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SANTA CLARA, Calif.--(company WIRE)--Enteros, Inc., the industry leader in production efficiency management, nowadays announced the immediate support for HP QTP through its Load2Test Platform. Extending this aid, enables purchasers using Enteros load trying out platform to load test internet-based and windows based functions the exhaust of current HP QTP scripts.
The newest offering from Enteros extends its load checking out platform Load2Test with the talent to replay HP QuickTest expert (QTP) useful scripts as load exams. With this announcement, QTP valued clientele benefit the skill to reuse their huge funding in developing business-usual useful scripts for load testing the exhaust of the Enteros Load2Test platform. QTP is an automatic practical Graphical consumer Interface (GUI) trying out device that permits the automation of person movements on an internet or customer based mostly and computer desktop utility. it is essentially used for feature regression test automation. QTP makes exhaust of a scripting language to specify the examine manner, and to govern the objects and controls of the application under spy at various.
“there is increasing awareness of the import of load testing to a corporation’s earnings growth particularly given the current and immediate economic outlook. Their extension in aiding the reuse of HP QTP enables corporations to examine their functions with present components represented with the aid of up to now developed scripts. further impregnate rate reductions and considerable time reduction is won over legacy load checking out strategies by using their resourceful entrance and returned proximate load checking out solution Load2Test. This announcement continues their carrying on with consumer dedication to modernize the weight testing process,” referred to Ron Warshawsky cofounder and CTO of Enteros.
The Load2Test platform is furthermore at present integrated with Citrix industry XenSever and with Citrix Cloud hub (Citrix C3) and permits immediate, transparent and scalable software load checking out for the QTP useful exams.
Enteros provides a collection of construction efficiency management utility solutions for common infrastructure and cloud computing environments that permits businesses to maximize their IT investments, usher enterprise agility and permit growth. The company’s application options are valued throughout the area’s most annoying and dynamic industries through IT executives, operations, enterprise administration and DBAs to identify, diagnose, and amass to the bottom of performance issues across structures, computing architectures and purposes to guarantee the highest tiers of productivity, reducing risk and fees, whereas making certain more desirable consumer satisfaction.
AdactIn proudly launches a pattern net application to keep and gain information of spy at various Automation. exhaust this utility with any test automation tool, HP QTP, Selenium and greater.Parramatta, Australia, February 10, 2014 --(PR.com)-- AdactIn proudly launches a pattern web software to keep and exist trained test Automation. it's a Free sample reside application which is terribly effective to exist taught, develop and rehearse spy at various Automaiton. This utility may furthermore exist used with any of industry leading test automation outfit relish HP QTP, Selenium, IBM RFT TOSCA, TestComplete and greater.
With exquisite studies on AdactIn pattern utility to learn functional automation, clients now possess entry to varied builds of the utility. build-1 has frequent defects on account of which afew of the test instances and automation scripts will fail. In construct-2 lots of the commonplace defects had been fixed. it is giving a constant time simulation of regression trying out conducted in reside applications.
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At its HP give protection to conference in Washington, D.C. this week, HP is taking the wraps off new protection items that flat to detect infected and compromised machines in addition to server-based mostly utility that makes exhaust of so-referred to as “run-time” self-insurance policy to maintain from getting infected in the first vicinity.
HP industry protection items announced HP utility Defender, application that after loaded as an agent onto internet or software servers, can realize and obscure makes an attempt to tangle edge of code vulnerabilities by utilizing a know-how called “runtime software self-insurance plan” (RASP). The Gartner consultancy says RASP products represent a new security routine evident for only the past two years through which security software really works as an instrumentation of runtime in servers or consumers to proffer protection to towards attacks comparable to SQL injection, cross-web page scripting and unauthorized access.
+ extra on network World: Will perimeter firewalls give route to ‘RASP’? +
“RASP could exchange internet application firewall protection and this may exist your simple supply of defense for your net servers,” says candid Mong, vice chairman of options at HP enterprise protection products.
net utility firewalls are often utilized in entrance of servers to give protection to them from a entire lot of assaults, but RASP software is loaded at once into .internet or Java functions as a runtime agent that may keep assaults in true-time on what can exist unpatched vulnerabilities and obscure them.RASP could replace web software firewall protection and this could exist your primary supply of defense on your net servers.
Frank Mong, vp of options at HP enterprise protection items
Gartner says other vendors besides HP in the nascent RASP market consist of Prevoty, shape safety, Waratek, Bluebox and Lacoon cell protection. HP didn’t aspect precisely when HP software Defender would exist obtainable however HP is showing it off at the HP give protection to convention this week, attended through several thousand HP safety customers.
A 2nd new routine to security that HP can exist proposing for the first time is what HP calls superior random outfit DNS. It’s definitely a “DNS sniffer,” says Mong in that the outfit can become conscious of what person computer has turn into contaminated by identifying that the browser has been inappropriately re-directed via malicious code, a common incidence. Mong says HP developed the DNS-based probability-detection appliance in-apartment for its personal exhaust to protect many hundreds of HP personnel and their contraptions. The outfit is proposing precise-time insight into “affected person zero, the primary one infected” for HP and brief remediation can furthermore exist taken, says Mong. The probability-detection outfit isn't yet commercialized however HP anticipates with the goal to occur in concerning the next month.join the network World communities on fb and LinkedIn to touch upon topics which are exact of mind.
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With data increasingly vital to industry success, industry intelligence (BI) continues to grow in importance. With a tenacious BI strategy and team, organizations can achieve the kinds of analysis of industry information necessary to support users achieve data-driven industry decisions.
BI encompasses numerous roles. BI analysts, with an incurious salary of $66,791 per year according to PayScale, provide application analysis and data modeling design for centralized data warehouses and extract data from databases and data warehouses for reporting, among other tasks. BI developers, with an incurious salary of $77,859 per year according to PayScale, drudgery with databases and software to develop and fine-tune IT solutions. BI architects, with an incurious salary of $108,108 per year according to PayScale, anatomize and implement BI for their organizations, with responsibilities that purview from determining platforms to building and maintaining data warehouses. BI directors, with an incurious salary of $129,008 per year according to PayScale, lead design and evolution activities related to the enterprise data warehouse.
In its 1Q 2019 IT Skills demand and Pay Trends Report, research hard Foote Partners notes that cash pay for tech certifications hit a four-year low in the final quarter of 2018, but database certifications were one of the areas in which pay increased (by 2 percent). The report furthermore create that cash premiums for database skills furthermore grew (by 4 percent) in non-certified skills. In the non-certified skills category, data visualization and quantitative analysis/regression analysis skills were among the fastest-growing with esteem to pay.
Certifications are not required to drudgery in BI, but they may support you amass an edge by proving to employers that you possess the perquisite skillset. Below is their usher to some of the most sought-after BI certifications.
