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HP0-M52 HP BSM Operations Manager on UNIX and Linux 9.x

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HP0-M52 exam Dumps Source : HP BSM Operations Manager on UNIX and Linux 9.x

Test Code : HP0-M52
Test appellation : HP BSM Operations Manager on UNIX and Linux 9.x
Vendor appellation : HP
: 73 true Questions

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HP HP BSM Operations Manager

HP Unleashes the verve of Operational Analytics to Optimize efficiency for Hybrid Environments | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

PALO ALTO, CA--(Marketwire - Nov 27, 2012) - HP ( NYSE : HPQ ) nowadays introduced a unusual edition of HP industry service administration (BSM) application, the first solution of its kindhearted to construct expend of massive data analytics to help the performance and availability of company utility throughout cell and hybrid IT environments.

With the increasing expend of virtualization and cloud applied sciences, IT organizations not subsist aware of or control whole of the technologies of their environment, making it difficult for purposes and operations teams to foresee talents issues. IT needs a unusual avow that each predicts the prevalence of wide-spread issues and identifies previously unknown considerations earlier than they rob place.

HP BSM grants end-to-end visibility into IT functions and services. With effectual actual-time and ancient analytics to computer screen the health of the total IT stack, from company functions and functions to the infrastructure and networks, clients can import on suitable IT concerns before they spin up.

"In today's advanced hybrid environments, the site industry provider availability and efficiency directly correlate to enterprise success, IT companies are searching for unusual tips on how to carry predictable carrier stages," spoke of Ajei Gopal, senior vp and well-known supervisor, Hybrid and Cloud enterprise Unit, software, HP. "the unusual HP enterprise carrier administration avow grants end-to-conclusion operational intelligence to assist IT construct enhanced choices and enrich carrier tiers in advanced, dynamic IT environments."

"It changed into difficult for their operations crew to peer the severity or identify the foundation reason for a specific carrier problem with historic monitoring equipment," said Leiv-Erik Verspoor, senior platform consultant at Sykehuspartner, the biggest IT service company for hospitals in northern Europe. "HP BSM instantly notifies their IT group of talents concerns with their infrastructure and functions if you want to instantly resolve the problem to reduce downtime and subsequently lower costs for their purchasers."

HP Operational Analytics powers IT intelligence unusual to HP BSM is HP Operational Analytics (OpsAnalytics), a skill that supplies actionable intelligence in regards to the fitness of IT services through automating the correlation and evaluation of consolidated data, including machine statistics, logs, activities, topology and performance counsel.

HP OpsAnalytics is the seamless integration of HP ArcSight Logger -- a everyday log management avow -- with the pleasing correlation capabilities of HP Operations manager i (OMi) and the predictive analytics of HP carrier health Analyzer (SHA).

This combination supplies profound visibility and perception into any efficiency or availability concern, so shoppers can:

  • Remediate chummy complications earlier than they befall with predictive analytics that forecast complications and prioritize concerns in keeping with enterprise impact;
  • Proactively resolve unanticipated issues via collecting, storing and examining IT operational statistics to immediately correlate service abnormalities with the vicissitude source; and
  • get to the bottom of incidents quicker with abilities according to historical evaluation of prior identical movements via search capabilities across logs and events.
  • HP BSM helps customers maximize IT investments with conclusion-to-end visibility throughout heterogeneous environments by passage of:

  • ensuring service availability with a 360-degree view of IT performance, by passage of aggregating facts from disparate sources privilege into a single dashboard using out-of-the-container connectors to a number management frameworks, including IBM Tivoli industry Console, IBM Tivoli Monitoring and Microsoft® rig center;
  • Resolving and enhancing performance of functions running in OpenStack and Python cloud environments with diagnostics that pinpoint performance bottlenecks; and
  • improving availability of internet and mobile purposes through greater perception into client-side efficiency issues.
  • HP too lets virtualization directors and virtualization area import number consultants (vSME) diagnose and troubleshoot efficiency bottlenecks in virtualized environments with HP Virtualization efficiency Viewer (vPV). The free version is accessible to download today.

    Kuveyt Turk Participation financial institution boosts enterprise efficiencies  Kuveyt Turk Participation bank, a number one interest-free economic functions issuer in Turkey, more advantageous IT provider effectivity with HP BSM utility. With places in six countries and more than 220 in-country branches, the Kuveyt Turk IT operations group spends tons of its time conducting reactive utility monitoring, with a measure provider convene lasting 30 minutes. 

    After reviewing discrete options, Kuveyt Turk selected HP BSM to computer screen efficiency of company functions across its eBanking, element-of-provider, ATM, credit card services and discourse to middle environments. because of this, the industry has reduced the number of calls to its service desk via 30 % and reduced incident resolution time with the aid of 50 %.(1)

    "missing automated conclusion-to-end monitoring of enterprise services brought about provider outages, costing us about $400,000 yearly," referred to Aslan Demir, chief counsel officer, Kuveyt Turk Participation financial institution. "We determined to invoke HP BSM application and now video pomp company services as a whole, resolving many complications with out ever inflicting downtime."

    obtainable as a hybrid deployment HP company service management may too subsist deployed in a hybrid mannequin where HP utility efficiency management on HP software as a provider is integrated with on-premises accessories of HP BSM. This deployment mannequin allows for purchasers to achieve a quicker route to cost and reduce can charge by passage of minimizing integral upfront investments in deploying the HP BSM solution.

