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C2010-659 exam Dumps Source : Fundamentals of Applying SmartCloud Control Desk V1
Test Code : C2010-659
Test name : Fundamentals of Applying SmartCloud Control Desk V1
Vendor name : IBM
: 103 actual Questions
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IBM has nowadays increased its cloud computing features for enterprise with the launch of recent IBM SmartCloud capabilities. These unusual offerings include SmartCloud utility features, IBM’s unusual PaaS for enterprise, a portfolio of hardware and software known as SmartCloud basis, and SmartCloud Ecosystem, which comprises unusual features for IBM companions and ISVs.
The business plans to inspirit around 200 million clients via the conclusion of 2012.
IBM says that it has ported SAP, ERP and entire database functions to its SmartCloud platform. With its new services, it may possibly now automate labor-intensive tasks linked to operating SAP within the cloud, specifically SAP cloning, refreshes and patching. In some circumstances, IBM says the time rate reductions can vanish from months or weeks to days or hours, counting on the assignment.
also introduced nowadays is a unusual partnership with Nirvanix, a cloud storage company. Going forward, Nirvanix’s cloud storage know-how should be integrated into IBM’s SmartCloud enterprise storage features, enabling consumers to upload information of any dimension, anyplace in the world, and access them from any place. The storage-as-a-provider providing can champion millions of clients, billions of objects and exabytes of records.
in the meantime, IBM’s unusual platform-as-a-carrier offering, SmartCloud application functions (SCAS) will launch into beta this yr (q4), offering enterprise–grade protection, open Java and go-platform champion with no vendor lock-in, and a comprehensive set of utility infrastructure and managed services to allow construction and deployment of purposes to the cloud. It will avoid on IBM’s SmartCloud commercial enterprise and commercial enterprise+ – the business-type infrastructure-as-a-platform peculiarly designed to avoid commercial enterprise workloads at dedicated SLAs (provider degree agreements). IBM SmartCloud enterprise+ is attainable within the U.S., and will be deployed international by way of the conclusion of 2012.
ultimately, the unusual SmartCloud basis family unit of deepest cloud options goals to champion agencies promptly design and install inner most cloud environments, and includes SmartCloud Entry, prepackaged private cloud software, plus SmartCloud provisioning and monitoring application.
New IBM application features for cloud consist of middleware, DB2, SAP functions and CRM.
IBM (NYSE: IBM) is rolling out a brand unusual set of SmartCloud capabilities and application, offering unusual alternatives for companies to sprint their purposes to a cloud mannequin.
the unusual offerings consist of the debut of SmartCloud commercial enterprise 2.0, which is a Platform-as-a-provider (PaaS) providing. the brand unusual SmartCloud will likewise allow IBM DB2 database-as-a-provider as well other IBM functions. IBM isn't just enabling its cloud for IBM software; the SmartCloud likewise has a service for SAP ERP functions.
"This announcement takes their cloud capabilities to the next degree," Lauren States, VP and CTO of Cloud Computing at IBM, told InternetNews.com. "We're adding means to the portfolio for software edifice and deployment in the cloud with SmartCloud application services."
States referred to SmartCloud application services is IBM's PaaS for the commercial enterprise. She mentioned that initially the software services are concentrated on Java applications and transactional database functions with IBM's DB2. there's additionally an SAP purposes carrier that supplies SAP as a packaged app that will likewise be deployed and administered within the cloud.
"We're climb with what their core customers employ with their know-how and we'll be edifice that out with other capabilities over time," States noted.
remaining week, Oracle announced its personal public cloud providing, including a database-as-a-carrier providing. States talked about IBM's platform is entire about exposing IBM's middleware capabilities as a service. She delivered that programmers who are writing applications for the cloud can simply name the provider, whether or not it's database or a further service, and that they will not luxuriate in to be troubled concerning the underlying complexity of the stack.
The SmartCloud platform is being delivered on a Linux infrastructure with future plans to expand with windows and IBM's AIX Unix. IBM is the employ of KVM and pink Hat as the underlying technology seller platform. The platform can likewise be used to convey cloud enterprise functions, together with cloud ERP.
IBM is likewise introducing a SmartCloud basis application portfolio for groups trying to deploy on-premise.
"a lot of customers are just getting started with cloud and that they want to seat of attention on the merits of virtualization, management and automation for operational effectivity," States mentioned. "This SmartCloud foundation fills a niche in their on-ramp to the cloud and it could actually set the basis for customers that at eventual want to find to self-provider, pay-as-you-go infrastructure."
IBM's cloud push is likewise being prolonged to IBM's latest On exact hosted consumer base. States referred to that IBM already has a huge application on exact internet hosting business. IBM introduced in April that the blueprint became to supply On exact purchasers with cloud capabilities.
"it be their intent to deliver a cloud enabled environment inside their software on exact internet hosting business for those customers that necessity to leverage that operational effectivity," States spoke of.
IBM additionally announced a collaboration with SugarCRM to fabricate its client relationship management (CRM) items accessible on the IBM SmartCloud business. "valued clientele can now hold abilities of advanced CRM solutions, deployable in a import number of minutes, whereas reaching entire of the benefits of a non-public cloud ambiance," IBM pointed out in an announcement.
Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at InternetNews.com, the information provider of internet.com, the network for technology professionals.
IBM the day past unveiled unusual software and features designed to aid clients streamline the application development lifecycle, or what IBM calls “building operations,” or simply DevOps. As allotment of the announcement, which turned into made on the annual Rational Collaborate convention in Florida, parts of Rational’s Collaborative Lifecycle administration (CLM) suite may be made obtainable as a DevOps appliance hosted in IBM’s SmartCloud.