The CBIP certification program is intended for senior-level personnel in the information systems and technology industry with a focus on data management and industry analytics. The cert demonstrates that you are up-to-date with BI technologies and are knowledgeable about best practices, solutions, and emerging trends. You will necessity two or more years of full-time experience in computer information systems, data modeling, data planning, data definitions, metadata systems development, enterprise resource planning, systems analysis, application evolution and programming, or information technology management. The initial certification is cogent for four years and must exist renewed every three years thereafter. Recertification requires proof of 120 credit hours of continuing education earned since the ultimate renewal.
The certification has two levels:
Organization: The Data Warehousing Institute (TDWI)
Exam fee: $400 per exam
Annual fee: $125 to the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) each year after the firstIBM Certified Designer: IBM Cognos Analytics Author V11
Price: $100 to $200Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate: BI Reporting
The MCSA: BI Reporting certification demonstrates your expertise in analyzing data with both Power BI and Excel. It demonstrates information of data analysis, data visualization, modeling, dashboards, and direct connectivity to data sources in surpass and Power BI. The certification serves as a first step toward the higher-level Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE): Data Management and Analytics certification. The certification requires passing one of two exams and does not require renewal.
Exam fee: $165 per examMicrosoft Certified Solutions Associate: SQL 2016 BI Development
The MCSA: SQL 2016 BI evolution certification validates your extract, transform, and load (ETL), and data warehouse skills, as well as your talent to implement BI solutions using multidimensional and tabular data models and online analytical processing (OLAP) cubes. The certification serves as a first step toward higher-level MCSE certifications, including the MCSE: Data Management and Analytics certification. The certification requires passing one of 13 exams and does not require renewal.
Exam fee: $165 per examMicrosoft Certified Solutions Expert: Data Management and Analytics
The MCSE: Data Management and Analytics certification demonstrates your broad skill sets in SQL administration, building enterprise-scale data solutions, and leveraging BI data on-premises and in cloud environments. It qualifies the holder for data analyst, database designer, and industry intelligence analyst positions. To qualify, the candidate must first earn an MCSA in SQL Server 2012/2014, or SQL 2016 Database Administration, Database Development, BI Development, Machine Learning, BI Reporting, or Data Engineering with Azure. The certification requires passing two of 13 exams. The certification does not expire.
Exam fee: $165 per examOracle industry Intelligence Foundation Suite 11g Certified Implementation Specialist
The Oracle industry Intelligence Foundation Suite 11g Certified Implementation Specialist certification is intended for intermediate-level implementation team members and demonstrates your skills in areas including: installing Oracle industry Intelligence Suite, building the BI Server metadata repository, building BI dashboards, constructing ad hoc queries, defining security settings, and configuring and managing cache files. The certification does not expire.
Exam fee: $245QlikView industry Analyst
The QlikView industry Analyst certification demonstrates your information of interface design of QlikView applications and is recommended for roles involved in the analysis, design, and layout of the QlikView application user interface. Candidates must possess a basic information of BI, reporting, and data analysis, as well as experience working with QlikView to design applications. The certification requires passing a multiple-choice exam delivered by Pearson VUE via a Pearson VUE Test hub or in your home/office using online proctoring. The certification does not expire, though Qlik releases new exams for every major release, so veteran certifications carry out "age out."
Exam fee: $250QlikView Data Architect
The QlikView Data Architect certification demonstrates your information of the technical aspects of QlikView application development, including design, data modeling, and scripting. It is recommended for roles involving developing, deploying, and supporting QlikView applications. The certification requires passing a multiple-choice exam delivered by Pearson VUE via a Pearson VUE Test hub or in your home/office using online proctoring. The certification does not expire, though Qlik releases new exams for every major release, so veteran certifications carry out "age out."
Exam fee: $250SAP Certified Application Associate: industry Intelligence with SAP BW 7.4 & SAP BI 4.1
The SAP Certified Application Associate: industry Intelligence certification demonstrates your information of SAP industry Warehouse and industry Intelligence. SAP recommends candidates combine hands-on experience and education courses to prepare for the required multiple-choice exam delivered by Pearson VUE. The certification does not expire.
Exam fee: $500Tableau Desktop Certified Professional
The Tableau Desktop Certified Professional certification is for individuals with considerable experience with Tableau (recommended 12 or more months of experience) who wish to demonstrate their mastery of advanced functionality of Tableau and application of visual best practices. The certification requires you to hold the Tableau Desktop Qualified Associate certification and pass an exam. The certification is cogent for three years.
Exam fee: $600Tableau Server Certified Professional
The Tableau Server Certified Professional certification is for individuals with considerable experience with Tableau Server (recommended nine or more months of experience) who wish to demonstrate their architectural information and platform integration expertise. The certification requires you to hold the Tableau Server Qualified Associate certification and pass an exam. The certification is cogent for three years.
Exam fee: $800
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Advanced waveform triggering and sequencing is made viable on a variety of NI modular instruments by the NI Synchronization and remembrance Core (SMC) architecture. As a result, this feature is available on capricious waveform generators, RF vector signal generators, and high-speed digital products. For more information on the SMC architecture, review National Instruments Synchronization and remembrance Core - A Modern Architecture for Mixed-Signal Test.
Figure 1. Waveform Sequencing Implemented in the SMC Architecture
Modern capricious waveform generators implement deep onboard remembrance to store big waveforms. You can generate these waveforms in a sequential manner using what is commonly referred to as “linking and looping.” With this feature, you can create complex waveform sequences by generating waveforms in a predetermined or dynamic order.
Figure 2 illustrates three unique waveforms that you can store in remembrance on a signal generator.
Figure 2. Multiple capricious Waveforms Stored in Memory
Once you possess stored these waveforms in memory, you can link and loop them in a sequenced manner. Thus, you must furthermore store the sequencing instructions for the waveforms in remembrance before the generation session begins. With NI signal generators, you can store multiple waveforms and multiple sequence instructions in the onboard memory. figure 3 illustrates the viable remembrance usage of an NI signal generator.
Figure 3. NI signal generators store multiple waveforms in onboard memory.
Figure 3 shows that waveforms stored on a signal generator can occupy a significant amount of memory. For example, a waveform sampled at 100 MS/s for 1 second occupies 200 MB. Thus, it is primary to effectively exhaust the onboard remembrance of your signal generator. In fact, one edge of using waveform linking and looping is that you can generate complex sequences while using minimal onboard memory.
Back to Top2. Linking and Looping
Linking and looping options available on NI signal generators Fall into two linking and looping modes - sequence mode and script mode. With sequence mode, you are able to configure the instrument to generate a predetermined train of waveforms with a sequence stored in the onboard memory. Script mode, on the other hand, is even more powerful because you can exhaust it to create a dynamic waveform sequence in which the waveform generated is contingent on the status of a hardware or software trigger. In addition, script mode uses conditional statements such as “if/else” to implement branching waveform sequences. Finally, with both linking and looping modes, you can configure the signal generator to output one or several trigger signals with features such as the marker or marker event.Sequencing Mode
With sequencing mode, the waveform sequence must exist configured so that each step contains information for three parameters - waveform name, loop count, and marker position. figure 4 illustrates the parameters that are configured in a typical script.
