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VirtuIT programs President Michael Murphy is seeing big earnings gains on account of the more and more taut engineering integration between Dell EMC and VMware offerings.
truly, Murphy, a longtime Dell associate based mostly in Nanuet, N.Y., spoke of VirtuIT’s Dell EMC networking company is up 200 percent, whereas his storage revenue are up as an destitute lot as 40 p.c on account of the Dell EMC-VMware collaboration.
“the key for us to being a success is to breathe that bridge for Dell EMC and VMware,” mentioned Murphy. “We carry every thing together in order that the customer sees us as the potential to the conclusion to pick up them on their technique to digital transformation.”
Murphy isn’t alone. other Dell companions are furthermore seeing immense sales pleasant points on account of the breakthroughs in product simplicity and price/performance from the Dell EMC and VMware engineering groups working side by side.
know-how collaboration between the two businesses this 12 months is determined to “speed up” throughout a wide variety of areas starting from client and computing device offerings to storage and networking, said Tom sweet, executive vice president and CFO at Dell.
“You seem on the variety of solution workstreams that we've going at this time with VMware—even if it’s around hyperconverged infrastructure or Workspace ONE in their client district or around what we’re doing with vSAN and vSAN in a position Nodes—so throughout the spectrum you’re going to notice us accelerate a few these integrated options. We’re confident and excited about it,” illustrious candy. “VMware is a remarkable platform in the market when it comes to their position in virtualized infrastructure, but you additionally feel about what they’re doing with VMware’s NSX and the network, they now contain a lot of undertaking going on in the networking space. It’s pretty entertaining instances.”
Ashley Gorakhpurwalla, president and universal manager of Dell EMC’s Server and Infrastructure techniques, stated working hand in hand with VMware’s engineering and construction groups has given Dell EMC what he calls a “complete skills” to force know-how differentiation within the intensely aggressive hyper-converged market.
“beneath the Dell applied sciences umbrella, what we’re in a position to set aside collectively is truly co-engineering with VMware,” he referred to. “we've a mixed crew. It’s now not a Dell EMC or a VMware crew. it is a mixed group.”
That capacity staunch engineers from both businesses are “dedicated to the assignment of constructing the most advantageous hyper-converged infrastructure operating system and appliance,” spoke of Gorakhpurwalla.
“We gained dazzling scale via their PowerEdge [server] business that allows for us to free up discrete ranges of know-how, however most importantly, they opened up an extra plane of deep integrated engineering as a result of now they personal every thing—all the manner from the silicon, fiberglass and sheet steel, the entire means as much as the cloud,” spoke of Gorakhpurwalla.
one other immense channel improvement from the tighter relationship is that VMware channel reps and account managers are now working alongside Dell EMC’s channel groups.
“The VMware reps are in the equal box offices as the Dell guys,” said Murphy. “one of the crucial first questions we’re now asking their revenue team is, ‘who is the VMware rep? in case you don’t comprehend the VMware rep, then you definitely’re now not doing the usurp activities when it comes to earnings.’”
The stepped-up 2019 Dell EMC-VMware integration offensive comes on the heels of a blizzard of product integrations together with Dell Provisioning for VMware’s Workspace ONE, which enables automated materiel setup and extends the efficiencies of cloud management. additionally, Dell’s VxRack hyper-converged system now integrates with updated types of VMware’s Cloud basis, NSX and vRealize Suite, as well as with VMware’s multi-cloud utility-as-a-service solution, VMware Cloud meeting.
looking forward, Gorakhpurwalla pointed out if VMware has a expertise on its road map, that you would breathe able to stake that it might breathe on the Dell EMC road map as smartly.
“we now contain a dedication that after VMware offers a function, a ability, they already find out about it—we’ve already demonstrated it and we’ll accomplish it accessible to companions and shoppers within that month,” Gorakhpurwalla talked about. “in the event that they unencumber an express patch to a tremendous liberate, we’ll breathe there at the identical time because we’re co-engineering and shoppers are asking us to breathe capable of supply the quickest time to market with these cost-added features.”
LAS VEGAS, NV--(Marketwired - may furthermore 5, 2015) - Brocade (NASDAQ: BRCD)
Brocade (NASDAQ: BRCD) today announced the business's Gen 5 Fibre Channel storage district network (SAN) technologies play a vital role in supplying reliability and predictable efficiency for the brand unusual EMC® VSPEX® with VMAX3™ 100K converged infrastructure solution that become unveiled today at EMC World. the brand unusual solution is in accordance with the EMC VSPEX reference architecture and is designed for virtualized cloud-based mostly birth and management of IT substances.
VSPEX with VMAX3 100K is goal built to carry and exploit predictable carrier levels at scale for hybrid clouds. here is designed to supply shoppers with the skill to seamlessly bridge their VMware private cloud deployment with public clouds, paving the style forward to hyperconsolidate and fix on- and off-premise workloads into a hybrid cloud environment.
Brocade Gen 5 Fibre Channel SAN switches and management application provide an exceptional .groundwork between the VMAX3 100K storage arrays and servers. full facets of this reference architecture had been verified and authorized as a solution by using EMC.