The CLM suite, which IBM unveiled ultimately 12 months’s Collaborate reveal, is built on IBM’s open construction platform, known as Jazz, and combines three Rational products, together with necessities Composer, crew live performance, and quality manager, in a unique suite that IBM says is easier to buy, deploy, and employ than separately cobbling the items collectively.
massive Blue yesterday introduced five unusual CLM products and services as allotment of its push into DevOps for the cloud. It likewise introduced unusual cell capabilities in its CLM suite.
the primary DevOps for the Cloud providing bears an unwieldy name: “IBM Rational respond for Collaborative Lifecycle management on IBM SmartCloud enterprise.” This offering is really a slice of IBM’s SmartCloud commercial enterprise that a consumer can employ as a edifice and examine atmosphere. SmartCloud enterprise, you will remember, is a public infrastructure as a service (IaaS) offering in line with X86 hardware and the Linux OS. SmartCloud enterprise+ helps energy techniques environments, but now not IBM i.
the brand unusual IBM SmartCloud application functions (SCAS) platform as a service (PaaS) providing that changed into launched in October 2011 additionally has a role in IBM’s cloud-based mostly DevOps plans. IBM sees SCAS (which comprises a Linux OS, WebSphere became, DB2 database, and SAP purposes) giving consumers a location the location they can execute building, build, check, and bring actions.
IBM additionally announced the SmartCloud for executive development and notice at various Platform. This providing will give executive organizations a way to access the CLM suite from a scalable, hosted environment. IBM says this offering will conform to the Federal tips safety management Act (FISMA).
additionally playing into the DevOps cloud is SmartCloud perpetual delivery, which IBM describes as a set of “choicest practice patterns” designed to aid shoppers employ CLM tools and IBM’s SmartCloud Provisioning application to manipulate the lifecycle of cloud-based mostly functions. SmartCloud continuous birth was at the climb unveiled in March, and is at present in beta.
The SmartCloud application efficiency management offering provides purchasers with entry to Tivoli monitoring and management tools for making improvements to the performance of cloud purposes.
On the cell entrance, IBM introduced that its CLM suite can now toil with the IBM cell foundation. The cell foundation, if you neglected it, combines three tools, together with the IBM Worklight HTML5 mobile software edifice and runtime environment; the IBM Endpoint supervisor device; and WebSphere cast iron for integration.
the unusual business cellular edifice providing combines CLM, the cellular groundwork, and a yoke of other Rational tools, including the unusual Rational Developer for vigour techniques edition 8.5 liberate (which that you could examine greater about here), Rational Developer for system z 8.5, Rational application Developer 8.5, and the Android SDK and Emulator. IBM says that with the aid of integrating entire these items, consumers can hope to velocity up the technique of designing, constructing, checking out, and deploying business cellular apps, and doing so in a cozy and compliant manner.
It’s a wide, wily cloud world obtainable, and IBM is determined to champion purchasers reduce throughout the litter and control their cloud utility edifice activities. “nowadays’s business problem is the way to handle both the necessity for speedy birth and ample handle in the utility edifice system,” Dr. Kristof Kloeckner, common manager of IBM Rational, says in an announcement. “We necessity to equilibrium the necessity for velocity and agility with more suitable governance to manipulate saturate and high-quality, obtain regulatory compliance, be positive protection, and luxuriate in some degree of monetary predictability.”
IBM Puffs Up unusual Public, inner most SmartCloud Releases
IBM Ships unusual Collaborative Lifecycle administration Suite
IBM Consolidates Rational crew live performance items, Simplifies Licensing
IBM Unveils change administration utility for device i
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Warning. A lot of climbing talk ahead.
The next morning, they woke up before 9, ate some cereal with mixed fruits, and headed out with some crash pads. Chad, Brooke, Josh, Wendy and I drove about 30 minutes out into the far desert and parked at the Hidden Valley Picnic belt parking lot (big mistake — there’s a parking lot at the Hidden Valley campsite literally across the street).Just one of the rock formations at Joshua Tree.
(Side note, I grew up in the tall desert. It doesn’t notice as stunning or resplendent as this.)
We got lost for a bit and took a long hike around from the west side but eventually institute a VERY simple (listed) V1, that was honestly more like a V0 with a very short top out. Maybe they identified the boulder wrong.
Behind us was White Rastafarian. withhold in mind I luxuriate in no awe doing any V2s at the gym. They’re usually require some technical moves but for the most part, they’re easily doable. White Rastafarian does not supervene suit with that trend: the top-out of the boulder is 25 feet tall and has a crux about 20 feet up that requires a span from one crack to another.
I ended up being able to fabricate it to a juggy hold about halfway through the problem before I called it quits and decided not to risk injury.The elusive White Rastafarian. Objects are smaller than they appear — the top of this boulder is 25 feet up!
After this, they headed to Pinhead a smallish boulder about 50 yards or so from White Rastafarian. This had a yoke of noteworthy routes.
I was able to top out on this route, but due to my poverty-stricken choice in footing, I slipped and fell, despite grabbing the juggy topout. I got a shallow scrape near my perquisite thumb, and decided forfeit the route in the interest of taping it up and finding something easier. (I now regret not trying the route again after Chad and the others tried it.)Bandaged up.
I was, however, able to complete the Pinhead Traverse (V0-).Brooke on the crux of the Pinhead Traverse. Wendy ‘scends the Pinhead Traverse (V0-). Chad using a Double Gaston perquisite before he ‘scends Pinhead.
Chad showed us this route that he institute northeast of Pinhead. I’d attach the gym grading as a V2 or maybe V2+, but outdoors, it’s likely a V0.Chad’s V0. Josh and Brooke spotting.
I didn’t try it — I wanted to deliver my energy for their eventual planned route for the day: Hobbit cavity Offwidth.
This offwidth boulder was tucked behind some brush and more rocks, and when they got there, Josh and Chad began to scramble up some surrounding rocks in the area. Wendy took a stab at Patina, a friction V1.I honestly had never really tried a friction climb, and the closest I’d seen at a climbing gym were labeled as VHards…Wendy makes progress on Patina.
Hobbit cavity is obviously an “Offwidth” problem (see this video for reference on what the offwidth climb would notice like), but I decided to achieve a lieback approach. I didn’t want to avoid the risk of slipping and jamming my carcass into the crack — I’ve seen 127 Hours and I’d rather not luxuriate in a similar situation of getting stuck between two rocks.