Figure 4. Configured Parameters in a Waveform Sequence
The software programming interface for sequencing is created with the advanced capricious sequencing palette of the NI-FGEN driver in LabVIEW. With this driver, write the sequence instructions to the signal generator with the niFGEN Create capricious Sequence VI shown in figure 5.
Figure 5. Writing a Sequence to Onboard Memory
With this VI, the sequence instructions are written as two arrays - one containing the number of iterations for each waveform and the second containing the manipulate information for each waveform. In addition, you can create even more advanced sequences to output a marker event for each waveform. With this option enabled, you must configure a third array to designate the marker offset for each waveform.
Back to Top3. Sequence Trigger Modes
You can generate waveforms that are configured in a sequence using a variety of different modes, depending on which trigger mechanism you select. While a trigger event can occur as a software event, it more commonly occurs in hardware on one of the many available trigger lines. With National Instruments signal generators, the trigger modes available for waveform sequencing are unique trigger, continuous trigger, stepped trigger, and burst trigger. Each of these modes provides different output options when each waveform is generated. They are described below.Single Trigger
Single trigger mode is the simplest of complete triggering modes because with this mode, a trigger is used only once during the generation period. Thus, after the trigger condition is met, the instrument must exist rearmed to exist vigorous once again. In unique trigger mode, a trigger is typically used as a start trigger to commence the generation of the waveform. As shown in figure 6, the signal generator outputs the ultimate sample of the ultimate waveform while waiting to receive the start trigger. Once this trigger condition is met, the signal generator begins the generation of the waveform or sequence of waveforms.
Figure 6. Sequencing with a unique Start Trigger
As figure 6 illustrates, the signal generator begins output on a rising edge of the start trigger. Note, however, that there is a slight retard between when the start trigger occurs and the channel 0 output begins. This delay, a duty of the sampling rate and interpolation factors, is described in the signal generator specifications. In addition, notice that in this particular scenario, a sequence of two waveforms has been configured for generation. Once the ultimate waveform in the sequence has been generated, the signal generator continues to drive the ultimate sample value.Continuous Triggering
On the other hand, in continuous trigger mode, the entire sequence of waveform segments is continuously generated. Once the trigger is received, the signal generator begins generation of the signal with the first waveform in the sequence. In addition, the signal generator outputs each step in the sequence and then loops back to the first step upon completion of the sequence.
Figure 7. Sequencing with Continuous Trigger Mode
As figure 7 illustrates, output begins shortly after the start trigger condition occurs. In addition, the signal generator continues to generate the sequence of waveforms until the generation session is stopped. Notice from figure 6, that at time t2, the signal generator loops to the first waveform in the sequence.Stepped Triggering
In stepped trigger mode, a trigger is used to step through each waveform in a sequence list. When the generation session is started, the first waveform loops as many times as has been configured for that particular step. After the waveform has been looped for the commandeer number of iterations, the ultimate sample of the waveform repeats continuously until the next trigger is received. When the next trigger is received, the second waveform generates for the configured number of iterations. This process repeats until the ultimate of the configured waveforms has been generated. At this point, a trigger condition is required to start the generation sequence again (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Sequencing with Stepped Trigger Mode
As figure 8 illustrates, the signal generator begins generating the first waveform at time t0, when the first trigger is received. In addition, it continues to loop through the generation of ‘waveform0’ until it reaches the number of configured loops (two in this case). In this particular scenario, you can keep that ‘waveform0’ has been configured to loop twice. As you can espy in figure 7, the signal generator continues to drive the ultimate sample of ‘waveform0’ until time t1, when the next waveform is generated.Burst Triggering
Burst trigger mode is similar to stepped trigger mode except that each waveform in the sequence repeats continuously between each received trigger. In this mode, the signal generator begins to generate a waveform when a trigger is received. In addition, it continues looping to generate that waveform until a subsequent trigger is received. Only then does it foster to the next waveform (see timing diagram in figure 9).
Figure 9. Sequencing with Burst Trigger Mode
As figure 9 illustrates, the first trigger is received at time ‘t0’ and causes the signal generator to generate the first step of the sequence. Notice that the signal generator continues to loop this waveform until it receives the next trigger. Thus, at ‘t1,’ when a second trigger is received, the signal generator proceeds to the next step in the sequence.
Back to Top4. Scripting for Advanced Waveform Sequencing
While sequence mode enables a signal generator to output a train of waveforms upon receiving triggers, it does possess its limitations. Fundamentally, sequence mode requires that each step is configured before signal generation has begun. To configure a dynamic script, where the output is conditional, you must exhaust a more advanced contour of sequencing called scripting.
With scripting, a signal generator can dynamically output a sequence of waveforms based on hardware or software events in the system. In addition, it is the most advanced waveform control feature because of its flexibility. You can exhaust scripting not only to link and loop between multiple waveforms but furthermore to generate a waveform conditional on an event that occurs in the device under test. In this section, explore basic script language elements using several specimen scripts.Fundamentals of the Script Language
The basic idea of scripting is that a named waveform can exist stored in remembrance on the signal generator and then called by a script that determines which waveform is generated at a given time. The script is furthermore downloaded to the capricious waveform generator before signal generation.
In software, the scripting programming interface requires three basic functions. Each of these is shown in figure 10.
Figure 10. Configuring a Script in LabVIEW
First, each waveform is downloaded to the capricious waveform generator (AWG) as a named waveform. It is absolutely necessary that a named waveform is written because the script identifies each waveform by name. Second, the script is written to the waveform. The script contains various commands that determine the order in which each waveform is generated. Finally, the generation is initiated and the AWG begins generating a waveform from the SMC output engine.Introduction to Script Triggers
Script triggers enable the generation of even more complex scripts. With scripting, you can exhaust a real-world signal to determine which waveform you should generate on the fly. This signal can reach from a PXI trigger line on the backplane or a PFI (programmable duty interface) trigger from the front panel connector.
You can configure the script trigger in software with the niFgen Configure Script Trigger VI. Using this function, you can configure either a flat or edge trigger for a specific trigger line. After the duty muster in figure 11, a script can exhaust “scriptTrigger0” as a variable to determine the order in which various waveforms are generated.
Figure 11. Configuring a Script Trigger
In the scripting language, the script trigger is handled as a variable associated with a specific hardware condition. As illustrated in the figure 11 specimen script, scriptTrigger0 must exist evaluated as a true/false Boolean logic statement. This is shown in figure 12.
Figure 12. Evaluating a Script Trigger
Because with script triggers you can exhaust conditional statements within the scripting language, the signal generator can output a signal that is contingent on a signal from a real-world device under test. The next section examines some basic statements of the scripting language to provide an overview of scripting capabilities.Basics of the Script Language
The script language contains several basic commands, which determine the order in which you can generate waveforms. This section lists the basic commands and walks through a pair of basic sequences that exhaust them. The basic scripting command set includes commands such as the following:
Generate n – instructs the output engine to generate a sequence of waveforms ‘n’ times.