"Converged infrastructures for high-conclusion, business-important purposes fill a tremendous void in the industry," pointed out Jack Rondoni, vice president, storage networking, at Brocade. "For these environments, Brocade Fibre Channel fabrics enable the server and storage to know their full competencies by maximizing network uptime, simplifying SAN administration and presenting remarkable visibility and perception throughout the whole storage network."
The SAN for VSPEX with VMAX3 100K is developed on Brocade Gen 5 Fibre Channel SAN switching and material imaginative and prescient™ monitoring and community diagnostic technologies. Branded and offered in the course of the EMC Connectrix® family, the Brocade SAN helps breathe positive predictable efficiency, unmatched resiliency and ultra-fast entry to information kept on the EMC VMAX3 100K arrays, every of which are fundamental for guaranteeing predictable service degrees, at scale, for hybrid clouds.
Brocade material imaginative and prescient know-how is advanced hardware and application that mixes capabilities from Brocade hardware, the embedded working materiel (Brocade material OS®) and administration software (Brocade community consultant). Leveraging innovative monitoring, diagnostics and management capabilities, Brocade material vision expertise offers administrators with the ability to anticipate and preempt problems earlier than they contain an result on operations, speed up software performance and dramatically reduce operational fees.
"Brocade Fibre Channel SANs are a depended on, top of the line-of-breed solutions for hundreds of EMC high-end storage purchasers in lots of of the realm's most stressful environments," referred to Gil Shneorson, vice chairman, widespread supervisor, VSPEX, EMC agency. "The Brocade SAN technologies had been a analytic alternative for supporting the VSPEX VMAX3 100K converged structure to permit the very reliability, agility and simplicity for organizations who need to bring capabilities by way of hybrid-cloud IT architectures."
Product and know-how particulars
EMC Connectrix DS-6510B 16 Gb SAN swap
Brocade fabric imaginative and prescient
Pricing and Availability
Brocade SAN material applied sciences for EMC VSPEX with VMAX 100K3 are now accessible from EMC VSPEX-enabled enterprise companions. Pricing assistance is additionally accessible from these partners.
Brocade (NASDAQ: BRCD) networking solutions aid the world's main agencies transition easily to a global the residence applications and counsel dwell anyplace. (www.brocade.com)
© 2015 Brocade Communications systems, Inc. full Rights Reserved.
ADX, Brocade, Brocade Assurance, the B-wing symbol, DCX, cloth OS, HyperEdge, ICX, MLX, MyBrocade, OpenScript, The smooth community, VCS, VDX, Vplane, and Vyatta are registered emblems, and textile imaginative and prescient and vADX are emblems of Brocade Communications methods, Inc., in the u.s. and/or in different countries. different manufacturers, items, or provider names mentioned could breathe logos of others.
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What you'll learn: Data storage managers must contain a clear picture of their unstructured data and file-system environment...
before investing in a clustered NAS system. We'll give you a list of questions to inquire of when evaluating your storage requirements and the latest clustered NAS offerings.
Clustered network-attached storage (clustered NAS) uses a distributed file system that runs concurrently on multiple nodes or servers. Unlike traditional NAS, clustered NAS stripes data and metadata across storage nodes and subsystems. Clustering furthermore provides access to full files from any of the clustered nodes regardless of the physical location of the file. But how finish you determine which clustered NAS system is perquisite for you? Here are the questions you need to inquire of when evaluating your own data storage requirements along with the latest offerings from vendors.
What is the maximum number of file systems and file objects the system can handle?
NAS has an issue with how many file objects it can manage under one system, according to Marc Staimer, president at Dragon Slayer Consulting. When that confine of file objects is reached, the system tends to shut down without warning, he explained. "It's a true throe to entrap data off of the system to accomplish it functional enough to start migrating data to another system. So it's not a capacity issue, it's a file object issue more often than not."
Does the vendor's file system span multiple nodes?
If the retort is yes, can the system write concurrently across full of the nodes? If each node can't write data concurrently across every node, you may hasten into I/O shipping problems where write requests contain to breathe "shipped" to the data's file-system master node. That could extirpate expected performance gains.
What's the I/O profile of your applications?
Terri McClure, a senior analyst at Enterprise Strategy Group, said this is Important because some scalable NAS systems are optimized for throughput rather than I/O, and don't wield a lot of tiny I/O requests.
What types of data will sit on your clustered NAS system?
Systems such as BlueArc Corp.'s BlueArc Titan and Mercury, Hewlett-Packard (HP) Co.'s HP X9000 Network Storage System (NSS) and Isilon Systems Inc.'s X-Series are pleasant fits if you contrivance to store big sequential files such as moneyed media and video. However, these systems may not apt as well for mainstream enterprise file serving.
Do you just need a NAS accelerator?