This problem was a noteworthy learning experience, but I’ll just bundle in that lesson into the various other lessons I took away from that day’s climbing:1. Learn to sprint your feet alongside your hands. This is something that I often instruct to newbie climbers and I needed to re-teach myself when climbing outdoors.2. Feel the rock before attempting to finish it. Unlike gym routes, the routes outdoors don’t luxuriate in colored tape or markings designating where to vanish next. You can’t behold that a hold is a sloper. A shelf or crack may not be consistently juggy throughout. This is likewise something that I disclose unusual climbers when they send me pictures of a route asking, “What achieve I achieve next?” I can only speculate so much. The best remedy is to just vanish out there and try climbing the rock.3. be prepared to fabricate risky moves. I consider this is a bit hypocritical on my part. On one hand, I promised myself that I wouldn’t injure myself outdoors as to not destroy my trip…but conversely I likewise realized that I would likewise forestall myself from performing moves that were either extremely painful, or performed an action that would require a quick recovery rather than a slow, systematic approach. It made me wonder — how achieve climbers really ameliorate their grade at the gym? achieve they just find stalwart enough (either through repetitive training or focused exercises) to complete higher grades with ease or achieve they actually suffer the stitch of making uncomfortable moves and just live with it? I consider the perquisite respond here is that it’s a equilibrium of the two, but I’ve been ignoring the latter phenomena — when I gain an uncomfortable move, I often convoke it quits and then drop down and reassess. Is that what’s selling myself short? achieve I awe a minute of stitch of which I could possibly toil through and behold success beyond the horizon?
In the end, I feel like this boils down to a simple principle: remember your fundamentals. Of course, there are problems outdoors that can’t be easily re-created indoors, and there are different risks to take, but I felt that a lot of problem points that emerged when climbing outdoors simply stemmed from losing my frigid and remembering my fundamentals even though it seemed like I was presented with a totally different context.
When they left the park that day, Wendy got several messages from her family and informed us that she needed to head back home for an emergency. As a matter of privacy, I’ll spare the details.
When they got home, they relaxed for a bit, and as the evening emerged, they had some pasta, sat around a fire pit, and chatted.A crescent moon appeared in the distance, under the stars, and above the silhouette of the mountains. It was honestly one of the most resplendent scenes I had ever witnessed, and unfortunately I don’t luxuriate in a picture of it. entire I can achieve is report it with words and you’ll just luxuriate in to believe me.
Later, Chad pointed out the International Space Station passing by, which was a luminous light that emerged from the west and traveled in a line slowly to the east. Although it looked like nothing more than a steady star pathetic across the sky, it was exciting and they entire chatted about it for quite some time.
Afterwards, Chad brought out his telescope and they got to behold Jupiter and some star clusters. Wendy taught me how to hold long-exposure night photographs, but the light pollution from town definitely caused the pictures to be less than perfect. I wish I could practice this more, but I didn’t bring a tripod, and likewise Seattle isn’t exactly primed for limpid skies.Not so noteworthy for my first long exposure, but it’ll achieve for now. Wendy likewise made us s’mores. notice at that presentation!
We went inside afterwards, then played some Monikers. Chad asked if I could cast together an improv DnD session while Wendy and Vincent called it a night.It was fun, and I wish I could achieve more sessions like that.The house before playing Monikers. A bit blurry, but maybe usurp given the circumstances…
This is a guest post by David Ng, a science literacy academic at the Michael Smith Laboratories of the University of British Columbia.
In case you missed it, eventual night saw the Canada election deliver a Conservative majority. It was an effulgent and historic vote for a variety of reasons, but the bottom line is that now the Harper government is in a position to achieve pretty much as it pleases, given its position of majority power in both the House of Commons and the Canadian Senate.
As is the norm for any democratic action, this is valid and cross depending on your perspective and ideals. Those who fabricate their homes in the business or economic front generally behold the result as a positive; whereas those who value fairness, ethical government practices, and sociable issues attend to notice upon the election as a daunting and frustrating setback. In this mix, however, is the scientific point of view. And speaking as a Canadian scientist, I want to employ this space to fabricate the case that entire things being considered, this is a fundamentally cross minute in history for Canadian science.
To achieve this, let’s access how the Harper government (not the “Government of Canada” as it was once officially called) has performed so far (in the science context anyway).
And let’s quarrel for this in a rational way. They are after entire scientific folk. In fact, let’s apply the valid worn rubric of looking at the claim, providing a reason, and then presenting the evidence for this stance.
First up is their claim: let’s just vanish with something direct:
The Harper Government is cross for Science.
As for coming up with a reason, it’s actually fairly straightforward. Here, we’ve seen repeated examples that would demonstrate a limpid want of understanding science culture, as well as actions that often undermine the very notion of scientific literacy. Sometimes, you find the sense that science just isn’t vital to this government, and on occasion it even feels downright inconsequential.
But, of course, this verbose understanding can’t stand on its own verbiage. They necessity concrete evidence for their claim, and to achieve this, it’s probably easiest to focus on a number of key points that demonstrate Harper’s modus operandi.
Point 1. The Harper government is not terribly scientifically literate.
There’s a few examples of this (also behold point 2), but let’s simply draw attention to the appointment of a Minister of Industry, Science and Technology who waffles on the science of evolution. In case you don’t know his name, it’s Gary Goodyear: and in essence, his role in government is meant to be the primary driver on pushing and representing how science is funded, courted, guided, and basically done in Canada. Although an architect of many a slice to science funding in times that arguably necessity more scientific innovation (see 4 for more), he was and quiet is illustrious as a controversial device when in 2009, the Globe and Mail asked him to partake his stance regarding evolution. To this, he replied, “I’m a Christian, and I don’t consider anybody asking a question about my religion is appropriate.”
