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A2040-407 Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition System Administration B

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A2040-407 exam Dumps Source : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition System Administration B

Test Code : A2040-407
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: 118 actual Questions

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IBM Assessment: IBM Notes and

Cloudy weather ahead for IBM and red Hat? | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

the world is buzzing in regards to the application trade’s biggest acquisition ever. This “video game changing” IBM acquisition of pink Hat for $34 billion eclipses Microsoft’s $26.2 billion of LinkedIn, which set the outdated list. And it’s the third biggest tech acquisition in history in the back of Dell purchasing EMC for $sixty four billion in 2015 and Avago’s buyout of Broadcom for $37 billion the identical yr.

Wall street certainly receives apprehensive when it sees these lofty rate tags. IBM’s inventory became down 4.2 % following the announcement, and there are doubtless greater concerns over a broader IBM selloff round how a Great deal IBM is purchasing purple Hat.

This units the stage for great expectations on IBM to leverage this asset as a vital turning factor in its history. for the understanding that IBM’s Watson AI poster child has did not create sustainable increase, might this subsist their foremost probability to preempt the ship as soon as and for all? Or is this mega merger an advanced clash of cultures and products with a purpose to construct it complicated to recognise the total expertise?

big Blue’s been in Great concern

When the chips are down, it’s time to fade everything in. huge Blue actually greatly surprised the know-how world when it introduced it might carry out its greatest deal ever and buy purple Hat for an immense 11x top class. The reality is that pink Hat changed into no longer always looking to subsist received, so overpaying was the handiest conceivable choice. And if IBM didn’t pay, Google, Amazon, VMWare and even Alibaba would have.

desperate times convene for desperate measures. IBM has been struggling to demonstrate boom in recent markets for rather a while. before 2018, it had 22 straight quarters of earnings decline. And it has lost over $28 billion in revenue over the past six years. Its revenue at the conclusion if 2017 become $seventy nine.14 billion, the lowest in twenty years and the more austere annual number seeing that 1997, when IBM revenues were $78.fifty one billion, aside from inflation.

In early 2018, IBM became capable of produce three consecutive quarters of earnings growth, however that was particularly as a result of the introduction of a recent line of IBM Z mainframe computer systems.

IBM has been a company in decline for many years. It’s difficult to preserve a enterprise with shrinking sales.

Too historical to grow?

IBM is more than 100 years ancient and definitely suffers from comparisons to more youthful and nimbler groups reminiscent of Amazon, Google, facebook, and Apple which acquire posted listing extend in fresh instances. Amazon’s recent earnings acquire surpassed $2 billion, for example.

in case you distinction IBM to Microsoft, one more historic world application business, it’s startling to peer the contrast in how Microsoft has been capable of reposition itself as boom traffic based on the cloud.

In 1990, when Microsoft liberate home windows 3.0, IBM had revenues of $sixty nine billion (only $10 billion bashful of what it has today), while Microsoft had around $800 million. Microsoft surpassed IBM in income in 2015 and crossed the $one hundred billion annual income stamp in 2018.

over the past several years, as IBM’s salary shrank, Microsoft invested in its “business cloud” enterprise that encompasses Azure, workplace 365, and Dynamics 365, bringing in over $23 billion in recent revenues. Microsoft has currently been firing on everything cylinders while IBM experienced boom stalls.

slow to gain to the cloud

IBM’s success in the hardware company, specifically it’s Z-sequence mainframes, pressured it to protect its turf and distracted it from seeing the longer term influence of cloud. AWS begun offering public cloud capabilities again in 2006. As late as 2011, IBM became barely mentioning the celebrate “cloud” in its annual experiences or earnings calls. The traffic at final realized in 2013 that cloud computing changed into the future and made a hail-Mary buy of SoftLayer to bridge the gap, paying $2 billion and then investing an additional $1 billion to integrate the platform.

It’s hard to establish gigantic market share if you’re late to the party. Softlayer’s international market share continues to subsist a far-off fifth in the back of AWS, Microsoft, Google, and even brisker newcomer Alibaba, which handed IBM’s cloud revenues in June of 2018.

IBM made a few other cloud-connected acquisitions, together with Gravitant (a cloud brokerage and management utility), Bluebox (a personal cloud as a service platform in keeping with OpenStack), Sanovi (a hybrid cloud healing and migration utility), Lighthouse and CrossIdeas (both cloud protection structures), and CSL overseas (a cloud virtualization platform).

regardless of these acquisitions within the cloud market, IBM has did not in fact monetize these items and gain market share in the cloud.

The company has failed to capitalize on improvements earlier than: Watson AI become at the excellent of its online game when it debuted on Jeopardy in 2011 to beat human contestants however instantly fell at the back of Amazon, Google, and Microsoft.

Will crimson Hat subsist the savior?

pink Hat is the world’s greatest provider of open-source traffic application options. red Hat’s bread and butter Linux enterprise continues to deliver growth specially because it powers many up to date AI and analytics workloads. Its model has advanced from only on-premise to a match subscription traffic used on public cloud platforms equivalent to Amazon net features (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

crimson Hat has moreover multiplied into open middleware options reminiscent of OpenStack, a cloud infrastructure platform, and OpenShift, a platform for managing utility containers. OpenShift has long been a well-kept covert as Cloud indigenous Computing foundation (CNCF) has grabbed lots of the headlines with its Kubernetes container orchestration platform. IBM has a chance to leverage its marketing and world achieve to embolden mainframe and legacy valued clientele to undertake OpenShift. These platforms acquire been incredibly leveraged in inner most and hybrid cloud deployments, specially in industries enjoy telecommunications.

There isn't any doubt that pink Hat offers IBM a lots extra credible cloud story. however the question basically is, is it too late?

The acquisition is actually respectable tidings for organisations seeking to shift basic container-based purposes and digital machines to the cloud. however, Amazon has already captured a Great a section of that market.

whereas the acquisition of pink Hat gives IBM a strong position within the hybrid-cloud market, which should subsist generic for organizations that don't look to subsist taking the time to decommission or re-architect legacy functions, the speedy-growing public cloud market may subsist the battleground of the future.

Will the mixing gain messy?

IBM has had a spotty record when it comes to integrating and capitalizing on Great acquisitions.

while the majority of IBM’s M&A has been within the zone of software, income within the angle has been disappointing. possibly what's concerning is that adjusting for acquisitions, IBM’s application traffic continues to direct no — commonly because of the indisputable fact that these colossal acquisitions acquire rotate into a section of the IBM fabric and company as average.

Can IBM combine whatever thing as Great as pink Hat with out interfering with its core value proposition? Many concern that massive Blue will attempt to “blue wash” their platform of choice.

And there’s the question of whether these two diverse corporate cultures can arrive collectively – IBM, a tedious growth enterprise not making a Great deal development in the cloud house, and pink Hat, an ingenious, open supply company that's building foundational components for operating in the cloud.

We’ve viewed lifestyle clashes derail many different unreasonable profile mergers corresponding to HP/Compaq, HP/Autonomy, Microsoft/Nokia, AOL/Time Warner, dash/Nextel and Alcatel/Lucent. IBM will should embody the open supply group and strategy.

The joint enterprise will mug crucial platform choices on the cloud entrance. IBM has a public cloud that competes with AWS and Microsoft. however builders employ pink Hat’s Linux on many public clouds. while that multi-cloud strategy will succor IBM usher in income across the generic public clouds, it is going to create battle with its own Softlayer cloud providing. IBM has struggled to manipulate this category of channel and product affray effectively in the past.

after which there is the future of IBM’s personal AIX working device vs. Linux — now not to mention the SCO-IBM Unix lawsuit nonetheless lingering in the courts.

additionally to note are the lesser common crimson Hat storage items enjoy crimson Hat Ceph (an protest file storage) and crimson Hat Gluster (a NAS product). As red Hat integrates into IBM’s hybrid cloud neighborhood, these storage items will subsist separated from IBM, which might create confusion and conflict.

So whereas IBM certainly faces a lot of chance with the acquisition, there isn't any guarantee this great guess will pay off. IBM obligatory a daring move. however in the short term, they are not likely to note any surprising chase of IBM’s status in the public cloud area. everything eyes could subsist on its capability to catapult into the hybrid cloud market. For that, the traffic will should construct confident it doesn’t gain in its personal means.

Frank Palermo is the government vp at Virtusa’s world Digital enterprise, where he is accountable for expertise practices in UX, mobility, social, cloud, analytics, massive facts, and IoT.

evaluating bfloat16 latitude and Precision to different sixteen-bit Numbers | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Deep learning has spurred interest in novel floating element formats. Algorithms regularly carry out not want as a suited deal precision as ordinary IEEE-754 doubles or even unique precision floats. reduce precision makes it feasible to dangle greater numbers in reminiscence, reducing the time spent swapping numbers in and out of memory. due to the fact that this the status a lot of time goes, low precision codecs can hasten issues up quite a little.

right here I necessity to study bfloat16, or BF16 for short, and evaluate it to 16-bit number codecs I've written about up to now, IEEE and posit.

Bit design

The BF16 format is benevolent of a cross between FP16 and FP32, the 16- and 32-bit codecs defined within the IEEE 754-2008 normal, moreover referred to as half precision and unique precision.

The bfloat16 format has 16 bits enjoy FP16, but has the identical variety of exponent bits as FP32. every quantity has 1 badge bit. The leisure of the bits in every of the formats are allocated in the desk beneath.

|--------+------+----------+----------| | structure | Bits | Exponent | Fraction | |--------+------+----------+----------| | FP32 | 32 | eight | 23 | | FP16 | sixteen | 5 | 10 | | BF16 | sixteen | eight | 7 | |--------+------+----------+----------|

BF16 has as many bits as a FP16, however as many exponent bits as a FP32. The latter makes conversion between BF16 and FP32 convenient. Chop off the final 16 bits off a FP32 and you acquire got a BF16, or pad a BF16 with zeros to construct a FP32.


The epsilon value, the smallest quantity ε such that 1 + ε > 1 in computer representation, is 2 where e is the number of exponent bits. BF16 has a Great deal much less precision close 1 than the other formats.

|--------+------------| | layout | Epsilon | |--------+------------| | FP32 | 0.00000012 | | FP16 | 0.00390625 | | BF16 | 0.03125000 | |--------+------------| Dynamic range

The dynamic latitude of bfloat16 is corresponding to that of a IEEE unique precision quantity. Relative to FP32, BF16 sacrifices precision to maintain latitude. sweep is typically decided via the number of exponent bits, even though no longer fully.

Dynamic latitude in decades is the log foundation 10 of the ratio of the largest to smallest representable tremendous numbers. The dynamic stages of the numeric codecs are given beneath. (Python code to compute dynamic sweep is given here.)

|--------+-------| | structure | DR | |--------+-------| | FP32 | 83.38 | | BF16 | 78.57 | | FP16 | 12.04 | |--------+-------| comparison to Posits

The precision and dynamic sweep of posit numbers depends upon what number of bits you allocate to the highest exponent, denoted es via conference. (notice "maximum." The number of exponent bits varies for distinctive numbers.) This publish explains the anatomy of a posit quantity.

Posit numbers can achieve greater precision and greater dynamic sweep than IEEE-like floating point numbers with the equal number of bits. Of course, there is no free lunch. Posits symbolize massive numbers with low precision and tiny numbers with towering precision, however this alternate-off is regularly what you'd need.

For an n-bit posit, the number of fraction bits close 1 is n - 2 - es and so epsilon is 2 to the exponent es - n - 2. The dynamic latitude is...