    Story continues

    HP capabilities aid purchasers plan, install, mitigate HP software professional functions offers HP BSM help capabilities -- a suite of capabilities designed to tender consumer altenative and self assurance. The alternatives latitude from a fixed price, far flung tryst tailor-made for more convenient and smaller scale deployments, the entire solution to on-website, custom industry improvements suitable for big and complex installations.

    additional information in regards to the unusual edition of HP BSM may subsist purchasable by the expend of a webinar train starting on Jan. eight, 2013. more information about HP BSM, together with white papers, facts sheets and solution briefs, is accessible at www.hp.com/go/bsm.

    Pricing and availability The unusual edition of HP company provider administration will subsist available global at once from HP or through its ecosystem of worldwide channel partners. Pricing is in accordance with a licensing mannequin.

    The free versions of HP Virtualization efficiency Viewer (vPV) and HP ArcSight Logger are available to download from www.hp.com/go/vpv and www.hp.com/go/opsanalytics, respectively.

    About HP HP creates unusual percentages for know-how to own a meaningful strike on people, organizations, governments and society. the world's biggest expertise business, HP brings collectively a portfolio that spans printing, very own computing, application, functions and IT infrastructure to resolve client problems. extra suggestions about HP is purchasable at http://www.hp.com.

    (1) outcomes as stated by HP consumer.

    Microsoft is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft agency.

    This word liberate carries forward-looking statements that involve dangers, uncertainties and assumptions. If such risks or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions pomp improper, the effects of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries might fluctuate materially from these expressed or implied via such ahead-searching statements and assumptions. whole statements aside from statements of ancient reality are statements that could subsist deemed ahead-searching statements, including but now not confined to statements of the plans, techniques and pursuits of management for future operations; any statements concerning anticipated development, efficiency, market partake or aggressive efficiency regarding items and functions; any statements concerning expected operational and economic results; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. risks, uncertainties and assumptions comprise macroeconomic and geopolitical tendencies and hobbies; the competitive pressures confronted by means of HP's companies; the evolution and transition of unusual items and services (and the enhancement of latest products and features) to meet client wants and reply to rising technological traits; the execution and performance of contracts through HP and its shoppers, suppliers and partners; the protection of HP's highbrow property property, including intellectual property licensed from third parties; integration and other risks linked to company composite and investment transactions; the hiring and retention of key personnel; assumptions concerning pension and other publish-retirement charges and retirement classes; the execution, timing and results of restructuring plans, together with estimates and assumptions involving the cost and the anticipated merits of implementing those plans; expectations and assumptions regarding the execution and timing of charge discount programs and restructuring and integration plans; the determination of pending investigations, claims and disputes; and different hazards which are described in HP's Quarterly record on configuration 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended July 31, 2012 and HP's other filings with the Securities and exchange fee, together with HP's Annual record on kindhearted 10-ok for the fiscal 12 months ended October 31, 2011. HP assumes no obligation and does not intend to update these ahead-looking statements.

    © 2012 Hewlett-Packard pile company, L.P. The information contained herein is discipline to change without note. The simplest warranties for HP products and capabilities are set forth within the categorical warranty statements accompanying such products and capabilities. Nothing herein may noiseless subsist construed as constituting an further assurance. HP shall no longer subsist liable for technical or editorial mistakes or omissions contained herein.

    HP hastens customer Adoption of Hybrid start models to help software outcomes | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    WASHINGTON--(company WIRE)--HP (NYSE:HPQ) these days announced unusual administration options to back customers embody hybrid dawn models, spanning on-premise, off-premise, actual and digital environments, enabling faster time to market and extended agility from application investments.

    Hybrid birth models which are incorrectly managed can raise complexity, risk and charges, that can quickly reverse any positive aspects for organizations in the hunt for to undertake them.

    New HP solutions allow IT teams to without problems manage the efficiency and availability of whole functions in the identical approach, irrespective of where they are running. The offerings encompass advances in the enterprise’s trade-main automation and administration systems, test statistics management and application services.

    HP enterprise service management 9.0

    HP enterprise provider administration (BSM) 9.0 improves IT operations by enabling group of workers to quite simply exploit utility performance and availability to fulfill carrier-level agreements. HP BSM 9.0 offers:

  • The trade’s first run-time service mannequin, which updates the finished run-time environment of the software provider, whether the software is operating in an on-premise, off-premise, physical or virtual ambiance. This ensures operations body of workers can know essentially the most reform view of their IT capabilities, which dramatically reduces person influence and time to troubleshoot.
  • New collaboration capabilities utilizing web 2.0 mash-u.s.to bring actionable statistics to the reform crew with the privilege context throughout a number of interfaces, together with mobile contraptions. This allows faster altenative making and issue resolution.
  • Automation of the entire event determination system to dramatically reduce troubleshooting costs, lessen subsist of value time to restoration and power productiveness positive factors. HP BSM eliminates redundant pursuits and automates the system of determination the expend of trade-main run-publication automation tools.
  • The HP BSM 9.0 portfolio comprises HP company Availability core 9.0 (BAC), HP Operations supervisor i 9.0 (OMi) and HP network management middle (NMC) 9.0.