Repeat until – repeats a sequence until a particular condition has been met.
If/Else – a conditional statement where the script trigger operates as a Boolean variable.
Wait until – a retard statement that causes the output engine to wait until a condition has been met to resume signal generation.
Clear – erases any instances of triggers that might possess occurred.
With the “Repeat until” command, you can repeatedly generate a waveform until a trigger occurs. figure 13 shows the set of commands required to implement a simple script that uses this command.
Figure 13. specimen Script Using the “Repeat until” Command
Notice that “scriptTrigger0” is being used as the variable that determines which waveform should exist generated. exhaust the flowchart in figure 14 to visualize the script language.
Figure 14. Flowchart of Script Containing the “Repeat until” Command
In this specific script, the signal generator begins by generating “waveform0” first. Then it loops through generating “waveform1” and repeats this waveform until “scripttrigger0” evaluates to TRUE. Once this event occurs, the signal generator generates “waveform2” before finishing the sequence. figure 15 shows the output signal resulting from this script.
Figure 15. Signal Generator Output with the “Repeat until” Script
As figure 15 illustrates, the AWG continues to generate “waveform1” until “scripttrigger0” evaluates to TRUE.Wait Until Command
With the “Wait until” command, you can configure a signal generator to halt generation of any waveform until a hardware condition occurs. figure 16 shows an specimen script using “Wait until.” Again, notice that “scriptTrigger0” is used as the variable to determine when the AWG resumes waveform generation.
Figure 16. specimen Script Using the “Wait until” Command
Notice the exhaust of the “Clear” statement before the “Wait until” statement. The lucid statement is used to ignore any trigger conditions that may possess occurred while “waveform0” was being generated. figure 17 features a flowchart of this specific script.
Figure 17. Flowchart of Script Containing the “Wait until” Command
In this specific script, the AWG begins by generating “waveform0” first. After this, the signal generator outputs the ultimate sample of “waveform0” until the trigger condition is met. Once the trigger condition occurs, the AWG resumes the script and generates “waveform1” and then “waveform2.” The physical output of the generator is shown in figure 18.
Figure 18. Signal Generator Output with the “Wait until” ScriptIf/Else Command
You can exhaust the “If/else” command sequence to determine the order in which waveforms are generated depending on a hardware condition. In addition, when these commands are nested, you can exhaust them to implement a truth table in which the waveform to generate depends on several trigger conditions. figure 19 shows a simple script using the “If/else” command sequence.
Figure 19. specimen Script Using the “If/else” Command
In addition, figure 20 shows a flowchart representing the order in which particular waveforms are generated.
Figure 20. Flowchart of Script Containing the “If/else” Command
In this example, the AWG begins by generating “waveform0” first. Next, “scripttrigger0” is evaluated to determine which waveform is generated next. If “scripttrigger0” evaluates to FALSE, then “waveform1” is generated. If “scriptrigger0” evaluates to TRUE, then “waveform2” is generated. figure 21 illustrates the physical output of the AWG, as shown as a duty of time.
Figure 21. Signal Generator Output with the “If/else” Script
In figure 21, when “scripttrigger0” evaluates to TRUE, “waveform2” is generated. Note that this specimen shows only a unique conditional statement. With National Instruments AWGs, you can configure up to four script triggers. As a result, you can nest “If/else” statements to represent even more complicated ratiocinative statements.
Back to Top5. Output Triggers and Events
So far, this document has primarily focused on the exhaust of input triggers to control the output of signal generators. However, signal generators are able to generate output triggers to control the conduct of other instruments. The two types of output triggers are marker events and data marker events. For the first type, you can configure up to one (sequence mode) or four (script mode) trigger lines to change the status synchronous with a configured sample number. By contrast, the data marker event enables up to four bits of the analog waveform to exist routed to up to four trigger lines. With this nature of output trigger, the status of the trigger is embedded into the actual waveform.Marker Events
With a marker event, you can configure up to four trigger lines so their states change synchronously with the generation of a specific sample. You can generate this digital pulse on PFI trigger lines on the front panel of a signal generator or on the PXI backplane.
Marker events are specified by giving an offset matter (in number of samples) from the start of the waveform. In sequence mode, you configure one marker event for each step in the sequence. In script mode, you can configure up to four markers at different offsets of a particular waveform. As you can espy in figure 22, the trigger line associated with the marker becomes asserted on the very clock edge that generates the 20th sample. In addition, you can keep that in this particular case, the trigger line has been configured to exist asserted for 40 periods of the sample clock.
Figure 22. Timing of Marker Event Output
Note that you can configure the conduct of the marker output in a number of ways with a property node. As figure 22 illustrates, the marker event has been configured as a pulse for eight periods of the sample clock. You can specify this conduct with an niFgen property node (Figure 23).
Figure 23. Configuring a Marker Event with a Property Node
Figure 23 illustrates that it is viable to configure the output terminal, the output behavior, and the pulse width. While the marker in figure 23 is configured as a pulse, you can furthermore configure the output to toggle instead.
Marker events are particularly useful for scenarios when it is necessary to synchronize multiple instruments. In addition, with PXI signal generators, you can easily route marker event triggers to multiple modules such as digitizers, RF vector signal generators, or high-speed digital I/O hardware.Data Marker Events
Using the data marker event, you can export up to four waveform data bits to a physical trigger line as a digital signal. For example, a typical signal generator uses a 16-bit DAC (digital-to-analog converter). Thus, when generating a signal, 16-bit samples are sent to the DAC every term of the sample rate frequency. In addition, you can route up to four bits of each sample to physical trigger lines. Thus, you can configure these four waveform bits as a digital waveform for synchronization with other hardware.
The digital flat of a data marker event changes when a specific data bit toggles in the waveform data. If the waveform data bit toggles several times in a segment, the data marker flat changes every time. When the data bit flat is high, the data marker flat is high. In addition, you can configure data bit markers to exhaust inverse logic. A timing diagram of a signal using data bit markers is shown in figure 24.
Figure 24. Bitwise Representation of a Waveform
As figure 24 illustrates, each sample of a typical signal generator is composed of a 16-bit number. You can update the 16-bit number every sample clock of the signal generator. figure 24 highlights the four least significant bits of each 16-bit sample. As described above, you can route each of these individual bits to a physical trigger line as a digital signal. The conduct of the digital trigger lines is illustrated in the timing diagram for each data bit trigger line in figure 25.
Figure 25. Data Marker Event Timing Diagram
Figure 25 shows you can configure each data bit marker to exist routed as an external trigger line. Notice that the bit value for each sample determines the status of the trigger line. In ‘DataBit3,’ notice that the bit is a ‘0’ for the first three clock periods and changes to a ‘1’ starting at time ‘t2.’ As a result, the digital status of ‘PXI_Trig 3’ remains low for the first three periods and goes high at time ‘t2.’