If you only need capacity for unstructured data, you might not need a clustered NAS system at all, according to Greg Schulz, founder and senior analyst at storage industry consulting arduous StorageIO Group. Instead, there are single-node NAS systems that contain plenty of capacity. If you just need better performance, the very consideration applies. It's possible you might need a NAS accelerator instead. Arun Taneja, founder and consulting analyst at Taneja Group, said scalable NAS systems are built for tall utilization rates; once you contain your system, you should breathe using a significant amount of the system's capacity. "If you're operating at anything less than 80% storage utilization, you're not using that clustered NAS box correctly," Taneja said. "Or the clustered NAS box is not very pleasant and you should cast it out."
Clustered NAS or scale-out NAS architectures vary among data storage vendors
Nearly full major storage vendors contain some benign of clustered NAS systems by now, but many of them are comparable in denomination only. That's because these systems -- furthermore known as scale-out NAS -- were built with widely different architectures in an attempt to solve unstructured data performance, capacity and availability issues.
"Right now, the industry seems to believe clustered NAS is just clustered NAS," Taneja said. "But just Look at the architectural differences; they're not even apples and oranges. It's enjoy apples and beer." reckon three of the industry's biggest names: EMC Corp., Hewlett-Packard (HP) Co. and NetApp Inc.
EMC is an early NAS vendor that arrived relatively late to the clustered NAS scene. Its current clustered NAS system is the Celerra NS-960 with multi-path file system (MPFS). The Celerra NS-960 is fragment of EMC's unified storage platform, and scales to eight blades and 960 drives. MPFS separates the file and data paths so requests can breathe fulfilled using either NFS or iSCSI, depending on the data requested.
HP acquired two scalable NAS startups in recent years. Its HP X9000 NSS is based on technology from its 2009 acquisition of Ibrix Inc. The Ibrix technology is best suited for high-performance computing (HPC) where customers need access to big number of files from a sole repository, such as media, entertainment and life sciences. HP furthermore acquired PolyServe in February 2007 and turned that clustered file system software technology into its 9100 Extreme Data Storage (ExDS9100) system, which is best suited for tall I/O environments such as transactional databases.
NetApp uses its Data Ontap 8 for scale-out NAS. Ontap 8 combines the vendor's Data Ontap 7G and GX platforms. Taneja predicted Ontap 8 won't notice wide acceptance until NetApp upgrades the product to accommodate more than two nodes and integrates its SnapManager software. Ontap 8.1 is scheduled for release during the second quarter of 2011. NetApp acquired the technology for its clustered NAS by buying Spinnaker in 2003.
Dell Inc. and IBM are two other big vendors with unusual or anticipated scalable NAS systems. Dell scooped up Exanet Inc.'s assets earlier this year, and is using that technology to develop its own clustered NAS product. IBM introduced its Scale Out Network Attached Storage (IBM SONAS) in February. SONAS uses IBM's common Parallel File System (GPFS), includes up to 30 System x3650 nodes and allows up to 256 snapshots per node.
From a technology standpoint, these major vendors are trying to entrap up with smaller companies that started as clustered NAS vendors and contain been selling scalable systems for years. They involve BlueArc, whose Titan 3000 succession can scale up to 4 PB within a sole namespace and supports NFS and CIFS (Hitachi Data Systems sells BlueArc Titan and Mercury platforms through an OEM deal); and Isilon Systems Inc.
Other scalable NAS offerings involve Panasas Inc.'s ActiveStor modular clustered system used primarily in the HPC industry, and Symantec Corp.'s Veritas Storage Foundation Scalable File Server, an appliance based on Veritas Cluster File System.
The purpose of this application note is to succor you gain an understanding of VXI and MXI concepts. This application note is divided into two tutorial sections. The first section discusses VXI and the second section discusses MXI.
This section contains an overall introduction to VXI (VMEbus eXtensions for Instrumentation).What Is VXI?
The VXIbus Consortium was formed in 1987 with a charter of defining a multivendor instrument-on-a-card standard. Since that time, the Consortium has defined system-level components required for hardware interoperatibility. The IEEE officially adopted the VXI specification, IEEE 1155, in March 1993. The VXIplug&play Systems Alliance, founded in September 1993, sought a higher plane of system standardization to cover full VXI system components. By focusing on software standardization, the alliance defined standards to accomplish VXI systems smooth to integrate and employ while maintaining multivendor software interoperatibility. With the success of multivendor standards and solid technical specifications, VXI is backed by more than 250 vendors, with more than 1000 products available. The success of VXI as an open, multivendor platform is a testament to the value of multivendor standards, and has made VXI the platform of selection for open instrumentation systems.
VXI is used in many different applications ranging from test and measurement and ATE, to data acquisition and analysis in both research and industrial automation. Although some VXI systems today are purely VXI, many users are migrating to VXI by integrating it into existing systems consisting of GPIB instruments, VME cards, or plug-in data acquisition (DAQ) boards. You can control a VXI system with a remote general-purpose computer using the high-speed Multisystem eXtension Interface (MXI) bus interface or GPIB. You can furthermore embed a computer into a VXI chassis and control the system directly. Whatever your system configuration needs may be, VXI offers the flexibility and performance to entrap on today’s most challenging applications.The need for VXIbus
The require for an industry-standard instrument-on-a-card architecture has been driven by the need for physical size reduction of rack-and-stack instrumentation systems, tighter timing and synchronization between multiple instruments, and faster transfer rates than the 1 Mb/s rate of the 8-bit GPIB. The modular figure factor, tall bandwidth, and commercial success of the VMEbus made it particularly attractive as an instrumentation platform. The tremendous popularity of GPIB furthermore made it attractive as a model for device communication and instrument control protocols. The VXIbus specification adds the standards necessary to combine the VMEbus with GPIB to create a new, modular instrumentation platform that can meet the needs of future instrumentation applications.