    HP examine statistics management

    HP survey at various data administration (TDM) automates the system of obtaining verify data from live functions. This automation stronger displays creation environments and reduces the risks linked to the eventual deployment of functions. HP TDM additionally lowers costs linked to application testing, reduces venture delays and ensures sensitive facts doesn't violate compliance rules.

    New HP software features

    HP too announced three unusual carrier offerings designed to mitigate consumers drive the optimum charge from their application investments.

    HP solution administration services (SMS) is a converged portfolio of application assist and consulting capabilities that helps customers simplify their environments and maximize adoption of their enterprise know-how Optimization (BTO) and advice management (IM) utility investments. unusual offerings consist of multiplied assist for customized and third-celebration integrations and proactive capabilities comparable to patch management and free up upgrade planning for both HP and third-birthday celebration application.

  • HP BAC anywhere has been extended to back on-premise environments besides HP software as a service (SaaS) models. organizations can pomp screen their exterior web purposes at any time, from any site on the earth – even outside the firewall – from one integrated console.
  • HP BSM 9.0 functions – together with an HP BSM Discovery Workshop and HP Consulting features – back purchasers design and installation their HP BSM solution to minimize chance of utility downtime and extend provider excellent.
  • “businesses are evaluating cloud and virtualization as the passage to reduce charges and extend agility,” stated bill Veghte, government vice president, software and options, HP. “With HP, customers own access to market leading management tools that enable them to gather the advantages of those unusual models, while carrying on with to pomp screen and control their functions without difficulty.”

    more suggestions about HP’s unusual choices is accessible in a web press package at www.hp.com/go/HPSoftwareUniverseDC2010.

    About HP

    HP creates unusual percentages for technology to own a meaningful own an impact on on americans, corporations, governments and society. the world’s greatest technology company, HP brings collectively a portfolio that spans printing, very own computing, application, capabilities and IT infrastructure to unravel client complications. greater information about HP is attainable at http://www.hp.com.

    This word free up carries ahead-searching statements that involve dangers, uncertainties and assumptions. If such dangers or uncertainties materialize or such assumptions prove mistaken, the consequences of HP and its consolidated subsidiaries may fluctuate materially from those expressed or implied by passage of such ahead-searching statements and assumptions. whole statements apart from statements of ancient reality are statements that can subsist deemed ahead-searching statements, together with however no longer confined to statements of the plans, strategies and goals of administration for future operations; any statements concerning expected building, efficiency or market partake concerning products and functions; any statements regarding predicted operational and monetary consequences; any statements of expectation or perception; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. risks, uncertainties and assumptions consist of macroeconomic and geopolitical traits and events; the execution and performance of contracts with the aid of HP and its consumers, suppliers and companions; the fulfillment of anticipated operational and monetary effects; and different dangers which are described in HP’s Quarterly report on kindhearted 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended April 30, 2010 and HP’s other filings with the Securities and alternate commission, together with but now not restricted to HP’s Annual record on configuration 10-ok for the fiscal 12 months ended October 31, 2009. HP assumes no responsibility and doesn't intend to update these ahead-looking statements.

    © 2010 Hewlett-Packard pile business, L.P. The information contained herein is topic to exchange without notice.

    The handiest warranties for HP products and capabilities are set forth within the express warranty statements accompanying such products and functions. Nothing herein should subsist construed as constituting an further guarantee. HP shall now not subsist liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein.

    HP updates UCMDB for tighter integration | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    At HP utility Universe 2008 in Vienna, Austria, remaining week, HP introduced feature updates to the HP conventional Configuration management Database (UCMDB) 8.0, including more extensive integration with other HP's enterprise technology Optimization items.

    HP's UCMDB came to HP by the expend of its 2006 acquisition of Mercury Interactive Corp. is integrated with HP's company carrier administration (BSM) suite of products and, like whole true configuration management database (CMDB), presents federation, gives users a view of infrastructure and utility relationships via discovery and dependency mapping, and additionally tracks exchange history, ostensibly offering data core managers and admintrators a 360-degree view of IT operations.

    Bringing order to chaosWith the replace, UCMDB has built-in with more than 17 items in HP's company technology Optimization software portfolio, together with unusual integrations with HP enterprise Availability middle 8.0, HP Operations manager i-collection, HP network Node supervisor i-series advanced, and HP carrier supervisor 7.1.

    other unusual features consist of the following:

  • New Modeling Studio that makes it simpler to map applications;
  • Multi-records supply federation and attribute-degree federation; and
  • less complicated export of facts in tables and the means to email experiences.
  • UCMDB pricing starts at U.S.$60, 000.

    users often flaunt to HP's UCMDB for visibility into whole their systems. "[HP's Universal CMDB] offers directors a unified 360-diploma view of IT operations and enterprise services, in an ail to access records core tips they need. It eliminates whole the silos," pointed out Ramin Sayar, the senior director of HP's industry service administration, application and know-how solutions community.