Now from a scientific point of view, this kind of statement is mildly troubling – you would hope that at least the Minister representing science would luxuriate in more eloquent words to drawl on this subject. Unfortunately, this wasn’t the case as illustrated with his further comments on the matter when pressed again during a television interview. During this incident, he chose to proclaim his faith in evolution, but continued with this very odd and ludicrous description of what evolution is:
“We are evolving, every year, every decade. That’s a fact. Whether it’s to the intensity of the sun, whether it’s to, as a chiropractor, walking on cement versus anything else, whether it’s running shoes or tall heels, of course, they are evolving to their environment.”
2. The Harper government has managed to fabricate Climate Change science an ideological issue.
You’ve actually seen a lot of this already in American politics, but nowadays there’s likewise a Canadian version. Here’s how it works:
In general, science is fairly particular about the way it is done. The mode is built to thrive on objectivity and it is ultimately based on the things they see, record, and analyze. It isn’t perfect, since the concept of a paradigm can exert influence, but the evidence it builds on quiet has to meet some pretty tough criteria – certainly much more stringent than other epistemologies, or other ways of knowing. attach another way, scientific evidence is not suppose to be swayed by ideological or partisan lines.
Despite this, Harper’s politics luxuriate in warped the science of climate change into one of partisan debate. entire other Canadian political parties hold the science at physiognomy value, and build from it. Not so with the Conservatives. This is inherently disrespectful to the scientific community, as it suggests that they can fabricate decisions concerning climate change in a location where scientific literacy has no currency, whereby the overwhelming scientific consensus is treated as nothing more than an effulgent and suspicious footnote.
As a result, Harper runs the country on the pretense of whether one can faith or distrust the scientific evidence, without actually debating the actual technical strengths and weaknesses of the climate science data currently presented. Harper runs the country based on messages that economically sound promising, but are environmentally unsustainable, and luxuriate in stalwart repercussions which conveniently will hold shape long after he is retired. Above all, he places an accent on nurturing a subtle shape of climate change denialism and has made it allotment of the conservative ideology. From a scientist’s point of view, this is probably not the best way to formulate vital policies – on “feelings” as combat to concrete evidence. In essence, they can drawl that I may not be a betting man: but if I was, I’m pretty positive that the scientific community is the best location to find their odds.
Now, one might quarrel that this is not Harper’s stance at all. It would issue that the official hold would proclaim the government’s official backing of the “fundamentals of climate change science.” However, as always is the case, actions talk louder than words. As evidence of this, you only necessity to withhold track of the Harper’s record on climate change. Since obtaining its first minority government in 2006, the Conservatives luxuriate in essentially moved away from Canada’s commitment to Kyoto, and has repeatedly undermine climate change talks (to the point of being consistent winners of the “Fossil of the Day” award), allotment of which involves the perpetual setting up of disappointing emission targets.
In 2009 the goal was to slice carbon emissions by 20% below 2006 levels by 2020; an equivalent of 3% below 1990 levels by 2020. The goal was later changed in early 2010 to 17% of 2005 levels by 2020; an equivalent of 2.5% above 1990 levels.
The three most populous provinces disagree with the federal government goal and announced more ambitious targets on their jurisdictions. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia announced respectively 20%, 15% and 14% reduction target below their 1990 levels while Alberta is expecting a 58% increase in emissions. (Wikipedia, April 2011)
More troubling, is that Harper appears to not luxuriate in any qualms about pushing his agenda in any way possible, and does so in a way that draws limpid distinctions between party lines. In particular, is his egregious misuse of Senate power to vanish against the democratic passing of a Climate Change Bill (Bill C-311).
Here, a quick lesson in Canadian government procedures might help. Essentially, when Canadian laws or Bills are attach on the table, they necessity to vanish through a vote in the House of Commons. This is represented by elected members of government, such that the voting here is inherently meant to depict the “will of the people.” However, if passed, the law then needs to vanish through the Canadian Senate. This flat of government is suppose to reflect a location of “sober second thought,” but historically, the Senate very rarely goes against the decisions made in the House of Commons. This is because Senate members are appointed, and therefore in principle are there to quiet respect the democratic underpinning of the House of Commons’ vote. However, in December 2008, Harper filled 18 vacant Senate spots with Conservative appointments, and has used this Senate majority in undemocratic ways – including the killing of the Climate Change Bill.
Still, there are other ways to compel an ideology along: which brings us to point number three.
3. The Harper government has demonstrated a willingness to “muzzle” science.
In 2010, the release of Environment Canada documents showed that unusual media rules introduced by the Harper Government in 2007, with the train to control the ability for Federal climate scientists to interact with media, had been amenable for what many of these scientists luxuriate in called a “muzzling” effect.
“Scientists luxuriate in noticed a major reduction in the number of requests, particularly from tall profile media, who often luxuriate in same-day deadlines,” said the Environment Canada document. “Media coverage of climate change science, their most high-profile issue, has been reduced by over 80 per cent.”
The analysis reviewed the impact of a unusual federal communications policy at Environment Canada, which required senior federal scientists to hunt authorization from the government prior to giving interviews.
The document suggests the unusual communications policy has practically eliminated senior federal scientists from media coverage of climate-change science issues, leaving them frustrated that the government was trying to “muzzle” them. (Montreal Gazette, March 15, 2010)
This facet of Harper’s strategy is especially troubling. Science, as a whole, is a venture that best works when there is fluidity and an openness in how information is shared. Whether that is within the scientific community in the shape of expert peer review, or back and forth between scientists and the general public or the policy makers as a dialogue of civic consequence, there is simply no commendable understanding for this shape of control. It should be obvious that discussions on Climate Change, which has obvious public importance, things shouldn’t be avoid like a corporation protecting its secrets and/or hiding information that veers away from the desired message.
4. The Harper Government is out of finger with science culture: scientists are driven by many things, and not always by the industry/business/corporate mentality.
Over the eventual yoke years, we’ve seen examples where the Harper Government has consistently pushed research towards a cumbersome accent for applied sciences and industry, often at the expense of basic science. Whether this is via funding cuts to granting agencies such as the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (a bastion of basic science research), diverting such monies towards projects where business-related objectives are encouraged, or via restructuring of the National Research Council such that industry-related projects are given priorities, there’s definitely a mode to his ways. Overall, this indicates a general ignorance of how scientific progress works – that is, it is almost always the discoveries born from basic research that fuel the future innovation necessary for applied benefits. attach another way, if Harper continues on this track to give himself quick political gain, he does so at the expense of future Canadian science. Even a miniature lull in basic research in the present could result in a significant lull in applied and economic potentials in the future.