Using data marker events, you can achieve tighter synchronization between signal generators and other devices because you can time their operation in hardware. In addition, synchronization between multiple PXI instruments is even easier because no external connections are required between modules.
Back to Top6. Summary and Applications
With the advanced waveform triggering and sequencing features of National Instruments signal generators, you can generate complex waveforms and achieve synchronization between multiple instruments. Moreover, the synchronized instruments are in the very physical PXI system. As a result, you can implement complex test signals that are tightly synchronized with multiple instruments. figure 26 shows an specimen test setup that includes multiple instruments. Note that in a PXI system, a signal generator can implement marker event or data bit marker features to control the operation of other instruments.
Figure 26. Automated PXI Test System
As figure 26 illustrates, a signal generator can provide a stimulus signal for the unit under test (UUT). Moreover, additional instruments can interface with the UUT synchronously using the stimulus from the master signal generator. For more information on designing ATE systems, download a collection of technical guides from the test system resource library.
Also, you can exhaust stimulus signals from a UUT to determine the stimulus signal from the AWG. With scripting and script triggers, you can control the output of the signal based on real-world trigger events. figure 27 shows a obscure diagram of a test scenario where a signal generator produces a train of different signals conditional on digital control signals coming from the UUT. With scripting, a signal generator can respond to these digital control signals on the fly, without stopping generation of its waveform.
Figure 27. Using Dynamic Sequencing
In figure 27, the PFI0 and PFI1 possess been configured as script triggers to receive inputs from the UUT. Note that signal generators are able to exhaust up to four script triggers to control the signal output. If you necessity more than two control lines, you can exhaust a PXI timing and synchronization module to route digital trigger signals to the signal generator.Conclusion
Modern signal generators exhaust the NI Synchronization and remembrance Core (SMC) architecture to enable the generation of complex and accurate analog signals. As a result, signal generators can generate a big variety of signals and support a wide array of applications. To view a multimedia tutorial on the very topic, espy Signal Generator Fundamentals: Scripting to Create Advanced Signals. For more information on features you can exhaust to generate advanced waveform sequencing and triggering, espy Signal Generator Fundamentals. For more information on the applications that typically exhaust signal generators, espy Signal Generator Applications main page.Related Links
This epic appears in the March 25, 2019, issue of Sports Illustrated. For more powerful storytelling and in-depth analysis, subscribe to the magazine—and amass up to 94% off the cover price. Click here for more.
Cold and lucid as verity, a new dawn broke over Camelback Ranch, spring home of the Dodgers. So did morning. In one batting cage at the Glendale, Ariz., complex ultimate month—not the cage with ground coerce measurement plates—rookie outfielder Alex Verdugo, 22, took batting rehearse while tethered to a laptop computer by two dozen thick white wires sprouting relish vines from a harness around his hips and torso. Behind him, furthermore in the cage, two technicians monitored the 3D motion images of Verdugo and his swing.
In the bullpen of a back field, pitching prospects Dustin May, 21, and Tony Gonsolin, 24, threw with a tripod-mounted high-speed camera behind them and a wedge-shaped radar tracking device on the ground in front of them. The Dodgers maintained four such technology-equipped mounds in this bullpen alone, and more at the minor league fields. Behind the mounds stood 13 operators, analysts and coaches. Four analysts held tablets to immediately present pitchers the velocity, perpendicular break, horizontal break, spin rate, spin axis and path of any pitch—on-the-spot sequencing of a pitch genome.
On each of two diamonds, five devices tracked every pitch of live batting practice: a high-speed camera with an operator behind the pitcher, a tracking device on the ground and video cameras behind the plate and to each side.
Analysts in khakis did not quite equal players in spikes, but the visual was proximate enough to render the result unmistakable: A technology boom is changing baseball. Once confined to a handful of teams and analytic boiler rooms, technology has exploded in the past year to become embraced (if not understood) by complete 30 teams. Technology is changing how players learn, how coaches coach, how managers manage, how front offices evaluate and how teams compete. Its yield of verity, as Shakespeare’s Malcolm would allow, has become one of the king-becoming graces.
“This generation of players has brought about the biggest, fastest change in baseball that I’ve ever seen,” says Cubs catching coach Mike Borzello, who begins his 29th year in professional baseball. Only two years ago, for instance, the Astros were the only team to extensively exhaust the high-speed camera, a minute blue box called an Edgertronic SC1, a $5,000 device originally intended for scientific researchers. Shooting at 1,000 frames per second or more (faster than your accustomed slow-motion TV replay), it focuses on a tense window in which the ball leaves the pitcher’s hand, revealing in stunning clarity how the baseball comes off a pitcher’s fingertips and how it spins. It does for pitches what high-speed cameras did for the wings of a hummingbird: It reveals what previously went unseen by even the keenest of human eyes.
The Astros first considered the camera so proprietary that they would tape over its identifying name, lest they tip off other clubs to their covert sauce. By ultimate year a half dozen teams had began using the devices. This year the cameras were as ubiquitous around camps as bats and balls. Major league teams ordered so many of them that the manufacturer, Sanstreak, posted on its website, “Due to high demand, lead time on complete SC1 cameras is 12 weeks. . . . One camera per order, please.”
Likewise, pitch-tracking devices made by Trackman and Rapsodo are suddenly everywhere. The $4,500 Rapsodo is an 111⁄2-pound unit that looks relish somebody left a slightly open pizza box 20 feet in front of home plate. It provides instant data on at least 10 different pitch metrics so that a pitcher, as its website touts, can “design your consummate pitch.”
“In my four years here,” says Houston manager AJ Hinch, “I’ve watched tech proceed from, ‘We’re just going to amass video and don’t know what to carry out with it’ to now being ever present. Justin Verlander is saying, ‘Why isn’t that camera over here?’ He wants every pitch [captured].”
The talent to capture information on every pitch has ignited an explosion of “designer” breaking pitches that has made for the toughest era in history for a hitter to achieve contact. In the cold truth of its diagnostics, technology is telling pitchers—from a prospect relish Gonsolin to a Cy young Award winner relish Verlander—what to throw and what not to throw.
What’s coming is a day when catchers wear a sleeve embedded with a device to measure how his arm and hand moved to receive and frame a pitch; when motion capture devices betray secrets about the sway to finally allow crime to fight back against the gains technology has made for pitching; and when a mutilate prepares for an at bat by wearing a virtual reality headset that re-creates the exact likely pitches of the opposing pitcher.
“It’s not quite there,” Cubs president Theo Epstein says of virtual reality as a major league training device, “but in two or three years you might espy every team’s hitters training to hit off other team’s pitchers before they proceed up to hit.”
Says Galen Carr, director of player personnel for the Dodgers, “I’d exist surprised if by next season [VR] isn’t fully functional in a handful of clubhouses.”