...which is derived right here. The dynamic latitude and epsilon values for 16-bit posits with es ranging from 1 to four are given in the desk under.

|----+--------+-----------| | es | DR | epsilon | |----+--------+-----------| | 1 | 16.86 | 0.0000076 | | 2 | 33.82 | 0.0000153 | | 3 | 37.43 | 0.0000305 | | 4 | 143.86 | 0.0000610 | |----+--------+-----------|

For everything of the values of es above, a sixteen-bit posit quantity has a smaller epsilon than either FP16 or BF16. The dynamic sweep of a sixteen-bit posit is higher than that of a FP16 for everything values of es, and greater than BF16 and FP32 when es = four.

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could red Hat deal subsist a 'distraction' for IBM? Unisys CEO hopes so | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No influence found, are trying recent keyword!“but this turned into already viable by edge of IBM features’ current partnerships with crimson Hat,” she notes. “IBM will nevertheless should compete with IT capabilities peers equivalent to Accenture, Atos and Wipro for r...

A2040-407 Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition System Administration B

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A2040-407 exam Dumps Source : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition System Administration B

Test Code : A2040-407
Test appellation : Assessment: IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 gregarious Edition System Administration B
Vendor appellation : IBM
: 118 actual Questions

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Intel Vets command Trump Iran Is Not Top Terror Sponsor | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

A group of U.S. intelligence veterans urges President Trump to stop his administration’s deceptive claims about Iran being the leading status sponsor of terrorism when U.S. allies, such as Saudi Arabia, are clearly much guiltier.


FROM: Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity

SUBJECT: Is Iran the “World’s Leading Sponsor of Terrorism?”


We are concerned by recent strident and stark public statements from key members of your Administration that paint Iran in very alarmist terms. The medium American, without the profit of history, could easily subsist persuaded that Iran poses an imminent threat and that there is no alternative for us but military conflict.

President Donald Trump addresses the nation about his Iran policy on Oct. 13, 2017. (Screenshot from

We find this uncomfortably close territory. Ten years ago former President George W. Bush was contemplating a war with Iran when, in November of 2007, intelligence analysts issued a formal National Intelligence appraise (NIE) debunking the prevailing conventional wisdom; namely, that Iran was on the verge of getting a nuclear weapon.  The NIE concluded that Iran had stopped working on a nuclear weapon in 2003.

Recalling this flash in his memoir, decision Points, President Bush notable that the NIE’s “eye-popping” intelligence findings stayed his hand.  He added this rhetorical question: “How could I possibly define using the military to raze the nuclear facilities of a country the intelligence community said had no energetic nuclear weapons program?”

We believe that you are facing a similar situation today. But instead of an inaccurate title that Iran has nuclear weapons, the recent canard to warrant war with Iran is the title that Iran remains the “world’s leading status sponsor of terrorism.” This is incorrect, as they define below.

 * * *

One of the recurring Great bipartisan lies being pushed on the public with the enthusiastic succor of a largely pliant media is that Iran is the prime sponsor of terrorism in the world today.

In the recent presentation of your administration’s National Security Strategy for 2018, the point is made that:

“Iran, the world’s leading status sponsor of terrorism, has taken edge of instability to expand its influence through partners and proxies, weapon proliferation, and funding. . . . Iran continues to perpetuate the cycle of violence in the region, causing grievous harm to civilian populations.”

Those sentiments are echoed by several other countries of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia’s alien Minister, Adel al-Jubeir, for example, declared in October 2015 that: Iran “is the biggest sponsor of terrorism in the world, and it is working on destabilizing the region.”

The Saudi alien minister conveniently declined to mention that 15 of the 19 terrorists who hijacked planes and attacked America on 11 September 2001 were Saudis, not Iranians.  And, while Iran was an energetic promoter of terrorism two decades ago, it is no longer in the forefront of global terrorism. Ironically, that dubious distinction now goes to Iran’s accusers — first and foremost, Saudi Arabia.

The depiction of Iran as “the world’s leading status sponsor of terrorism” is not supported by the facts. While Iran is guilty of having used terrorism as a national policy tool, the Iran of 2017 is not the Iran of 1981. In the early days of the Islamic Republic, Iranian operatives routinely carried out car bombings, kidnappings and assassinations of dissidents and of American citizens. That has not been the case for many years. Despite frequent claims by U.S. officials that Iran is engaged in terrorism, they simply note that the incidents recorded annually in the U.S. Department of State’s Patterns of Global Terrorism rarely identifies a terrorist incident as an act by or on behalf of Iran.

Iran’s relationship with Hezbollah moreover has evolved radically. In the early years of the Islamic Republic, Hezbollah was often a proxy and sub-contractor for Iran. But during the final 20 years Hezbollah has become an entity and political coerce in its own right. It fought Israel to a standstill in 2006 in southern Lebanon, which was a watershed flash in establishing Hezbollah’s transformation into a conventional army. In the intervening years, Hezbollah, which is now section of the Lebanese government, moreover has turned away from the radical, devout driven violence that is the hallmark of the Sunni extremists, enjoy ISIS.

Iran’s Asymmetrical Response

After Iran fell under the rule of the Ayatollah in 1979 terrorism, its role in towering profile terrorist attacks, such as the taking of U.S. hostages and the bombings of the U.S. Embassy and the Marine barracks in Lebanon, fed understandable U.S. animosity towards Iran.  But Iran’s actions were not driven primarily by blind hatred or radical devout views.  For Iran terrorism was a course to punch back against more powerful foes, principally the United States, which was providing military and intelligence champion to Iran’s neighbor and enemy, Iraq.

Portrait of the late Ruhollah Khomeini by Mohammad Sayyid

The Iranians were moreover pragmatic and had direct dealings with Israel. During the early days of the Iranian revolution the Mullahs, despite publicly denouncing Israel, happily accepted covert military champion from the Israelis. Israel was equally pragmatic. The Israeli leaders ignored the Mullahs and gave the champion as a means of helping counter the threat posed by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. A classic case of the enemy of my enemy is my friend.

The public image of Iran as a hotbed of fanatical terrorists has been usurped since the August 1998 bombings of the U.S. Embassies in east Africa by Al Qaeda and other radical Sunni entities. The U.S. Government’s own list of terrorist attacks since 2001 shows a histrionic drop in the violence carried out by Iran and an accompanying surge in horrific acts by radical Sunni Muslims who are not aligned with Iran.  The latest edition of the Global Terrorism Index, a project of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, shows that four groups accounted for 74 percent of everything fatalities from terrorism in 2015 — Boko Haram, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and ISIS.

Thirteen of the 14 Muslim Groups identified by the U.S. intelligence community as actively hostile to the US are Sunni, not Shia, and are not supported by Iran:

– ISIS (Sunni)

– The Al-Nusra Front (Sunni)

– Al-Qa’ida Central (Sunni)

– Al-Qa’ida in Magheb (Sunni)

– Al-Qa’ida in Arabian Peninsula (Sunni)

– Boku Haram (Sunni)

– Al-Shabbab (Sunni)

– Khorassan Group (Sunni)

– Society of the Muslim Brothers (Sunni)

– Sayyaf Group in the Philippines (Sunni)

– Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan (Sunni)

– Lashgar i Taiba (Sunni)

– Jemaa Islamiya (Sunni)

– Houthis (Shia)

The final major terrorist attack causing casualties that is linked to Iran was the July 2012 bombing of a bus with Israeli tourists in Bulgaria. That departure from Iran’s more recent policy on terrorism was retaliation for what Iran perceived to subsist Israel’s role in assassinating five Iranian scientists involved with Iran’s Nuclear program, between January 2010 and January 2012 (the dates and names of those attacked are appended).

One can easily imagine the outrage and lust for revenge that would sweep the U.S., if Americans believed a alien country sent operatives into the United States who in rotate murdered engineers and scientists working on sensitive U.S. defense projects.

Special Operations

There acquire been other terrorist attacks inside Iran manner the handprint of champion from the United States. Author Sean Naylor, Relentless Strike, which details the history of operations carried out by U.S. Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) over the past 30 years, sheds light on this uncomfortable truth:

The late Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

“JSOC personnel moreover worked with the Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian exile group that had based itself in Iraq after falling afoul of the ayatollahs’ regime in Tehran. The status Department had placed the MEK on its list of designated terrorist organizations, but that didn’t stop JSOC from taking an attitude of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” toward the group. “They were a group of folks that could transit the border, and they were willing to succor us out on what they wanted to carry out with Iran,” said a special operations officer.”

The MEK were classified as a terrorist group, until the United States decided that as long as the MEK would succor assassinate Iranians rather than Americans, that they were no longer terrorists. The MEK’s history of terrorism is quite clear. Among more than a dozen examples over the final four decades these four are illustrative:

  • During the 1970s, the MEK killed U.S. military personnel and U.S. civilians working on defense projects in Tehran and supported the takeover in 1979 of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
  • In 1981, the MEK detonated bombs in the head office of the Islamic Republic Party and the Premier’s office, killing some 70 high-ranking Iranian officials, including Iran’s President, Premier, and Chief Justice.
  • In April 1992, the MEK conducted near-simultaneous attacks on Iranian embassies and installations in 13 countries, demonstrating the group’s competence to mount large-scale operations overseas.
  • In April 1999, the MEK targeted key military officers and assassinated the deputy chief of the Iranian Armed Forces generic Staff.
  • Despite this history, a bipartisan parade of prominent U.S. political and military leaders has lobbied on behalf of MEK and has been well compensated in return.

    Benighted Policy So Far

    In the ultimate ironic turn, the U.S.-led 2003 war in Iraq played a faultfinding role in Iran’s resurgence as a regional power. Saddam Hussein was replaced by Shia muslims who had received sanctuary in Iran for many years and Baathist institutions, including the Army, were taken over by Iraqis sympathetic to Tehran.

    Iran has arrive out ahead in Iraq and, with the 2015 nuclear agreement in place, Iran’s commercial and other ties acquire improved with key NATO allies and the other major world players—Russia and China in particular.

    Official pronouncements on faultfinding national security matters necessity to subsist based on facts. Hyperbole in describing Iran’s terrorist activities can subsist counterproductive. For this reason, they convene attention to Ambassador Nikki Haley’s recent statement that it is hard to find a “terrorist group in the Middle East that does not acquire Iran’s fingerprints everything over it.” The verity is quite different. The majority of terrorist groups in the region are neither creatures nor puppets of Iran. ISIS, Al-Qaeda and Al-Nusra are three of the more prominent that arrive to mind.

    You acquire presented yourself as someone willing to discourse hard truths in the mug of establishment pressure and not to accept the status quo. You spoke out during the crusade against the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq as a historic mistake of epic proportions. You moreover correctly captured the humor of many Americans fatigued from constant war in far away lands. Yet the torrent of warnings from Washington about the dangers supposedly posed by Iran and the necessity to confront them are being widely perceived as steps toward reversing your pledge not to gain embroiled in recent wars.

    We embolden you to reflect on the warning they raised with President George W. Bush almost 15 years ago, at a similar historic juncture:

    “after watching Secretary Powell today, they are convinced that you would subsist well served if you widened the discussion … beyond the circle of those advisers clearly bent on a war for which they note no compelling understanding and from which they believe the unintended consequences are likely to subsist catastrophic.”

    Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani celebrates the completion of an interim deal on Iran’s nuclear program on Nov. 24, 2013, by kissing the head of the daughter of an assassinated Iranian nuclear engineer. (Iranian government photo)



    January 12, 2010: Masoud Alimohammadi, Iranian Physicist:

    Killed by a car bomb.  The perpetrator reportedly confessed to having been recruited by Israeli intelligence to carry out the assassination.