As well, this constant patronage towards the business side of science likewise doesn’t necessarily reflect the intentions of the scientists themselves. Money and economics may be desirable things for scientists, but most often there are other stronger motivations at stake – including an aspiration to bring about positive change in the world, as well as plain worn intellectual curiosity.
An sample of Harper’s willingness to always give credence to the corporate line, is his Government’s poverty-stricken handling of the recently diposed Bill C-393. Essentially, this is an episode where cross politics trumped valid science. The valid science in this case is the fact that there are very effectual antiretroviral drug out there, which fabricate HIV/AIDS a treatable disorder. Unfortunately, these are mostly priced too tall for individuals in developing countries – countries where unnecessary death from HIV/AIDS is catastrophically high. The cross politics concerns a frustrating sequence of events that saw a Bill (C-393), designed to fairly and with monitoring facilitate production of generic drugs, find passed in the House of Commons (i.e. democratically given the green light); then was taken to Senate, where it was deliberately stalled for five days, in an atmosphere where delusive information provided by the pharmaceutical industry was being distributed to the Tory Senators; such that it was ultimately killed by default when the unusual election was called. The fact that the understanding for this was ultimately because of the Harper’s Government willingness to patronize sizable Pharma is extremely galling, especially when so many lives were literally at stake.
It’s vital to note that science culture isn’t the only thing that drives a civil society. However, as a conduit for reasoned discourse and pertinent information that affects local and global concerns, it’s obvious that science must not be taken for granted. Based on eventual night’s election results, they luxuriate in every understanding to worry about the Conservative majority, as the Harper Government has repeatedly demonstrated past activities that not only hold science for granted, but handle it with a shape of contempt. The Harper government has consistently ignored whatever sound utility the scientific endeavor can provide, and by doing so, has attach the future of Canadian science at risk, as well as the elements of society that would luxuriate in otherwise benefited from it.
In the end, this means that they must watch the actions of this Harper Government more closely; and to be vocal, to be active, and to achieve their best to hold them to account for their actions. Democracy has given Harper a mandate to govern as he sees fit, and for this there should be an constituent of respect as well as an constituent of opportunity. However, Harper should not forget that Canadian democracy is ultimately driven by the people of Canada. For that reason, I will be watching you closely. Scientists will be watching you closely. Canadians will be watching you closely.
David Ng is a science literacy academic at the Michael Smith Laboratories of the University of British Columbia. He has written essays for the Walrus, humour for McSweeney’s, commentary for Boingboing, and is now trying to learn more about Access to Medicine issues at the My Rights Versus Yours Blog. You can supervene him on twitter @dnghub. If you’re a Canadian reader, he likewise encourages you to check out aidsaction.ca to note that almost entire conservatives quiet align themselves with sizable Pharma’s stance on Access to Medicine issues. Why not send them an email to fabricate positive they know exactly how you feel?
One of the critical parts of assembling a product’s “Strategy Playbook” or “Clinical development Plan” is the researching and planning of clinical endpoints. This article discusses how to research endpoints, including tools to research them, how to organize the information and how to present the intelligence back to the team.
Endpoints are measures intended to reflect the effects (efficacy endpoints) or safety (safety endpoints) of a drug or device. They include assessments of clinical events (e.g., stroke, pulmonary exacerbation, venous thromboembolism), outcomes (e.g., what a final result of treatment long term, mortality, tumor resolution, cure of disease, remission), patient symptoms (e.g., pain, dyspnea, depression), measures of function (e.g., ability to walk or exercise), adverse events or surrogates of these effects or symptoms; clinical outcomes are considered the most dependable endpoint.1 One of the critical parts of the assembling either a product’s “Strategy Playbook” or “Clinical development Plan” is the researching and planning of endpoints from phase 1 through 3, including navigating through FDA’s understanding and interpretation of the laws and definitions (Table 1).Defining Efficacy Endpoints
Defining efficacy and their measurement through endpoints has been a dynamic process since the US 1962 Kefauver Harris Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), which was the first time a demonstration of efficacy (and endpoints to measure efficacy) was required.2,3 After the amendment, FDA spent the next decade defining, discussing, evolving and defending Sponsors’ lawsuits to arrive at what efficacy expectations should include (and some drawl the process is quiet ongoing).4
Prior to the 1962 Kefauver Harris Amendment:
FDA’s definition and struggles to define efficacy served as a model for other regulatory agencies to adopt and employ when formally establishing their own efficacy requirements; hence, the US focus in this article, but this information can be used in planning global trials with consultation of individual country regulations and guidance.Why are endpoints needed?
Sound evidence of effectiveness is a crucial component of any regulatory agency’s benefit-risk assessment of a unusual product or employ (i.e., a unusual indication). The necessity for an endpoint to measure the effectiveness of a drug stems from FDA’s necessity for substantial evidence, specifically called for in the 1962 Kefauver Harris Amendment and in 21 CFR 314.50 5.iii.v which requires that a marketing application contain, “data demonstrating substantial evidence of effectiveness for the claimed indications.” Substantial evidence was defined in section 505(d) of the FD&C Act as “evidence consisting of adequate and well-controlled investigations, including clinical investigations by experts qualified by scientific training and suffer to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug involved, on the basis of which it could fairly and responsibly be concluded by such experts that the drug will luxuriate in the effect it purports or is represented to luxuriate in under the conditions of employ prescribed, recommended or suggested in the labeling or proposed labeling hereof.”5
An adequate and well controlled (A&WC) study is defined in 21 CFR 314.126.b as a ordeal containing (summarized):
FDA would like efficacy endpoints, if not already issued in a guidance document, to incorporate the mantra of “feels, functions or survive” which is collectively defined as clinical benefit. Clinical capitalize is a clinically meaningful effect of an intervention, i.e., a positive effect on how an individual:
Clinical capitalize should be meaningful and understandable to prescribers and patients and can be measured directly or indirectly (indirect assessment needs justification for its value as a replacement for how patients survive, feel or function).6,7
Clinical capitalize Endpoints that luxuriate in supported drug approval luxuriate in included vital clinical outcomes (e.g., increased survival, symptomatic improvement), but likewise luxuriate in included effects on established (validated) surrogate endpoints (e.g., blood pressure, serum cholesterol).8,9
The caveat here is if there is no instrument to measure how a patient “feels” or “functions,” one’s company might necessity to develop and validate a patient reported outcome to capture and measure this.Table 1. Overview of the practicable Clinical ordeal Endpoints. Term Definition Endpoint
An endpoint is a primary or secondary outcome used to referee the effectiveness of a treatment; it is a precisely defined variable intended to reflect an outcome of interest that is statistically analyzed to address a particular research question. Synonyms include: outcome, variable, parameter or marker.
