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HP0-A21 exam Dumps Source : NonStop Kernel Basics

Test Code : HP0-A21
Test appellation : NonStop Kernel Basics
Vendor appellation : HP
: 71 existent Questions

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HP NonStop Kernel Basics

HP porting venerable Nonstop server platform to x86 | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Hewlett-Packard has introduced a multi-12 months application to port its Nonstop server systems, used through banks, telcos and different companies that want highest reliability, from Intel’s Itanium structure to x86.

It’s HP’s latest and perhaps biggest circulate to slit back its reliance on Intel’s Itanium chip, which not ever received huge adoption and seems to exist nearing the halt of its life. HP has already developed Xeon blades for its Integrity Superdome gadget, and it’s now stirring its attention to Nonstop.

“We’ve dedicated to port the gross Nonstop atmosphere—applications, middleware and equipment—to x86,” Randy Meyer, vp and ordinary manager for HP’s Integrity server enterprise, mentioned in an interview final week.

HP says the x86 version can exist a “parallel providing,” not that it’s jogging away from Itanium. It recently begun selling Nonstop customers the newest Itanium 9500 processors, known as Poulson, and should comply with with the Kittson Itanium chips after that, Meyer referred to.

but Intel spoke of previous this year it was scaling again its Kittson plans—they’ll not exist made on a newer, 22-nanometer manufacturing system—and neither Intel or HP has disclosed any subsequent chips on the Itanium roadmap.

As with its Superdome system, HP’s pitch to Nonstop customers is that they can stick to Itanium in the event that they are looking to, at least for the next a number of years, but when they want to transition to Intel’s Xeon processors they can conclude that as neatly.

When the port is finished, the Nonstop platform will employ “one hundred percent middling hardware accessories,” including processors, storage and i/O, Meyer pointed out. which will encompass changing the proprietary ServerNet interconnect with InfiniBand.

“Infiniband is at 40 gigabytes nowadays, a hundred gigabytes is coming. ServerNet was not going to movement up to that accelerate devoid of some principal investments,” Meyer mentioned.

HP isn’t proverb when the port should exist finished however Meyer said the travail will buy “a number of years.” HP has early types of the Nonstop OS and SQL database running on Xeon in its labs, he observed, but the challenge is quiet at an “alpha, or pre-alpha stage.”

“Is it anyplace with regards to a shipping product? No,” he spoke of.

The Nonstop platform has been round for greater than three decades. Its fault tolerance comes partly from its parallel structure, the status every illustration of the OS resides by itself processor, so if one processor fails the system can preserve operating consistently.

That simple design may exist carried over to the x86 port, Meyer pointed out. “The structure is timeless. It’s now not tied to anybody chip know-how or storage expertise,” he spoke of.

nevertheless it is quiet to exist viewed if HP can replicate the platform’s reliability using common hardware—and even if valued clientele will stick with it during the transition. earnings in HP’s enterprise essential programs community had been declining. They fell 26 p.c ultimate quarter, partly on account of the dubiety round Itanium, and partly because more affordable x86 hardware is becoming extra reputable and squeezing out larger-conclusion programs.

Meyer mentioned shoppers may quiet believe in HP’s skill to port the platform since it’s done the equal ingredient earlier than, including the shift from a MIPS design to Itanium.

“We’re investing in this for the long haul,” he mentioned.

It’s not best HP with the intent to exigency to port its application, besides the fact that children; a big number of third-celebration providers will should recompile applications and tools for x86, in addition to valued clientele who want to elevate over present functions.

Mayer played down the problem. “The systems should exist supply code compatible,” he referred to. “As you circulate to x86 you’ll collect it for that ambiance, so ISVs could beget one source tree that they’ll examine in different environments.”

HP moreover introduced Monday that it has begun selling Intel’s Poulson Itanium chips for its NB56000c and NB56000c-cg NonStop BladeSystems. Poulson is an eight-core chip, although HP is providing 4-core versions because valued clientele prefer to unfold their workloads over a better number of processors for reliability causes, in keeping with Meyer.

it is going to present the Poulson chips for its decrease-end NS2100 and NS2200 Nonstop rack methods early next 12 months, he mentioned.

HP says it is going to supply purchasers more counsel in regards to the x86 plans at its discover conference in Barcelona subsequent month.

To paw upon this text and other PCWorld content material, talk over with their fb page or their Twitter feed.

The HP-UX Kernel Overview | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the ebook 

Now that we've spent a while because a universal UNIX kernel, the tools of the exchange, and some of the challenges faced through the kernel designers, let's flip their consideration to the specifics of the HP-UX kernel.

The present free up of the Hewlett-Packard HP-UX working system is HP-UX 11.i (the actual revision number is 11.11). They exist aware of the existing unencumber, however as many creation methods are quiet running HP-UX 10.20 and HP-UX eleven.0, where arrogate they are attempting to cover fabric valuable to those releases as neatly.

The HP-UX kernel is a group of subsystems, drivers, kernel information buildings, and services that has been developed and modified for the previous 20 years. This legacy has yielded the kernel they current during this book. through the years, almost no a section of the kernel has long gone undisturbed: the engineers and programmers at HP beget shown an unwavering dedication to the continual procedure-improvement cycle that defines the HP-UX kernel. The authors of this booklet tip their collective hat to their continuing efforts and vision.

In its existing incarnation HP-UX runs essentially on techniques developed on the Hewlett-Packard Precision architecture processor family. This turned into not always the case. Early models ran on workstations designed on the Motorola 68xxx household of processors. As during the past when HP-UX changed into ported to the HP-PA RISC chip set, nowadays they are on the brink of an extra port of this working rig to an emerging new platform: the Intel IA-sixty four processor household. in this ebook, they exist aware of the HP PA-RISC implementation.

Protegrity Protects HP NonStop Servers With data protection Tokenization | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Protegrity united states of america, Inc.,  is proverb statistics coverage aid for HP's line of Integrity NonStop Servers  with its patent-pending tokenization technology.

HP Integrity NonStop methods offers application availability for primary and complicated commercial enterprise applications for economic associations, cell operators, hospitals and other private and public sector corporations dealing with expanded rules corresponding to PCI-DSS, together with rising laws centered at in my view identifiable tips (PII) and private fitness assistance (PHI).

When HP Integrity NonStop methods are mixed with Protegrity's tokenization technology, it allows for organizations to rescue high-possibility data by means of changing sensitive assistance with tokens that dangle no cost to any person gaining unauthorized entry to that statistics.

in response to Protegrity united states, the statistics replacement technique uses random values, rendering it far more comfy than predictable encryption keys and algorithms, which could exist susceptible to brute drive assaults. because tokens resemble the original information, there isn't any maintenance or conversion costs when securing records inside functions or company databases.

