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C9560-659 exam Dumps Source : Fundamentals of Applying IBM SmartCloud Control Desk V1
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IBM Corp.’s Watson health traffic unit will wind down its Drug Discovery service, which is used via pharmaceutical agencies to practice synthetic intelligence to the progress of latest medicines.
medical advice journal Stat first suggested the news today, asserting IBM become throwing in the towel as a result of “sluggish income” of the product. The traffic spoke of it'll maintain the provider up and running for existing purchasers, however it received’t be sold to new shoppers.
“We aren't discontinuing their Watson for Drug Discovery offering, and they remain dedicated to its persisted success for their shoppers presently using the know-how,” IBM informed The Register in an announcement. “we're focusing their resources inside Watson health to double down on the adjoining container of clinical edifice the station they survey an excellent improved market necessity for their facts and AI capabilities.”
The circulate recommendations at difficulties within IBM’s health division, which saw its chief Deborah DiSanzo step down remaining October following a round of layoffs.
IBM had in the past announced a yoke of high-profile partnerships, even though no longer entirely in drug discovery, together with with Pfizer Inc., Novartis overseas AG and Illumina Inc. in cancer research and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. to ascertain drug repurposing. however, IBM sources informed Stat that even with those partnerships, the initiative became nevertheless not ecocnomic adequate.
in its station of pursuing a failing product, IBM is now renewing Watson’s scientific heart of attention on medical trials.
“we are focusing their substances inside Watson health to double down on the adjoining container of clinical edifice where they survey a marvelous greater market want for their facts and AI capabilities,” an IBM spokesman advised Stat.
Analyst Holger Mueller of Constellation research Inc. observed IBM’s election to near Drug Discovery turned into unhappy however also a mirrored image of the “new” IBM that prefers to scale back choices that don’t prevail.
“The former IBM would buy a success, and achieve lower back with fervor and transparent up the issue, however it feels like a lot of quarters of shrinking earnings has modified its DNA,” Mueller talked about. “It’s ill-fated however doubtless an acknowledgement of the brand new realities for IBM. For the sake of the overall AI industry, totality vendors deserve to invest, proceed deeper and fix issues and not retreat. Let’s hope here's an exception.”
IBM’s Drug Discovery provider combines a number of equipment, together with a search engine that scientists can disburse to ascertain suggestions on sure human genes or chemicals. It also consists of a data community that describes relationships between existing medication and illnesses.photograph: DarkoStojanovic/Pixabay considering you’re right here …
… We’d like to divulge you about their mission and how that you would be able to cheer us fulfill it. SiliconANGLE Media Inc.’s traffic model is in line with the intrinsic cost of the content, now not advertising. unlike many on-line publications, they don’t absorb a paywall or speed banner advertising, as a result of they wish to preserve their journalism open, without influence or the should chase traffic.The journalism, reporting and commentary on SiliconANGLE — along with are living, unscripted video from their Silicon Valley studio and globe-trotting video groups at theCUBE — buy loads of challenging work, time and money. retaining the powerful exorbitant requires the assist of sponsors who are aligned with their vision of advert-free journalism content material.
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I’m not yet a believer within the capability of IBM (NYSE:IBM) to effect the shift to the brand new tech world below its latest leadership. each other mega-cap expertise company has already adapted to the new approaches except IBM. whereas IBM stock got here into its revenue adventure up 27% yr-to-date in comparison to the S&P 500’s sixteen%, it nevertheless trails the index and its rivals highly for the future.
IBM is down 25% in 5 years, whereas the undercover agent is up 56%. Microsoft (NASDAQ:MSFT) and Salesforce (NYSE:CRM) are up 200% for the same duration. more to that, Cisco (NASDAQ:CSCO) and Oracle (NYSE:ORCL) are up a hundred forty five% and 38% respectively. So here's proof that historical dogs can gain learning of new tricks … except for IBM.
management talks the talk, but for some cause, it’s challenging to survey the effects with no forensic technician available. If CEO Ginni Rometti has to aspect out the innovation, then it’s likely no longer as astonishing as she thinks it is.
the new formulation for tech success is primary. corporations now are looking to disburse subscription functions that are based within the cloud. anything is considered historical and is off vogue. here's more likely to continue for a yoke of years. CRM begun the model and Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN) accelerated it with the advent of its AWS.
ultimate nighttime, IBM administration neglected on sales but managed to beat their basis line. This skill IBM is managing profitability, however it nonetheless struggles to fullfil its salary expectations. additionally, to effect things much more puzzling they rearranged some of the earnings segments to clutter issues. So I caution you on chasing mentions of “cloud” in their statements — now, it’s a remember of unveiling, no longer simply telling.
while I’m now not an authority on IBM’s company, I Do recognize mediocrity once I survey it. This report represents its third consecutive decline in quarter sales yr-over-yr. clearly IBM needs to effect an extra shift of varieties. anything the company is doing now isn't working, yet the CEO nevertheless gets the profit of the doubt. At some point, IBM wants intervention so it may possibly radically change itself as MSFT did with its new CEO Satya Nadella.