An endpoint typically specifies the kind of assessments made, the timing of those assessments, the assessment tools used and possibly other details, as applicable, such as how multiple assessments within an individual are to be combined.10
An sample of endpoints are survival, improvements in quality of life, relief of symptoms and disappearance of the tumor.11
Well-defined and dependable (21CFR 314.126)
Appropriate for the target population
Appropriate for the target indication
Adequate measurement properties, e.g., content validity: PRO development relies on patient input to champion content validity12
Using conclude points that luxuriate in already been approved by the regulatory authority makes the most sense, but if a unusual endpoint is being used, then it is necessary to prove that this endpoint is a valid measure of drug success.Primary Endpoint Primary endpoints means the outcome or event that most accurately measures the capitalize of the therapy/drug/intervention being studied (efficacy); this is the most clinically vital endpoint. This is the main question the sponsor is most interested in answering and one that is capable of being answered (i.e., “Does the intervention alter mortality rates or change baseline blood pressure, the number of deaths, the dissimilarity in survival between the treatment group and the control group, disease progression or death). There is usually only one primary endpoint. Most of entire the primary endpoint needs to be clinically meaningful and recognized by regulators as being clinically meaningful or parley clinical capitalize (for unusual indications this can be a challenge) and should reflect the accepted norms and standards in the pertinent territory of research. There should be adequate evidence that the primary variable can provide a valid and dependable measure of some clinically pertinent and vital treatment capitalize in the patient population described by the inclusion and exclusion criteria.13-16 Secondary Endpoint
Typically, secondary endpoints are related to toxicity and undesired effects of the unusual therapy (safety) or to demonstrate additional effects on the disease or condition. The secondary questions necessity to champion and relate to the primary objective and it used to demonstrate additional effects. For the primary objective of “Does the intervention alter mortality rates?” The secondary objective could notice for cause of cardiac death, when death occurred or other cardiac incidents, such as:
Secondary endpoints likewise may provide evidence that a particular mechanism underlies a demonstrated clinical effect (e.g., a drug for osteoporosis with fractures as the primary endpoint, and improved bone density as a secondary endpoint).17
Positive results on the secondary endpoints can be interpreted only if there is first a demonstration of a treatment effect on the primary endpoint.Exploratory Exploratory endpoints may include clinically vital events that are expected to occur too infrequently to point to a treatment effect or endpoints that for other reasons are thought to be less likely to point to an effect but are included to explore unusual hypotheses.18 Intermediate Clinical Endpoint In a regulatory context, an endpoint measuring a clinical outcome that can be measured earlier than an effect on Irreversible Morbidity or Mortality (IMM) and that is considered reasonably likely to prognosticate the medical product’s effect on IMM or other clinical benefit. The intermediate clinical endpoint may be a basis for replete approval if the effect on the endpoint is considered clinically meaningful. It likewise may be a basis for accelerated approval if the IMM effect is considered critical for employ of the drug or for expedited access for medical devices intended for unmet medical necessity for life threatening or irreversibly debilitating diseases or conditions. Multiple Primary Endpoints (Co-primary Endpoints)
It may sometimes be desirable to employ more than one primary variable, each of which (or a subset of which) could be adequate to cover the purview of effects of the therapies.19
Multiple endpoints may be needed when determining that the drug confers a clinical capitalize depends on more than one disease aspect or outcome being affected. Multiple endpoints may likewise be used when:
In some cases, multiple aspects of a disease may appropriately be combined into a unique endpoint, but subsequent analysis of the components is generally vital for an adequate understanding of the drug’s effect.20
Multiple primary endpoints become co-primary endpoints when it is necessary to demonstrate an effect on each of the endpoints to conclude that a drug is effective.