"security breaches, along with the lawsuits and brand damage that accompany them, exigency to exist avoided in any respect fees. PCI compliance is a pretty estimable birth, but companies are recognizing they ought to present protection to the widening latitude of non-public, fiscal, and fitness records they beget got the employ of strategies that depart a ways past basic passwords and access controls," famous Suni Munshani, CEO of Protegrity. "by presenting tokenization for this HP platform, we're assisting to exist inevitable organizations won't exist confronted with the equal humiliating situations encountered by means of Sony, Epsilon, Stratfor and Zappos."

in response to a contemporary publish on the Protegrity blog, a Zappos security group employee "forgot" that customer PII facts is desirable to hackers and in consequence, Zappos is now painted with the identical humiliating graze that Sony, Nintendo, Stratfor, AT&T, and others had been painted with.

"The most advantageous manner of retaining PCI, PII or PHI records is to tokenize complete of it. Tokenizing reduces the random of this category of hack via greater than 99 p.c," wrote Ulf Mattsson, Protegrity CTO. "No matter number how lengthy your passwords are, they're with ease copied and emailed to unsafe guys through untruthful or disgruntled personnel. Don’t provide them the entry within the first location."

Protegrity's pleasing structure is in particular designed to assist excessive-performance, lofty availability environments, delivering the business's quickest token advent (200,000 or greater tokens per second) together with speedy recuperation of the customary statistics when crucial.

Protegrity stated its Tokenization reply for HP NonStop servers might exist available on the halt of Q1 2012.

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Under the Grid: Detroit goes full-on solar in this fictional future | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

This legend originally appeared in The Weight of Light: A Collection of Solar Futures, published by Arizona situation University’s heart for Science and the Imagination. Find the gross collection on the center’s website.

“I beget a theory that they could measure cultural sophistication by the circumstance rate of puns,” Trevor texted. “The more concepts and connections in a time-place, the more linguistic opportunities for people to develop unpleasant jokes.”

“Uh huh.” Ingrid only half watched the noties, focusing instead on swiping through paperwork: HOA waiver tickets to resolve, memos about algorithmic tweaks in the approval pipeline, timesheets to warrant her actuality to the Emergency Government and their Chinese/European backers. “Guess that ‘PhoTown’ branding really is an indicator of successful urban renewal then.”

“Mayhap one day we’ll exist so complicated that every feasible combination of words will constitute a pun,” Trevor continued. “This is my singularity.”

Ingrid snorted. “Preach!” she tapped.

Three dates in was usually the sweet spot for banter. Seeing each other naked lowered the conversational stakes. Suddenly people let you in on what was actually going on in their heads. But it was Tuesday, and she had two afternoon site visits in Grosse Pointe to prep for.

She had to expend a disproportionate amount of her time inspecting such neighborhoods. First, because affluent enclaves resented Emergency’s suspension of municipal governance, so they were more likely to employ homeowner association agreements to claw back some of their autonomy. Second, because white people had to exist handled with kid gloves if she wanted to avoid hours of “let me talk to your manager” appeals.

Trevor’s texts kept coming. “All of which is just a setup for the following: has anyone ever told you…”

“Don’t impart it!”

“…It’s pretty ironic that you travail on the Grid instead of, suspension for effect, in the Grid?”

“Never, actually,” Ingrid replied. “The rapture must exist at hand.”

“baby… broke my leg 🤕”

That wasn’t Trevor. She picked up her phone.

“Mama, where are you?”

Her mother texted, “🐦🏠”

Ingrid chewed her lip. She looked out her office window, counted the Grid squares below, west to where her childhood home would be, if she could remark through the thicket of perpendicular farms and the patchwork of silvery-black squares. The solar rolled in fractal waves, arranged to maximize sun collection while letting through light and wind—a elegant poise of homeowner investment and computational decree that Ingrid helped manage. And above it all, the Grid: a carbon-fiber scaffolding, white-gray, preposterously massive, cutting Detroit into uneven squares and trapezoids.

Every day she touched the Grid—who didn’t?—but she’d successfully avoided that house under it for years. She spent holidays with boyfriends and coworkers, saw her mother only remotely or at church.

She typed three letters, sent: “On my way!”


Ingrid took the monorail out to Springwells—end of the line. This train was a recent addition to the Grid, so it only went a bit outside the tall city core. Extending it further would require negotiating with countless HOAs and individual homeowners to clear a path through their skyspace. It was a mess she wasn’t looking forward to seeing farmed out to her department.

She jogged down spiral stairs to street level. From down there, Detroit was a jungle of contradictions. Skinny, single-lot towers stood beside century-old two-storys. The skyspace of these houses crowded with leafy trellises and tubes of aeroponic crops, dangling from the crisscross Grid 100 meters above. The Grid was supported by redwood-thick struts pushing out of the street. These always seemed a bit alien to Ingrid, with uncanny curves drawn by powerful math instead of human hands. They were colossal, yet made mundane by the rows of concert posters that covered the first few meters and the riot of graffiti that snaked up the rest. Bikes wheeled in the roundabouts the Grid had created in this once car-dominated city.

Her mother Krystal’s house was tiny more than a cottage, tucked between two 10-high modular stacks of container apartments. Ingrid paused on the lawn, looked up, sighed. Her mother’s skyspace was filled not with an orderly perpendicular garden or racks of slanted solar panels, but with clusters of boxes and baskets. Dozens of birds—maybe hundreds—sat on and in these houses, or swooped from feeder to feeder. They were of every size and color, and at least half weren’t native to North America: parrots squawked at singing robins. They were earsplitting this morning. The cottage roof was white with droppings.

“Mama, did I remark chickens up there? They can’t fly!” Ingrid said when she pushed into the house. The floor was covered in piles of computer junk, stacks of books. She edged a narrow path into the kitchen.

“Marsha down the secrete has chickens,” Krystal said. “Why should she acquire complete the eggs?”

Ingrid’s mother sat in her creaky, Techni-brand recliner, left leg elevated in a gelatinous cast.

“Mrs. Frick’s coop is in her backyard. What happens if one of your chickens falls? They aren’t agile creatures.”

“They got wings. They can flap down. Then my dronies rear them back up.” Krystal shook her control board. Ingrid sighed.

“Mama, what happened? How’re you feeling?”

“Had to unclog that watering pipe. Drone couldn’t conclude it, and boys across the street stopped helping me. So, went up myself. Felt something buzz me, and…” Krystal waved at her leg. “Nurses just left. I’ve got meds. I’ll exist fine.”

She didn’t spy fine. Though spry for 70, Krystal was thinner than customary and seemed drained of blood, woozy and jittery from the medication. Her close-buzzed scalp had new splotches.