My criticism right here isn't the same as shorting the inventory, nevertheless it’s no longer a powerful bullish thesis either. The marvelous information is that fundamentally, IBM stock is inexpensive as it sells at a cost-to-income ratio of 12. here is even more cost-effective than Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL), so there is value below and it’s now not more likely to be an significant loss to hang the shares here. It’s just stagnating.base line on IBM inventory
perhaps its acquisition of crimson Hat (NYSE:RHT) is their ticket out of the inventory muck through which they are caught. if so, then a powerful deal is riding on that and if it fails for any motive, each of those stocks are doomed.
moreover its fundamentals, IBM inventory can’t rally right here since it’s facing ponderous technical resistance. yes, IBM rallied a terrific 34% off its December lows. however up here it runs into the deliver of marketers who had been caught up considering the fact that the October disaster.
Pivot zones like these are the station bulls and bears coincide on rate so they like to fight it out tough. This creates rate motion congestion and when a stock is rallying this translates into resistance. totality of that means it gained’t be as effortless for IBM stock to trespass the $145 zone as it was getting right here. Conversely, IBM stock has support above $132 per share, so it could buy a big calamity in the fairness markets for it to topple under it.
If I owned shares, I’d set them to drudgery through selling lined calls against them. here is an effortless strategy to create ersatz dividends above and past the company’s four% yield.
yet another bit of potentially respectable information is that the majority analysts absorb given up on the rally in IBM, in order that they fee the stock as a cling. When IBM at ultimate provides exact turnaround outcomes there should be a slew of improvements to cause a buying yeast for the inventory.
Nicolas Chahine is the managing director of SellSpreads.com. As of this writing, he did not grasp a position in any of the aforementioned securities. that you may follow him as @racernic on Twitter and Stocktwits.
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Source: From the ControlDesign.com advice Desk
Jun 17, 2013In order to better the attribute of information shared among its customer supply chain network, IBM signed a four-year constrict with constrict logistics and freight management solutions provider CEVA Logistics.
CEVA's Matrix Connect in combination with IBM's growing SmartCloud portfolio is predicted to cheer IBM better the speed of material and information flow, while also reducing IT-related supply chain costs by more than 5%, which will result in new supply offerings for its customers.
Through IBM's Smarter Commerce initiative, CEVA can better its customer's supply chain and logistic process using IBM technology. The cloud-based technology will allow CEVA customers to access, share and process information in real-time. Other advantages IBM's cloud B2B integration service offers CEVA customers embrace lower operation and progress costs, effortless migration from former B2B activity to new cloud-based solutions, organizational socialization and the aptitude to rapidly scale at predetermined costs as traffic and volumes increase, according to IBM.
"Market conditions are driving requirements for visibility and control across global operations," said Peter Dew, chief information officer for CEVA. "IBM's cloud integration services provide us with a world-class, dependable and constantly available information backbone to deliver the real-time access to information they need. CEVA, and their customers, profit from IBM's expertise and the power of the cloud to ensure that, at every link in the supply chain, they can withhold traffic flowing."
CEVA is taking an lively approach to cheer its customers adjust to changes in exact across their supply chain networks. IBM's integration services will allow CEVA to effectively instruct customers the necessary knowledge, skills and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders.
"In today's increasingly digital world, supply chain leaders such as CEVA are delivering competitive edge to their customers by sharing censorious information across their vast supplier networks quickly and efficiently through the cloud," said Craig Hayman, universal manager for IBM.
There probably hasn't been a time in the modern era of computing where there was more widespread concern for security. Only a few years ago, security was one of those shadowy corners of the industry for hard-core types, but largely ignored by most of us. Today, securing computing resources ripples from the largest corporation to the most computer-illiterate home consumer, trying to avert sophisticated hackers not only from infecting their computers with destructive viruses, but also from stealing information or using their computer as an ad hoc server.
Jan de Clercq of HP's Security Office provided much of the technical information and technical review of this section. Jan is one of HP's leading security experts. I highly recommend his new book, Windows Server 2003 Security Infrastructures, Digital Press, 2004.
Windows 2000 made some huge strides in securing the computing environment with features such as Kerberos for authentication and authorization, IP Security (IPSec) for remote access security, and the Encrypted File System (EFS) for protecting sensitive data. Windows NT and 2000 provided Certificate Services, which gave Administrators the aptitude to install their own CA and secure the certificates in their enterprise inexpensively, enticing smaller companies to implement Public Key Infrastructures (PKI).
Security issues always provide play for improvement, and Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP absorb taken a step forward in a number of areas. deem of XP as a Windows 2003 client—they both absorb very similar and compatible features. Significant security feature improvements in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 include
The following sections provide a brief description of each issue. refer to Jan de Clercq's books listed in the "References" section at the conclude of the chapter for more information.
Also known as SAFER, these policies are Microsoft's first attempt to provide stronger cryptographic compliance with Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-1. FIPS determines whether products meet the standard and evaluates overall security provided by a cryptosystem. The kernel mode driver, FIPS.SYS, supports EFS (efs.sys), IPSec (ipsec.sys), and other crypto functions. Although this is only a plane 1 compliance intended for universal PC use, it is nonetheless a start. The scheme with SAFER policies is to provide the Administrator the aptitude to vouchsafe granular client-level security policies to restrict the access to read, write, or execute software on computers.
Because the "How To" basics of configuring these policies are reasonably well documented in the Microsoft KB 324036 article "How to disburse Software Restriction Policies in Windows Server 2003," I'll disburse the space here to report some significant concepts and implementation recommendations.