    November 29, 2010: Majid Shahriari, Iranian nuclear scientist:

    Killed by a car bomb.  According to German media, Israel was the sponsor.

    November 29, 2010: Assassination attempt on Fereydoon Abbasi Iranian nuclear scientist:

    Wounded by a car bomb.

    July 23, 2011: Darioush Rezaeinejad, Iranian electrical engineer, unclear scientist

    Killed by unknown gunmen on motorcycle.  Specialist on high-voltage switches — a key component of nuclear warheads.  Assassinated by Israeli intelligence, according to the German press.

    January 11, 2012: Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan, Iranian nuclear scientist

    Killed at Natanz uranium enrichment facility by a magnetic bomb of the same benevolent used in earlier assassinations of Iranian scientists.



    Richard Beske, CIA, Operations Officer (ret.)

    William Binney, former NSA Technical Director for World Geopolitical & Military Analysis; Co-founder of NSA’s Signals Intelligence Automation Research Center

    Marshall Carter-Tripp, alien Service Officer (ret.) and Division Director, status Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research

    Bogdan Dzakovic, Former Team Leader of Federal Air Marshals and Red Team, FAA Security, (ret.) (associate VIPS)

    Philip Giraldi, CIA, Operations Officer (ret.)

    Larry C. Johnson, former CIA and status Department Counter Terrorism officer

    Michael S. Kearns, Captain, USAF (Ret.); ex-Master SERE Instructor for Strategic Reconnaissance Operations (NSA/DIA) and Special Mission Units (JSOC)

    John Kiriakou, Former CIA Counterterrorism Officer and former senior investigator, Senate alien Relations Committee

    Karen Kwiatkowski, former Lt. Col., US Air coerce (ret.), at Office of Secretary of Defense watching the manufacture of lies on Iraq, 2001-2003

    Edward Loomis, NSA, Cryptologic Computer Scientist (ret.)

    David MacMichael, National Intelligence Council (ret.)

    Ray McGovern, former US Army infantry/intelligence officer & CIA analyst (ret.)

    Elizabeth Murray, Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Near East, CIA and National Intelligence Council (ret.)

    Torin Nelson, former Intelligence Officer/Interrogator (GG-12) HQ, Department of the Army

    Todd E. Pierce, MAJ, US Army arbitrator Advocate (ret.)

    Coleen Rowley, FBI Special Agent and former Minneapolis Division Legal Counsel (ret.)

    Greg Thielmann — Former director of the Strategic, Proliferation, and Military Affairs Office of the status Department’s intelligence bureau (INR) and former senior staffer on the Senate Intelligence Committee

    Kirk Wiebe — former Senior Analyst, SIGINT Automation Research Center, NSA

    Lawrence Wilkerson, Colonel (USA, ret.), Distinguished Visiting Professor, College of William and Mary (associate VIPS)

    Sarah G. Wilton, CDR, USNR, (Retired)/DIA, (Retired)

    Robert Wing — former alien Service Officer (associate VIPS)

    Ann Wright, Col., US Army (ret.); alien Service Officer (who resigned in opposition to the war on Iraq)





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    October 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, topple 2018, Millennial, Restaurants, Technology, Trends

    By Tyler Titherington

    I am a restaurateur.  I’m behind schedule.  Again.  Not because I am disorganized or acquire too much to do, more so because I acquire a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority.  Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a close second and everything else last.  There is a tertiary hierarchy in the final basket as well.  Some tasks with a lower priority topple through the cracks.  Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time.  The verity is that I am obsessively organized.  I cherish “To Do” lists, calendars, flux charts and the accomplishment of tasks.  I consume projects for breakfast, while vital on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe.  Short staffed?  Yawn.  Drains flooding?  Been there, done that.  POS system crash during service on a weekend?  Bring it.  I am the duck – unruffled above water and feet poignant nonstop below.  However, how carry out I manage everything the curveballs and noiseless manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities?  It is very simple – conform and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to subsist in many places at one time.  These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture.  Maybe even gain a day off…

    Over the final 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based hard drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries.  However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very tedious to adapt.  taut margins, resistance to change, and scare of unknown outcomes acquire long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process.  However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past.  Restaurant operators are nascence to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.

    Our foray into cloud computing began with an ill-started set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing.  The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us.  At best, their network infrastructure was dated and they needed to act quickly to gain it into compliance.  enjoy most operators, their hand was forced and they had no choice.  What is PCI Compliance?  The respond depends on who you ask.

    Your guests acquire never heard of it and acquire no view what it is.  Most restaurant operators will command you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already charge them course too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees.  The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI

    “The Payment Card Industry Data Security touchstone (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that everything companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment.  The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent carcass that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, determine and JCB.).”[i]

    PCI DSS is mandatory for any and everything businesses that accept credit cards.  It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting.  Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card infringement and fix them.  In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.

    It is extremely well-known for the security of their guest’s payment information, both for ensuring confidence with their customers and limiting legal liabilities.  In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is moreover plagued with security breaches, including great chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may subsist compromised totals into the millions.[ii]

    At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with their IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance.  The first order of traffic was to gain their network infrastructure in order.  Some of the major network upgrades that they undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and recent firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud.  The recent access points give their guests their own network and prevent them from accessing ours.  The security firewalls prevent intrusions and moreover allow their IT vendor remote access so they can construct changes without actually being in the restaurant.  What used to subsist a scheduled visit from their IT vendor that may acquire taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often subsist addressed online in minutes.  In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade their network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud.  This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in camouflage and it pushed us into recent territory – the cloud!  Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise subsist unavailable to us.

    IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii]  For their purposes, these on claim computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service.  Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline their operation.

    Point of Sale

    POS systems are the most captivating zone of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators.  Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement.  There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast.  Toast has done a Great job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back discontinuance users.  Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales.  It is extremely intuitive, enjoy using a smartphone, thus needing very puny training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually subsist phased out.  It is only a matter of time.

    Tableside Payment

    EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global touchstone for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv]  Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and everything transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One example of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that they at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and procedure on implementing is Pay My Tab.  Pay My Tab will fully integrate with their POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in employ at quick service operations, where guests and staff acquire easily adapted to them.  In addition to tougher security, the implementation should subside payment time, eradicate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.

    Reservations and Floor Management

    There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems.  Their hard has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, they were early adopters.  This has been one of the unique best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration.  It is iPad-based and eliminates everything the wiring and host stand actual estate.  It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check flux of service, identify unique reservations, and construct confident that waitlists are being managed appropriately.  Soon to arrive is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, their millennial hosts employ the system seamlessly.

    Private Event Management

    Private events are the foundation of most complete service restaurant operations.  They are the contrast between a suited week and a Great week.  However, it can subsist a very confusing process with everything of the poignant parts.  In order to linger organized, they employ TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track their events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows their Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the break to deserve fees for each event.  Since their coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they relish responding when available off-site; suited communication is key for making confident work-life equilibrium is maintained.

    Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: Inventory

    An zone which the cloud has really saved their restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories.  No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet.  Inventories can subsist uploaded in actual time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both their food and beverage inventories.  They acquire moreover given access to their accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads.  everything information can subsist entered into the cloud and accessed by everything of their approved users.  It moreover allows for multiple people to engage inventory simultaneously.  One person can subsist on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, everything at the same time.  In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across everything properties.


    Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. They acquire found HotSchedules to fortunate their needs as it interfaces with their POS system and allows their hard to carry out some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.

    Email and File Sharing

    Grafton Group has arrive a long course from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts.  They were able to eradicate their main server entirely and now they employ Office 365 for their email and file sharing needs.  Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so their information is always backed up.  They access both their email and files from anywhere in the world.  This has greatly improved productivity and allowed their management teams to communicate in actual time.

    Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: Computer Hardware

    Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which carry out not require expanded memory for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives.  They can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and their managers no longer acquire to share computer access in the office.

    Menu Design

    For their menu design need, they acquire found InDesign to subsist the most efficient program, which is section of the Adobe Creative Cloud.  This program can now subsist selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20.  This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.

    These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted their operations and ultimately saved time for their management team and staff.  Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can subsist better spent elsewhere.  They acquire only scratched the surface as an industry – they will note more and more options for cloud-based solutions to actual world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and deliver time, they carry out not serve guests and they don’t understand the technique of hospitality.  It is imperative that as restaurateurs they continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train their employees in the technique and skill of hospitality.

    There are some things you will never acquire time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements.  “Lunch”, for example, I acquire heard is a meal that takes status in the middle of the day.  For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I consume in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen.  There is no technology for that…

    PDF Version Available Here

    References [i] “PCI Compliance pilot FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. [ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the final year, your data might acquire been stolen.” [iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” September, 2018. [iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” August 29, 2017. Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston zone since attending Boston University.  After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston.  He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007. 

    October 31st, 2018 in traffic Practices, topple 2018, Hotels, Marketing, Sharing Economy, Technology, Trends

    By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez

    For a long time, the hotel industry did not account Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying traffic models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.

    A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a level playing domain between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are moreover looking to tap into the platform-based traffic model that underlies Airbnb’s success.

    The Past: How does Airbnb impact the hotel industry?

    Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) found that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across everything segments. While these numbers may not issue substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year term means that the “real” subside in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but moreover the extravagance hotel segment that was hard hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% actual decline in RevPAR. The impact of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the final ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% subside in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the impact the most were those in the midscale and extravagance segments, with a subside in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are moreover fueling Airbnb taking an increasing share of the accommodation market pie. For example, in recent York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated claim made up nearly 3% of everything traditional hotel claim in Q12016.

    Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company moreover has significant margin to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has rush into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the suited tidings is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to extend supply. It is now targeting property developers to rotate entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to acquire as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated.  Airbnb has moreover clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, traffic travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes acquire been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They moreover acquire easy check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and fade above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the Great outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours.  In addition to these products, Airbnb has moreover “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and undergo seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation enjoy yurts, treehouses, and boats, everything things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.

    The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb

    There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers hunt travel, and they assume this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:

  • A shift to a “new luxury”—seeking out unique, bona fide experiences that serve as a launchpad for self-actualization—fueled by an increased wealth gap in the United States.
  • An increased mobility, particularly among previously under-represented groups in the United States (the black travel movement, for example) and the global traveler (more Indian and Chinese international travelers than ever before).
  • The changing nature of brand loyalty: from long-term relationships to consumers’ needs for instant gratification and personalization.
  • Changing nature of “ownership”: In a post-consumerist society, the stress on “access-based consumption” has set a spotlight on wellness and well-being, beyond materialism.
  • A co-everything world where work, play, and life blend into one seamless mosaic: Technology has changed the course they live their lives, and how they are connected to work, to each other and to the things that drive us. An upcoming 5G world and the IOT is only likely to accelerate the pace of change. engage LiveZoku (, for example: is it a residence? A hotel? A WeWork? A space for the local community? A thriving food and beverage destination? It’s everything of these things.
  • What carry out these trends mean? They require marketers and undergo designers to re-think what the travel undergo means to the customer. The notion of the undergo economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in rotate results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the undergo economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six recent dimensions acquire been incorporated into the undergo economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.

    Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers found that Airbnb outperformed hotels on everything the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique undergo every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute puny store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as strong for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the necessity for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.

    One such dimension where hotels discharge just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, everything communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge,  the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really assume about the high-tech, towering palpate undergo they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that they live in.