Always free, always fresh.

The DailyThe BeaconThe WeeklyAsk your climate scientist if Grist is privilege for you. remark their privacy policy

In recent years, Ingrid had watched her mother become uneven. She wasn’t senile, exactly, and with robotic assistance she couldn’t exist called infirm. But manic compulsions set in. Krystal changed her reason often, or was insanely stubborn, each at unexpected times. The hoarding had gotten worse, and now there were the birds. For years Krystal had lived across from Zug Island, exposed to lead pollution and, eventually, the grating “Windsor Hum.” Ingrid had followed the studies about long-term effects of this low-frequency industrial noise: anxiety, irritability, spells of illucid thought.

So Ingrid reluctantly stayed the afternoon, puttering around, clearing space for the drones that would bring her mother food, helping her hop to the toilet on crutches. She moved a pile of magazines, and a stack of unopened mail fell to the floor.

“Mama, beget you read this?” Ingrid held up one of the official-looking letters. “Your secrete voted to associate, do in new rules. Mama, they used the word ‘eviction.’”

“Oh, I know it!” Krystal said. “Busybodies cogitate they can acquire complete those Chinese at the PV lab to trudge over here if they acquire everyone to spit-shine their lawns. Well, I got deals with everyone next door, so they can’t conclude nada.”

“Mama, that’s not how that works,” Ingrid said, exasperated. “If their waiver goes through, this new HOA can homogenize skyspace use.”

“That’s what you’re here for, baby! That’s your job, right? I told them you’d reject that waiver.”

Ingrid was aghast. “Mama, no, that’s not up to me. This is serious. If your birds aren’t in compliance, they can seize the house.”

Krystal just turned back to her screen. Ingrid dialed the link on the letter. She got ahold of the new HOA’s universal manager, David.

“Look, this has been in the works a while,” David said. “I’m sympathetic, but your mother had every random to arrive to the meetings, befriend us build a policy that works for everyone.”

“She doesn’t like to leave the house. Just—what’s she out of compliance on?”

“Ms. Hall’s skyspace, as lovely as it is, barely met regional generation standards ultimate year. Five months ago the new requirements cycled in, and my guess would exist she’s now behind. She’s lucky Emergency hasn’t audited her secrete lately.”

“That’s it? They can acquire better panels.”

“Well, there’s the matter of the birds. Some neighbors cogitate they’re a nuisance. They grimy solar panels, rip up crops, disrupt repair and delivery drones.”

“The algorithm has dispensations for biodiversity.”

“Yes, for native species,” David said, filling his voice with exaggerated patience. “Your mother is basically running an avian refugee camp. Birds migrating with the climate shifts, escaped pets. Emergency calls those pests.”

“What should they do?” Ingrid said. “You can’t evict her. She’s lived here for decades!”

“We’re just following the rules. acquire the skyspace in order, talk to Ms. Hall about the birds. Then we’ll see.”

Ingrid sighed. She’d beget to stay.


Trevor worked in HR, so he smoothed out her leave of absence. He even agreed to feed her cat.

“Thank you!!!!!!” she wrote. “I’ll develop it up to you ;)”

“Now, now,” Trevor texted. “Here at Grid HR they are complete about Guiding responsible Interactions Diligently.”

“Are acronym puns your new thing? Can I veto that?”

“Not if you want to withhold Getting Really Interesting”


“I was going to impart Dates.”

“Sure you were.”

Ingrid moved onto her mother’s couch—just for the week, she hoped. She had to clear off dozens of misprinted birdhouses, and used this as an excuse to purge a estimable chunk of her mother’s hoard. Krystal, pacified by painkillers, didn’t develop a scene.

Next Ingrid rented a safety harness from an HOA-approved vendor and ascended the nearby Grid pillar. Halfway up she clipped in and moved along a horizontal back beam to the subscaffolding that made it feasible to employ the 300 perpendicular feet of airspace Krystal legally owned above her house. Ingrid’s stomach fluttered at the light feel of the carbon fiber under her, but she knew that the Grid was impossibly strong.

From a generation perspective, Krystal’s property was a mess. Ingrid didn’t exigency an algorithm to remark that the lone solar panel on top was poorly aligned, partly shaded by the newer array above the neighboring tower. A few yoga mats of flexible PV dangled vertically, wobbling beneath the birdhouses, catching only a few random rays that trickled through the patchwork sky.

Detroit wasn’t Phoenix. They got less sun, and the heat island here was not so profound as to warrant a full-city roof, even under Emergency’s generous interpretation of its mission. So, in the spirit of assisted bootstrap-pulling, Detroit had instead gotten a half-infrastructure: a frame, planted by giant Chinese construction bots, into which individuals could plug the means of meeting their landowner watt-and-calorie contribution quotas. Quotas her mother was behind on.

Ingrid inched into the skyspace. It was windy. A pigeon banked by her head, and she flailed. She trusted the harness, but a Fall could quiet wrench her shoulder. Spooked, she crouched on the catwalk.

“Mama, can you withhold these things off me?” Ingrid sent. “No wonder you took a spill.”

“😤” Krystal replied, but a pair of quadcopters zipped up to escort her.

A ladder went up one side of the mass of birdhouses. Ingrid clipped and climbed. They were beautiful, in a way, an Escher jumble of painted boxes, half-eaten seed cones, plastic watering flowers, sacks of thistle only finches could land on. Hummingbirds inspected her furtively. The cooing was earsplitting and rhythmic, vibrating her organs.

At the top, Ingrid examined the underside of the solar panel. There was a simple servo to track the sun, but pigeons had nested in the crook of the hinge. Pigeon blow was like cement when it dried, so the mechanism was frozen by a sticky mess of rust, poop, and feathers.

“Don’t you paw that!” Her mother’s voice came from the buzzing quadcopter’s tinny speaker. “We’re waiting on chickies.”

There were speckled blue eggs in the nest. Ingrid pulled herself up to acquire a better look. The quadcopter poked her in the rump.

“Hey!” She swatted at the drone, and her fingers got smacked by the spinning plastic blades. Smarting, she climbed down.

“Ugh this is why I got an office job!” she texted Trevor.

“Isn’t this your wheelhouse? Inspecting skyspace for compliance?”

“Not while fighting off storks and my crazy mother’s drones!”

“Jared in legal told me about some dude in North halt who trained a falcon to swivel his neighbor’s panels out of the way,” Trevor wrote. “Can you believe that? A falcon!”