    Tulio Quinones, an commercial enterprise techniques administration unit supervisor for a company that provides IT consolidation consulting services, uses HP's UCMDB to exploit customer information at 1,a hundred global locations.

    in further of setting up a CMDB, the enterprise kept customer statistics in a variety of administration rig and used homegrown tools to tug statistics as obligatory. "We had been successful with monitoring rig and managing them for the companies they managed, however when they were requested to combine a couple of corporations onto a single gadget, things obtained very messy," Quinones talked about. "We couldn't preserve music of the dependencies and who owned what … and they desired to shop whole this advice centrally in its site of using many part monitoring equipment."

    to boot, uploading the information into numerous part tools was a plodding, time-ingesting technique. "It was an incredible volume of labor just to load data into the equipment. And by the point it become loaded, it turned into already stale," Quinones said.

    Being a legacy HP shop, Quinones appeared to HP's UCMDB as a means to consolidate their programs management rig and order client information. One major handicap of HP's UCMDB is that clients can combine it with latest equipment, he spoke of. "It wasn't a rip and change. They aligned rig and integrations with it, instead of starting over. an additional a superb suggestion function, he spoke of, is UCMDB's relationship mapping capabilities, he stated. "The UCMDB allows for us to survey the relationship between the host and the community and the community and the utility."

    prior to imposing UCMDB, the company struggled simply to maintain batches of statistics, however the application has enabled it to extend programs rather than easily expend whole its time conserving them. "it is immediately becoming a core of their integration strategy," Quinones pointed out.

    Quinones at the moment makes expend of UCMDB version 7.5 and plans to help to the unusual edition of HP UCMDB (eight.0) soon. He anticipates a few elements in the unusual edition, corresponding to change tracking and verification (deliberate and unplanned). "at present, they leave it as much as the engineer to assess the trade with incongruous consequences. Untracked adjustments own whole the time been a problem for us," Quinones said. "With eight.0, they might subsist capable of compare managed/permitted state [HP Service Manager 7.1] with specific state [UCMDB 8.0].

    Open supervisor i (Omi) integration is one other huge plus, he said. "We enact a lot of human correlation across the domains they manage. With OMi and UCMDB eight.0, they could subsist in a position to correlate hobbies throughout domains and assess the actual-time fitness of interweaved and dependant features," Quinones observed. "at the moment, they recognize when they now own a disk problem or a community bottleneck, besides the fact that children, we're offered with a problem when deciding on the strike of this event. With OMI and UCMDB, they might subsist able to recognize the influence automatically." Declining financial system ushers in dealsSince a declining U.S. economy has made it intricate for agencies to warrant IT spending, HP has begun to tender 0% financing for corporations in international locations the site HP has a substantial presence and the economic climate has brought about charge reach concerns, Sayar spoke of.

    HP is providing a 0% financing advertising through July 31, 2009, for licensing prices on HP BTO and IM utility for qualifying offers over $one hundred,000. The promoting is available in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the U.k. and the U.S.

    "We don't want valued clientele to subsist troubled abut having to finance features from us. And for consumers who want to set money into us, they want it to subsist a no brainer," Sayar said.

    tell us what you believe concerning the story; electronic mail Bridget Botelho, word author.and check out their data core blogs: Server Farming, Mainframe Propellerhead, and facts middle amenities pro.

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    System heart Operations Manager: Management Packs perambulate profound | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps


    System heart Operations Manager: Management Packs perambulate Deep

    Microsoft System heart 2012 R2 Operations Manager now lets IT pros monitor the state of their on-premises datacenters, hybrid clouds and pubic cloud environments because the latest release is designed to integrate with another component of the platform: Virtual Machine Manager. Consequently, experts converse Operations Manager has become a viable management platform for monitoring everything from data protection to application tiers and even for tracking and reporting on industry service levels.

    Facilitating the ability to monitor various components of the infrastructure and application stacks, the number of Operations Manager management packs is on the rise, thanks to its extensible framework. Several unusual management packs appeared at the recent TechEd conference in Houston. Companies adding unusual management packs for Operations Manager comprise BlueStripe Software, Hewlett-Packard Co., Savision B.V. and Veeam Software.

    Operations Manager management packs extend the functionality of the console, while System heart agents can add capabilities provided by other tools. For example, while Veeam has offered a management pack for VMware vSphere for some time, the data protection software vendor demonstrated a management pack for Operations Manager at TechEd, slated for release this quarter. Within Operations Manager, the unusual Veeam Management Pack version 7 for System heart offers a common dashboard. It provides monitoring, capacity planning and reporting for organizations using Veeam Backup & Replication.

    With the unusual management pack, Operations Manager administrators can manage both their vSphere and Hyper-V environments together. In addition to offering deeper visibility into both hypervisors within a given infrastructure, the unusual Veeam Management Pack provides contextual views using color-coded heat maps for viewing various metrics and it provides real-time data feeds (see motif 1).