Software Restriction Policies is implemented through GPO settings located in the GPO tree Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Software Restriction Policies, and in User Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Software Restriction Policies. When you drill down to this location on a new policy, a warning appears in the right pane of the GPO Editor, "No Software Restriction Policies Defined," as shown in device 1.23. Right-click on the Software Restriction Policies in the left pane and click New Software Restriction Policies. You will then survey two folders titled Security Levels and Additional Rules. Security Levels defines a high-level access policy, whereas Additional Rules allows you to define specific rules, including the following:
Think of Security Levels as the locked condition on the front door to a building. There are two options (look in the Security Levels folder in the GPO): Disallowed and Unrestricted. The Disallowed option locks the front door and requires totality who enter to provide proper credentials. No public access. Employees with ID badges only. The Unrestricted option leaves the front door unlocked, allowing anyone to enter the building. Inside the edifice are special rooms (programs and files on the PC) that also absorb locks on the door. These locks are the four classes of rules described in the previous section. If the front door is Disallowed, then you don't win access unless you can prove you absorb access to a play in the building. The guard escorts you to that play (or rooms), but you can't proceed anywhere else. This obviously is a high-security condition. If the front door is set to Unrestricted, anyone can walk in and roam through the edifice and enter any play that is not locked. However, if a play is locked (that is, a rule has been created to restrict access to a program), you absorb to be granted specific access to win in. I recommend, as does Microsoft's KB 310791 article "Description of the Software Restriction Policies in Windows XP," you disburse the Unrestricted option because it simply locks out sure files and programs. Unrestricted is the default. Setting the Disallowed mode, unless it is in a very controlled environment, will generate a lot of cheer desk calls if it's not well planned and tested.
These are the keys to the rooms—the exceptions to the lockout. Note that four Registry path policies are created by default in the Additional Rules folder. device 1.24 shows the default Registry path rules, as viewed in the GPMC. They are totality defined as Unrestricted and are applied to
The purpose of these policies is to permit access to censorious directory space when you've set the Security plane to Disallowed. These policies allow access to areas like c:\> Program files.
Figure 1.24 The additional rules defined by default in Software Restriction Policies are shown using the GPMC snap-in.
So far these rules appear fairly straightforward. If you want to set the admin pack on every PC, but restrict users from running it, you set the SAFER policy to Unrestricted, and then create a path policy to restrict domain users from executing it. Pretty simple until you win multiple rules defined in multiple policies and perhaps in a combination of User and Computer Configuration settings.
The description of functionality described here is based on my suffer and testing and asking questions of Microsoft PSS. I absorb not seen any Microsoft documentation to validate or contravene these assertions. Your mileage may vary, so be sure you test these policies before implementing.
If multiple Software Restriction Policies are defined, things win complicated. Several design rules apply to the application of these policies. Understanding them is censorious to obtaining the desired results.
Closest match applies the rule. That is, if Rule 1 allows access to c:\*.exe and Rule 2 denies access to C:\payrollapp.exe, then the user would be unable to speed payrollapp.exe because Rule 2 is a closer match to the program being run.
Most restrictive rules apply. Apply most-restrictive path rules further down in the directory tree than less-restrictive ones.
Rules are processed in the following order:
Security plane (highest priority)
Internet Zone rule
Software Restriction Policies accumulate from multiple GPOs and are evaluated together. They Do not obey ordinary SDOU (Site Domain Organizational Unit) processing of GPOs, and they can be applied at the Computer and User Configuration sections of each GPO.
Security Levels determine how the Additional Rules are defined. If the Security plane is Unrestricted, the Additional Rules should be designed to restrict access. If the Security plane is Disallowed, the Additional Rules should be designed to allow access.
Software restriction policies—especially when setting universal categories (such as entire directories) to be disallowed—can absorb unexpected results. For instance, disallowing access to *.vbs to avert virus deposited files from running can also restrict access to logon scripts and other sound scripts.
Always thoroughly test these policies.
Define the policies in individual GPOs. This makes them easier to manage and troubleshoot.
Avoid applying Software Restriction Policies from multiple locations (domains and OUs) if possible. Applying them from fewer locations makes the results easier to foretell and troubleshoot.
To restrict Administrators from a Software Restriction Policy defined in User Configuration, restrict the confiscate Administrators' accounts and/or groups by removing the Apply Group Policy directly on the GPO.
To restrict Administrators from a Software Restriction Policy defined in Computer Configuration, you can remove the Apply Group Policy directly from the confiscate user or group, or you can proceed to Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Software Restriction Policies\Enforcement. In the Enforcement Properties page, under the Apply Software Restriction policies to the following users, select totality Users Except Local Administrators.
Make sure you absorb not inadvertently restricted access to sound files such as logon scripts and directories and files that should be scanned by antivirus programs. Testing should expose these types of flaws.