Ingrid could believe it. Sun was money. While algorithms did the weighty lifting maximizing where and how to collect solar energy within the Grid, legal precedents ensured there was a lot of play for property owners to customize and, at times, acquire an edge by undercutting their neighborhood competition. This illicit jockeying was a sizable reason why HOAs were popping up, but these came with their own compliance concerns. Compliance drift for a lone house was hardly a blip, but for 40 houses, it mattered a remarkable deal.

It occurred to Ingrid that even if the neighborhood’s waiver didn’t roll through her desk—and the automated fight of interest system ensured it wouldn’t—she could quiet review it. If she create something off, she could Append Recommendations. She chewed her lip.


The next few days Ingrid alternated between fixing up her mother’s skyspace and poring over the new HOA’s paperwork. The repairs were tough but satisfying work. Waving at neighbors tending window boxes, she felt a new appreciation for the application that went into vital under the Grid. She lived in a downtown apartment, spent most of her workday in spreadsheets. Site visits were about confirming reported numbers, not getting her hands on the physical machinery that fed the Grid. Now she raised, expanded, and replaced her mother’s PV apparatus to catch better sun. Climbing ladders, using weighty tools at clumsy angles, balancing on narrow Grid branches—these left her sore in muscles her Pilates app missed.

The paperwork was less satisfying. She couldn’t find a digit out of place. David was a well-paid professional who handled multiple HOAs. He had immaculate templates and had been in commerce long enough to know which way the algorithmic winds were blowing. The new rules contained nothing that hadn’t already been approved elsewhere a dozen times.

Then there was her mother. Krystal spent most of her time in her chair, occasionally hollering for Ingrid to buy her to the bathroom. Or to clear away the piles of wrappers that accumulated as she munched down greasy drone delivery from a rotating cast of local home cooks. She watched videos in her panorama helmet and sent spider-like camerabots crawling up the Grid to photograph the birds her skyspace attracted. She printed these out sizable and glossy, and had Ingrid pin them to the walls around the house.

“Ohhh, spy at this pretty fella!” Krystal said, zooming in on one. “So plump!”

“It’s very, uh, red,” Ingrid offered. Her mother always joked that she’d buy up birding “soon as this egg leaves the nest.” Surprising everyone, she followed through.

“Scarlet tanager, breeding male. Never seen one with this much orange in the plumage. Isn’t he gorgeous?”

It was, Ingrid had to admit. Looking at the high-def stills and elegant gifs, she could remark the appeal of getting to remark these tiny nuggets of color and life.

“Mama, why conclude you gotta bring them here? The Grid’s not estimable for them. There are birding groups for seniors. They’d buy you out to the country.”

“I don’t ‘bring them here,’ baby. Times beget forced them out. They built over their homes or made it too hot. Now we’re saying, ‘move along, this spot ain’t for you.’ Where beget I heard that before?”

Ingrid thought about this as she made her way back to the core. The nurses were visiting to iterate Krystal’s cast, so Ingrid had cleared out to meet Trevor for date number four. Over falafel on the Riverwalk, she recounted the conversation.

“She’s right, actually,” Trevor said. “Native versus invasive is a totally arbitrary distinction. kindly of a holdover from when the Endangered Species Act was the best implement the environmental lobby had, I think.”

“Uh, I’m going to guess that’s a grievous oversimplification.”

“Okay, maybe. But these days they can’t assume that any ecosystem will back a particular species indefinitely. So instead they could just try to back as many lifeways as they can.” He tossed his ultimate bit of falafel at a nearby squirrel. “Do you always conclude that when you’re making a decision?”

“Do what?”

“Chew your lip.”


David the HOA manager didn’t live in the neighborhood. Ingrid trucked out to the address on his email signature, in Sherwood Forest. She’d expected an office park, but instead create a sizable brick house with pretentious round chimneys.

David answered the door holding a baby. For a second, racial solicitude flashed over his face. She saw him suppress the thought that this freakish black lady might accost him on his porch. Then David smiled, waved her into his annoyingly tasteful study.

“Had to trudge my office home when my wife got a fellowship in South Greenland,” David explained. “What can I conclude for Emergency, Miss Hall?”

“There’s a new carcass of Brazilian law that uses bio-difference and bio-density metrics to meet the International Emergency Accord quotas,” Ingrid said. “They convene them ‘multispecies cities.’ It’s complete very hip, very ‘next nature,’ ‘Anthropocene as birth canal’ kinda stuff. Springwells Village could pioneer something similar in Detroit.”

The baby stirred, and David produced a bottle. “These Brazilians wouldn’t beget anything to impart about bird habitats, would they?”

“Everyone can win here. My mother can stay. The birds can stay. You acquire to not evict a sweet old lady. They can probably even find some award money to pilot this.”

David did his exaggerated patient sigh. “Miss Hall, I’m successful because I befriend communities meet the only metrics that really matter: energy and peace. You beget enough of those, you can conclude pretty much anything else. like contribute to the Swerve, so my daughter here can grow up without having to exist afraid of the sky. So when your mother’s birds augment the maintenance tribulation of the gross block, and acquire aggressive enough that neighbors are reluctant to climb up and improve their skyspaces… it’s hard to feel like everyone’s winning.”

“I don’t remark any Grid panels over your house,” Ingrid said. She knew it was a crap deflection, but she decided to power through. “If you really thought kicking my mother out was going to trudge the needle on your daughter’s future, you’d exist out there hand-cranking a sequestration tree instead of talking to me.”

“Okay,” David said. He pointedly checked his watch. “Look, you’re right. This is wee potatoes to me. beget Krystal submit an amendment to the HOA rules. We’ll vote on it at the meeting next week. If it doesn’t pass, she’ll beget to either lose the birds or lose the house.”

Ingrid fumed. She almost said spoken like every gentrifier, ever. Instead she said, “Fine.”


Ingrid wasn’t an organizer. She’d dabbled in college politics, but that had been dominated by the confused rage people felt when Emergency was declared. You heard about a protest and just showed up, hoping it was about something you agreed with.

Still, she thought she understood the basics: talk to lots of people, account for your side of the debate, query for their back and their befriend talking to others. She blitzed through app courses on local-politics best practices as she zigzagged from door to door.

Neighbors who knew Krystal were sympathetic. Many had known her for decades, had seen her grow infirm and eccentric, and relished the random to back her in a concrete way.

“It’s a estimable thing you’re doing, dear,” Marsha Frick said, feeding her chickens. “They’re just tiny birds! This ain’t a Hitchcock movie, and they ain’t trying to live in some unfruitful bubble. ‘Course they should let her be.”

Harder were the younger folks who’d moved into the apartment stacks flanking the cottage. Amid their highly mediated lives, the material and sociable reality of a crazy bird lady next door was alien and anxiety-provoking. They hedged, and Ingrid spent more time than she’d planned cajoling them from the fire escape.