VXI brings the following benefits to instrumentation users:
The baseline VXI hardware specifications are a mandate for interoperatibility between hardware products from different vendors. These specifications cover mechanical and environmental requirements such as module sizes, mainframe and module cooling, and EMC compatibility between modules, as well as automated system initialization and backplane communication protocols. The VXIplug&play Systems Alliance builds on these baseline specifications to address the system as a whole with the goal of having the user up and running in “five minutes or less.” pile a system based on open industry standards means that you elect components for your system based on your requirements, regardless of vendor. Open standards furthermore ensure that once your system is built, your investment will continue to pay dividends well into the future.
Both the VXIbus Consortium and the VXIplug&play Systems Alliance remain strong, lively organizations committed to maintaining VXI as an open, multivendor technology and increasing its ease of employ and end-user success. In fact, many of the largest instrument suppliers in the world are members of both organizations, including National Instruments, GenRad, Hewlett-Packard, Racal Instruments, and Tektronix. With VXIplug&play, you are assured that components from different vendors toil reliably in the very system. Members of the VXIbus Consortium and the VXIplug&play Systems Alliance contain combined their expertise to develop technically sound standards for both hardware and software, bringing the entire industry into a unusual generation of instrumentation – a generation that stresses ease of employ and open systems without sacrificing flexibility or performance.VXIbus Mechanical Configuration
Physically, a VXIbus system consists of a mainframe chassis that has the physical mounting and backplane connections for plug-in modules, as shown in design 1. The VXIbus uses the industry-standard IEEE-1014 VMEbus as a foundation architecture to build upon. As shown in design 2, VXI uses the full 32-bit VME architecture, but adds two board sizes and one connector. The P1 connector and the seat row of the P2 connector are retained exactly as defined by the VME specification. The VME user-definable pins on the P2 connector and the additional pins on P3, the third VXI connector, implement instrumentation signals between plug-in modules directly on the backplane.
The VXIbus specification includes packaging requirements, electromagnetic compatibility, power distribution, cooling, and airflow for VXIbus mainframes and plug-in modules. The modules are installed in the mainframe slots. LEDs, switches, test points, and I/O connections are accessible from the module front panel.Module and Mainframe Cooling
Airflow direction is from bottom (P3) to top (P1). Cooling requirements must breathe established for full modules and included in product specifications. These requirements must involve an operating point of minimum airflow requirement. Mainframe suppliers must furthermore provide similar information for their mainframes.EMC and Noise
The addition of a unusual module to a VXIbus system must not abase the performance of any other module. The VXIbus specification includes near-field radiation and susceptibility requirements, which avert one module from interfering with the operation of other modules. To succor meet these requirements, the VXIbus module width was increased from the 0.8 in. VME requirement to 1.2 in., so that there is enough room for the module to breathe completely enclosed in a metal case for shielding. The metal cases connect to backplane grounds. Thus, you can employ existing VME boards in a VXIbus chassis, but not vice versa.
The VXIbus specification furthermore has conducted-emissions and susceptibility requirements, which avert any power supply uproar from affecting the performance of a module. For far-field radiated emissions such as FCC and VDE, each module must not contribute more than its share of the total. For example, in a mainframe that holds 13 modules, each module must not contribute more than 1/13 of the allowed total. Because of the crave for extremely precise time coupling between modules using the backplane, it is necessary to minimize the uproar and crosstalk on the backplane clock and trigger signal lines. The backplane is required to breathe a single, monolithic board across any one slot. The VXIbus specification has a tutorial section on how to design a backplane for low uproar and tall signal integrity.Hardware Registers
VXI modules must contain a specific set of registers located at specific addresses, as shown in design 3. The upper 16 KB of the 64 KB A16 address space are reserved for VXIbus devices. Each VXI device has an 8-bit analytic address that specifies where its registers are located in this address space. A sole VXI system can contain up to 256 VXI devices. The analytic address of a VXI device, which can breathe manually set or automatically configured by the system at startup, is analogous to the GPIB address of a GPIB device.Register-Based Devices
Because of the VXI configuration registers, which are required for full VXI devices, the system can identify each VXI device, its type, model and manufacturer, address space, and reminiscence requirements. VXIbus devices with only this minimum plane of capability are called Register-Based devices. With this common set of configuration registers, the centralized Resource Manager (RM), essentially a software module, can accomplish automatic system and reminiscence configuration when the system is initialized.Message-Based Communication
In addition to Register-Based devices, the VXIbus specification furthermore defines Message-Based devices, which are required to contain communication registers and configuration registers. full Message-Based VXIbus devices, regardless of the manufacturer, can communicate at a minimum plane using the VXI-specified Word Serial Protocol. When minimum communication is possible, higher-performance communication channels, such as shared-memory channels, can breathe established to entrap advantage of the VXIbus bandwidth capabilities.Word Serial Protocol
The VXIbus Word Serial Protocol is functionally very similar to the IEEE-488 protocol, which transfers data messages to and from devices one byte (or word) at a time. Thus, VXI Message-Based devices communicate in a mode very similar to IEEE-488 instruments. In general, Message-Based devices typically contain some plane of local intelligence that uses or requires a tall plane of communication.