    [Click on image for larger view.] motif 1. Veeam heat maps monitor host CPUs, clusters, storage recollection and whole virtual machines.

    The unusual management pack too lets administrators manage the Veeam Backup & Replication for Hyper-V platform, among other things determining if, and when, a host or virtual machine (VM) is at risk of running out of storage capacity, says Doug Hazelman, the company's vice president of product strategy. "We provide views on networking, storage, heat maps -- the smart analysis monitors, as they convene them," Hazelman says. "This is something you don't observe in generic in System Center."

    If recollection pressure is too lofty on a specific VM, the Veeam Management Pack can dissect the environment such as host metrics, the properties of the VM, whether it's configured with too dinky memory. Or, perhaps the host has exhausted its resources, so a dynamic recommendation is provided. While administrators typically default to the Windows job Manager to determine gauge utilization of CPU, recollection and other common resources on a physical server, Hazelman points out that the common utility isn't designed to enact so for VMs. The Veeam job Manager addresses that.

    "With the extensible [Operations Manager] framework, they can embed their own code and can subsist launched in context in System Center," Hazelman says. "It's effectively Veeam job Manager for Hyper-V, as it shows what every VM is doing and it refreshes utilization every three seconds. Because of the passage it's architected, [Operations Manager] can't enact that, it would just buckle."

    While Veeam is among the leading providers of data protection suites for backing up VMs, there are a number of unusual backup and recovery Operations Manager management packs. The unusual HP Data Protector Management Pack provides centralized management of performance and availability of the unusual HP Data Protector 9.0. It provides real-time alerting and event management and because it comes out of the HP Autonomy division, it offers discovery and the ability to view the status of whole clients and mobile devices in an environment.

    "If you're in System heart Operations Manager, you can drill down pretty expeditiously to determine the occasions of a problem or check out a server cell, or a client to observe its status," says Luigi Danakos, an HP Autonomy technical marketing manager. "It allows you to expend one less appliance for quick information. If I own to check a backup, I don't want to log in to this appliance and that tool, if I'm already in [Operations Manager], I want to subsist able to observe my status and observe if there are any issues I need to address or ship down to something else."

    Vision Solutions Inc., known for its data protection wares, too has long offered a Operations Manager management pack for its Double rob perambulate VM migration tool, which is now certified for expend with System heart 2012 R2 via its System heart Integration Toolkit. The company recently inked a unusual partnership with Microsoft to tender DoubleTake perambulate to migrate workloads to the cloud OS platform. Vision Solutions is providing integration with the Microsoft Windows PowerShell-based Migration Automation Toolkit, which Microsoft doesn't technically support, even through it developed it, says Tim Laplante, Vision Solutions director of product strategy.

    Business Service ManagementSeveral unusual Operations Manager management packs point to monitor components beyond the core infrastructure level. Savision is targeting service management with the release of Unity, a version of its Live Maps appliance that the Amsterdam-based company says is designed to provide end-to-end service health monitoring from Operations Manager. Savision describes Live Maps solidarity as a Operations Manager appliance that generates customizable dashboards that track various dependencies between industry services and their corresponding IT components. Live Maps solidarity is too designed to monitor the health of industry services from the perspective of employees, applications and infrastructure (see motif 2).

    [Click on image for larger view.] motif 2. The Savision Services Dashboard provides industry service-level views.

    "The view is we're turning Microsoft System heart Operations Manager into a industry service management platform," says Savision lead developer Steven Dwyer. "[Operations Manager] is no longer just for IT professionals. Now we're letting them extend the transparency and their visibility to the industry owners. This means System heart now has more visibility within the organization. People who write the checks for IT can observe where the money is going."

    Dwyer says Savision decided to build this industry service-level management pack for System heart as a result of increased usage of Operations Manager and a growing want by those in the lines of industry to understand what's impacting the performance of their applications. "Because [Operations Manager] is an integral section of the Microsoft cloud OS, if you want to deploy an on-premises cloud, you really own to own [Operations Manager] in there for the monitoring and management side of things," Dwyer says.

    Savision CEO Diane Krieger claims Live Maps solidarity will mitigate reduce industry outages by proactively monitoring and more quickly resolving issues that can impact availability. It can reduce mitigate desk requests by up to 30 percent, slice monitoring costs by 20 percent, which should result in less industry down time, she says.

    Microsoft MVP and Savision product evangelist Alexandre Verkinderen explains in a blog post that Live Maps solidarity adds industry context with Microsoft Visio-like maps, and creates outage notifications within seconds while automatically providing impact analysis reports when incidents occurs. It too dynamically updates the configuration management database (CMDB) in Microsoft System heart Service Manager. Administrators can too quicken "what-if" scenarios before making changes.

    The software provides cessation user, application and infrastructure perspective along with a service model and map, addressing whole industry and IT stakeholders in an organization. "The unusual Live Maps offers out-of-the-box dashboards for C-level management, service owners, IT management, mitigate desk, and application and infrastructure engineers," Verkinderen explains.