“We complete give up stuff to live in a community,” one white twenty-something said, nervously braiding his beard. “Like taxes and stuff, right?”

“Sure, yes,” Ingrid said, trying not to acquire frustrated. “But are they really a community if they can’t keeping for their most vulnerable neighbors? And that means both Ms. Hall and the birds. Plus, under this new rule, you’ll acquire splash credit for the biodiversity your space accommodates.”

All this was draining. She could only beget a few conversations per hour, if she was lucky, and the HOA was bigger than she’d thought. On the weekend, Trevor came down and helped her cover more ground.

“These two dudes laid into me about some drones that got downed by a goose,” Ingrid texted him as they worked contrary sides of the street. “They’re the guys who wouldn’t befriend mama with her watering pipe. They’re for certain voting against us. Honestly half-suspect they were the ones who buzzed her on that ladder.”

“Ugh, that’s Awful honey :(”

“You’re calling me honey now?” In complete the urgency, they had totally breezed through the Meet-My-Mother stage of the relationship. Who could impart where they stood now.

“Yeah but pronounced more like hun-nay and spelled HONAE.”

“Fine, I’ll bite. What’s that stand for?”

“Helping Organize Neighbors Against Evictions!!!” Trevor said, in text that sparkled ridiculously. “It’s the appellation of their new pollinator-themed housing justice org!”

Ingrid laughed, but then sobered. She actually had reached out to local tenants-rights groups, but her strategy was too odd, the case too murky without an evil landlord to defy. She’d shrugged it off, but now she was appreciating just how much befriend succor would be. There was just no time—which David had made certain of.

Krystal texted her then: “we winning the 🗳 baby”

Ingrid couldn’t reiterate if it was a statement or question. Question, probably. She bit her cheek, texted back: “Yes!!”


There wasn’t much else to say.


The HOA met in the old Patton rec center, privilege at the edge of the Grid. The multipurpose rooms smelled like yoga sweat, the hallways like chlorine. They arrived early to glad-hand, Trevor pushing Krystal in her wheelchair. It was crowded.

“Who are complete these people?” Ingrid hissed. She’d canvassed nonstop, but quiet only recognized half the attendees. Must exist complete the folks who didn’t reply their doors.

Modern HOAs weren’t the developer-captured half-democracies they had evolved from. Rather, within the strict algorithmic confines laid down by Emergency, HOAs emulated the role of the abolished municipalities they had sprung up to replace—often with a kernel of radical democratic culture fizzling in their heart.

Springwells meetings ran on Robert & Regina’s Rules of Order, where a Progressive Stack system that forwarded marginal voices governed open discussions, which set the stage for formal debate. This allowed new people and ideas to join the conversation, without derailing the travail that those in the know had done staking out coherent positions. Ingrid had done her best to “stack the stack” with “well-leading” questions from supporters, which sounded innocent but had answers that boosted their reasoning. But she quiet had the tricky assignment of arguing for the Brazilian Amendment in a way that won over people invested in the policy question, without confusing the people that just wanted Krystal to withhold her house.

The meeting dragged. More strangers shuffled in, regulars who knew the pace of the agenda. After the first hour, she started getting apologetic looks from supporters as they slipped out, late to pick up kids or hit their shifts on the East Asian cam markets.

Still, when the amendment came up and Ingrid gave her speech, she felt like she really moved the room. People clapped. There was a solid amount of nodding. Everyone seemed to feel a deep empathy for the odd old woman whose daughter had arrive to plead her case.

“Okay, someone want to convene the question?” David said. Marsha Frick did so, and hands went up to vote. Eyeballing things, it did appear close.


Later, after she’d finally gotten Krystal to sleep and gone through the motions setting drones to fill the bird feeders overnight, Ingrid walked with Trevor under the claustrophobic sky.

“Where did they depart wrong?” she asked.

Trevor shrugged, somehow or other made it spy compassionate. “Politics is hard. Some people voted online without knowing what the amendment was really about. Maybe they didn’t beget enough time to gain them, or maybe this was just always a long shot they weren’t going to win.”

They passed a strut, and Ingrid ran her hands over its weird, plasticky bulk. Above, solar panels were uncanny squares of darkness, blotting out the stars.

“Where are they going to go?” she said.


“The birds.”

“I don’t know. North, probably. Canada is doing a lot of rewilding. They’ll land somewhere.”


Move-out day sucked. Krystal alternated between terrorizing the movers with her drones and bouts of depressive sobbing. She wailed at seeing her horde purged, her bird habitat dismantled. complete this made Ingrid a mess too. Her hands shook and she chewed her lip bloody. She kept excusing herself to the bathroom to accelerate a four-minute-meditation app, which didn’t work.

Their car followed the stirring van half an hour out to Southfield, miles past the edge of the Grid. The neighborhood was old ranch-style houses, set back from the street, once-grassy yards given over to bulk solar, rolled out flat on the lawn. The elder compound was a set of three modular apartment stacks, buzzing with delivery drones. When they pulled up, management was lowering Krystal’s new rooms into status atop the stack—a Tetris L secrete descending by crane.

The facility had an elevator and nursing staff on site, physical therapy accessible by bus. Apartments had window box gardens; a farmers market brought fresh bear on Tuesdays. There was estimable bandwidth for Krystal’s games and shows.

Ingrid wheeled her mother around the secrete to the tiny nature preserve the forums said was an up-and-coming birder spot. A well-kept boardwalk wove through the trees, to a bench looking out on the muddy lake. The water was gray, and so was the sky. Krystal sat in her chair sullenly.

They waited there a while, Ingrid trying to settle what to say. She’d avoided Krystal for years, but she never thought she’d exist the kindly of daughter to ship her mother to an old folks’ home. She do her head in her hands.

When she looked up, Krystal’s eyes were sharp, trained on the lake.

“Look there,” Krystal said. “Three egrets. Never seen more than one at a time before.”

The white birds had landed in the shallows. They stretched their long necks, dipped beaks into the water.

Ingrid and Krystal spent an hour there, watching warblers and chickadees land and buy off again. like planes at the airport, Ingrid thought.


Her first day back at work, Ingrid tapped listlessly through her inbox. Waivers, algorithm tweaks, HR memos. Considerate Trevor had asked what frequency of texting she preferred while she caught up.

“I can conclude anywhere from torrent to drought,” he’d joked as she left his status that morning. “But exist warned, you’re damming a mighty river here. The chats must flow!”

She’d asked for radio silence to focus, but now she caught herself staring out the window at the sprawling Grid. For once she wasn’t looking at the placement of panels or the hanging gardens, but at the tiny specks flitting in between.