An sample is treatment of migraine headaches; although stitch is the most prominent feature, migraine headaches are likewise often characterized by the presence of photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea, entire of which are clinically important.Composite Endpoints
There are some disorders for which more than one clinical outcome in a clinical ordeal is important, and entire outcomes are expected to be affected by the treatment.21
Rather than using each as a divide primary endpoint (creating multiplicity) or selecting just one to be the primary endpoint and designating the others as secondary endpoints, it may be usurp to combine those clinical outcomes into a unique variable or “composite” endpoint,” using a predefined algorithm (e.g., the rating scales used in arthritis, psychiatric disorders, and elsewhere). This mode is different than multiple primary endpoints and useful to study drugs if component events are infrequent and each component is clinically meaningful.22
Composite endpoints are often used when the goal of treatment is to forestall or leisurely morbid, clinically vital but uncommon events (e.g., employ of an anti-platelet drug in patients with coronary artery disease to forestall myocardial infarction, stroke and death).Surrogate Endpoints
When direct assessment of the clinical capitalize (or outcomes) to the theme through observing actual clinical efficacy is not practical, indirect criteria may be considered. A surrogate endpoint is a laboratory measure or a physical badge intended to be used as a substitute for a clinically meaningful endpoint and that is reasonably likely to prognosticate clinical capitalize (based on epidemiologic, therapeutic, pathophysiologic or other evidence per 21 CFR 314.510). Such surrogates are less well-established than surrogates in regular use, such as blood pressure for stroke, cholesterol for cardiovascular disease or HIV load for development of AIDS23 and unusual surrogates necessity to be validated. Relationships between clinical and surrogate variables for one product achieve not necessarily apply to a product with a different mode of action for treating the selfsame disease.24,25
From a US regulatory standpoint, surrogate endpoints and potential surrogate endpoints can be characterized by the following flat of clinical validation:
A list of novel drugs approved using surrogate endpoints can be institute on Table of Surrogate Endpoints That Were the Basis of Drug Approval or Licensure
Pitfalls of using surrogate endpoints include:
The flat of evidence necessary to determine whether a surrogate is validated or likely to prognosticate clinical capitalize is made on a case by case basis by FDA.28Reasonably Likely Surrogate Endpoint “An endpoint supported by stalwart mechanistic and/or epidemiologic rationale such that an effect on the surrogate endpoint is expected to be correlated with an endpoint intended to assess clinical capitalize in clinical trials, but without adequate clinical data to point to that it is a validated surrogate endpoint. Such endpoints may be used for accelerated approval for drugs and potentially likewise for approval or clearance of medical devices. In the case of accelerated approval for drugs, postmarketing confirmatory trials luxuriate in been required to verify and report the anticipated effect on the irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit.”29 Validated Surrogate Endpoint
“An endpoint supported by a limpid mechanistic rationale and clinical data providing stalwart evidence that an effect on the surrogate endpoint predicts a specific clinical benefit. A validated surrogate endpoint can be used to champion marketing approval of a medical or tobacco product in a defined context without the necessity for additional studies to demonstrate the clinical capitalize directly. Although the term has been used in a conceptually broader way, from a U. regulatory standpoint, a validated surrogate endpoint almost always refers to a biomarker.”30
Validation information is available on the FDA website.Biomarkers
“A defined characteristic that is measured as an indicator of simple biological processes, pathogenic processes or responses to an exposure or intervention, including therapeutic interventions. Molecular, histologic, radiographic or physiologic characteristics are types of biomarkers. A biomarker is not an assessment of how an individual feels, functions, or survives. Categories of biomarkers include:”
FDA’s Biomarker and Qualification Information
Biomarkers Used as Outcomes List in development of Approved Products (2007-2015)
Drug development Too Program and InitiativesWhat contribution is required from the RI strategist?
Regulatory strategists or intelligence professionals are called upon to inspirit champion the clinical portion of the strategy document or development blueprint by laying out the regulatory acceptable endpoints over the course of development. This means the RI strategist will necessity to:
Some things like researching KOLs is obvious—you notice at Pubmed or advocacy groups, but where achieve you start with the endpoints? And what exactly achieve you collect, where achieve you find it and what should the presentation back to the team notice like?Evolution of Endpoints by development Phase
Research should be performed and information organized according to phases of development to ensure a reasonable comparison (Table 2).To be able to recommend what endpoints to employ at what stage, it is vital to understand the evolution of endpoints over the clinical development of a product; from a safety accent in early studies to an efficacy endpoint in later studies. Endpoints disagree by indication and change as disease treatment does.Table 2. Endpoints by Phase Phase of Development Typical Endpoints Phase 1
The first cease on any regulatory information gathering mission is to understand what tools are available (free versus fee tools), which ones are available to address a particular question and what each appliance will provide for each piece of the puzzle. Table 3 provides a roadmap for endpoint exploration.Where to Start Endpoint Analysis Information Blocking
Armed with the needed endpoint information and the tools to find it, the next step is to understand how to “block” the information so that it is usable for the analysis. There is a great morass of data to review and categorize, including literature, global guidance documents, past precedent (if available) and the endpoints of trials currently underway as these luxuriate in typically been vetted (or at least discussed) with the agency for the study being conducted. Table 4 provides information to collect for each endpoint.Table 4. Endpoint Information Needed to Serve as a Basis for Analysis. Information Needed on Each Endpoint Where to Find it Why Regulatory Precedence and Acceptance
Previous regulatory filings (Drugs@FDA (or similar))
Country specific guidance documents
Drugs@FDA (or similar)
Drugs@FDA (or similar)
Drugs@FDA (or similar)
Drugs@FDA (or similar)
Drugs@FDA (or similar)
Country specific guidance documents
Only the endpoints that are used most frequently or luxuriate in past regulatory precedence should luxuriate in an in-depth analysis conducted; entire other should be tall flat reporting until the team agrees more analysis is needed. Once the information is acquired to define the output, which can disagree vastly depending on the free or fee tools used, start constructing the output.Endpoint Analysis Steps for Information Gathering and Initial Analysis Endpoint Analysis: Free
Intervention Model: unique Group
Masking: not a soul (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD)
Overall Response Rate (ORR)
Overall Survival (OS)
Progression-Free Survival (PFS)
Adverse Events (AEs)
Response Biomarkers, including p4EBP1, PSK6, pCAD and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)
Large T antigen (LT) and miniature T antigen (ST)
InterventionalF16IL2 Plus Paclitaxel in Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Drug: Arm A: F16IL2 in combination with paclitaxel
Drug: Arm B: Paclitaxel
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: not a soul (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Efficacy of F16IL2 in combination with paclitaxel vs. paclitaxel monotherapy (RECIST v1.1, irRC)
Overall survival rate
Treatment efficacy (ORR, DCR)
Safety and tolerability of the combination treatment with F16IL2 and paclitaxelPhase 2
InterventionalA Proof-of-Concept ordeal of GLA-SE in Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Biological: GLA-SE
Intervention Model: unique Group Assignment
Masking: not a soul (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Safety and feasibility
Clinical efficacy and immunogenicityPhase 1
InterventionalAdjuvant Therapy of Completely Resected Merkel Cell Carcinoma With Immune Checkpoint Blocking Antibodies Versus Observation Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: not a soul (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Disease-free survival (DFS) at 12 months
Number of adverse events
Overall survival rate at 12 months
DFS rate at 12 monthsPhase 2
InterventionalStudy of the Drug Ipilimumab for Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Drug: Ipilimumab
Intervention Model: unique Group Assignment
Masking: not a soul (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Overall survival at 12 months with ipilimumab treatment
Determine the best overall response rate, median survival, disease-specific survival and progression free survival
Determine median survival, disease-specific survival and progression nfree survivalPhase 2
InterventionalQUILT-3.009: Study of aNK Infusions in Combination With ALT-803 in Patients With Stage III (IIIB) or Stage (IV) Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC)
Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Stage IV Merkel Cell CarcinomaBiological: aNK (NK-92)
Intervention Model: unique Group Assignment
Masking: not a soul (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Progression Free Survival
Overall Response Rate
Time to disease progression
Safety and tolerability of aNK in combination with ALT-803
Quality of life assessmentPhase 2
Interventional*Need to Specify Fields to Download. Endpoint Analysis: Fee Figure 1. Organized Endpoint Output for BizInt Smart Charts (Combined Output from a Variety of Clinical Registries).