    Application ViewsWhile providing reports that both IT and industry management can consume is arguably the cessation goal for CIOs these days, Operations Manager is too finding a larger foothold in monitoring application infrastructure. In the unusual Savision Live Maps tool, Operations Manager can derive better views of application components such as databases, Web sites and app servers, and software that drives those systems.

    "[Operations Manager] provides profound monitoring of these components and will report circumstantial learning why a component might subsist experiencing problems," Verkinderen notes. "Live Maps enables you to build wealthy end-to-end views with these components and add additional industry context because not whole apropos learning can subsist discovered automatically. These end-to-end views construct it much for non-experts to understand the ins and outs of the application. Because environments can change, Live Maps has multiple features built in to dynamically update component maps, so that maintenance is very simple and low cost."

    Also bringing the application view into Operations Manager is BlueStripe, which rolled out FactFinder at TechEd (see motif 3). Through this Operations Manager management pack, application maps are automatically generated, providing real-time views of whole applications, regardless of platform. BlueStripe, whose tools monitor everything from mainframe infrastructure and CICS and SAP R3 transactions, along with Unix, Linux and Windows infrastructure, has worked closely with the Microsoft System heart team over the past year to develop the FactFinder management pack.

    [Click on image for larger view.] motif 3. BlueStripe FactFinder monitors the health of datacenter and Azure-based apps.

    "We track applications live, whether it's running on physical systems in a datacenter, virtual machines, private clouds or Azure, if you guys are liable for the whole thing, we're going to mitigate you derive your arms around the substantial picture to monitor and mitigate triage," explained BlueStripe co-founder and COO Vic Nyman during a presentation at TechEd. "We are tracking applications at the runtime layer. So we're seeing industry apps down to the components that own processes, the connections between them, the transaction paths, so we're able to follow the app and the pieces of where it goes and tie it to the infrastructure, and that becomes a bridge between the two for whole the conversations."

    Holy GrailMicrosoft principal program manager Daniel Savage, who has worked with BlueStripe and other providers of System heart management packs, says FactFinder is appealing for those who require dynamic application discovery and want the flexibility of doing so in a private datacenter and in a hybrid cloud scenario using Microsoft Azure.

    "Layer 7 app discovery is the holy grail," Savage says. "If you can really pomp the dependencies in an application when something goes down and how it affects the business, to me that's the key for what IT managers and CIOs want to observe out of these things."

    About the Author

    Jeffrey Schwartz is editor of Redmond magazine and too covers cloud computing for Virtualization Review's Cloud Report. In addition, he writes the Channeling the Cloud column for Redmond Channel Partner. follow him on Twitter @JeffreySchwartz.

    MOM 2005: Monitor Globally, Manage Locally | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    MOM 2005: Monitor Globally, Manage Locally

    Microsoft Operations Manager helps your customers preserve a watchful eye and uniform hand over their systems.

  • By Jim Thompson
  • August 01, 2006
  • High availability, redundancy and security aren't just technology buzzwords any more. They're essential ingredients. Your customers require 100 percent uptime to sojourn in industry and sojourn competitive. They need consistent, stable and secure connections.

    As networks grow increasingly complex with myriad industry applications, critical back servers and various security technologies, mindful management can subsist costly and challenging. Microsoft Operations Manager 2005 (MOM 2005 -- which will soon subsist re-named Systems heart Operations Manager 2007 or SCOM) helps automate those management tasks.

    Microsoft made significant improvements to MOM 2005, updating the reporting features, improving performance and streamlining the administrator and operator consoles. Security has taken a front seat across the board in this version. Microsoft too tasked its major product groups with creating Management Packs and SQL report formats for MOM 2005. These Management Packs mitigate define the management model. MOM 2005's major functional areas and improvements include:

  • Monitoring
  • Alerting and Notification
  • Management Packs
  • Customization
  • Scalability
  • Reporting
  • Improved Interface
  • Improved Performance
  • Monitoring and Management Packs MOM 2005 can manage any size Windows network. It monitors events on whole agent-managed systems and reports back to the operator console, the centralized consolidated view of the entire network. It can too ship alert notifications via e-mail or pager, depending on how your customers define their rules and groups.

    Processing rules are based on a set of pre-defined criteria for specific operating system events. Once such an event (such as an application failure or slipping below a confident performance threshold) occurs, it will trigger an alert to the operator console or other remote notification. The rules can subsist event logs, performance counters, WMI scripts or even VB or Java-based scripts or applications.

    These rules are contained within the Management Packs (MPs) -- the brains behind MOM 2005's functionality and perhaps its most powerful aspect. These XML-based rules define the logic that guides the systems' response to critical errors or events within your customer's environment. The MPs may hold as many as several thousand rules for event alerting and performance processing.

    When you reckon the potential number of alerts a big enterprise will generate, you own to subsist mindful when deploying or recommending an MP. Microsoft realizes this and has assembled tools like the Alert Tuning Accelerator to provide best-practices guidance for adjusting alert settings using the Service Monitoring and Control management function.

    MPs aren't exclusive to Microsoft technologies. There are MPs for applications like Veritas Storage Foundation and OSes like SCO Unix, Sun Solaris and even SuSe Linux. The MP's aren't exclusive to monitoring and alerting either. They can too enact things like measure service level agreements.