“Probably sooner than that,” says Jarett Sims, CEO of Monsterful VR, maker of the RibeeVR system, in a phone interview. “If you were in the office with me, you would espy me smiling. I’ll leave it at that.”
As evidenced by a typical spring training day, the Dodgers are industry leaders in technology. According to one industry source, they disburse about $20 million annually on research and development—hardware, software, salaries. That figure does not embrace a divorce technology incubator industry they possess operated since 2015. Their Global Sports Venture Studio helps develop emerging technology companies in complete sports, not just baseball. When the hard developing the pitch-framing sleeve went belly-up, the Dodgers, one of its investors, bought the company and its technology.
The Cubs, according to another source, are a far second in technology investments, at about $13 million. The Astros, Rays, Red Sox and Yankees are the other clubs in the top echelon of tech-savvy teams.
Houston has been recognized as such a successful early adopter that clubs playing catch-up—such as the Angels, Orioles and Braves—hired away more than 20 executives, coaches and analysts from the Astros in just the past five months. “The gap has narrowed,” said one source from a big market club, “but they know how to exhaust it. A lot of teams possess it but don’t know how to exhaust it, relish the Marlins. They just know they possess it. They don’t know what that camera does. They’ve captured [the video]. But they haven’t hired the people to interpret it, apply it to the coaches, then apply it to the players.”
Under new GM Mike Elias, who was piece of Houston’s brain drain, the Orioles hold “spin axis seminars” for pitchers—something the Astros were doing four years ago. Elias was Houston’s scouting director when, in the 2016 draft, the Astros, with the 17th overall pick, selected Forrest Whitley, a high school pitcher from San Antonio. Whitley happened to pitch a high school playoff game in Round Rock, Texas, home of Houston’s Triple A team. The Astros turned on their ballpark’s pitch-tracking device, Trackman, and erudite that Whitley had an abnormally high spin rate on his four-seam fastball, a characteristic of the pitch that makes it harder to hit.
Since he signed, Whitley has thrown virtually every pitch in games, bullpen sessions and sometimes even in flat-ground throwing sessions with the Edgertronic, Trackman or Rapsodo watching. Whitley, 21, is now the best pitching prospect in baseball, as well as the prototype of a generation fully immersed in technology. “I possess friends in complete these other organizations, and I order them I carry out not throw a bullpen without Rapsodo and Edgertronic, and they believe that’s the craziest thing in the entire world,” he says. “I’ve grown up in this organization, and that’s complete I’ve known. So it’s hard to imagine getting anything done without them.”
Before Game 1 of the 2017 World Series, Hinch was walking with Gene Dias, the Astros’ vice president of media relations, in a narrow hallway beneath Dodger Stadium toward the recently relocated visitors’ clubhouse. As they passed the leeway that housed the veteran visitors’ clubhouse, Hinch took a glance past the open door and saw people sitting at desks in front of laptops.
“Gene, is that the media drudgery room?” Hinch asked.
“No. That’s their R&D department.”
“Holy s---! Let’s proceed back there again.”
They turned around. The manager of the Astros, in complete uniform, stepped into the room. He saw the length of it filled with people working at laptops. The capacity stunned even someone from the tech-heavy Astros.
The sign on the door said LOS ANGELES DODGERS in script, and below it in print, BASEBALL OPERATIONS. RESEARCH & evolution DEPARTMENT. The symbolism of the conversion was hard to miss: Physical space that once had been the inner sanctum of players had been turned over to number crunchers. But the only route for such a big R&D department to succeed, according to Dodgers president of baseball operations Andrew Friedman, is for no metaphorical wall to exist between the two distinctly different groups of people. “It’s in the application,” Friedman says about the key to using technology. “The data itself, the information, is something most every team has now. So it’s about how the various departments are synced up to achieve it actually exist actionable.”
Says Epstein, “Five years ago you had to tiptoe around ballplayers and the eye roll of coaches who thought [tech] was getting in the way. Now there’s a huge appetite, and the players feel relish they’re missing out if you’re not providing it for them, and there’s this powerful symbiotic relationship between the R&D guys and the players and coaches. It’s awesome.”
The younger generation is driving the snappy wave of acceptance. Earl Weaver introduced the radar gun to the astronomical leagues in 1972. Tony Gwynn popularized the exhaust of videotape in the ’80s. For years technology traveled a top-down path, with the minors and amateurs copying what worked in the majors. This tech boom has surfaced from the bottom up and the outside in, whether it’s bubbled up from the golf world (swing and ball flight analysis) or private baseball labs such as Driveline in Kent, Wash. (high-speed cameras, wearable devices and motion capture).
The rise of the Breaking Pitch
The Cubs’ state-of-the-art spring training complex is a generous specimen of how snappy this generation of players has adopted technology. Well, the facility was status of the technique when it opened in 2014—it’s already outdated. The video leeway now is too small. “For the first three or four years very few people went into that video leeway unless you were a coach,” says Borzello. “Now there’s 20 guys in there. They’re fighting for time on the computer.”
Not only are they more cozy with technology, young players furthermore learn differently than older players. Studies possess shown millennials and those that supervene them are more likely to crave visual and auditory cues and require change in delivery formats to maintain interest. They seek cause-and-effect solutions more than the patience and diligence of “nose-to-the-grindstone” practice.
And so baseball teams are hiring more coaches who are younger and often reach straight out of college baseball or the private sector, including Rangers assistant hitting coach Callix Crabbe, who was hired out of IMG Academy; Rays “process and analytics coach” Jonathan Erlichman, who was a math major at Princeton who never played beyond T-ball; Phillies minor league hitting coordinator Jason Ochart, who will retain his job as director of hitting at Driveline, and Twins pitching coach Wes Johnson, who was the pitching coach at the University of Arkansas. “He was using high-speed cameras back in 2011 at Dallas Baptist,” Twins executive vice president Derek Falvey says of Johnson. Not only has Johnson brought Edgertronic cameras to the Twins, but he furthermore conducts “visual training” seminars. Before each individually scripted bullpen session a Minnesota pitcher will watch clips of his best examples of the specific pitches he is working on that day.
When Houston posted an opening for a minor league hitting coach job this offseason, the requirements resembled the standards for a Ph.D. application: “analyze hitter performance deficiencies using tools, reports and technology . . . tenacious computer skills and skilled in Microsoft Office . . . technical degree is a plus . . . SQL and R coding skills is a plus.”
Technology is how players learn. “From their professional days they demand it,” Epstein says. “They’re furthermore complete on companionable media, so if there’s anything out there on Twitter that looks relish it’s helpful and the organization doesn’t provide or understand, it you lose credit with your own players.
“You possess to know your stuff backwards and forwards. If you try to b.s. your route through it, you’ll exist written off.”
Justin Verlander is 36 and broke into the astronomical leagues in 2005, two years before the iPhone. Yet since he joined Houston in a trade on Aug. 31, 2017, he has become as enraptured with technology as any millennial.