    From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits close inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying distress for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that level the playing field. Over the final pair of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups acquire translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) found that governments acquire been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with puny to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations acquire been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to level the playing domain between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In recent York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to subsist rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is noiseless viable to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in recent York City, even though, in principle, these typically include homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) acquire found that regulations tend to subsist very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There moreover remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is noiseless very puny learning about effective ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb moreover creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an well-known economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the medium resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might hint (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The necessity for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.

    The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience

    While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer undergo are not. They contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts necessity to subsist focused. Hotels necessity to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s hard to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a strong foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly well-known because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key understanding to employ the brand, most travelers tend to linger with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and charge (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)

    There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a emotion that consumers acquire about what you stand for. An bona fide brand has at its core the brand promise, an bona fide value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an bona fide brand does require is effective storytelling. A brand is perceived to subsist authentic, if it has an bona fide record that feeds it. Brand stories can arrive from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is well-known is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent example of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold touchstone for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, they assume that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ return to “where it everything began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand undergo of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent example of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand engage (Ting, 2017b).

    Another view that lies at the heat of the brand engage is what they convene the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers acquire relied on the guest margin as the primary source of value for the guest. But assume about the final time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel margin that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to carry out – the undergo outside the guestroom? From experiencing technique and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers employ as cues for making  their decision to elect an accommodation. They convene this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an undergo of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. They present the EVP in motif 1.  The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must subsist reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.

     Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework

    How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The touchstone Hotels serves as an excellent example ( Its website feels more enjoy a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s affluent images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to fade the touchstone way, since the brand has its own discrete voice and personality, there is a case to subsist made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which tend to blend into one indistinguishable all after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the final time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to linger there? Yet, when you sight at the imagery set out by most hotels, this is what marketers noiseless focus on.

    Placing an stress on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can moreover enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to sight for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can spend their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people hunt out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails noiseless gain sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not employ that as an break to truly welcome the guest; a simple palpate such as a welcome letter from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your linger can fade a long course in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.

    The design of the hotel’s public spaces can subsist used to enhance the guest’s undergo of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would coincide (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide puny or no host contact, what better an break for hotel brands to expose that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been sage in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can subsist offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other undergo value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family margin connecting rooms package.

    Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot subsist emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must chase beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, gregarious media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest undergo of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to subsist gamified to unlock value-adds and tender creative bundling.

    At the level of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing traffic and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform traffic models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand development standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could include offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not tender housekeeping and other hotel services and thus subsist offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a shove for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to reap the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.

    In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.

    At a strategic level, hotel brands necessity to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the undergo and value beyond the guestroom that must subsist factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. They present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in motif 2.

    Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels

    PDF Version Available Here

    References Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of synchronous Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive impact on ten key hotel markets. Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What carry out guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review. Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb. Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of synchronous Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of bona fide consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive edge over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth record Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and choice engage Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift. Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a property Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of synchronous Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His labor involves the extensive employ of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand moreover serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In topple 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and moreover holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.

    February 13th, 2018 in Technology, Winter 2018

    By Tarik Dogru, Makarand Mody, & Christie Leonardi

    “A world with puny or no intermediaries where there is no necessity to build confidence between people and transactions are completed in seconds. This is the engage of the Blockchain Technology.” -Tarik Dogru

    Blockchain technology and its economic, social, and technological implications, mainly in the contour of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, acquire become flaming topics of conversation. Indeed, blockchain technology is primarily associated with Bitcoin because it is built on a blockchain platform. However, blockchain technology goes far beyond the cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, etc. So the question becomes: what exactly is blockchain technology? In this article, they attempt to respond this question, define how blockchain works, and discuss the generic and hospitality industry-specific implications of the technology.

    What is Blockchain?

    Blockchain technology is an online platform that chronologically records transactions and tracks assets through distributed ledgers (i.e., shared ledger) in a network (Anderson, 2016; Peters & Panayi, 2016). Transactions in a network may include but are not limited to sending and receiving money, payments for products and services, booking a hotel margin or a flight, making a reservation, entering into a contractual agreement, and much more. Furthermore, blockchain technology enables tracking the ownership of assets along with right-to-use in the events of assets being leased to a third party. Simply put, anything of value can subsist recorded, tracked, leased, and exchanged on a blockchain platform and duplicate records of these transactions are simultaneously shared with participating agents in a network. The records are further protected with mathematically configured or cryptographic keys to ensure their security.

    One concern eliminated by the technology is the necessity to acquire trusting individuals on each side of a transaction. A central authority is not required to administer or validate transactions in blockchain platforms (Yli-Huumo et al. 2016). Instead, the technology is decentralized and transactions are executed and authorized by the members in a blockchain platform via cryptographic signatures and duplicate copies of the transactions are distributed to network members (Crosby et al. 2016). Let’s engage a more particular sight at how the technology works.

    Blockchain technology: How it works

    Blockchains are digital databases and require a network of computers to duty (Gupta, 2017; Wright & De Filippi, 2015). In a blockchain, transactions are coded into blocks, which are connected to each other in the contour of chains, hence the appellation block-chain (Crosby et al. 2016; Gupta, 2017; Huckle et al. 2016); Blocks store records of transactions chronologically with timestamps and a unique reference number (i.e., hash) to previous blocks (Gupta, 2017). While the governing rules of different blockchain networks may vary, everything of its members must coincide that the transactions are indeed legitimate (Davidson, De Filippi, & Potts, 2016; Pilkington, 2015). Once the blocks are created and chained, the records of transactions cannot subsist altered or removed from the blockchain, and the sequence of blocks cannot subsist changed. This provides immutable, tamper-proof data storage and management systems (Gupta, 2017).

    While most of the known blockchains, which are associated with cryptocurrencies, are open source and accessible by anyone with a computer and internet connection, blockchains carry out not acquire to subsist public. For example, the Bitcoin blockchain is public, and transactional records are open to public while keeping the participants making the transactions anonymous (Crosby et al. 2016). However, a traffic blockchain can subsist private and not require any cryptocurrency, as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin do, and may require permission to participate in the network and access the distributed ledger (Gupta, 2017). The degree of permission can moreover vary among participants depending on their role in the network. While the technicality of blockchain technology is complicated, it is well-known to contour its essential features.

    Feature 1: Shared Ledger

    Records of transactions or ownership status of assets are concurrently available to everything the members in a blockchain platform, providing a unique source of verity in a blockchain platform. A private blockchain will require permission (i.e., personal key) to access and obtain the records and details of the transaction. Additionally, the degree to which the participants could access these records can subsist limited (Crosby et al. 2016; Gupta, 2017). Some participants may only subsist authorized to note whether a transaction occurred between two parties, while certain participants can subsist given permission to view transactions in complete detail.

    Feature 2: Security

    Transactions in a blockchain platform are verified through a consensus that are predetermined by the participating members in the blockchain (Pilkington, 2015). Internally, the records of transactions cannot subsist changed or manipulated by network members in a blockchain. Externally, a blockcahin platform is extremely difficult if not impossible to hack because blockchains are stored in many computers and the transactions are encrypted by unique cryptographic signatures (Crosby et al. 2016). The blockchain platform could only subsist hacked if everything the computers within the network are accessed at the same time.

    Feature 3: Efficiency

    In a blockchain platform, individuals carry out not necessity intermediaries to establish confidence because transactions are processed and verified within the blockchain network (Anderson, 2016; Gupta, 2017; Wright & De Filippi, 2015). In fact, the Economist defines blockchain as the “trust machine” suggesting that it eliminates the necessity for confidence between people (Economist, 2015). In other words, the involvement of third-party arbitrators, such as banks and governments, to verify or accredit transactions is not needed in a blockchain platform. The elimination of intermediaries from the process streamlines the process and significantly reduces transaction time and costs.

    Feature 4: Smart Contracts

    A “smart” condense is a condense that can self-execute and self-enforce a set of rules or provisions in a condense (Davidson, De Filippi, & Potts, 2016). everything the provisions that require action can subsist executed autonomously, either immediately or at a specific time. Smart contracts may include a few or many contractual clauses and may or may not require human involvement, significance they can subsist partially or fully self-executing (Gupta, 2017). The transactions will subsist broadcasted to everything parties involved and these records are immutable. Lease contracts, for example, can subsist prepared on a blockchain platform as smart lease contracts that include everything the provisions that ordinary lease contracts include, such as a leasing period, lease amount, payment date, lessor’s and lessee’s information, and other governing rules. Enforcing the governing rules and payments for the leased property (i.e., house, car, bike, etc.) can subsist an excruciating process in an ordinary contract, since the lessor has limited information and competence to invoke the condense and thus requires third party involvement. In a blockchain platform, the lessee’s bank account can subsist linked to the lease agreement and payments can subsist completed automatically on the payment date. Similarly, an agreement between a travel booking site and hotels or airlines can subsist executed autonomously and immediately once the event occurs. In summary, smart contracts eradicate the costs and delays associated with ordinary contracts (Crosby et al. 2016; Peters & Panayi, 2016).

    What are the implications of blockchain technology?

    Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize many aspects of technology, business, and governance. The trust-free, tamper-evident, and cryptographic security structure of blockchain technology enables digitizing fiat currencies, creating smart contracts, developing decentralized autonomous organizations, and many more applications. Governments, corporations, and other organizations acquire already started to develop blockchain platforms to test and potentially integrate the technology into mainstream use.

    One of the prominent implications of blockchain technology is observed in banking and finance, as it has the potential to construct fiscal transactions much more secure, cost-effective, and time-efficient (Peters & Panayi, 2016). Governments could pursue the possibility of digitalizing fiat currencies to facilitate faster and secure transactions with puny or no necessity for intermediaries, which potentially eliminates or reduces transaction costs. In fact, the French government has launched a working group to research the implications, benefits, and applications of blockchain for the public sector (Sundararajan, 2017). Furthermore, the French government announced that it will allow banks and fintech companies to establish blockchain platforms for unlisted securities trading, citing that it will “develop recent ways of trading securities that are faster, cheaper, more transparent and safer” (Sundararajan, 2017).


    Another well-known implication of the blockchain technology will subsist observed in accounting. The current accounting system depends on the double-entry bookkeeping to provide internal control and heavily relies on both internal and external audits to build confidence between stakeholders (i.e., suppliers, fiscal institutions, and governments). Blockchain technology has the potential to forward the accounting system to the next level. In a blockchain platform, transactions are automatically executed, verified, and recorded in actual time on a cryptographically-secure distributed ledger, which is accessible to everything members in the blockchain network. That is, the digitalization of the accounting system via blockchain technology will eradicate the necessity to maintain separate records of transactions across transacting businesses and cross-checking that often requires the employ of external auditors (Anderson, 2016). In addition to cost-savings and increased efficiency, blockchain technology prevents frauds and manipulations in recordkeeping due to its tamper-evident infrastructure. While blockchain technology could modernize the current accounting system, it could not completely supersede the duty of accounting departments and eradicate the necessity for auditing. Professional accountants are noiseless necessary for auditing, internal control mechanisms, and accounting system improvements.