Evaluation of these policies at this time seems like a bit of black magic. As of this writing, Microsoft had not seen a lot of customers using these policies, but in the drudgery I've done with the policies, I've found they are difficult to design and it's difficult to win the desired results if you absorb a lot of them. Again, adding complexity to these policies results in a lofty probability of failure, so you must test them thoroughly. You can apply them to User Config and Computer Config on multiple levels (domain and OU), and then absorb them totality sorted by rule precedence, closest match, and most restrictive. withhold these GPOs in as few domains and OUs as possible, withhold the rules simple and well planned, and avoid applying them to both User Config and Computer Config in the GPO.Sample Rules
Let's stare at a yoke of examples of rules. Suppose they absorb six policies defined in a Domain SAFER Policy defined at the domain:
Security Level: Unrestricted
Hash Rule 1: hash of Payroll.exe (v4.2) set to Unrestricted
Hash Rule 2: hash of Payroll.exe (v4.1) set to Disallowed
Certificate Rule 1: Applications Certificate set to Unrestricted
Path Rule 1: C:\RestrictedApps set to Disallowed
Path Rule 2: C:\RestrictedApps\*.exe set to Unrestricted
Using these rules, a user attempting to speed the following programs would absorb these results:
User runs the program: C:\restrictedApps\Payroll.exe (v4.1).
Security plane set to Unrestricted allows access.
Path Rule 1 allows access.
Hash Rule 1 disallows access.
Certificate Rule 1 applies because this app was digitally signed by the certificate owned by the Applications group and is set to Unrestricted.
Result: Hash Rule 2 applies because it is most specific (denies access to the exact file name, whereas the others refer to directories or groups of files). Access is granted.
User runs the program: C:\restrictedApps\backupfiles.exe.
Security plane set to Unrestricted allows access.
Path Rule 1 disallows access to C:\restrictedApps.
Path Rule 2 allows access to C:\restrictedApps\*.exe.
Result: Because Path Rule 1 denies access to the directory, Path Rule 2 never applies. Access is denied. remember that the most-restrictive path rules should be applied deeper in the tree than the least-restrictive ones.
Suppose the same rules are defined, but the Security plane is set to Disallowed. Path Rule 1 and Hash Rule 2 are not needed because the Security plane is set to Disallowed. With that setting, totality you necessity to Do is define rules to allow access to programs that you want the user to access.
Microsoft has attempted to cheer with some exceptions to these rules. In the Software Restriction Policies folder in the GPO, you'll survey three policies besides the two folders. These policies are
Enforcement: Allows you to exclude .dlls from restricted programs, and to exclude local admins.
Designated File Types: By default, policies only apply to ordinary executable types, such as .exe, .dll, and .vbs. This option allows you to add other types to it, such as .bat, .cmd, .msi, and others, including a blank so you can add one that isn't in the list.
Trusted Publishers: Defines users who can select trusted publishers (for certificates).
In summary of Software Restriction Policies, I'd enlighten to disburse them very carefully and only after extensive testing so you understand what the ramifications are. They absorb some value in the security configuration of the enterprise, but they are complicated and can create a lot of problems if you aren't careful.
Some marvelous resources for SAFER policies embrace the Microsoft whitepaper, and Jeremy Moskowitz's Group Policy, Profiles and IntelliMirror for Windows 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000, Sybex, March 2004.Internet Connection (Personal) Firewall
Also referred to as the Personal Firewall, this feature is provided with Windows XP as built-in protection for each computer. It isn't the most secure firewall, but it's probably adequate for casual home users. If firewalls are implemented elsewhere, the personal firewall in XP is usually required to not be enabled. To enable the Internet Connection Firewall, open a network connection's Properties page, proceed to the Advanced tab, and select the Protect My Computer and Network by Limiting or Preventing Access to this Computer from the Internet check box. Click the Settings button to access the Advanced Settings pane, shown in device 1.25 to configure advanced settings, including
Services: Allows you to select services such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, and Remote Desktop that the users of this computer are allowed to access. Default is no access. So if you eddy this firewall on and can't win to a Web site, the understanding is probably wasn't enabled.
Security Logging: Allows configuring options to log dropped packets and successful connections (or not), to specify a log file name and location (default is %systemroot%\pfirewall.log), and to set a log file size limit.
ICMP: Permits configuring of ICMP traffic, such as Allow Incoming reverberate Request, Allow Outgoing Search Request, Allow Incoming Router Request, and other options. By default, totality are disabled.
Windows XP Service Pack 2 enables the Internet Connection Firewall by default.EFS (Encrypting File System) Enhancements
Although Windows 2000 EFS brought a plane of security to local files, it had a number of deficiencies:
Stealing a local account password is effortless using common hacker tools in standalone mode.
Encrypted files stored on file servers are decrypted on the server and then transported in transparent text across the network to the user's workstation. Because EFS needs access to the user's private key, which is held in the profile, the server must be "trusted for delegation" and absorb access to the user's local profile.
Inability to share EFS encrypted files.
Figure 1.25 Internet Connection Firewall Advanced Settings enable you to define what the user is allowed to do.
EFS has been enhanced in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 to support sharing of encrypted files. Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP totality store the EFS metadata in the NTFS. Thus, encrypted files on NTFS volumes in Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Sharing an encrypted file is enabled by opening the file's Properties page, clicking the Advanced button, and selecting the Details button in the Advanced Attributes area. You can add users who you want to share the file with to the list.
Note that EFS file sharing is set at the file level—not the folder level——and inheritance of EFS file-sharing metadata is not supported.