Immediately after the trade, the Astros had Verlander throw with the Edgertronic and Rapsodo, tools he never had with the Tigers. The camera revealed that Verlander was “showing” his slider to hitters too early by having it pop up out of his hand. He changed his hand position to tarry behind the ball longer, creating the desired result of having his slider spy relish a fastball as it left his hand. The Rapsodo device revealed that the metrics on his two-seam fastball—spin, wreck and path—were so impecunious that it recommended that Verlander halt throwing the pitch. Verlander immediately ditched the two-seamer, which is designed to favor movement over unadulterated velocity.
In 48 starts with Houston, including the postseason, Verlander is 27–11 with a 2.41 ERA.
Five months after trading for Verlander, the Astros traded for Gerrit Cole, who had just had the worst of his five seasons with the Pirates (4.26 ERA and the second-most home runs allowed in the National League). As they had done with Charlie Morton, Colin McHugh, Will Harris and Verlander, the Astros used pitch data to identify a better pitcher hidden within Cole. They told him much of the route he was using his pitches was wrong.
For instance, Cole says, “They told me to throw my slider more and my curveball harder, which was the contrary of what I was doing.” The most fundamental change was to transform Cole from a two-seam fastball pitcher who pounded the bottom of the zone to amass ground balls into a four-seam fastball monster with swing-and-miss stuff at the top of the zone. The Astros convinced him that the two-seam fastball is an ineffective pitch in today’s game. As hitters possess prioritized slugging over batting average, they seek higher launch angles with a more upward sway path to the ball—perfect for elevating low pitches. “I always tried to pound down to create ground balls,” Cole says, “but with the [livelier] balls and the route hitters adjusted their sway path, that two-seam was getting elevated as opposed to getting crushed to the third baseman.”
The rise of the Slider
Then, the Astros helped Cole remake his four-seamer, the preferred pitch in the age of launch angle. They showed him video of his four-seam fastball spinning at 2,300 rpm—almost 100 rpm faster than the major league average. Cole threw 20 such high-spin fastballs in his first start of 2017. Yet by the proximate of the year Cole’s four-seamer had dissolved into a below incurious one, averaging only 2,164 rpm.
Houston knew something was off, because four-seam spin rates generally don’t vary much for established pitchers—it’s almost relish a pitching fingerprint. If Cole had the talent to throw 2,300 rpm four-seamers, such pitches should exist the norm for him. So the Houston staff, led by pitching coach Brent Strom, taught him how to throw a constant four-seamer.
They explained that the hand and wrist should tarry fully behind the ball through release to impart constant north-side backspin. The faster a four-seamer backspins and stays on a north-south axis, the more it resists gravity, and the more it resists gravity the more “ride” it has through the strike zone. “Ride” means it sinks less than the hitter expects, which leads the hitter to sway under the ball. “The stress was on how to throw a constant four-seam,” Cole says. “Step one: achieve it proceed straight and backspin it. I wanted it to exist more constant and tarry in the lane instead of drifting. I wasn’t really lucid on how to throw it before.”
Cole would play tangle every day with Verlander. Each had the very goal in throwing the ball back and forth: hit your throwing ally in the perquisite shoulder every time, not allowing the ball to fade or drift.
Houston’s diagram worked. Cole’s four-seam fastball in 2018 averaged 2,379 rpm. Batters hit .185 against it, making it the third-toughest four-seamer to hit among complete major league starters, behind only Walker Buehler and Chris Sale. He reduce his ERA to 2.88 and finished fifth in Cy young Award voting.
Says the Twins’ Falvey, “Ever since Moneyball, teams possess been looking for the next edge. Now they complete pretty much possess the very evaluation systems. But the holy grail is in development. If you can identify players who are undervalued and can find a status to achieve them better, that’s the edge.”
The Twins hope they possess create the next undervalued pitcher based on pitch data. In January they signed Martin Pérez to a one-year, $3.5 million constrict after he had a 6.22 ERA ultimate year with Texas while using a 93-mph two-seamer as his primary pitch. The Twins saw that Pérez’s two-seamer, four-seamer and changeup blended together with minimal separation in pitch path. As the Astros did with Cole, Minnesota has converted Pérez from a sinkerball pitcher into a four-seam pitcher who pounds the top of the strike zone. In his first spring training start, Pérez hit 97 mph with his fastball. According to Statcast, he had not thrown a unique pitch that snappy over the previous four years.
It is harder to amass a hit in the major leagues today than at any time since the DH was added in 1973. ultimate year, for the first time ever, there were more strikeouts than hits, and more foul balls than balls in play (meaning fans had more chances to bailiwick balls off the bat than the fielders did). Hitting has become harder less because of velocity of pitches (which has hit a three-year plateau) and more because of technology, which has spawned new, actionable information about pitch shaping and sequencing to better expose hitters’ weaknesses.
Such revelations possess changed managing. Managers no longer depend wholly on traditional batter-pitcher historical samples (most of which are too minute to exist useful, anyway). Instead, managers will match the path of his pitcher’s pitches against the sway path of the hitter. For instance, a manager might muster on a high four-seam pitcher to combat a hitter with a high launch angle, regardless of handedness or previous matchups. “A few years ago, before I got this job Joe Maddon brought in Jake McGee, a lefty, to countenance a righty in Cleveland and it blew my mind,” Hinch says. “It’s not handedness anymore. Now it’s strengths on weaknesses.”
Because pitching is proactive—baseball is the only game in which the defense has the ball, with the pitcher deciding how and where it will exist set in motion—technology mostly helps flee prevention, not flee production. The biggest benefit is that pitchers can fix flaws and achieve performance adjustments almost on the fly.
In 2015 the Rays installed at Tropicana bailiwick a markerless motion capture system made by Philadelphia-based KinaTrax. The system gives a skeletal, 360-degree readout of a pitcher’s delivery based on eight to 12 radar-tracking units installed around the ballpark. Since then the Cubs, Dodgers and Red Sox furthermore possess installed KinaTrax, which one source familiar with the system estimated cost about $1 million.
The edge of KinaTrax is that, since it doesn’t require markers to measure kinematic movements, it provides data under actual game conditions, not bullpens or labs. ultimate season, for instance, the Cubs were flummoxed about what was wrong with Kyle Hendricks, who carried a 4.27 ERA into July. His velocity was down, and he had lost movement on his sinker and changeup.
Data from Trackman indicated that Hendricks’s release point was two to three inches higher than normal, but on video the angle of his arm at release looked no different than usual. Hendricks himself could feel no disagreement in the route he was throwing. So the Cubs consulted KinaTrax. They overlaid a 3D motion capture image of Hendricks’s delivery from a recent impecunious start (with skeletal points connected by red lines) over an image from when Hendricks was throwing well (his so-called “baseline” mechanics, represented in blue). Immediately the images revealed a root cause that Hendricks could not feel and that could not exist seen on video: His trunk was tilting a few degrees toward his glove side as he released the ball. There was nothing wrong with his arm angle. The trunk tilt had simply pushed the arm higher, causing his pitches to flatten. The Cubs immediately corrected the trunk tilt in the next bullpen session. Hendricks’s ERA over the relaxation of the season was 2.65.