    The implications of blockchain technology goes beyond accounting and finance services. One-third of 3,000 executives surveyed by IBM reported that they are either considering integrating or acquire already incorporated the blockchain technology into their businesses (Wesley, 2017). The potential to significantly ameliorate supply chain management is moreover present (Gupta, 2017; Tian, 2016). The current supply chain management systems are fragmented, and tracking products’ origins and shipments is burdensome. On a blockchain platform, every movement of the product from the initial departure point to the final destination can subsist tracked concurrently by everyone involved in the supply chain. This could eradicate fraud and errors, extend efficiency and security, reduce costs associated with paperwork, and build sustainable inventory management and control systems. In other industries, especially those in which multiple companies are involved in the production cycle, and where the final product consists of many parts, such as the automobile and aircraft industries, tracking and monitoring components of the products and even the asset ownership and the right-to-use of the products could provide better functioning, responsible, and sustainable systems. Airbus, for instance, is in the process of integrating blockchain technology to track and monitor the parts of aircrafts used in the production process (Hackett, 2017).

    Current and Future Uses in the Hospitality Industry

    While the technology is noiseless in its infancy, hotels, restaurants, airlines, travel agencies, and other hospitality businesses could ameliorate their service quality, guest satisfaction, and profitability by integrating blockchain technology. As more hospitality businesses adopt blockchain technology, stakeholders in the hospitality industry will collectively profit from its use. In the following section, they present some of the viable ways in which blockchain technology can subsist used in the hospitality industry.

    Tracking guests

    Hotels can subsist instantly updated right from the time that a guest leaves her home for the airport to when she checks in for her flight and even upon arrival at the hotel. This tracking can extend efficiency by reducing wait time during the check in process and thus extend guest satisfaction. While tracking guests’ movements might subsist considered an invasion of privacy, accessing the information will require the guest’s authorization and individuals will subsist able to determine the degree of information that is shared with hotels or other members in the network. Therefore, blockchain technology has the potential to provide seamlessly integrated guest services without intruding guests’ privacy.

    Tracking food

    Tracking and monitoring foods is applicable to the restaurant industry. Indeed, food consumed in restaurants is section of the supply chain nascence at the farm. Thus, extending blockchain based supply chain management systems to restaurants could provide better property control and food safety in restaurants. That is, restaurants could collaborate with their food suppliers to subsist involved in the blockchain platform that tracks and monitors the food. Furthermore, restaurants can allow their guests to check the origins of and routes taken by the food used to prepare their meals, via blockchain technology. Simply put, blockchain technology can facilitate confidence in restaurants in regards to the property of the ingredients used to prepare meals.

    Airline and hotel points

    Loyalty programs often create more problems than they solve. Hotels and airlines can build loyalty programs on a blockchain platform and issue loyalty tokens as rewards to their guests (Kowalewski, McLaughlin, & Hill, 2017; Kowalewski & Simon, 2016). The loyalty tokens are similar to loyalty points; however, blockchain technology enables customers to freely buy, sell, or exchange their loyalty tokens with others. Allowing customers to exchange loyalty points in an open exchange can moreover extend the competitiveness of loyalty programs and extend overall service quality. For example, the market value of company B’s tokens might subsist higher than company A’s tokens due to the property of products and/or services those tokens can buy. So a company that is worth more than the other is likely to subsist the preferred in the market, incentivizing other firms and thus the system as a all to extend the property of their offerings to attract more customers. Furthermore, loyalty tokens could moreover subsist used across industries; consumers would subsist able to employ their hotel loyalty tokens in restaurants, airlines, coffee shops and other businesses through blockchain platform. In collaboration with IBM, startup technology company Loyyall is developing a blockchain platform where consumers can redeem, buy, sell, or exchange their loyalty points (Hill, 2017).

    Digital ID

    Blockchain technology could provide a solution to identity theft. In airports, hotels, and restaurants, costumers must often present their IDs as proof in order to pass security and check in to their flights, hotel rooms, or consume alcoholic beverages. This makes consumers vulnerable to identity theft; not only by the person who is checking IDs but moreover other people around who might obtain well-known personal information. As a solution to this exposure, IDs, including birth certificates, driver’s licenses, gregarious security numbers, and passports, among others, can subsist stored in a blockchain platform and people can subsist given permissions to check and validate IDs (Davidson , De Filippi, & Potts, 2016). Similar to QR codes, IDs can subsist in a contour of cryptographically-secured codes that allow verification of one’s identity without seeing essential personal information. In addition to eliminating the likelihood of loss or theft of physical IDs or personal information, digital IDs that are stored on a blockchain could moreover eradicate forgery (Gupta, 2017).

    Smart Contracts

    Smart contracts can subsist adopted to facilitate both minor and major transactions in the hospitality industry. Hotels and travel agencies, for example, could streamline their traffic relationships with smart contracts on blockchain platforms. Similar to a legal contract, a smart condense between hotels and travel agencies would acquire the contractual provisions that are predetermined by the transacting parties (Crosby et al. 2016; Gupta, 2017; Peters & Panayi, 2016). Anytime a transaction occurs, it is recorded and shared on the blockchain. Once transactions are recorded, the payments can subsist processed immediately based on contractual terms. Not only would this facilitate payment, but would moreover further optimize margin sales through better collaboration between hotels and travel agencies.

    In a similar vein, the execution of franchise agreements and management contracts could subsist carried out with smart contracts between franchisor, franchisee, management companies, and asset management hard according predetermined governance rules to eradicate affray of interest and extend efficiency.

    The applications of smart contracts can subsist extended to the guests, completely eliminating the check-in process. Through blockchain technology where digital IDs are stored along with an authorized account for payments, hotel rooms can subsist assigned to guests and a digital key can subsist recorded into the blockchain technology once the payment is received. The most well-known advancement in this smart condense is the fact that both IDs and payment information are encrypted via secure codes and are thus not exposed to theft (Gupta, 2017). The application of this smart condense can subsist extended to other industries, such as car rentals, office rentals, leased apartments, and so on. Airbnb properties can moreover apply such a smart condense to resolve some existing security concerns., a German startup is working on what is essentially a blockchain-based lock that self-executes based on the lock owners’ predetermined rental terms. These blockchain based locks are installed in properties—cars, houses, offices, etc. and the available dates, along with rental amounts are posted on the smart condense where renters can bespeak these rental properties; once the payment is received, the smart condense authorizes access to renters for the rental period.

    Furthermore, smart contracts can facilitate travel insurance in the event that a flight is delayed or canceled. The contractual terms can subsist section of the blockchain network via a smart condense and can subsist executed if a detain or cancellation occurs.

    Many companies in the hospitality and travel space are betting Great on blockchain’s bandwagon consequence to facilitate cheaper, better, and faster experiences. TUI Group is already using blockchain technology to manage the distribution of its inventories and assets and manipulate internal processes (Watkins, 2017). Only time will command whether the prophecy fulfills itself. However, one thing remains true: during a time when the economy is strong, and the hospitality and travel industry is optimistic about its future, the benefits of blockchain technology are likely to attract the interest and investment dollars of companies across the spectrum (Bujarski, 2018).

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    Dogru Headshot

    Tarik Dogru earned his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of South Carolina, and holds Master’s degree in traffic Administration from Zonguldak Karaelmas University in Turkey.Prior to joining the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration faculty, he was an adjunct faculty at University of South Carolina (2013-2016) and research coadjutant at Ahi Evran University (2009-2012) in Turkey. He has taught a variety of courses, including Economics, Finance, Accounting, Hospitality, and Tourism in traffic and hospitality schools. He is a Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) and holds Certification in Hotel Industry Analytics (CHIA) from American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. Tarik’s research interests span a wide sweep of topics in hospitality finance, corporate finance, behavioral finance, actual estate investment trusts (REITs), hotel investments, tourism economics, and climate change. Mody Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a property Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer behavior within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of synchronous Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His labor involves the extensive employ of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand moreover serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In topple 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and moreover holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. ChristieChristie Leonardi is a senior at Boston University School of Hospitality Administration. She was a Management Trainee in Mandarin Orchard Singapore and a Pubic Relations Intern in AccorHotels’ corporate office in recent York. She currently holds a position in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston as a Corporate Relations Intern. Her interests include traveling, food, synchronous technique and actual estate.


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  • June 12th, 2017 in Spring 2017, Technology, Trends



    By Mike Oshins

    Over the past 15-20 years, changes in hotel ownership and management, the growth and development of online reservation systems and the proliferation of lodging alternatives acquire altered the hospitality landscape, bringing recent complexity to the industry. Two decades ago, a Marriott hotel was commonly owned and managed by Marriott; now, many are owned by one company, franchised with the Marriott name, and managed by a third company.  While customers used to subsist able to pick up the phone and convene a hotel’s reservations center or employ their local travel agency to bespeak a room, today online distribution systems enjoy Expedia, Travelocity, and Kayak are powerful intermediaries that acquire everything but replaced traditional consumer travel agencies.  Travelers may elect among many alternatives to hotels for lodging, including AirBnB, HomeAway, Flipkey, and VBRO.  Mergers and acquisitions continue to multiply, exemplified most notably by Marriott’s purchase of Starwood to create the world’s largest hotel company with 30 brands. Millennials’ preferences acquire pushed the development of recent brands with recent thinking about hotel design, as demonstrated with Hilton’s Tru, Best Western’s Vib and Glo chains, and Intercontinental’s EVEN.


    Hotel companies are expanding their portfolios to include Millennial-focused brands enjoy InterContinental’s EVEN Hotels and Tru by Hilton. Image sources: Creative Commons InterContinental and Tru

    Travel patterns acquire moreover changed.  China has become the largest exporter of tourists in the world, totaling almost 100 million outbound travelers and representing almost one in ten tourists in the world. Chinese travelers moreover spent the most money, roughly $250 billion in 2015. For reference, the second highest spenders were Americans at $110 billion.  In the U.S., national discussion about travel bans, recent barriers to hiring non-domestic seasonal workers (a key element in recent England’s summer tourist season), viable elimination of the national Brand USA marketing effort, and tenuous Cuba travel policies are everything creating dubiety in the tourism market.  These changes and ambiguities present recent challenges, both great and small, for the hospitality industry, requiring those at the forefront of the domain to anticipate and respond to the subsequent fallout.

    Prolific traffic author John Kotter states that the main role of leadership is dealing with change.  Depending on how it’s viewed, with the preempt perspective and pliancy, change can present an organization with recent opportunities—the possibility of taking edge of changing demographics, recent technologies, or the emergence of recent markets.  Change can moreover raise dilemmas, such as the necessity to address recent competitors, contend with a exigency or cope with a necessity of available employees.  Even before developing and implementing successful change management processes, organizational leaders must acquire the competence to recognize the opportunities and dilemmas presented by change and know how to assume about them.  To note the necessity for change, to identify recent realities, either current or future, one must subsist able to view the Great picture and the current climate in recent ways.  This competence to note the present and near future from a recent vantage point is one of the main reasons generic Electric (GE) CEO, Jeff Immelt, moved GE world headquarters to Boston’s expanding Seaport District.  GE’s recent home will “place his leadership team in a vibrant city with a world-renowned innovation scene, instead of in a wooded Connecticut suburb” (Boston Globe), thus giving his senior team a recent perspective, and the break to construct closer connections with institutions able to stimulate recent ideas and create a recent pipeline for employees.   Other than poignant a $240 billion company’s world headquarters—something that’s not always feasible to achieve—how else can one enhance a leadership kit with tools for responding effectively to change?  The competence to assume more creatively, contour recent habits, change paradigms, reframe one’s perspective, and assume differently by learning recent ideas are everything tools that can aid in addressing the first element of leading change, that is identifying that change is needed.  The following examples highlight some of the ways one can learn to subsist more successful in thinking about and capitalizing on the opportunities presented by change.