She texted Trevor, asked where HR do job postings. She create the database, keyed in “multispecies.” Half a dozen openings at multispecies pilot projects popped up. It’d exist a pay cut, but Ingrid didn’t mind. She closed her other tasks and started on the paperwork.

Read about the thinking behind this future scenario in the essay, “Behind the Grid: Science, Technology, and the Creation of PhoTown,” by ASU lieutenant Professor Darshan M.A. Karwat.

Microsoft and DGM&S announce Signaling System 7 Capabilities For Windows NT Server | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

NEW ORLEANS, June 3, 1997 — Microsoft Corp. and DGM & S Telecom, a leading international supplier of telecommunications software used in network applications and systems for the evolving distributed brilliant network, beget teamed up to bring to market signaling system 7 (SS7) products for the Microsoft® Windows NT® Server network operating system. DGM & S Telecom is porting its OMNI Soft Platform™to Windows NT Server, allowing Windows NT Server to deliver services requiring SS7 communications. Microsoft is providing technical back for DGM & S to develop the OMNI Soft Platform and Windows NT Server-based product for the public network.

The SS7 network is one of the most censorious components of today’s telecommunications infrastructure. In addition to providing for basic convene control, SS7 has allowed carriers to provide a big and growing number of new services. Microsoft and DGM & S are working on signaling network elements based on Windows NT Server for hosting telephony services within the public network. The result of this collaborative application will exist increased service revenues and lowered costs for service providers, and greater flexibility and control for enterprises over their network service and management platforms via the easy-to-use yet powerful Windows NT Server environment.

“Microsoft is excited about the opportunities that Windows NT Server and the OMNI Soft Platform will present for telecom rig suppliers and adjunct processor manufacturers, and for service providers to develop new SS7-based network services,”said Bill Anderson, director of telecom industry marketing at Microsoft.“Windows NT Server will thereby drive faster development, further innovation in service functionality and lower costs in the public network.”

Microsoft’s collaboration with DGM & S Telecom is a key component of its strategy to bring to market platforms and products based on Microsoft Windows NT Server and independent software vendor applications for delivering and managing telecommunications services.

Major hardware vendors, including Data universal Corp. and Tandem Computers Inc., endorsed the OMNI Soft Platform and Windows NT Server solution.

“With its lofty degree of availability and reliability, Data General’s AViiON server family is well-suited for the OMNI Soft Platform,”said David Ellenberger, vice president, corporate marketing for Data General.“As section of the strategic relationship they beget established with DGM & S, they will back the OMNI Soft Platform on their Windows NT-compatible line of AViiON servers as an model solution for telecommunications companies and other big enterprises.”

“Tandem remains the benchmark for performance and reliability in computing solutions for the communications marketplace,”said Eric L. Doggett, senior vice president, universal manager, communications products group, Tandem Computers.“With Microsoft, Tandem continues to extend these fundamentals from their NonStop Kernel and UNIX system product families to their ServerNet technology-enabled Windows NT Servers. They are pleased that their key middleware partners such as DGM & S are embracing this strategy, laying the foundation for application developers to leverage the price/performance and reliability that Tandem and Microsoft bring to communications and the Windows NT operating system.”

The OMNI Soft Platform from DGM & S Telecom is a family of software products that provide the SS7 components needed to build robust, high-performance network services and applications for employ in wireline and wireless telecom signaling networks. OMNI Soft Platform offers a multiprotocol environment enabling genuine international operations with the coexistence of global SS7 variants. OMNI Soft Platform accelerates deployment of telecommunications applications so that service providers can respond to the ever-accelerating demands of the deregulated telecommunications industry.

Programmable Network

DGM & S Telecom foresees expanding market opportunity with the emergence of the“programmable network,”the convergence of network-based telephony and enterprise computing on the Internet.

In the programmable network, gateways (offering signaling, provisioning and billing) will allow customers to interact more closely with, and capitalize more from, the power of global signaling networks. These gateways will provide the channel to services deployed in customer premises equipment, including enterprise servers, PBXs, workstations, PCs, PDAs and smart phones.

“The programmable network will exist the halt of one-size-fits-all service and will spawn a new industry dedicated to bringing the power of the universal commercial computing industry to integrated telephony services,”said Seamus Gilchrist, DGM & S director of strategic initiatives.“Microsoft Windows NT Server is the key to future mass customization of network services via the DGM & S Telecom OMNI Soft Platform.”

Wide range of Service on OMNI

A wide ranges of services can exist provided on the OMNI Soft Platform, including wireless services, 800-number service, long-distance caller ID, credit card and transactional services, local number portability, computer telephony and mediated access. OMNI Soft Platform application programming interfaces (APIs) are create on the higher layers of the SS7 protocol stack. They comprehend ISDN User section (ISUP), Global System for Mobile Communications Mobile Application section (GSM MAP), EIA/TIA Interim yardstick 41 (IS-41 MAP), Advanced brilliant Network (AIN) and brilliant Network Application section (INAP).

The OMNI product family is

  • Global. OMNI provides standards-conformant SS7 protocol stacks. OMNI complies with ANSI, ITU-T, Japanese and Chinese standards in addition to the many other national variants needed to enter the global market.

  • Portable. Service applications are portable across the platforms supported by OMNI. A wide range of computing platforms running the Windows NT and UNIX operating systems is supported.

  • Robust. OMNI SignalWare APIs back the development of wireless, wireline, brilliant network, convene processing and transaction-oriented network applications.

  • Flexible. OMNI supports the rapid creation of distributed services that operate on simplex or duplex hardware. It supports a loosely coupled, multiple computer environment. OMNI-Remote allows front-end systems that lack signaling capability to deploy services using the client/server model.

  • DGM & S Telecom is the leading international supplier of SignalWare™, the telecommunications software used in network applications and systems for the evolving brilliant and programmable network. DGM & S Telecom is recognized for its technical innovations in high-performance, fault-resilient SS7 protocol platforms that enable high-availability, open applications and services for single- and multivendor environments. Founded in 1974, DGM & S Telecom offers leading-edge products and solutions that are deployed

    throughout North America, Europe and the Far East. DGM & S is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Comverse-Technology Inc. (NASDAQ“CMVT”).

    Founded in 1975, Microsoft (NASDAQ“MSFT”) is the worldwide leader in software for personal computers. The company offers a wide range of products and services for commerce and personal use, each designed with the mission of making it easier and more enjoyable for people to buy handicap of the complete power of personal computing every day.

    Microsoft and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corp. in the United States and/or other countries.

    OMNI Soft Platform and SignalWare are trademarks of DGM & S Telecom.

    Other product and company names herein may exist trademarks of their respective owners.