Something to withhold in mind when finalizing and incorporating endpoints into a strategy, the kind of endpoint selected can dictate the regulatory approval pathway that needs to be followed. Review Table 6 to ensure alignment with regulatory expectations.Table 6. Endpoints and Predicted Regulatory Pathway. Type of Endpoint What it Does Regulatory Pathway Clinical Benefit How a patient feels, functions or survives Regular* Validated Surrogate Recognized as validated through multiple definitive studies Regular* Surrogate Reasonably likely to prognosticate clinical benefit Accelerated Approval *Could be accelerated or priority review based on the unmet medical necessity or seriousness of indication.32
Communicating the Data Back to the Stakeholders
Once the needed information is available to define the output, which can disagree vastly depending on the free or fee tools used and the specific indication, open constructing the output and understand what is needed for the output. One of the biggest issues in analyzing data, since it is so onerous, is the presentation back to the team and deciding the most efficient shape is should take. On the backend, there is a lot of data that needs to be cleaned, merged or manually manipulated and since it is disparate, it can be very difficult to summarize, especially endpoints. Most teams want a high-level analysis that is interactive so as to respond immediate questions and an outstrip spreadsheet does not luxuriate in visual appeal; this is where a “fee” product really is helpful in presenting a brightly colorful and interactive output.Case Study—Merkle Cell Carcinoma
The following case study discusses the indication of the rare disease Merkle Cell Carcinoma (MCC) and demonstrates how to attach the above information into practice. Note: only one drug has been approved for this indication [BAVENCIO [AVELUMAB]] (approved 23 March 2017).New Regulatory Intelligence Tool
BizInt Smart Charts Drug development Suite is purpose-built software designed to facilitate creating, customizing and distributing tabular reports from selected clinical trial, drug pipeline and biomedical journal databases. Reflecting more than 20 years of feedback from users in pharmaceutical and biotech companies, it replaces the necessity to write complicated macros and manually manipulate data in outstrip and Word. Data from supported databases (see below) is imported and formatted into tables, and the fields/columns included in your report can be changed at any time. BizInt Smart Charts automatically identifies the selfsame ordeal across different databases and the selfsame drug across pipeline databases and has tools to merge different database records on the selfsame ordeal into a unique integrated row in your report.
A second tool, VantagePoint - Smart Charts Edition, has the ability to further refine the data, extract terms and create visualizations for PowerPoint presentations. Table 7 provides an overview of the databases that BizInt Smart Charts can pull from to inspirit compile endpoint information.Table 7. BizInt Smart Charts Drug development Suite—Supported Databases. Supported Clinical ordeal Databases Supported Pipeline Databases Supported Biomedical Journal Databases
Registry:Clinical Trials.govEU Clinical Trials RegistryWHO ICTRP
Commercial:Citeline TrialtroveAdis Clinical Trials InsightCortellis Clinical Trials
Citeline PharmaprojectsClarivate Analytics CortellisIMS R&D FocusAdis R&D InsightClarivate Integrity
BizInt Smart Charts was used to collect endpoint information from a variety of Clinical ordeal Registries for MCC and this was compared with the collection and analysis times done without the appliance (Table 8). Overwhelmingly, the appliance shaved more than 100 hours off of the stint at hand (two weeks of work.)Table 8: Mining Clinical ordeal Registry Data for Endpoints—Time Comparison of the Free and For Fee Tools Steps Taken Tools Used Free Time Fee Time Search databases for “Merkle Cell Carcinoma” and download results to outstrip spreadsheet
WHO—ICTRP Search Portal
Drugs@FDA Database10 min 10 min
Open up the spreadsheets and combine the trials
(Figure 1)2 min
Go through and remove the duplicates and/or merge the information for the selfsame trials listed in multiple databases
Brain power and experience200+ min
Brain power and experience200+ min
Overall, while some of the steps are the same, the fee tools achieve provide quicker information output which can lead to quicker analysis and feedback to the team. BizInt Smart Charts and VantagePoint significantly slice down on the time it took to research endpoints making the time to respond to the team quicker and the output visually pleasing (which would luxuriate in taken a lot longer to achieve manually) and interactive, which really worked well for the team and because questions were able to be answered on the spot versus looking through a pile of notes.Summary
As a parting note, remember the “Strategy Playbook” must be reviewed on an annual basis as scientific data and the requirements for a program change over time, so keeping complete notes and output are vital to inspirit evaluate data as it evolves.References
Meredith Brown-Tuttle, RAC, FRAPS, is the principal consultant for Regulatorium, a company specializing in regulatory intelligence, writing and strategy. She is the author of IND Submissions: A Primer, published by Barnett, Regulatory Intelligence 101, published by RAPS, numerous articles and serves as chair of the RAPS Editorial Advisory Committee. She can be reached at email@example.com.
Cite as: Brown-Tuttle M. “The Regulatory Strategist Toolbox: Clinical Endpoint Analysis Tools.” Regulatory Focus. September 2018. Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society.
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EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
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ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
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F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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