    Creative Thinking 21st May 1974: A chainmail-clad John Cleese reads a newspaper while Graham Chapman smokes a  restful pipe on the set of 'Monty Python and the Holy Grail'. (Photo by John Downing/Express/Getty Images)

    Popular British comedy group Monty Python expressed creative thinking in everything of their productions, further captured by their tagline, “And now for something completely different!”.  Pictured above: A chainmail-clad John Cleese reads a newspaper while Graham Chapman smokes a restful pipe on the set of ‘Monty Python and the Holy Grail’. (Photo by John Downing/Express/Getty Images)

    IBM interviewed 1500 CEOs around the world in 2010 and found Creativity is now the unique most well-known leadership competency and is needed in everything aspects of leadership.  If one thinks in the same course as everyone else, the break for recent ideas (and recent solutions) is limited.  The irreverent and offbeat humor of Monty Python is captured in their tagline, “And now for something completely different!”  assume Different! is the mantra for Steve Jobs and Apple, as eloquently explained in Simon Sinek’s Start with Why. Sir Ken Robinson, author and the holder of the top TED Talk carry out Schools assassinate Creativity, defines creativity as, “the process of having original ideas that acquire value.” There are many ways to extend creativity, including:

  • Establishing a culture in which failure is a section of learning.  “A growing number companies are explicitly rewarding failure – giving cash prizes or trophies to people who foul up (WSJ). Earlier in his career, Johnson & Johnson CEO James Burke once went to note Mr. Johnson after his product launch failed miserably.  Instead of being fired as expected, Mr. Burke found instead that Mr. Johnson shook his hand and congratulated Burke on the failure.  Along with the handshake, Burke was given the following recommendation that became his philosophy: “Business is about making decisions.  You can’t construct decisions without failures.  Don’t ever construct that same mistake again, but please, maintain making recent mistakes!”  Burke made this philosophy “always making recent mistakes” an well-known value within his leadership vision. Similarly, Michael Jordan credits his success with competence to overcome the scare of failure: “I’ve missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I’ve moreover lost more than 300 games. 26 times I’ve been trusted to engage the game winning shot and missed. I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.”
  • Collaboration.  Ken Robinson touts that creativity loves collaboration as even individual creativity is almost always stimulated by the work, ideas and achievements of other people. Author Daniel Goleman agrees:  “A close-knit team, drawing on the particular strengths and skills of each member of the group, may subsist smarter and more effective than any individual member of that group. Yale psychologist Robert Sternberg calls it “group IQ”—the sum total of everything the talents of each person in the group. When a team is harmonious, the group IQ is highest…The value of collaboration is a hard lesson to learn in [some] cultures, where the trailblazing lone hero has long been idolized, and where the role of the individual are so often placed over those of the group. But even those working alone can learn the advantages of teamwork.”
  • Positive thinking.  It has been proven that merely thinking you are more creative increases creativity. Change your attitude with the mantra: I am creative. IDEO founder David Kelley found positive reinforcement increased creativity for employees and helped determine recent solutions to design challenges.  As people become more cozy with the realization that they can subsist more creative, the upward spiral of success is reinforced.  Goleman concurs: “The more you can undergo your own originality, the more confidence you get, the greater the probability that you’ll subsist creative in the future.”
  • Challenge the Rules. Pablo Picasso believed in challenging tradition, “Every act of creation is first of everything an act of destruction.”  A questioning attitude of asking “why” multiple times for the same question (e.g. why carry out they employ time clocks for front line employees?) may result in discovering established rules may subsist hurting more than helping and organization. For example, typewriters were designed with QWERTY keyboards to avoid keys from sticking together if the operator went too rapid (i.e. slowed down how rapid one could type).  Why carry out computer keyboards noiseless employ this configuration as a default?  World War II American five-star generic Douglas MacArthur  believed “you are remembered by the rules you break.”
  • Humor. “More than four decades of study by various researchers confirms some common-sense wisdom: Humor, used skillfully, greases the management wheels” (Sala). When people are working together on a problem, those groups that laugh most readily and most often are more creative and productive than their sedate counterparts. Joking around makes suited sense because playfulness is itself a creative status (Goleman). The employ of humor or “being silly” can reduce stress and create a learning environment conducive to recent ideas.  Author Jonah Lehrer agrees: “When people are exposed to a short video of stand-up comedy, they unravel about 20% more insight puzzles.”
  • Brainstorming.  building upon the traditional brainstorming technique where ideas are developed in an atmosphere of non-judgmental environment, additional creative methods acquire emerged, including Edward Debono’s Six Thinking Hats, where “wearing” different colored hats requires addressing the situation with a special focus, Synectics’ inclusion of springboard and excursion techniques to expand view generation and intelligence mapping to visually develop ideas. At IDEO, brainstorming sessions include the “odd person in” technique, involving people from very different backgrounds that can spark recent ideas.
  • New Habits

    Creating a recent custom or set of habits is another course to change how they note things.  In his iconic 1989 book, The 7 Habits of Highly effective People, Stephen Covey illustrates how powerful an influence habits can subsist in their lives. Covey describes a custom as the intersection of knowledge, skill, and desire: “Knowledge is the what they carry out and why they carry out it [principles], desire is the motivation, the want to do, and skill is the how to do.” His seven habits—Be Proactive, originate with the discontinuance in mind, set first things first, assume win/win, hunt first to understand…then subsist understood, Synergize, and Sharpen the saw—provide a course of thinking and acting in traffic and life.  By embracing these habits, one can maintain a better equilibrium and create the break to find recent ways of looking at situations.

    Barista Kim Jung Mi, a mother who had left the workforce seven years ago and is now employed by Starbucks Coffee Korea Co. under its "returning-mom" program, right, serves a customer at one of the company's stores in Gimpo, South Korea, on Friday, March 7, 2014. Starbucks Korea's "returning-mom" program is  section of a drive to raise female participation in Asia's fourth-largest economy as the nation's first female leader, President Park Geun Hye, tries to counter the effects of an aging population. Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    Through role playing, discussion, and feedback, Starbucks employees are trained to develop habits of willpower. (Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

    Charles Duhigg’s more recent bestseller, The Power of Habit, addresses the view of habits as “why they carry out what they carry out in traffic and life.”  Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the custom loop.  For example, Starbucks develops habits of willpower to succor their staff deal with stressful times. Through role-playing, discussion, and feedback, they train employees how to react to a cue (e.g., an indignant customer or a assiduous period) by choosing a certain routine ahead of time (e.g., remaining calm, looking for solutions, etc.). When an inflection point arrives (cue), employees are able to manipulate the situation smoothly, resulting in the reward of a satisfied customer and successful chaos management. In this scenario, Starbucks helps their staff create habits by helping them change how they approach and address dilemmas.  One employee now thinks of his green Starbucks apron as a shield – when he puts it on, indignant customers can no longer strike him!


    Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the custom loop.


    “The power of reframing things can unlock a vast array of solutions to problems Great and small,” states author Tina Seelig.  She illustrates reframing using a classic scene from the Pink Panther movie (a hospitality example, no less).

    Inspector Clouseau: Does your dog bite?

    Hotel Clerk: No.

    Clouseau [bowing down to pet the dog] Nice doggie.

    [The dog bites Clouseau’s hand.]

    Clouseau: I thought you said your dog did not bite!

    Hotel clerk: That is not my dog.

    We might subsist tempted to blame the clerk when the dog bites Clouseau, but the clerk’s final statement surprises us and causes us to account the situation differently.

    One of the key elements of reframing is to view a circumstance with a fresh perspective. In Tom Stoppard’s play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, they note Shakespeare’s classic record of Hamlet through the lens of two minor characters, and in the Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz record is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complicated and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the suited Witch.  Reframing a situation allows the possibility of recent lessons and solutions which otherwise may fade unnoticed.

    NEW YORK - JUNE 6: (HOLLYWOOD REPORTER OUT) American singer and actress Idina Menzel of "Wicked" performs on stage during the "58th Annual Tony Awards" at Radio City Music Hall on June 6, 2004 in  recent York City. The Tony Awards are presented by the League of American Theatres and Producers and the American Theatre Wing. (Photo by  candid Micelotta/Getty Images)

    The Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz record is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complicated and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the suited Witch. (Photo by candid Micelotta/Getty Images)

    In their approach to reframing, authors Bolman and Deal employ frames as a useful tool to construct sense of organizations.  The four frames, structural (emphasizing roles & policies), human resource (highlighting human needs, skills and relationships), political (focuses on power, affray and competition) and symbolic (emphasizing culture, meaning, ceremonies and stories) tender different perspective on how to assume about organizations.  Each frame provides a different language and model in managing, evaluating, diagnosing and understanding and leading an organization.  Altering the course in which they typically frame an organization can succor us better communicate with those who interpret the organization differently.  Viewing an organization from different frames may moreover unleash a variety of recent ideas to address current or emerging dilemmas or raise up recent opportunities to respond to change in their world.

    Another example of reframing is illustrated, quite literally, in how they view the world. This spring, 600 classrooms in the Boston Public School system switched from teaching the traditional European-centric Mercator map, developed in the 1500s, to the Peters Projection map (1974), in which land masses are more accurately represented in relation (size and proximity) to one another.  For example, using the Mercator map, Greenland and Africa issue the same size; in the Peters map, however, Africa, which is 14 times larger than Greenland, is more proportionally displayed.  This view was brought to mainstream US in a 2001 West Wing clip by the ‘cartographers for gregarious equality’. At one point, when confronted with these recent perspectives, a West wing official asked, “You subsist substantive Germany is not where they assume it is?”— to which a cartographer responded, “Nothing is where you assume it is.” The issue of perspective and change about their world, met with incredulity in a fictional drama, became reality this spring in Boston Public Schools.

    Paradigms Shifts

    The Oxford Dictionary defines a paradigm as “a typical example or pattern of something; a pattern or model.” Scientist Thomas Kuhn introduced the concept of the paradigm shift in his influential 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.  Groundbreaking paradigm shifts include examples in areas as diverse as physics, health, and astronomy—think of what Galileo had to fade though to convince royalty that the earth rotated around the sun (Copernicus theory) when most astronomers believed the reverse to subsist true.  A paradigm shift changes how they sight at things. Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling books focus on rethinking preconceived ideas, starting with his breakthrough 2006 bespeak The Tipping Point and continuing with his more recent bespeak David and Goliath, which offers several actual life examples of when a perceived force can subsist a weakness and a weakness… a strength.  For example, an extraordinary towering number of successful entrepreneurs are dyslexic, including Jet Blue founder David Neeleman.  The challenge of dyslexia as a child may provide coping skills later in life – billionaire Sir Richard Branson of Virgin Air considers his dyslexia his greatest traffic advantage.