All VXI Message-Based devices are required to employ the Word Serial Protocol to communicate in a standard way. The protocol is called word serial, because if you want to communicate with a Message-Based device, you finish so by writing and reading 16-bit words one at a time to and from the Data In (write Data Low) and Data Out (read Data Low) hardware registers located on the device itself. Word Serial communication is paced by the bits in the response register of the device, indicating whether the Data In register is blank and whether the Data Out register is full. This operation is very similar to Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) on a serial port.Commander/Servant Hierarchies
The VXIbus defines a Commander/Servant communication protocol so you can construct hierarchical systems using conceptual layers of VXI devices. This structure is enjoy an inverted tree. A Commander is any device in the hierarchy with one or more associated lower-level devices, or Servants. A Servant is any device in the subtree of a Commander. A device can breathe both a Commander and a Servant in a multiple-level hierarchy.
A Commander has exclusive control of the communication and configuration registers of its immediate Servants (one or more). Any VXI module has one and only one Commander. Commanders communicate with Servants through the communication registers of the Servants using the Word Serial Protocol if the Servant is a Message-Based device, or by device-specific register manipulation if the Servant is a Register-Based device. Servants communicate with their Commander by responding to the Word Serial commands and queries from their Commander through the Word Serial protocol if they are Message-Based, or by device-specific register status if they are Register-Based.Interrupts and Asynchronous Events
Servants can communicate asynchronous status and events to their Commander through hardware interrupts or by writing specific messages (signals) directly to their Commander's hardware Signal Register. Nonbusmaster devices always transmit such information via interrupts, whereas devices that contain busmaster capability can either employ interrupts or route signals. Some Commanders can receive signals only, whereas others might breathe only interrupt handlers.
The VXIbus specification contains defined Word Serial commands so that a Commander can understand the capabilities of its Message-Based Servants and configure them to generate interrupts or signals in a particular way. For example, a Commander can instruct its Servants to employ a particular interrupt line, to route signals rather than generate interrupts, or configure the reporting of only certain status or error conditions.
Although the Word Serial Protocol is reserved for Commander/Servant communications, peer-to-peer communication between two VXI devices can breathe established through a specified shared-memory protocol or by simply writing specific messages directly to the signal register of the device. Slot 0 and the Resource Manager
The leftmost slot of a VXI chassis has special system resources such as backplane clocks, configuration signals, and synchronization (trigger) signals and therefore must breathe occupied by a device with VXI “Slot 0” capabilities. The VXI Resource Manager (RM) function, essentially a software module, can reside on any VXI module or even on an external computer. The RM, in combination with the Slot 0 device, identifies each device in the system, assigns analytic addresses, reminiscence configurations, and establishes Commander/Servant hierarchies using the Word Serial Protocol to concede Servants to the Commanders in the system. After establishing the Commander/Servant hierarchy, the RM issues the start customary Operation Word Serial command to full top-level Commanders. During customary system operation, the RM may furthermore halt the system and/or remap the hierarchy if necessary.Three Ways to Control a VXI System
System configuration is divided into three categories. The first nature of VXI system consists of a VXI mainframe linked to an external controller via the GPIB. The controller talks across the GPIB to a GPIB-VXI interface module installed inside the VXI mainframe. The GPIB-VXI interface transparently translates the GPIB protocol to and from the VXI Word Serial protocol.
The second configuration involves a VXI-based embedded computer. The embedded computer is a VXI module that resides inside the VXI mainframe and connects directly to the VXI backplane. This configuration offers the smallest physical size for a VXI system as well as performance benefits due to direct connection to the VXI backplane.
The third configuration uses a high-speed MXIbus link from an external computer to control the VXI backplane. The external computer operates as though it is embedded directly inside the VXI mainframe. This configuration is functionally equivalent to the embedded method, except that it has the flexibility for employ with a wide variety of computers and workstations.VXI Bus Interface Software
One of the most Important considerations when selecting a VXI system is software. Software is the key to developing successful systems based on the VXIbus. There are many programming languages, operating systems, and application evolution environments (ADE) to elect from when pile a VXI system. It is Important to accomplish the perquisite decisions to realize full of the advantages that VXI has to offer, while minimizing your evolution costs now and in the future.
