press plenary swooped in to discern Musk Do the honors, with some assistance from a gigantic robotic arm that swung the skeleton of the original car around.
Social analytics difficult Crimson Hexagon told traffic Insider that there were more than 7,500 tweets about the event, with the top topics being "Model D Car," "New Tesla Model D," and "Elon Musk."
There were 377 tidings articles published about the event within a day, according to LexisNexis.
The spotlight was entirely on Musk, who sent the thousands assembled into a roar when he appeared on stage.
"The all thing felt more love a concert than a product unveiling," Ashlee Vance wrote in Bloomberg Businessweek.
Musk was the rock-star solo act, sending the throng into stitches with his newly discovered easygoing style.
"There's been a lot of speculation as to what the D stands for," Musk said. "You'll notice that my pants Have Velcro seams."
The throng howled.
Then he got serious.
Elon Musk holds court during the Tesla D unveiling on Oct. 9, 2014. Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images "The D stands for Dual Motor," he said. "Motor in the front, motor in the back, hence the dual nature of it."
And hence the insane speed: the D is a sedan that goes 0-60 in 3.2 seconds, selfsame as a McLaren F1 supercar.
The media ate it up.
Our headlines in traffic Insider were representative: "ELON MUSK REVEALS TESLA D SUPERCAR, PLUS AUTOPILOT FEATURES" and "Watch Elon Musk Unveil The original Tesla In proper 'Iron Man' Fashion."
Though Eberhard got the invite and still holds stock in the company, he skipped the festivities.
"I don't pay attention to Elon's superlatives," he said.
The two no longer speak.
Eberhard can't promulgate what exactly he was doing that day. He thinks he read about the launch online with his coffee the following morning.
Meanwhile, Musk had become quite the showman.
"This car is nuts," he said during the reveal. "It's love taking off from a carrier deck. It's just bananas. It's love having your own personal roller coaster."
Even though the Model X SUV was just pushed back again to late 2015, Musk insisted that the Tesla D is going to ship in February. And it just might.
In proper Tesla fashion, the performance modes on the D are as unconventional as they are maximal.
"In fact, in the option selection, you'll exist able to select three settings," Musk said. "Normal, sport, and insane."Mark Ralston/AFP
ILM says they Have rarely seen artists regain excited by hardware, but artists fought to regain the original Linux workstations—Dell single-CPU P4s with NVIDIA Quadra 2 Pro graphics cards. The question became, “Where's my Linux box?”
Production Engineering Manager Ken Beyer says
More than 350 Linux boxes were deployed during Episode II. Animators and modelers got their workstations first, then compositors. The first group had flat panels because animators exigency the desk space for monitors. There were problems with monitor calibration under Red Hat 7.1. They used flat panels to regain Linux out there. final to regain workstations were TDs. They shove the envelope of what they request for. An issue was how quickly they could regain things ported for them.
“We've changed over quite a bit of their plant here to Linux—half of their desktops and about 30% of their 2,000 CPU renderfarm is now Linux”, says ILM Director of Research and development Andy Hendrickson. “We've got 700-plus O2 machines”, adds Beyer. “But it isn't affordable to replace those with Octanes.” SGI is recognized for producing high-end workstations and servers but has abandoned competing with commodity PC hardware. SGI seems to exist rebounding in the military market but less so in entertainment.
“Our renderfarm towers carry the Deathstar logo”, points out Beyer. A render tower is a stack of 1RU 2-CPU units connected together with inexpensive 100Base-TX. He says:
These are 1RU, 2-CPU P4 units. If they lose a unit it is more convenient now that it is just two CPUs rather than four or eight with SGI 2800. For Episode II they had to double available capacity and power. It's 512 processors. They disburse dual 225 kVA UPS systems, and Have three AC systems that rotate. Power goes out often in the San Rafael area. They can dash on UPS for 15 minutes then [on a] diesel generator.
An unexpected snag arose during the upgrade: plenary the PC fans had to exist replaced because they were defective.
Systems R&D Group Manager Mike Kiernan reports a few problems with Linux:
Sometimes when I arrive in the morning a quarter of the Linux cluster is locked up. Fortunately, it doesn't chance too often. VM problems in the 2.4 kernel appear to exist at the root of their kernel lockup problem. Recent improvements in the 2.4 kernel may resolve that. Things notice promising.
But he adds that “Linux needs toil on NFS imposing time.”
We won't exist going to Linux for their NFS servers. I wish they could replace NFS, but no Part of the document management systems is supple enough. And the ones that are supple Have a rather lofty integration cost. When AFS is distributed natively for plenary the client platforms they exigency to support, perhaps we'll deem it.
ILM is snug with multiple platforms. Its 1,400 employees disburse a variety of operating systems. The technique department has Macs, with the rotoscopers and painters transitioning to OS X. Hendrickson sees OS X as a practicable player. “What attracts us is the BSD-like Darwin core and network compatibility.” ILM has few Windows boxes, besides those on traffic side. “There's no advantage to a Windows conversion for us”, says Hendrickson. “We're a UNIX shop and probably always will be.”
R&D Principal Engineer Phil Peterson says ILM chose the Red Hat distro because it seemed easier to travel with what's popular. “At ILM the 2.4.9 kernel is deployed, and 2.4.17 or 2.4.18 is in test. They tweak the kernel—things love shared memory size, number of file descriptors, default stack size—nothing dramatic.” Open Motif 2.1 did a excellent job maintaining the look-and-feel of IRIX, so ILM didn't try LessTif. ILM workstations comprehend limited installations of GNOME and KDE. “No special pains was spent to bare machines down”, says Peterson. “We just left out unused portions of the plenary install. We're pretty vanilla.”
An unusual aspect of the ILM Linux workstation configuration is the replacement of the MESA libs with the SGI open source, OpenGL implementation. “MESA is behind compared to the SGI version in aspects such as libGLU”, explains Peterson. Other studios haven't experienced the best stability using Maya on Linux with NVIDIA drivers. It seems that may exist due to MESA and not Maya, NVIDIA or Linux, as previously thought. ILM has replaced the MESA libraries with a combination of NVIDIA's core OpenGL and libraries from the SGI open-source sample implementation.
“Chances are you will not find solutions in any documentation”, notes Peterson.
We don't Have a champion line to call. They fix things and extend. It introduces a layer of maintenance we're not used to. They had to disburse open-source drivers with tablets. With calibrating monitors, the toil is ongoing. Still, we've had an light road. Their artists are technically savvy, able to endure pain. Having the best testers in the world around the corner from you provides quick feedback.
Hendrickson concurs that Linux champion can exist a problem. He says, “As they regain into Linux we're not finding one company to hand-hold. IBM and HP aren't there, yet. But, before Linux it was out of their control and out of control. [Now] they own their Linux problems.”
Is it practicable for Linux to exist too fast? “Due to the hurry of Linux, for the first time in my life, 15 years in the business, I'm starting to feel some RSI [repetitive strain injury]”, says Technical Director Robert Weaver. “Usually you are working the machine, but Linux is so speedy it can overwork you.” Weaver has to recall to rob breaks because with Linux he doesn't regain any breaks waiting for the machine anymore.
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