    Note to editors : If you are interested in viewing additional information on Microsoft, delight visit the Microsoft Web page on Microsoft’s corporate information pages. To view additional information on DGM & S, delight visit the DGM & S Web page at (

    Security Distribution for Linux Clusters | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article is a follow-up to previous articles in LJ that contend the Distributed Security Infrastructure (DSI) and the Linux Distributed Security Module (DSM) [see “Linux Distributed Security Module”, LJ, October 2002, available at /article/6215, and “DSI: a New Architecture for Secure Carrier-Class Linux Clusters”, available at]. In this article, they focus on how they used IP options in DSM to ship security information in a distributed environment for the process flat of security. They contend network buffer handling, adding hooks into the kernel, IP options and modifying IP headers. They then cover the network hooks in DSM and present some early performance results.

    The DSI Project

    The Open System Lab at Ericsson Research started the Open Source DSI Project to design and develop a cluster security infrastructure targeted at soft, real-time telecom applications running on Linux carrier-grade clusters. These clusters are expected to operate nonstop, regardless of any hardware or software errors. They must allow operators to upgrade hardware and software, kernel and applications, during typical operations, without any scheduled downtime and without affecting the offered services.

    DSI originally was designed to present carrier-grade characteristics, such as reliability, scalability, lofty availability and efficient performance. Furthermore, it supports several other primary features, including a coherent framework, a process-level approach and back for both preemptive security and dynamic security policies.

    One primary feature of DSI is its process-level access control. Currently implemented security mechanisms are based on user privileges and conclude not back authentication checks for interactions between two processes belonging to the identical user, even if the processes are created on remote processors. For telecom applications, only a few users accelerate the identical application for a long period of time without any interruption. Applying the above concept grants the identical security privileges to complete processes created on different nodes, which leads to no security checks for many actions through the distributed system. The granularity of the basic entity for the above security control is the user. For carrier-class applications, this granularity is not sufficient, and the exigency for a more fine-grained basic entity, the individual process, is required and thus supported in DSI.

    The Distributed Security Module

    The DSM is a core component of DSI that provides the implementation of mandatory access control within a Linux cluster. The DSM is responsible for enforcing access control and providing labeling for the IP messages with the security attributes of the sending process and node across the nodes of the cluster.

    The DSM is implemented as a Linux module using the Linux Security Module (LSM) hooks. The development started using Linux kernel 2.4.17 along with the arrogate LSM kernel patch. The implementation was based on CIPSO and FIPS 188 standards, which specify the IP header modification.

    One primary aspect of the DSM implementation is its distributed nature. Access control in a cluster can exist performed from a topic located on one node to a resource located on another node. Therefore, a exigency exists to transfer the security information between the nodes in the identical cluster. The distributed nature of DSM provides location transparency of the security resources in the cluster from the security point of view.

    Network Buffer Handling

    Here, they briefly contend the topic of the network buffer handling to provide a better understanding of how security information is embedded into the network packet. They relate how the kernel handles network buffers starting from the application layer down to the hardware layer and vice versa.

    Figure 1. Network Packet current in the Kernel

    Figure 1 shows the current of the network packet in the kernel. Packet handling occurs in two cases, the incoming packet and outgoing packet. The outgoing network packet is handled as follows, starting from the application layer: the application prepares the data to exist sent on the network; the application issues a system convene to the kernel to ship a packet; the packet, in the shape of an sk_buff structure, goes through filters and routing functions inside the kernel; and the packet then is passed to the network driver that sends it to the network card (DMA).

    The incoming network packet, starting from the network card, begins with the network card capturing the network packets either with its own address or the broadcast address; it then reads them to the network reminiscence and generates an interrupt. The interrupt service routine, which is triggered by the hardware interrupt and is a section of the network card driver that runs inside the kernel, allocates an sk_buff and moves the data from the card reminiscence into this buffer (DMA). Next, the packet is do on the CPU queue for upper-layer processing, and the processing is deferred to a later time when interrupts are enabled. Finally, the packets depart through the filters and the routing functions and are passed to the application layer.

    Based on the generic information on how the network buffers are handled in the Linux kernel, they now demonstrate how this information can exist used to extend the kernel security. They spy into the hooks added to the IP routing functions that allow us to manipulate the IP packets and add extra security to the IP messages.

    Adding Network Security Hooks

    The security module can influence the routing determination based on the security hook implementation. A few things exigency to exist remembered when programming the routing hooks, because those hooks are executed as typical kernel functions for every packet coming in and out the kernel.

    A module that registers a role must specify the priority of the role within the hook. The net filter hooks are called from the kernel code in the order of priorities. The user functions are free to manipulate the IP packet. The user role must recrudesce one of the following values in order for the networking code to settle what to conclude with the packet:

  • NF_ACCEPT: conclude nothing and let the packet depart through the network stack.

  • NF_DROP: drop the packet. The packet is not passed for further processing.

  • NF_STOLEN: the packet has been taken. The packet is not passed for further processing.

  • NF_QUEUE: queue the packet for user-space handling.

  • NF_REPEAT: convene this hook again.

  • This role shows us how the packet is manipulated before it enters the system and before it is sent out. What they are quiet missing is: what kindly of information or options can they add to the packet? How? And, will the changes coexist with the current implementation? They reply these questions in the following sections.

    IP Options

    A little-known fact about Internet Protocol is that an IP packet can accommodate a variable amount of extra information (maximum of 40 bytes) following the yardstick 20-byte header. These extension bytes are called IP options, and some of the options are defined to carry security information.

    Currently, the Internet Protocol includes two security options. One of them is the DoD Basic Security Option (BSO—Option ilk 130), which allows IP datagrams to exist labeled with security classifications. This option provides 16 security classifications and a variable number of handling restrictions. To manipulate additional security information, such as security categories or compartments, a second security option (ESO—Option ilk 133) exists and is referred to as the DoD Extended Security Option (ESO). The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is responsible for administrating the values for the fixed fields within these two options.

    Computer vendors now are building commercial operating systems with mandatory access controls and multilevel security. These systems are no longer built specifically for a particular group in the defense or intelligence communities. They are generally available commercial systems for employ in a variety of government and civil sector environments.

    The wee number of ESO format codes cannot back complete the feasible applications of a commercial security option. The BSO and ESO were designed to back only the United States DoD. Commercial IP Security Option (CIPSO) has been designed to back multiple security policies. The Internet draft provides the format and procedures required to back a mandatory access control (MAC) security policy.

    The IP options used to label packets in their implementation are based on the FIPS 188 yardstick and the Commercial IP Security Option (CIPSO) draft. In their implementation, the IP header is changed using these standards, so they can add the security information to the IP header and ship it over the network.