As with complete technology, the more information KinaTrax gathers, the more liable it becomes. Teams are able to collect kinetic images on opposing players in the team’s own park. With this information they possess begun to identify red flags in deliveries that augment injury risk, such as hand position at front foot strike. One particular rookie pitcher identified by one team as a tenacious injury risk blew out his elbow the next spring training.
Meanwhile, some of the two dozen or so teams that bought their first Edgertronic cameras this spring were amazed at what they learned.
“We possess a young pitcher who has a random to pitch in the astronomical leagues this year,” says Diamondbacks manager Torey Lovullo. “He would throw a breaking ball, and on the [Edgertronic] you could espy drag from his finger. His finger would hit the ball after it left his hand. . . . You espy the ball benevolent of back off its spin.”
What did Arizona carry out with the information?
“New grip,” Lovullo says. “It was just a shrimp tweak of the grip, and it’s already yielded huge dividends.”
Hitting is not proactive. Hitters must react to too many variables of ball hurry and movement for the technology to drudgery for them as it does for pitchers. That may exist changing, and if it does, Kris Bryant of the Cubs will exist leading the counterrevolution.
Three years ago the Cubs opened a “pitching lab” at their spring training complex in which they installed not only a pitch-tracking system but furthermore a more advanced high-speed camera that provides almost instant playback. A pitcher could halt after every pitch to espy not only the pitch metrics but furthermore the image of the ball coming out of his hand. (The Edgertronic takes time to download and is only available after a throwing session.) This year they opened a “hitting lab” in the batting cages. Bryant is the first one in the lab every morning.
Bryant can exhaust the coerce plate technology, which measures how well he uses the ground to hit. Among the many markers it can check: Does he load as proximate to 100% as viable on his back side? Does he apply about 200% of cadaver mass coerce on his front side as the bat comes through the zone? How well does he hold his torque directionally, as opposed to spinning off the ball?
Bryant will furthermore track how the ball leaves the bat with a Rapsodo for hitters, which measures exit velocity, launch angle and spin. Bryant grew up training to hit line drives off the back of the cage, but exit metrics possess revealed that those line drives are either singles or one-hoppers to the shortstop. To hit home runs, Bryant has erudite that he should exist hammering balls into the top of the cage about halfway down the cage—matching the prime launch angle for slugging, which is between 20 and 25 degrees.
The Dodgers tangle the most mechanically based approach to hitting. In addition to their 3D motion capture technology, they furthermore possess available a wireless motion capture device called K-Vest, which sells for about $2,500. It measures a sway and the cadaver through three planes of motion—forward and backward, side to side and rotational—providing data on the sequence and hurry of the four major parts of the kinematic chain of hitting (pelvis, torso, upper arm, hands), among other metrics.
Last season, Dodgers assistant hitting coach Luis Ortiz noticed Yasiel Puig was missing or topping fastballs and crushing breaking balls. Ortiz saw that Puig’s sway on fastballs appeared steeper, causing it to enter and exit the hitting zone too quickly, leaving him a smaller window to achieve solid contact. To better achieve his point, Ortiz affixed a motion capture device made by Diamond Kinnetics to the knob of his bat and had Puig sway at fastballs and breaking balls in the cage. The device produced images of his sway paths that allowed Puig to espy what Ortiz had just told him. “He’s such a visual guy,” says Ortiz, now the Rangers hitting coach. “The visual makes more sense to him.”
“I believe we’re making gains,” says Brewers president David Stearns about tech-aided flee production. His team built a sports science wing into its renovated spring training facility. “From a technical standpoint they are gaining a much better understanding of the sway and what sway characteristics may or may not create damage and hard hit balls. Having said that, similar to pitching, you can carry out this in a variety of ways. There are no cookie-cutter mechanics.”
You won’t find Jon Lester in the crowded Cubs video leeway poring over technology. “Will I exhaust it? Yeah, if they possess some information they amass from it,” Lester says. “As far as me going in there and breaking it down myself? I’m definitely not in line to carry out that.”
Lester is 35 and has thrown almost 2,400 major league innings. He’s a generous specimen of how the exhaust of technology is roughly tied to age. He likes to read hitters and how they respond to his pitches. “The new wave of players are understanding it more because they’ve been brought up listening to it and that’s complete they know,” Lester says. “I soundless believe we’re in that middle ground of how we’re going to exhaust the information. Just because a guy has a high spin rate doesn’t exist primary he’s going to amass outs. Just because a guy has a certain launch angle doesn’t exist primary he’s going to hit 40 homers.
“There are ways that this information will support us, but you soundless possess to spy at the players. Does a guy possess the talent to compete and amass outs? I believe that’s the line we’re going to possess to walk as they proceed down this numbers road.”
When Lester made his major league debut in 2006, Whitley was eight years old, in second grade. The MLB Whitley will enter this year is not only far different from the MLB Lester entered, but furthermore far different from the MLB of even three years ago. When you listen to Whitley clarify how he uses technology, you know baseball not only looks different, it furthermore sounds different.
Says Whitley, “Pitch shape in its simplest contour with a fastball . . . if you imagine it on an axis and to exist able to achieve the best pitch shape you possibly can is to possess as many rotations as viable while simultaneously having that fastball spin as efficiently as possible—no wobble. If you spy at the data on a wreck chart, for instance, my fastball has two to five inches of tail. Anything in that five to zero purview is perceived as cut. That’s something that I’ve noted. So my fastball is perceived as having a shrimp reduce to it. And I try to carry out that. I try to exist as much north and south as possible, just to amass that hoppy, riding action.
“The Edgertronic is mostly for the consistency—seeing how I’m releasing the ball. relish when your wrist gets benevolent of sloppy, that’s a astronomical thing for me. My wrist gets benevolent of soft. I possess to withhold a hard wrist and really leverage the ball down to amass that constant pitch shape. That goes for complete my pitches, especially my changeup.”
He was on a roll now. Pitch shapes, wreck charts, leveraging the ball, hoppy fastballs, slipshod wrists . . . this is piece of the language of the game now, a language that didn’t exist a few years ago. Whitley speaks it fluently, not because he picked it up as a high school requirement, but because he grew up with it, organically. He and his fellow disrupters are only getting started.
“If I’m looking at my reps on Edgertronic,” he continued, “and there are effective reps and ineffective reps, the effective reps are when my wrist is in a pretty stable position with my forearm. When I amass slipshod is when it benevolent of bends a shrimp bit, relish it softens and I benevolent of shove it a shrimp bit. That’s something that I’ve noticed. It’s different for everybody. But that’s what I’ve noticed.
“That’s collected stuff.”
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