Another option for sharing encrypted files in Windows Server 2003 is to disburse Web folders. Windows Server 2003's support for the transport of EFS metadata using the WebDAV protocol, an extension of HTTP 1.1, makes Web folders an excellent alternative to sharing files on file servers, and is recommended by Microsoft. WebDAV is supported on IE v5.0 on the client and IIS v5.0 and later on the server. For more information about WebDAV, survey the WebDAV Resources FAQs at http://www.webdav.org/other/faq.html.
To configure a Web folder on the server running IIS, proceed to the properties sheet of the encrypted file (or any file), proceed to the Web Sharing tab, and select the share this Folder option. Table 1.5 provides a side-by-side comparison of features between the Web folders and File Shares.Table 1.5 Comparison of EFS Features Between File Shares and Web Folders
Remote EFS Operations On . . .
. . . File Shares
. . . Web Folders
Where does EFS encryption/decryption occur?
Files are encrypted and decrypted on the file server.
Files are encrypted and decrypted on the user machine.
Are the files secured during transmission over the network?
Files are sent in the transparent over the network connection.
Files remain encrypted while being sent over the network connection.
What technology is or can be used to secure the transmission of the files over the network?
Requires IPSec to secure the file transfer between file server and user machine.
Does not require IPSec to secure the file transfer; relies on the WebDAV EFS extensions to securely transmit the file.
Must the file server be "trusted for delegation?"
Requires file server to be "trusted for delegation."
Does not require file server to be "trusted for delegation."
Does the solution require a copy of the user profile on the file server?
Requires availability of user profile on the file server (local or roaming profile).
Does not require availability of user profile on the file server.
Where does the EFS file-sharing authorization process buy station for users?
EFS checks for other user certificates on the file server and/or in the AD
EFS checks for other user certificates on the local machine and/or in the AD.
(Table reprinted by license from Jan de Clercq, Hewlett-Packard Company.)Credential Manager
Single mark On (SSO) capability has been a frequent request from users and Administrators who find it challenging to withhold track of totality the credentials needed to log on to the domain, or disburse Microsoft Passport credentials and Smart Card credentials. Managers who must withhold getting validated to fulfill administrative tasks on various computers also absorb requested this capability. Windows Server 2003 introduces Credential Manager, a client-based SSO solution that uses an intellectual credential-caching mechanism that keeps credentials in a store on the client, requiring the user to provide a unique username/password to open the store. Credentials in the store can consist of a user account and password; a user account, certificate, and private key (which can be stored on a smart card); or Microsoft Passport credentials.
The credential store is share of the user profile and supports roaming and can optionally be disabled by the Administrator via the GPO. This is done by opening a GPO and going to Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security Options and enabling the option Network Access: Do not allow storage of credentials or .NET Passports for network authentication.
This feature is available in Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Pro, and Windows XP Home operating systems.Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Improvements
Microsoft provided an out-of-the-box, user-defined and administered CA in the Windows NT 4.0 Option pack. This might not absorb been the most effective and robust product on the market, but it was cheap (and was included at no extra cost with Windows 2000). This allowed small- and medium-size companies, who couldn't afford the lofty cost of third-party companies such as VeriSign and Entrust, to fortify their security systems. However, according to one of HP's security experts, consultant Jan de Clercq, "ease of disburse and security don't easily coexist." But considering the improvements made in Windows Server 2003 security features, especially in the PKI arena, Jan stated that "Given the low cost and the advanced PKI features of Windows.NET, it may be a product that will bring PKI to the masses." Let's survey what features are now available to effect this possible.Cross Certification faith Model
Windows 2000 used a hierarchical CA faith model, shown in device 1.26, whereby the parent (root) CA was linked to the child (subordinate) CA by trusts. Only one root CA can be in the forest, and the only artery to configure it to faith certificates issued by other CAs in other forests was to reconfigure the entire CA structure using Certificate faith Lists. This might be desirable in multiforest enterprises or to link extranets.
Note that the CA hierarchy is not specifically tied to the domain hierarchy. Rather, it might more appropriately be associated with geographies of the enterprise to provide accessible CAs to users and computers in each geography.
Windows Server 2003 introduces the Cross Certification faith model, which allows CAs in different organizations (forests) to faith each other and is in addition to the subordinate faith model. The Cross Certification model permits the Administrator some license in configuring the faith relationships with the extranet partners, by specifying whether it is a one-way or two-way trust, and by controlling the issuance and usage scope of the CA agreement via naming constraint, application, and issuance policy rules.
Cross certification provides the aptitude to create transitive cross forest trusts, as described in the "Creating a Cross Forest Trust" section in this chapter.
Figure 1.26 Hierarchical CA structure with the root (enterprise) CA at the top and subordinate (issuing) CAs below.Editable Certificate Templates (v2)
Windows 2000 provided v1 certificate templates that were not editable. Windows 2003 provides v2 templates that are editable and embrace a mechanism to modify v1 templates and transform them to v2. The v2 templates facilitate cross certification and policy enforcement, which allows configuration of certificate faith relationships across forest boundaries. This could be trusts to CAs in other forests within the company or to a CA in a traffic partner's extranet. This also allows a CA to issue certificates to a CA in another forest and can link a policy to this cross certification. The policy can limit the issuance and usage scope of the CA cross- certification agreement.