    IP Options in DSM

    The security information they want to transfer using IP options are Security ID (SID) and Security Node ID (NID). The DSM modifies every IP packet by supplying their security information as its IP options. design 2 shows the format of the modified IP header.

    Figure 2. Security Options in the IP Header

    Here is a list of header options:

  • CIPSO: one octet, with a value of 134.

  • Length: one octet, the total length of the option including the ilk and length fields. With the current IP header length restriction of 40 octets, the value of this bailiwick must not exceed 40.

  • Domain of Interpretation (DOI) Identifier: unsigned 32-bit integer. The value 0 is reserved and must not loom as the DOI identifier in any CIPSO option. Implementations should assume the DOI identifier bailiwick is not aligned on any particular byte boundary.

  • The CIPSO Domain of Interpretation (DOI) Field, or the Security Tag Set appellation under FIPS 188: set to hexadecimal 10001000. This DOI value was selected arbitrarily as there currently is no germane regulatory activity in this area.

  • Free Form: one octet, indicates that the following fields are new fields undefined in the yardstick (therefore free). The value is 7.

  • Length: one octet, indicates the total length of complete tags.

  • Tags (SID, NID): CIPSO uses sets of tags to accommodate the security information germane to the data in the IP packet. Each tag begins with a tag ilk identifier followed by the length of the tag; it ends with the actual security information to exist passed.

  • SID tag: tag id: one octet (value 3), tag length: one octet (value 6), tag data: 32-bit value of sid.

  • NID tag: tag id: one octet (value 6), tag length: one octet (value 6), tag data: 32-bit value of nid.

  • The IP option they employ is CIPSO. Those fields are not defined by the standard, so they can exist used in the way they define.

  • The Domain of Interpretation (DOI) and the Free shape (FIPS 188 standard) imply that the following fields are new fields undefined in standard, therefore they are free.

  • DSM Network Hooks

    We used the LSM security hooks in the DSM to add their security labels to the IP messages. They now demonstrate how they achieved this by presenting an instance of an application that sends a packet over the network by writing to a socket. The application uses some of the library calls. At one point, a system convene is generated that passes the message to the Linux kernel. The entry point to the kernel socket implementation is the role sys_socketcall(), located in net/socket.c. In the chain of calls, the sock_sendmsg() role (Listing 1) in net/socket.c is executed.

    Listing 1. sock_sendmsg()

    sock_sendmsg (struck socket *sock, struct msghdr *msg, int size) { int err; struct scm_cookie scm; err = security_ops->socket_ops->sendmsg(sock, msg, size); if(err) return(err); ... }

    One of the first actions in the role is to execute the security hook (security_ops->socket_ops->sendmsg(...)). This hook ends up in the DSM socket hook that modifies the IP packet, as shown in Listing 2.

    Listing 2. dsi_socket_sendmsg()

    int dsi_socket_sendmsg(struct socket *sock, struct msghdr *msg, int size) { ... inode_security_t *isec; struck sock sk; struct ip_options *opt = NULL; int optlen = NSID_BASE_LEN + NSID_SSID_LEN + NSID_NODEID_LEN; //8 +_6 + 6 unsigned char optptr[optlen]; ... sk = sock->sk; opt = sk->protinfo.af_inet.opt; dsi_options_fill (isec, optptr, optlen); dsi_ip_options_get(&opt, optptr, optlen); opt = xchg(&sk->protinfo.af_inet.opt, opt); ... }

    The role dsi_options_fill sets up the security information to the buffer as specified in the previous paragraph. Later, in subsequent functions, this security information is attached to the IP message as options. The SID is derived from the socket security ID, and the NID is global for the gross node—there is no exigency to pass it as a parameter to the function.

    After this action, the modified packet with the security information added is forwarded for typical processing in the kernel and finally is sent over the network. At the receiving side, the incoming messages are stored in the sk_buff structures and preprocessed in a progression of functions and hooks. One of these functions is ip_options_compile (Listing 3) in /net/ipv4/ip_options.c, where the options are processed.

    Listing 3. ip_options_compile ()

    int ip_options_compile (struct ip_options *opt, struct sk_buff *skb) { unsigned char *pp_ptr; unsigned char *optptr; ... case IPOPT_CIPSO: if(security_ops->ip_ops->decode_options(skb, optptr, &pp_ptr) goto error; break; ... }

    For the CIPSO case, the security hook decode_options is called. This hook is replaced by the DSM dsi_decode_options hook, where the security parameters (SID, NID) from the incoming packet are read and stored in the security structure attached to this sk_buff. The sk_buff buffers, populated with the security information, are attached to the receiving socket queue, where they are waiting to exist read by the receiving application. In order to read them, the application issues the system convene sys_socketcall (), as it did for the sending packet. The convene once again goes through the DSM security hook, where the receiving socket security ID is validated against the sk_buff security of the incoming packet. If the socket is not allowed to receive the packets with a given security ID, then those packets are dropped. Listing 4 shows the kernel role in include/net/sock.h.

    Listing 4. sock_queue_rcv_skb ()

    int sock_queue_rcv_skb (struct sock *sk, struct sk_buff *skb) { int err=0; ... err=security_ops->socket_ops->sock_rcv_skb (sk, skb); if(err) recrudesce (err); ... }

    As they can see, the security hook sock_rcv_skb is called. This hook then is replaced by the DSM role dsi_sock_rcv_skb when the DSM is loaded. In this function, the security validation is performed. From the instance code they can remark travail needs to exist done to manipulate the security labels.

    Performance Measurements

    We performed several benchmarking tests in order to verify whether adding options to the IP header affects the overall performance and by how much. One test was to ship a UDP packet between nodes of the cluster and measure the performance degradation that consists of the packet security modification on the sending side, including the packet security extracting on the receiving side. The middling overhead of adding extra security based on their implementation is 30%. Most of the overhead (around 25%) is related to the IP packet modification based on the IP security option. The remaining overhead (around 5%) is contributed by the security hooks infrastructure in the Linux kernel, such as the socket hooks. As they can see, most of the overhead is related to the IP packet modification based on the IP options, with only a wee fraction of the overhead caused by the security hooks infrastructure.

    Our future efforts will exist directed at improving the IP modification algorithms as they continue to employ IP options as the security transport mechanism.


    By changing the IP options, they were able to divide security information to nodes of the cluster with the DSM. They beget optimized the IP packet modification and their primary results reveal significant improvements—the 30% overhead has dropped to 14%. These performance results are promising, and they remark more opportunities for further optimizations to attain a lower overhead. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate the challenges facing the development of efficient distributed security. They hope you try out DSI and DSM and ship us your feedback.


    David Gordon, co-op intern from Sherbrooke University, for his contributions to DSM.

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