    AUSTIN, TX - MARCH 15: Journalist Malcolm Gladwell attends 'Bill Gurley And Malcolm Gladwell In Conversation' during the 2015 SXSW Music, Film + Interactive Festival at Austin Convention center on March 15, 2015 in Austin, Texas. (Photo by Robert A Tobiansky/Getty Images for SXSW)

    “As the playwright George Bernard Shaw once set it: “The reasonable man adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to conform the world to himself. Therefore everything progress depends on the unreasonable man,” from Malcolm Gladwell’s David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the technique of Battling Giants. (Photo by Robert A Tobiansky/Getty Images for SXSW)

    In business, paradigm shift examples include disruptive innovations (e.g., the Internet, mobile technology, and Great data analytics), shifting global economies, climate change, employee and societal demands, and changing consumer preferences.  Futurist Joel Barker explains that when a paradigm shift occurs, everything resets to zero, past successes guarantee nothing, and shifting traffic models shift to create recent realities.  For example, once-successful Great box stores and corporations that could not conform to the digital age, such as Borders Books, Blockbuster, and Kodak, went bankrupt. Compare these examples to Netflix, which was able to successfully navigate from their traffic model of renting DVDs through the mail to streaming movies and television shows over the internet to extend their market share.  Flexibility to conform to paradigm shifts is a powerful tool. As Charles Darwin explains in describing his iconic research: “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”           

    UNSPECIFIED - AUGUST 01: Biology - Evolutionary theory: theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and of Charles Darwin. Illustration. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

    An illustration of Darwin’s well-known view of “Survival of the Fittest” (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)       

    Self-Reflection and Understanding

    Shifting paradigms and changing one’s perspective starts with self-reflection: the better they understand ourselves, the better they can approach change.  Daniel Goleman provides the multi-faceted framework of emotional intelligence, including two personal competencies (self awareness and self management) and two gregarious competencies (relationship management and gregarious awareness) that should subsist examined to succor better understand moods and how they strike those around them. Peter Drucker asserts in order to subsist productive over a 50-year work-life it is well-known to cultivate a profound understanding of one’s self.  He offers several penetrating questions in his Harvard traffic Review article Managing Oneself, including “How carry out I work?” “Where carry out I belong?” and  “What can I contribute?”

    There are moreover many tools available to succor provide insight into the ways in which they each view and navigate the world around us. With over two million Myers Briggs ilk Indicator (MBTI) assessments being administered every year in more than 70 countries, this personality profile tool, based on the labor of notable psychologist Carl Jung, continues to subsist wildly current in helping people better understand themselves. Key MBTI elements include how they focus their energy (introversion vs. extroversion), the course they engage in information (sensing vs. intuitive), construct decisions (thinking vs. feeling) and their attitudes toward the external world and how they orient ourselves to it (view the world to subsist organized and methodical vs. springy and subsist experienced).  The Great Five personality traits, Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO), Thomas-Kilmann affray mode instrument (TKI), and the strong Interest inventory are everything additional tools that can succor analyze one’s preferences.

    Identifying one’s personal values is moreover a strong trend in traffic today, with a plethora of instruments available for self-discovery.  For example, after a two-day, internal values-clarification exercise, each member of the senior leadership team of the Vail Centre posts his/her top five values on the company’s website for everyone to see.  Determining and focusing on one’s strengths rather than one’s weaknesses is the cornerstone approach to Gallop Poll and Don Clifton’s Strengthfinder 2.0.  This self-assessment tool enables one to identify their  top 5 of 34 different talent themes, from Achiever to WOO (winning others over).  By better understanding one’s natural instincts, strengths, weaknesses and personal preferences, one can extend the likelihood to learn how other colleagues or customers from different backgrounds, cultures, generations or perspectives note things differently, enabling recent approaches or frames to address change.

    In his book, The Spirit to Serve, Marriott International founder J.W. Marriott, Jr.  adopted 19th century philosophy Alfred North Whitehead’s  perspective when developing the Marriott Way, “The technique of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order.”  The competence to assume differently as the hospitality industry moves into uncharted territories—both nationally and internationally, within organizations and in local markets, online and in person—is becoming more well-known as change continues to evolve at a faster pace than ever before.  Being quick and open-minded enough to adapt, addressing challenges and/or seizing opportunities, will determine which companies wither away and which ones thrive.  At the heart of these circumstances is the competence to recognize trends, realize the necessity for change and act on these situations in ways that navigate the needs of an organization, and its staff and customers.  Mental flexibility, adaptability, creativity and personal awareness are key tools in this process that can succor hospitality leaders note things from different perspectives, gain recent insights, develop and pilot recent ideas and better respond to an ever-changing world.

    PDF Version Available Here


    Michael Oshins is Associate Professor of the drill of Leadership in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. He is former Vice President of Integer Dynamics, a hospitality consulting hard focused on operational productivity and technology. He holds a doctorate in human resource education from Boston University and a master’s degree in hotel administration from Cornell University. Email: References
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  • June 12th, 2017 in Hotels, Spring 2017, Technology, Uncategorized

    Rack  margin cover

    By Peter Szende and Pooja Reddy

    Front-of-House & Front Desk

    Have you ever really noticed the front desks of the hotels that you visit? Chances are, you don’t assume twice about it—because more and more, the front-of-house zone is designed to subsist subtle and unobtrusive. If you are aware of the front desk area, it’s more likely to subsist due to its high-tech accoutrements and services. Some hotels now arrive equipped with features enjoy automated check-in kiosks and even computerized luggage carriers. While this may not subsist the standard, it’s rapidly becoming more common and indicates the direction that hotels are taking for their front-of-house environments. Since the front desk is usually the first point of contact that guests acquire with a hotel and is where they check in and out, request information, settle their accounts, and tender different types of feedback (Steadmon & Kasavana, 1988), the accessibility and style of this zone can construct a huge impact.

    Prior to the introduction of computerization and other technological updates, front office tasks were performed quite differently, although the front desk was just as integral and the system  was extremely methodical and efficient. The evolution of the hotel front-of-house, as overseen by the front office department, over the final several decades indicates larger changes and trends within the hospitality industry itself. This article takes a trip back in time and offers a glimpse of the past through an exploration of the outmoded systems of hotel front office racks.

    Let’s first fade back to the early 20th century: during this time, hotels were considered to subsist “manual,” and most functions were carried out by systems that leveraged heavily on human capital. Besides billing and accounting, the hotel staff were responsible for duties enjoy margin status checks and guest registration. As advancing technology began to address some of these functions, hotels gradually transitioned to the employ of “electromechanical systems which were semi- automated, before poignant to a wholly computerized, fully automated arrangement” (Steadmon & Kasavana, 1988). The heart of the front desk became a metal file system that consisted of pockets to hold rooming and reservations slips, called the margin rack. You may already subsist close with the margin rack without knowing: it is from this system that they acquire derived the term “rack rate,” the undiscounted charge a hotel will charge for a room. Formerly, when guests arrived at a hotel without a reservation, “traditionally, the touchstone rate was posted on or near the margin rack.” (Steadmon & Kasavana, 1988, p. 110).

    John Willy  margin Rack [Advertisement] (1920, July). The Hotel Monthly, 28(328) p. 11.

    John Willy margin Rack [Advertisement] (1920, July). The Hotel Monthly, 28(328) p. 11.

    The pneumatic tube was moreover a system used in earlier hotels. Behind the clerk’s desk, where the mail and information racks were located, a battery of pneumatic tubes connected to every department of the hotel. These extensively utilitarian tubes carried a mass of information ranging from mails and orders to charges and meal checks. These tubes saved a lot of time and labor and accelerated several procedures by creating a network between service departments (Willy, 1919). Even as recently as the 1980s, you could dispatch restaurants checks through this pressurized air network directly to the hotel’s front office cashier. In just a few seconds, the check traveled through the pneumatic tube to the bill clerk, who would quickly post the charges before the guest checked out.

    Key Front Office Positions in a Manual Hotel

    Today, it would subsist almost impossible to maintain a margin rack or pneumatic tube system because the sheer size and breakdown of synchronous hotels render it completely impracticable. However, hotels in the past were smaller and contained fewer major departments. For example, the recent Yorker Hotel’s front office consisted of three departments: the reservations department, the mail and information department, and the rooms department. Using the recent Yorker Hotel as of 1931 as an example, they can trace the history and development of these departments and the positions within them.

    Reservations Department

    Reservation clerk: The reservation clerks answered reservation telephones and filed reservation slips or tabs in the margin rack. The slips or tabs were usually color-coded to denote the ilk of reservations. Below is an example of a color code system (Dukas, 1960, pp. 24-25).

    Regular Reservation Late Arrival Special Attention Conventions Travel Agency Reservation

    In more advanced reservation systems, hotel reservationists completed carbonated, perforated rack slips on a typewriter, after which copies were distributed to various areas of the front office and hotel as needed.

    Mail and Information Department

    Mail and information clerk: enjoy the reservation clerks, the mail clerks answered telephones and inquiries specific to their department’s purview. They moreover made verifications of “unregistered” reports which are given out by switchboard operators. The mail clerk checked emergency arrival slips and accepted incoming telegrams and special delivery letters. He/she moreover handed out keys and mail to guests.

    Tube clerk: The tube clerks were in charge of receiving and dispatching mail to and from the different floors and departments through the pneumatic tube system.

    Rooms department:

    Room clerk: margin clerks were stationed at the registration desk to serve the guests. The margin clerk had to subsist knowledgeable about the different types of rooms in the hotels, along with their respective amenities, furniture, and location. The margin clerk instantly knew how to manipulate each arrival, as the color of the slips the guest carried or received indicated the ilk of booking (Ducas, 1960).

    Rack clerk: Rack clerks were in charge of checking the status and condition of the rack at any point of time, as well as at specific hours against vacancy reports, and made any necessary corrections.

    Stacks of Racks: the Different Types of Racks

    The margin rack is only the tip of the iceberg: hotels adopted a rack system for just about every facet of their front desk operations. Not only did they each serve different purposes, but the various structures moreover reflected different styles and systems in vogue at the time. It may subsist hard to imagine what they might acquire looked like; so, since a picture is worth a thousand words, they acquire compiled a quick photo gallery to create a visual pilot to the past.

    Reservation Rack

    The reservation racks contained the names of the expected guests and their arrival dates. Typically, there was one rack for every day of the upcoming months and fewer racks for future arrival dates. In larger hotels, racks often covered the all wall of the reservation office.

    Dumont [Advertisement] (1917, April). Office Appliances, XXV(4) p. 26.

    Dumont [Advertisement] (1917, April). Office Appliances, XXV(4) p. 26.


    Room Rack

    According to Ismail (2002, p. 200), “The margin rack would identify each margin ilk and configuration at a glance,” as well as the occupancies and vacancies available in the hotel (Dukas, 1960, p. 37). Managers would stamp each margin on the rack according to a certain color code in order to note the margin status. The unique code would provide information regarding the occupancy, cleanliness, and pricing of that particular room. The margin rack not only indicated the ilk and location of the room, but moreover details enjoy the room’s occupancy status, its rate for unique and double occupancy, and its connections to abutting rooms (Dukas, 1960).

    Much enjoy today’s front desk set-ups, margin racks were designed to subsist nearly invisible upon check-in. Sophisticated systems were typically mounted and arranged in a 60-degree angle behind the front desk. A typical margin rack is shown in the picture below.

    Handling Guests’ Accounts and Reservations (1953, January). Hotel Monthly, 61(718), p. 45.

    Handling Guests’ Accounts and Reservations (1953, January). Hotel Monthly, 61(718), p. 45.

    This is how the ‘The Hotel World Magazine’ described the job of margin clerks upon visiting a hotel in recent York City:

    Swan, W.R. (1921, November 12). The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(20), p. 10.

    Swan, W.R. (1921, November 12). The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(20), p. 10.

    As with any protest feature, time and innovation gradually caused the margin rack to evolve. Frederick A. Muschenheim, the brother of the owner of the Astor Hotel in recent York, made several innovations in hotel technology (Miscellaneous Hotel Notes, 1913, p. 66)., one of which was a margin rack frame with springy card holders mounted on pivots.     

    Muschenheim, F. (1908, February 11). Hotel  margin Rack. U.S. Patent No. 878, 554. Washington, DC: United States Patent Office.