Your software decisions not only strike overall system performance and system capability, but furthermore evolution time and productivity. You should elect tools that contain complete debugging capability and that toil with the most accepted operating systems and programming languages. If you elect to program your VXI system using a standard language such as C, C++, Basic, ADA, or ATLAS, you should realize that standard programming languages finish not approach with built-in VXI capability. Rather, VXI capability is added through a VXI bus interface software library. This software component is very important, because it affects the selection of VXI computer hardware, operating system, programming language, and ADE.Industry-Wide Software Standards
As a step toward industry-wide software compatibility, the VXIplug&play alliance developed one specification for I/O software – the Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA). The VISA specification, VPP-4.1, defines a next-generation I/O software standard not only for VXI, but furthermore for GPIB and serial interfaces. With the VISA standard endorsed by more than 50 of the largest instrumentation companies in the industry including Tektronix, Hewlett-Packard, and National Instruments, VISA unifies the industry by facilitating the evolution of interoperable and reusable software components able to stand the test of time. Before VISA, there were many different commercial implementations of I/O software for VXI, GPIB, and serial interfaces; however, zilch of these I/O software products were standardized or interoperable.
The VISA standard lays the foundation and provides a unified migration path for industry-wide software compatibility. One of the most notable benefits of VISA is its ability to significantly reduce the time and application involved in programming different I/O interfaces. Instead of using a different API devoted to each interface bus, you can employ the VISA API regardless of whether your system is controlled by GPIB, VXI, or a GPIB-VXI.
With the vast number of choices in instrumentation and software now available, most users finish not want to breathe locked into a specific vendor for their systems. Instead, they would prefer the license to select the best instruments and software available from multiple vendors and contain it full toil together with minimal effort. The IEEE 488.1 and IEEE 488.2 standards (for GPIB) and the IEEE 1155 standard (for VXI) ensured that the hardware would breathe interoperable, but this approach was not taken for the software. Therefore, the model unusual driver architecture should breathe a standard adopted by as many of the major vendors as possible. Then you could breathe assured that any code written for your instrument is portable across controller vendors as well as operating systems. This is exactly what the VXIplug&play Systems Alliance has done with VISA.MXI Tutorial
This section contains an overall introduction to MXI.MXIbus Overview
The MXIbus is a powerful, high-speed communication link that interconnects devices using a flexible cabling scheme. Derived from the VMEbus, MXI provides a high-performance way of controlling VXI systems using commercially available desktop computers and workstations. National Instruments developed and published the MXI specification and released it as an open industry standard in 1989. In 1995, National Instruments introduced MXI-2, which offers even higher performance.
An MXIbus system configuration combines the performance benefits of a custom embedded VXI computer with the flexibility and availability of general-purpose computers. The MXIbus system configuration uses the high-speed MXIbus cable to connect an external computer directly to the VXI backplane. With the MXIbus, you can locate the computer directly next to the VXI mainframe, or up to 20 meters away. Using the MXIbus, you can easily add other VXI mainframes, and employ the plug-in slots in the external computer for GPIB-control, plug-in DAQ boards, or other peripheral adapter cards.
For instrument control, MXI complements high-speed platforms such as PCI by harnessing their high-throughput potential. PCI-based desktop PCs compete with the most advanced computer workstations to provide a low-cost platform that delivers superior performance. You can employ low-cost desktop computers to control sophisticated VXI instrumentation without sacrificing performance or control. More importantly, as unusual desktop computers incorporate the latest technology including faster, more capable microprocessors and RAM, you can easily upgrade your VXI system as these newer and faster computers emerge to immediately gather increased VXI performance gains. Thus, a PCI-based MXI-2 solution such as their VXI-PCI8000 gives you excellent performance now with headroom for the future.A unusual Generation of VXI Connectivity
Many VXI users migrate from GPIB-based systems. As a result, the National InstrumentsGPIB-VXI is a accepted way to control VXI instruments from a GPIB controller. An increasingly accepted way to control VXI, however, is to employ a custom VXI computer that plugs directly into the VXI mainframe, such as the National Instruments VXIpc™ and VXIcpu™ succession of embedded VXI computers. This embedded approach is technically attractive because the computer communicates directly with the VXIbus and is tightly coupled to the instruments.
Although an embedded computer is very powerful, custom VXI computers cannot possibly retain pace with the general-purpose computer market. In the last decade, specialized instrument controllers contain rapidly declined. General-purpose PCs and workstations, with their vast array of software and accessories, contain revolutionized the industry. By using general-purpose computers, the instrumentation industry directly benefits from the billions of R&D dollars spent each year in the common computer market.
Most VXI users would prefer to employ an industry-standard computer provided by a computer vendor rather than a VXI-specific computer provided by an instrument vendor. In fact, for VXI to truly become the platform for the next millennium, it must align itself with the powerful common computer market. Then VXI can entrap advantage of the billions of dollars being spent and bring this investment to tolerate on the needs of the instrumentation community. VXI must breathe able to entrap full advantage of industry-standard PCs with PCI, EISA, and ISA, as well as workstations from Sun, HP, and others. VXI furthermore must contain a transparent mechanism for extending to multiple mainframes, and a way to accommodate instruments that cannot physically apt on a VXI module. MXIbus meets each of these needs.The need for MXIbus
Today’s market demands that you add value to test and measurement systems. You need modular testing systems that can evolve with technological innovations in the industry. You want increased data throughput and the utmost in computing power; you want flexible, high-speed connectivity between multiple VXI/VME mainframes; and you want to breathe able to retain up with innovations in PC and workstation technology. Today, sophisticated I/O architectures such as PCI are accelerating data throughput – who knows what tomorrow may hold. How can you entrap these benefits both now and in the future? The retort is MXI.