A new Certificate Templates snap-in is included in Certificate Services for Windows Server 2003, as shown in device 1.27. Note that the icons for v1 and v2 templates are a different color, the Minimum Supported column identifies v2 templates as Windows 2003 and Auto Enrollment functionality is listed. This snap-in is used to modify Version 2 templates to fulfill the following functions:
Create a new template, modify an existing template, or duplicate an existing template.
Modify template properties such as certificate lifetime, renewal period, whether it is published in AD, Issuance Requirements such as re-enrollment, extensions, and other properties.
Define accounts that can enroll and autoenroll a certificate template.
Enable a template for Autoenrollment.
Set which accounts can enroll and auto-enroll for a particular certificate template. This is done by right-clicking on a template, selecting its properties and modifying the template's Access Control List (ACL) in the "security" tab. Windows.NET ACLs accommodate an Access Control Entry (ACE) for "Enroll" and "AutoEnroll."
Figure 1.27 Certificate Template snap-in.
You can copy and reclaim a v1 template as a v2 template and then configure it as desired. You also can select the Duplicate Template option when you right-click on the template in the Certificate Templates snap-in, which will effect a duplicate and give you a head start on creating a similar one.Private Key Recovery
Windows Server 2003 PKI made significant changes to the key recovery process, providing centralized key recovery services. An significant component to this process is the Key Recovery Agent—usually one or more Administrators who absorb the aptitude to retrieve encrypted files, by means of a special public key stored in an EFS Recovery Agent certificate. The key recovery data is stored in the CA database. A user's archived private key is encrypted using a symmetric key, which is encrypted using a Key Recovery Agent's public key. These keys are stored in the CA database in the RawArchivedKey and KeyRecoveryHashes columns, respectively.
To retrieve a user's private key, an Administrator must be added to the Recovery Agent list. The preparation for the Key Recovery process includes the following steps:
Issue the EFS Recovery Agent certificate to an Administrator.
Create a GPO called EFS Recovery, for example.
In the GPO, proceed to Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies\Encrypting File System. Define an EFS Policy. Select the Add a Recovery Agent option and add a user account that has the EFS recovery certificate (from step 2).
In the Certificate Authority snap-in, in the RootCA properties, select the Recovery Agents tab. Select the Archive the Key option and select the Add button. Select the Key Recovery Agent certificate in the next dialog box.
Multiple Administrators can be designated as Recovery Agents so that both public keys are required to retrieve private keys for an added measure of security.
This four-step process will retrieve a private key in Windows Server 2003:
The Administrator who has the Recovery Agent rights (key) must know the User Principal name (UPN) or serial number of the certificate whose private key he wants to recover.
certutil –getkey <serial number or UPN> <outputfile>
This exports the recovery data from the CA database.
From a command prompt, speed the command:
certutil –recoverkey <outputfile> <pkcs12file>
This will transform the output file in a PKCS12 format and could store it on a floppy disk.
From a command prompt, speed the command:
The PKCS12 file is provided to the confiscate user, who can then import it in his certificate store.
The effective Permissions tab displays the cumulative permissions calculated from group membership and any inherited permissions, and displays the result applied to a given user. This is share of the Advanced Settings on the ACL properties page. For instance, right-click on an NTFS folder, proceed to Properties, select the Security tab, and then select the Advanced button. In the effective Permissions tab, shown in device 1.28, you survey a cumulative summary of totality permissions applied to that user on that object.User Autoenrollment
Windows 2000 Certificate Services provided a valuable feature in the autoenrollment and renewal of machine certificates. This allowed DCs to obtain and renew certificates. Windows Server 2003 now provides autoenrollment of users. You can Do this in a Certificate Template by going to the Properties of the template, and then on the Security tab, giving Autoenroll the READ privilege. You also can enable it via Group Policy, as shown in device 1.29. In Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies, check the Enroll Certificates Automatically option.Kerberos and Forest Trusts
Windows 2000 was unable to create a transitive faith between forests, allowing only a one-way NTLM sort faith that had to be created between individual domains in different forests—much like what they had to Do in Windows NT to build trusts between totality domains. Interestingly enough, this actually has a side benefit—because this sort of faith can't be used by Kerberos, it solves a migration problem known as the "Pile On" issue, described in Chapter 3. Other than that, an NTLM faith isn't a marvelous thing because it requires the Administrator to manage a lot of trusts between forests.
Windows Server 2003 includes schema modifications made to the trusted domain expostulate (TDO), which allows Kerberos to authenticate across the domain. This provides transitive trusts to be built across forests. That is, they create a faith between two forests, (one artery or two way) and no other faith is needed. The Administrator does absorb some control over the trust, in making it a one-way faith or a two-way trust, and determining the default plane of authentication that is allowed between forests (described in more detail in the next section).
Figure 1.28 effective Permissions tab.
Figure 1.29 Using Group Policy to enable autoenrollment of users.Creating a Cross Forest Trust
The preparatory steps to creating a cross forest faith embrace establishing DNS name resolution between the two forests, synchronizing system time between totality computers in both forests (easier than it sounds), and setting the forest functional plane to Windows 2003 (native). Windows Server 2003 provides three different ways to establish DNS name resolution between the two forests:
Create a stub zone in the forest root of each forest, for the other forest.
Create a secondary zone in the forest root of each forest, for the other forest.
Set up a conditional forwarder on the DNS server that is authoritative for each root zone for the other forest.