    Before your customers deploy MPs, subsist confident to reference the MOM 2005 Deployment Guide. Either you or your customers can download this from the MOM 2005 homepage. Here you can too learn more about vast array of Microsoft and third-party MPs.

    Another powerful aspect of the MPs is the extent to which you or your customers can customize them to execute almost any operation. Your customers can too import and export MPs to and from production and test environments while maintaining an essential version control mechanism for tracking changes.

    There are too resource kit utilities with which your customers can track differentials between unusual and existing MPs. The ability to export unusual rules and customized settings too lets you build your own Management Packs to bundle with custom applications.

    Faster and flexible Microsoft made tremendous improvements to MOM 2005 in terms of scalability and performance. It doubled the number of supported managed agents and drastically decreased agent deployment time. The company did this by reducing the agent's core footprint by 500 percent, from roughly 22MB to 4MB. This too reduced network latency and improved server discovery times. MOM 2005 too supports up to 60 agentless managed systems. These improvements subsist of value deployment times are up to 2.5 times faster than previous versions.

    It helps to reason about your customer's infrastructure in terms of what Microsoft calls the Management Group. This serves as both a boundary for managed systems and a unit of scalability. In its simplest form, it includes the Management Servers, both agent and agentless managed systems, an operations database, and both the Administrator and Operator consoles.

    MOM 2005 supports up to 4,000 agents per Management Group (double the capacity of the previous version) and 2,000 per Management Server. Larger environments can scale up by adding additional Management Groups. When using multiple Management Groups for scalability purposes, subsist mindful of performance and security issues.

    Microsoft has strict management requirements and operational guidelines for database size for several reasons, primarily to ensure you provide an acceptable level of performance. For example, the maximum supportable database size of 30GB ensures adequate scope for indexing and helps the server deal with performance data bursts from monitored servers.

    GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. gratify subsist aware that this is not a trifling task.

    It’s worth taking a brief survey at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a reach of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best passage to reason about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to subsist used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must subsist installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The back for the GSSAPI is made viable in the directory server through the introduction of a unusual SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms enact exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO back would subsist GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the expend of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not expend them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a measure interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can subsist plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on furtive key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a single programming interface. This is shown in motif 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can subsist confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a substantial difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An specimen is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can expend Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide back for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to embolden developers to expend the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that expend SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos evolution team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not drudgery in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another capitalize of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a substantial benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication system than Kerberos, because it can easily subsist plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should subsist able to expend it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide tough authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide tough authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos too offers the ability to add privacy back (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can too subsist used to provide tough authentication and privacy back for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a part package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as section of the Solaris light Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as section of the Solaris light Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:


    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:


    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name



    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)


    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)


    Kerberos version 5 back (Root)


    Kerberos version 5 back (Usr)


    Kerberos version 5 back (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you execute a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you expend rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you permission to access the other machine. Transparently means that you enact not need to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets own confident attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can subsist forwardable (which means that it can subsist used on another machine without a unusual authentication process), or postdated (not sound until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently observe the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for whole subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution heart (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. reason of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. like a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for foreign countries, but for remote machines or network services. like passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets own limited lifetimes. The disagreement is that Kerberized commands notice that you own a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t own to execute the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a sound ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for whole sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps construct it flaunt that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can apportion tickets. A principal can subsist a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal appellation is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can subsist a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can too subsist the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can expend lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her customary user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can expend two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).


    A realm is a ratiocinative network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the same master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must subsist defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must comprise a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should hold at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution heart (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a shroud of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, whole encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to own a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may subsist an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system too runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are whole on the same machine, but they can subsist separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms subsist configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should subsist applied to whole realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a single fragile link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to rob when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the altenative of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as section of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will own to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may appear like a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the leisure of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very dinky security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server subsist installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC subsist configured with the same level of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher shroud Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators refer to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will subsist DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption ilk for the KDC. The ilk of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). pick the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can subsist used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may subsist up to 1024 characters long and can comprise any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an specimen of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key appellation 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is notable that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the expend of the -s controversy to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not subsist shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall deportment for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters report locations of various files and ports to expend for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally enact not need to subsist changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may subsist adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The measure port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to back older clients that noiseless expend the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE noiseless listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to own users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the chance of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should subsist lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the age of time from when a ticket is issued that it may subsist renewed (using kinit -R). The measure value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may subsist set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can apportion a ticket. In the case of users, it is the same as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may subsist defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should subsist used only if the realm will hold temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will own to constantly subsist renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals enact not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer need access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may subsist defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may subsist used to ensure that only tough cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not subsist able to expend words found in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a superb passage to avert users from creating trifling passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which own a password policy association, so it is superb drill to own at least one simple policy associated with whole principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may too subsist used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may subsist substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf specimen with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. whole rights reserved. # expend is topic to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs touching -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by expend of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every single administrator in the ACL file. This feature should subsist used with powerful care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to subsist broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a confident administrator only needs to subsist allowed to own read-access to the database then that person should not subsist granted replete admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for whole privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for whole privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should subsist added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users own part /admin principals to expend only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would own two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only subsist used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the chance of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may subsist differentiated by the instance section of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is measure drill in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to subsist /admin instances and others to own no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to own administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only subsist used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not subsist granted any administrative privileges, it will subsist treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given part passwords and part permissions from the non-admin principal for the same user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # whole rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given replete administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file subsist tightly controlled and that users subsist granted only the privileges they need to execute their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the same passage that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always subsist used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to subsist used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always subsist extracted from the KDC on the same machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, rob powerful supervision in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could expend these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to expend Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to expend the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe system is to site the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for big installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure system available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm need to own their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time circumscribe (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure passage to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). observe the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time subsist synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service assail on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to subsist outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then avert anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must too subsist secured, including the expend of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:


    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:


    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can subsist applied to some or whole of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must subsist used to construct up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and sound values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that own been used by the principal that cannot subsist reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must subsist used before it can subsist changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can subsist used before it must subsist changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can subsist set as a group and stored as a single policy. Different policies can subsist defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length subsist set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes subsist required. Most people watch to pick easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a superb view to at least set up policies to embolden slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the expend of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may subsist helpful in some environments, to constrain people to change their passwords periodically. The age is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they derive back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to avert password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users pick long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character circumscribe allows one to pick a diminutive sentence or light to recall phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is viable to expend a dictionary file that can subsist used to avert users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy subsist in sequel for whole principals in the realm.

    The following is an specimen password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of primitive keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This specimen creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to whole user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of primitive keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference import value indicates how many principals are configured to expend the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to whole unusual principals that are not given the same password as the principal appellation when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should subsist made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups subsist done over a network, then these backups should subsist secured either through the expend of encryption or possibly by using a part network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the same traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always subsist kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should subsist continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can subsist modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should own read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that whole Kerberos applications expend to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. too refer to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a replete description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the deportment of many Kerberos client tools. Each appliance may own its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that expend the appdefaults section, expend the same options; however, they might subsist set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can own their deportment modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.


    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.


    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. refer to the man page for complete information. However, there are several animated security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of expend and strict security tends to gaunt in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection subsist re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a unusual ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can subsist used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to indecent in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can subsist used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should subsist used to spin on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not back encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user appellation is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the same as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to subsist included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory subsist removed. The Kerberized versions own the added capitalize of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can too expend Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients expend a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should subsist re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the same fashion as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.


    Kerberized rcp can subsist used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already own a sound TGT before using rcp if they wish to expend the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always expend the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.


    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is part from the measure Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the measure Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a unusual Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.


    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the same as described above for telnet (there is no need for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to expend the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection level used for the data transfer can subsist set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection level to private for whole data transfers. The ftp client program does not back or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. whole ftp client options are passed on the command line. observe the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can extend the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can subsist securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can subsist secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to subsist managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to mitigate ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that report the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the circumstantial information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an notable step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both own the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create unusual principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you own a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line appliance from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that follow fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To subsist a DNS client, a machine must quicken the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that need to know machine names. The resolver’s function is to resolve users’ queries. To enact that, it queries a appellation server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a appellation server.

    The following specimen shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver nameserver

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain appellation in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the cessation of the domain name. construct confident that you press recur immediately after the final character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only appellation servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. appellation server entries own the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS appellation server. The resolver queries these appellation servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more circumstantial information of what the resolv.conf file does, refer to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm appellation = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain appellation = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online mitigate URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you open this configuration process, construct a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You need to change the realm names and the names of the servers. observe the krb5.conf(4) man page for a replete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and whole domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. observe the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a replete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s need touching ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm appellation definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key appellation 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is notable that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm appellation is not required if the realm appellation is equivalent to the domain appellation in the server’s appellation space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains whole principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might survey similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the ability to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match whole admin principals. This default could subsist a security risk, so it is more secure to comprise a list of whole of the admin principals. observe the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its expostulate identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism appellation expostulate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism appellation expostulate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain appellation (FQDN) must subsist entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain appellation in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption ilk DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption ilk DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you own added whole of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start


    You halt the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To enact this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line specimen is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to subsist used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption ilk DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you own added whole of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to subsist quicken by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would need to subsist done for the server. However, you may want to expend this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you own a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results pomp that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you need to verify the completion of whole of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The specimen given here assumes a single domain. The KDC may reside on the same machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to rob into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to survey at what is required to subsist configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is measure interface that enables you to expend a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for whole operations during the connection.

    The first item discussed is the unusual identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will observe in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must execute the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, refer to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To execute the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and derive the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the reform suffix for your directory server.

    You need to enact this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is notable to construct expend of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you own from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you need to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you need to execute pattern matching to observe if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an specimen GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an specimen using ldapmodify to enact this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To execute this test, ilk the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and avow the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should subsist the same as without the -o option.

    If you enact not expend the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an oversight occurs.

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