MXI provides you with a solution that combines the performance benefits of an embedded VXI computer with the flexibility of a general-purpose desktop computer. Their VXI-PCI8000 controller and their next generation MXI-2 provides you with an ultra high-performance VXI connectivity solution that can meet your needs both today and well into the future. Although traditional connectivity solutions contain proved to breathe very effective, they furthermore contain proved to breathe the bottleneck in VXI test systems because the software protocol overhead associated with these methods significantly reduced the achievable throughput on the link. Using MXI, this bottleneck is eliminated altogether because MXI devices are connected at the hardware plane by mapping each physically divorce system into a shared reminiscence space. Physically divorce devices transparently share resources through simple reads and writes to the usurp address in memory. Their next generation MXI-2 products enhance VXI connectivity by defining a sole memory-mapped backplane-on-a-bus that can transparently extend bus-level I/O, VXI triggering, interrupts, and systems clocks between systems. You can now employ a sole cable to conveniently share trigger and timing information between mainframes in a multiple mainframe configuration. The MXI 2.0 specification furthermore defines a synchronous data transfer system that increases MXIbus throughput for obstruct data transfers. From a system standpoint, this means that MXI throughput rates can easily retain up with the data rates of high-performance computers, peripherals, and instrumentation . From a user standpoint, this translates to increased performance and reduced time to test. By choosing a PC-based MXI approach, you are choosing to add value to your VXI instrumentation systems by using technologies that accomplish sense from both a cost and performance perspective.MXIbus Applications
You can employ MXIbus for a variety of applications. You can interface industry-standard desktop computers to VXIbus or VMEbus; you can create multiple chassis configurations using their VXI-MXI or VME-MXI extenders; and you can integrate VXI and VME chassis into the very test system.
Figures 5 and 6 demonstrate two common configurations with MXIbus.How Does MXIbus Work?
MXIbus is a common purpose, 32-bit multimaster system bus on a cable. MXI interconnects multiple devices using a flexible cabling system similar to GPIB, but uses a hardware memory-mapped communication scheme that eliminates the software overhead. MXI devices can directly access each other’s resources by performing simple read and writes to usurp address locations. The unusual MXI-2 standard expands on the MXI-1 standard by exporting full VXI backplane signals such as VXI-defined trigger lines, interrupt lines and system clocks, in addition to the standard MXIbus signals directly to the cabled bus. MXI-2 users can accomplish faultfinding timing and synchronization tasks between up to eight, daisy-chained MXI devices.
MXI device connectivity is accomplished at the hardware level. The MXI cable serves as a transparent link that interconnects multiple MXI devices. These devices are interlaced by mapping together portions of their individual address spaces so that a system composed of multiple devices behaves as a sole system with a shared address space. design 7 shows the MXIbus hardware memory-mapped communication. The immediate capitalize of this approach is increased data throughput due to the absence of software overhead.
Each MXIbus hardware interface has address window circuitry that detects internal (local) bus cycles that map out to the MXIbus. In addition, this circuitry furthermore detects external (remote) MXIbus cycles of connected devices whose addresses map into the shared reminiscence space of the overall system. When a hardware write or read occurs with an address that maps across MXI, the MXI hardware interlocks the bus cycle between the devices via the MXIbus. This hardware scheme is the very as that used by embedded VXI controllers.
MXIbus signals involve 32 multiplexed address and data lines with parity, address modifiers for multiple address spaces, single-level multimaster prioritized bus arbitration, a sole interrupt line, a bus error line for handling timeouts and deadlock conditions, and handshake lines for asynchronous operation. Data transfers of 8, 16, and 32 bits are possible, as well as invisible read/write operations and integrated block-mode transfers. With synchronous MXI, the MXI-2 product line can achieve burst data rates as tall as 33 Mb/s, and sustained throughput rates exceeding 20 Mb/s, regardless of the length of the MXI-2 cableMXIbus Cables
A sole MXI cable can breathe any length up to 20 m. Up to eight MXI devices can breathe daisy chained on a sole MXI cable length. If multiple MXI devices are daisy chained together, the total cable distance must breathe no more than 20 m. The MXI-1 cable is a flexible, round cable similar to a GPIB cable (about 0.6 in. in diameter). Internally there are 48 single-ended, twisted-pair signal lines. MXI-2 features an improved cabling scheme that uses a sole double-shielded cable between full devices, and a sole high-density, high-reliability 144-pin connector per device. In this fashion, full MXI-2 devices share not only the MXIbus itself, but furthermore the VXI-defined trigger lines, interrupt lines, systems clocks, and other signals that were available on MXI-1 products as an optional second connector and cable (INTX). MXI-1 products employ an MXI-1 cable between devices, and an optional INTX cable to share trigger/timing information between mainframes in a multiple mainframe configuration. MXI-2 eliminates the need for an additional INTX cable in your system. Because of the cable differences, you cannot fuse MXI-1 and MXI-2 products in the very system. Both MXI-1 and MXI-2 employ double shielding with an aluminum mylar shield as well as a copper braid shield to eliminate any EMI problems, and both cables meet the National Electric Code (NEC) CL2 fire safety code. The stacking depth of two daisy-chained MXI cables is approximately 3.3 in.