Test name resolution by pinging the root domain name of each forest from the other forest. In addition, you must ensure that the system time of totality computers in both forests is within the allowable Kerberos time skew (default is five minutes). If the time skew between the two DCs contacted to build the faith is more than the allowable time skew, the faith might be created successfully, but authentication will fail.
There is no default time synchronization between two forests. Because Kerberos authentication, by default, requires the system time of totality computers to be within five minutes of each other, ensure the time between forests is synchronized. It is recommended that you configure the PDC emulator of the root domain in each forest to synchronize with the same external time source. Time synchronization is configured by default for a forest, but not between forests. More information is available in the "Time Services" section of Chapter 6.
Setting the forest functional plane is described in Chapter 3. To Do this, totality DCs in every domain must be Windows 2003 servers, and the domain functionality must be set to Windows Server 2003 (referred to as native, though the word "native" is not used in the UI). After the domains are totality raised to Windows 2003, the forest must be raised to Windows 2003 native—similar to the artery Windows 2000 domains were raised to endemic mode, but Windows 2000 didn't absorb a forest endemic mode.
After the forest is at Windows 2003 level, Time Services are synchronized, and DNS name resolution is established between the two forests, the faith can be created. You create the faith just as you did in Windows 2000 by going to the lively Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in, choosing Domain Properties, selecting the Trusts tab, and clicking New Trust. This engages the New faith Wizard. Some of the options specified in the wizard are described here, along with screen shots of the dialog boxes used in the wizard.
Trust Type: Can create an External faith (downlevel, nontransitive trust) between domains, or a Forest faith (transitive, Kerberos) between forests. The dialog box is shown in device 1.30.
Figure 1.30 The New faith Wizard allows you to create an External (NTLM type) faith or a Forest faith (Kerberos transitive trust).
Trust Direction—Incoming: Users in the source domain can be authenticated in the target domain or forest (source domain is the trusted domain). The dialog box is shown in device 1.31.
Trust Direction—Outgoing: Users in the target domain or forest can be authenticated in the source domain or forest (source domain is the trusting domain).
Trust Direction—Two Way: Outgoing and incoming trust. Users in source and target domains or forests can be authenticated in each domain.
Authentication Level—Forest-wide Authentication: Users from the other forest are automatically authenticated in the local forest. Essentially this makes the authenticated users in the other forest included in the authenticated users in the local forest. This is confiscate for a company with a multiple forest deployment, and users from both forests are equally trusted for resources in each forest. They can be denied access by changing permissions just like a unique forest implementation. This is defined for the ingoing and the outgoing faith separately. The dialog box is shown in device 1.32.
Figure 1.31 The faith Direction dialog box lets you specify whether the faith is incoming (trusted), outgoing (trusting), or two–way.
Authentication Level—Selective Authentication: This scope requires users to be specifically trusted to access any resource. This is confiscate for enterprises that absorb traffic confederate extranets as part forests and want to vouchsafe limited and specific access. This is defined for the incoming and the outgoing faith separately.
The wizard also gives you the aptitude to select to verify the trust. I recommend that you Do so. After the faith is created, you will be able to survey users and groups of the other forest in the expostulate picker to assign permissions to resources. For instance, in device 1.33, they absorb a share on a server in forest CorpB.Net, and in assigning permissions, the users and groups of forest CorpA.Net are available. Note that totality you survey in the locations option of the expostulate picker is the remote forest with a triangle-like icon. Child domains in that forest, if any, are not exposed. However, entering user or group names (including the disburse of wild cards) in the expostulate picker will find objects in any domain in the remote forest. For instance, if you entered Admin as the name in the expostulate picker, it would recur the Administrator account for totality domains in the remote forest.
Figure 1.32 Authentication scope options allow you to specify the default authentication between two forests.
Figure 1.33 The expostulate picker displays the trusted forest for assigning rights.
The cross forest faith will be a valuable profit to enterprises with multiple forest deployments. Where Windows 2000's NTLM trusts absorb made multiple forests prohibitive to manage, Windows Server 2003's cross forest trusts could easily effect the multiple forest configuration feasible.Conclusion
This is by no means a comprehensive dissertation on security or even Windows 2003 security, but it does give a marvelous overview of the many improvements provided in Windows Server 2003. Hopefully, after reading these issues, you will absorb some district you want more information on that might impress your Windows infrastructure and should be included in the migration plan. I absorb the marvelous fortune of getting much of this information from HP's Jan de Clercq, a recognized security expert and author of two books regarding PKI and other security issues in the Windows environment. I highly recommend Jan's latest book, Windows Server 2003 Security Infrastructures, Digital Press, 2004.
When writing a recent piece about reverse Polish Notation, or RPN, as a hook for my writing I retrieved my Sinclair Scientific calculator from storage. This was an significant model in the genesis of the scientific calculator, not for being either a trailblazer or even for being especially good, but for the arresting manner of its operation and that it was one of the first scientific calculators at an affordable price.
I bought the calculator in a 1980s rummage sale, bodged its broken battery clip to bring it to life, and had it on my bench for a few years. Even in the early 1990s (and even if you didn’t disburse it), having a retro calculator on your bench gave you a bit of street cred. But then as life moved around me it went into that storage box, and until the RPN article that’s where it stayed. Finding it was a significant task, to locate something about the size of a candy bar in the storage box it had inhabited for two decades, among a slightly chaotic brace of shelves replete of similar boxes.The Sinclair’s cleanly design soundless looks marvelous four decades later.