MXI is essentially a backplane bus in a cable. Each MXI signal line is twisted with its own ground line. full MXI signal lines are matched impedance to minimize signal skew and reflections. Stub lengths no more than 4 in. off the mainline interconnection minimize reflections due to impedance discontinuities. Termination networks, configured with onboard jumpers, are located at the first and last MXI devices to minimize reflections at the ends of cables.
MXI uses state-of-the-art, single-ended, trapezoidal bus transceivers to reduce uproar crosstalk in the transmission system. Designed specifically for driving backplane bus signals, these transceivers contain open-collector drivers that generate precise trapezoidal waveforms with typical mount and drop times of 9 ns. The trapezoidal shape, due to the constant mount and drop times, reduces uproar coupling (crosstalk) on adjacent lines. The receiver uses a lowpass filter to remove uproar and a high-speed comparator that recognizes the trapezoidal-shaped signal from the noise.Performance Issues MXIbus Performance
It is often difficult to understand how a performance specification for a sole component relates to the overall performance of your system. In the case of MXI, it is Important to understand not only the performance issues associated with the MXI link, but furthermore the devices that communicate across the link. MXI works enjoy an embedded computer, using a direct hardware memory-map to eliminate software overhead between your computer and the VXIbus or VMEbus. Both MXI and embedded VXI computers can employ shared-memory communication protocols and direct register accesses for potentially stagy performance improvements over GPIB. If your VXI instruments themselves finish not employ these capabilities, however, your system performance using MXI or an embedded computer may breathe no higher than a GPIB-controlled VXI system.
There are several factors to reckon when comparing an MXI-equipped computer to an embedded computer. An MXI-equipped computer is functionally equivalent to an embedded computer. In fact, application software developed on a MXI computer using NI-VXI/VISA bus interface software can easily hasten on an embedded computer and vice versa. There are subtle hardware timing differences, but there is no stagy performance dissimilarity due to architecture. MXI, for example, can entrap roughly 100 ns more to accomplish a sole VXI read or write than an embedded computer, because the MXI signals must propagate down the MXI cable at 10 ns/m. This subtle detail is measured in ns, and is negligible compared to the other factors that strike your system performance, such as the execution speed of your application software or your instruments.
Often, the most Important performance issue to reckon when evaluating a computer for your system is the performance of the processor itself. Most applications spend much more time computing, displaying, or performing disk I/O than actually performing I/O across the VXIbus or VMEbus. Current external MXI computers are more than four times as quick as the fastest embedded VXI computer. In addition, because of the physical space constraints of embedded computers, external computers often contain much more sophisticated architectures with faster processors, cache RAM, faster disk drives, and other benefits. Raw computing power can breathe the sole most Important consideration for the performance of your system.Data Transfer Rates
A common benchmark for VXI computers is the obstruct Data Rate. This benchmark is smooth for vendors to segregate and measure under model conditions. It is Important to understand what obstruct Data Rate means to your application. obstruct Data Rate is the rate at which you can hotfoot a big obstruct of data to or from reminiscence on an model VXI device using back-to-back VXI transfers. It does not measure how quick the computer can process the blocks of data or store them to disk once they are moved, or whether your instruments themselves can actually match that data rate. Most applications are not limited by the obstruct Data Rate of the VXI interface hardware, but rather by the total time required to both hotfoot and wield the data, or by the rate at which the instruments themselves can generate or accept the data.
Block Data Rate is smooth for vendors to specify, but often difficult for users to relate to overall system performance. It is only one of many elements that strike the actual throughput of your system. For example, obstruct Data Rate does not testify the processing power of your computer or the performance of the instruments themselves. In addition, a benchmark for obstruct Data Rate does not measure how quick you can control instruments using VXI Word Serial Protocol or random VXI reads and writes. The speed for Word Serial communication and random VXI reads and writes is contingent on the speed of the processor and the particular VXI instruments.Local Performance
The MXIbus does not abase the performance of the devices connected to it. Each MXI device can operate internally at full speed in parallel with other MXI devices. Because MXIbus is a staunch system bus with multimaster arbitration, the only time MXI devices must synchronize their operation is when they accomplish transactions that map across the MXIbus. When one MXI device performs a read or write that maps to a remote MXI device, the MXI hardware on both devices interlocks the bus cycle across the MXIbus to accomplish the transfer.MXI – An Open Standard
The MXIbus specification was developed by National Instruments and announced in April 1989 as an open industry standard. A VXIplug&play core technology, MXIbus has been endorsed by the entire VXIplug&play Systems Alliance, including Tektronix, Hewlett-Packard, Racal Instruments, and GenRad. Because MXI is an open standard documented with a comprehensive specification, anyone can develop products that will breathe integrated into an MXI controlled system.
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SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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