Looking at it though as an adult, it becomes obvious that this is an arresting machine in its own right, and one that deserves a closer examination. What follows will not be the only teardown of a Sinclair Scientific on the web, after totality nobody could match [Ken Shirriff]’s examination of the internals of its chip, but it should provide an insight into the calculator’s construction, and plenty of satisfying pictures for lovers of 1970s consumer electronics.
The Sinclair is protected by a rigid black plastic case, signification that it has survived the decades well. On the inside of the case is a crib sheet for its RPN syntax and scientific functions, an invaluable aid when it comes to performing any calculations.
It shares the same external design as the earlier Sinclair Cambridge, a more humble arithmetic calculator, but where the Cambridge’s plastic is black, on the Scientific it is white. The LED pomp sits behind a purple-tinted window, and the blue-and-black keyboard occupies the lower two-thirds of the front panel. At 50 x 111 x 16 mm it is a marvelous pocket calculator, with an elegance many of its contemporaries failed to achieve and which is certainly not matched by most recent calculators. marvelous industrial design does not age, and while the Sinclair’s design makes it visibly a product of the early 1970s space-age aesthetic it is nevertheless an attractive detail in its own right.The Sinclair Scientific circuit board, component side.
On the back there is only the clip-on cover for the battery compartment, which lies under the keyboard. Opening it reveals the underside of the keyboard PCB with a label showing battery orientation and the springy battery clips for a set of 4 AAA cells. One of the clips had been corroded by a leaking cell and had snapped when I got the calculator, necessitating a piece of copper foil between cell and clip for operation. The label recommends Duracell AAAs, which in the mid 1970s were not cheap. At rest the calculator draws 35 mA from them, so an owner without profound pockets would absorb had to ensure to eddy it off immediately after calculations.
The upper and lower halves of the case are held together with moulded clips, signification that with permeate they can be pried apart to divulge the circuitry. On this specimen one of the clips has been broken, sadly I can’t remember if this was caused by an enthusiastic but inept younger me. Once the rear panel has been removed, the 28-pin dual-in-line package of the TMS0805 calculator chip with its March 1975 date code comes into view, plus the two driver chips and the Bowmar LED pomp module. This ultimate component is mounted flush with the PCB in a recess milled into it. There are a handful of discrete components including an inductor and a set of diodes, probably a simple inverter to generate a power rail. Owners of later Sinclair computers may find these inverter circuits to be familiar.The Sinclair Scientific, keyboard side.
The TMS0805 is at the root of what makes this calculator an arresting piece, being a chip designed for simpler arithmetic calculators on which Sinclair famously managed to station code for a scientific one thanks to a brilliant member of staff. Its 28-pin dual-in-line package seems huge by the standards of 2017, but Sinclair absorb done a very marvelous job of packing it and its ancillaries into as small a space as possible. Judging by its flowing lines this is clearly a hand-laid-out board.
The rest of the photographs of this calculator teardown are in the gallery below, and should provide plenty of fodder for the vintage calculator enthusiast. However this is not the conclude of the myth of my Sinclair Scientific, because it comes with one non-standard feature, the twist mentioned in the article title. Its first owner personalised it by scratching his signature on its back, so I was able to track him down and exact someone who used one of these machines what it was like.Turn it over, and there’s the signature.
It must be an odd suffer to absorb a random stranger email you out of the blue about a calculator you owned over four decades ago, but Emeritus Professor [John Stradling] of Oxford University’s Nuffield Department of Medicine took it in his stride. No mystery then how it found its artery to me as an Oxford-based 1980s teenager.
Professor [Stradling] has now retired from his medical career, but is soundless an lively medical researcher and scientist. He bought the Sinclair as a junior doctor, and told me that it was very much the ‘must have’ accessory at the time as there were a lot of calculations to be made with respect to drugs, or fluids. He revealed that maths is not necessarily the sturdy point of many doctors through the education system selecting students who study biology instead, and the advent of calculators like the Sinclair was something of a boon to them.
We buy a calculator for granted today, it’s an app on a smartphone or if it’s a physical device it’s a lightweight and slim machine with functions artery in excess of those on the Sinclair, that runs on next-to-no power. It’s therefore arresting to absorb a glimpse into where scientific calculators originated, and to absorb a first-hand account of what it meant to own one in an age of slip rules. The Sinclair Scientific wasn’t the first pocket scientific calculator, nor was it the best of its era. But the myth of its progress using a chip never intended for the job is a fascinating one, a marvelous hack if ever they saw one. And while today it wouldn’t be the machine you’d achieve for from choice, it’s soundless one with a pleasing aesthetic in an extremely compact configuration factor. You’d probably be lucky to find one in a rummage sale today, but if one comes your way, snap it up. Meanwhile, be pleased their gallery of the Sinclair Scientific’s internals.Comparison with a more modern calculator. A compact hand-held configuration factor. It lives! TMS0805 close-up. Case halves, and PCB. Circuit board, keyboard side. Circuit board, component side. Top view. Battery compartment, with corroded connector. Overview of the calculator. Close-up of the RPN crib sheet. The case has an RPN crib sheet. Back view, with batteries. First stare inside the Sinclair Scientific.
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ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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