    Muschenheim, F. (1908, February 11). Hotel margin Rack. U.S. Patent No. 878, 554. Washington, DC: United States Patent Office.

    Sales Rack

    To avoid selling the same margin twice and to facilitate the sales of rooms, assiduous hotels used a control rack that consisted of the cards of every margin in the hotel that was available for sale.

    Room Sales Rack with charge Zones and Markers

    The Hotel Monthly (1920, March), 28(324), p. 31.

    The Hotel Monthly (1920, March), 28(324), p. 31.

    Letter and Key Rack

    The letter and key racks contained pigeon holes for the aforementioned items. They maintained guest keys and were arranged by margin number.

    Letter and Key Rack at the Hilton Istanbul

    Hospitality Archive, Hilton College, University of Houston

    Hospitality Archive, Hilton College, University of Houston

    Key racks were sometimes combined with the margin rack in order to minimize the number of racks. Below is an example:

    Used by permission. Copyright ©2017  everything rights reserved. American Hotel Register Company.

    Used by permission. Copyright ©2017 everything rights reserved. American Hotel Register Company.

    Information Rack

    These racks contained the names and margin numbers of everything the registered guests of the hotel. The racks were alphabetically organized by the guests final name.

    A Rotary ilk Information Rack

    Source: Kohler [Advertisement] (1921, July 2.) The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(1), p. 59.

    Source: Kohler [Advertisement] (1921, July 2.) The Hotel World: The Hotel and Travelers Journal, 93(1), p. 59.


    Room Racks with Electric Signaling Devices – Early Efforts

    In order to facilitate instant communication between the margin clerks and the housekeeping department, the Astor Hotel in recent York introduced an electrical system with lights in the early 20th century. The system is said to acquire consisted of a set of sockets for tiny electric bulbs which were positioned at the front of the margin rack. The system was directly linked to bulbs on the doors of every room. When the margin clerks received notice from the cashiers that a guest had vacated the room, they would status a bulb into the corresponding margin number on the rack. The bulb would light up, and the light on the margin door would immediately glint up and down at regular intervals. This brought the attention of the housekeeping staff, who inserted a key below the bulb on the door when he or she went in to construct up the room. This would then rotate off both the light on the door and the light on the margin rack as well. The automatic signal device saved a considerable amount of time and labor (Efficiency at Astor, p. 26).

    Room Racks with Electric Signaling Devices – Efforts at the Advent of Computerization

    In the 1970s, leading hotel chains of the time, such as Hilton and InterContinental, significantly enriched their hotel signaling systems. Following in the footsteps of Muschenheim, margin racks evolved to subsist complemented by consoles that indicated margin status and housekeeping requirements. Toward the discontinuance of the 1980’s, computerized systems based on a combination of lights enhanced front office operations by indicating the exact margin status next to each margin rack slip. Housekeeping employees could change the status of the margin rack remotely by turning their keys in a socket located in the guest rooms.

    Room Status Light Combinations on the margin rack at the Forum Hotel Budapest in the 1980s. (Courtesy of Péter Várhegyi)


    In automated systems, most of the racks discussed above were eliminated, as information is internally managed by the computer systems. Today, it is rare to find any hotel operating on a rack system; letter and key racks occasionally noiseless exist to preserve a memento of the past.

    PDF Version Available Here

    image 11 Dr. Peter Szende has over 25 years of management undergo in the hospitality industry in both Europe and North America. He joined the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration as an coadjutant Professor in 2003. He was promoted to Associate Professor of the drill in 2010. Currently, he serves as Associate Dean of Academic Affairs.Pooja Reddy is a senior at Boston University, pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Administration and a double minor in traffic and Deaf Studies. She currently works as a student office coadjutant at the School of Hospitality Administration, and a marketing intern for Tasting Counter, Somerville. References
  • Willy, J. (1919). Hotel Pennsylvania of recent York. The Hotel Monthly, 27(321), p. 28.
  • Efficiency at Astor. (1917, September 15). Hotel World, LXXXV(11), p. 26.
  • Ismail, A. (2002). Front Office: Operations and Management. Albany, NY: Delmar
  • Dukas, P. (1960). Hotel Front Office Management and Operation. Dubuque, IA: WM.C. Brown.
  • New Yorker Hotel (1931). Front Office Manual.
  • Steadmon, C., & Kasavana, M. (1988). Managing Front Office Operations. East Lansing, MI: AH&MA.
  • Miscellaneous Hotel Notes (1913, May). The Hotel Monthly, 21(242) p. 66.
  • June 7th, 2017 in traffic Practices, Hotels, Marketing, Spring 2017, Technology, Uncategorized

    The TripAdvisor Inc. application is demonstrated on an Apple Inc. iPhone for a photograph in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Friday, May 5, 2017. TripAdvisor is scheduled to released earnings figures on May 9. Photographer: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    Photo Source: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    By Nick Cohen

    The year is 2001, and the world is noiseless recovering from the tragedy of September 11th.  The travel industry is in a downward spiral as fears of flying and terrorism ripple across the United States and beyond, and hotels acquire lost significant occupancy due to a subside in demand.

    Simultaneously, a fledgling technology is emerging which will eventually engage edge of the internet explosion, as well as hotel management’s desperation to fill rooms. It will reshape their industry forever, and this platform now commonly referred to as Online Travel Agencies, or OTAs, will allow hotels to easily sell their rooms on the internet through recent consumer facing websites such as Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz.

    Fast forward to 2017. The OTA’s acquire gained the majority of market share for online reservations, and digital platforms enjoy and acquire loyal member volumes that far surpass brand websites.  In many cases, the OTA companies are valued well beyond traditional hotel brands (as of May 2017, Priceline Group has a market capitalization of nearly USD 92 Billion).  They acquire moreover helped to create a recent concept as they grew in popularity and scale over the final number of years, and it was the precedent of transparency. Pricing that was once hidden to the everyday user, could now subsist exposed to the all world, publicly, with a few clicks online. As OTA channels grew enormously with time, so did the access to actual time rates and availability for virtually every hotel around the world.

    With this concept in mind, from the OTA’s they acquire seen the rapid expansion of ‘meta search’ channels. These are one-stop charge comparison platforms where a customer can view a charge for a unique hotel margin across multiple websites (without having to browse those websites one-by-one). Sites within this category include Kayak, Trivago, TripAdvisor, Qunar and Google, and they are everything working to simplify the travel research process for consumers.


    Featured above are some of the most current meta search channels

    With the OTA channels continuing to grow through massive marketing efforts and superior technology, and with meta search sites following their lead, a relatively recent challenge has emerged for hoteliers. It represents a very complicated dynamic between one of the most traditional ways to sell a hotel room, and one of the most modern ways to sell a hotel room. This once again everything comes back to the concept of charge transparency. Wholesale has been a core traffic driver in hotels for many years, helping properties build foundation traffic through private negotiated rates and partnerships. Historically, these wholesalers would sell their inventory offline to their own private networks of contacts. Even though the pricing would typically subsist lower than publicly available RACK rates, it was a trustworthy foundation of occupancy for hotels to build off of.

    As technology has become more sophisticated with Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) readily available, they acquire seen the rapid growth of wholesale rates being sold publicly, online, through some of the powerful meta search channels mentioned above.  This means that wholesalers are selling discounted rates, which directly undercut brand websites and OTAs, to anyone who has access to the internet.  Beyond just meta search, some OTA websites are now even positioning themselves as ‘online marketplaces,’ where they too will sell wholesale inventory directly instead of the inventory provided by the hotels. To remain competitive and extend market share, online channels want to sell the lowest charge possible, even if it means reducing their own margins by selling a cheaper margin to the customer.

    OTA Meta search

    Meta Search Websites such as HotelsCombined (shown above) showcase wholesale aggregator sites enjoy and which acquire prices that undercut the brand’s direct website and other OTA channels

    You would assume that hoteliers would want to fix this problem immediately. Online wholesale traffic undercuts channels which are much more profitable such as their direct brand website.  This issue however is multi-layered and is not easy to remedy for the following key reasons:

    Hotels noiseless want wholesale business!

    Hotels noiseless maintain strong relationships with a number of wholesale partners, Great and small, and they depend on these partnerships to generate foundation business. Turning off these channels would potentially subsist substantive the loss of significant revenues, at least in the short term.  Although wholesale channels can undercut other websites when sold online, they moreover noiseless generate incremental traffic when sold offline through the traditional method

    Finding the source of all traffic online can subsist very difficult

    When wholesale rates appears online, it’s generally very difficult to know which wholesaler specifically is providing that inventory. The wholesale partners themselves don’t generally sell rooms through their own websites, but sell their rates through wholesale aggregation channels such as  It’s channels enjoy Amoma who then sell the rates online through their own interface, and promote their rates through larger meta search intermediaries such as Trivago and TripAdvisor.  Generally the only course to find the right source is to construct a test booking online, and then track how that reservation comes into the hotel’s central reservation system (each reservation is typically flagged with an inventory source).  Many hotels are reluctant to carry out this since a booking requires employ of a credit card and sometimes even pre-payment, and then cancellation of that test booking is not always easy to do. The test booking process is both cumbersome to manage at scale, and is moreover financially risky for a hotel if those booking cannot subsist cancelled.

    Room bookings can  subsist made through and other wholesale aggregator websites by anyone online. However, the back  discontinuance wholesale source for each booking from Amoma and other channels  enjoy it can  subsist very challenging for a hotel to identify

    Room bookings can subsist made through and other wholesale aggregator websites by anyone online. However, the back discontinuance wholesale source for each booking from Amoma and other channels enjoy it can subsist very challenging for a hotel to identify.

    Employee incentives are at stake

    Within hotel sales departments, team members are noiseless incentivized to drive wholesale volume, regardless of where that volume is being sold (offline or online). Wholesale partners generally don’t provide specifics on how they are selling their inventory, and as long as margin allotments are sold, the responsible sales team members are satisfied. This is creating an unavoidable rift between the direction of some sales leaders with the revenue management and digital strategy teams.

    So what’s next?

    Hotel companies are dealing with this situation in a variety of ways. Some are cutting off wholesale altogether since they simply can’t control where their inventory is ending up. Others are maintaining the partnerships, but are working to chase away from static margin allotments and over to dynamic pricing and availability where the hotels acquire more control over the inventory they dispatch to the wholesalers. This is a major problem facing the industry that very much remains unsolved.

    If they engage ourselves back to the 2001, charge transparency was a challenge for hoteliers. Properties simply didn’t acquire direct access to a great enough segment of customers, therefore traditional partnerships enjoy wholesale was an absolute necessity. With the growth of the OTAs though, and the emergence of recent technologies such as meta search, that access is no longer an issue. The world is accessible for each hotel with a few quick key strokes on a computer. It is now only a matter of time until hoteliers construct one of the following decisions:

  • Utilize wholesalers purely as another online distribution channel, selling rates that are parity with every other website ( and OTAs)
  • Remove wholesale out of the channel merge altogether, realizing that margin inventory can subsist be sold among the legion of websites and digital platforms already available
  • PDF Version Available Here

    Nick Cohen HeadshotNick Cohen is based in Hong Kong and leads digital strategy for Hyatt Hotels in Asia Pacific.  He oversees online marketing efforts for everything Hyatt brands and properties across the region, and manages a variety of e-Commerce and digital platform projects to succor extend online revenues for the company. Prior to joining Hyatt, Nick held senior e-Commerce and digital marketing roles at Langham Hospitality Group, Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Sabre Hospitality Solutions.  Earlier in his career, working on-property for various hotels he developed extensive learning in operations, along with Sales & Marketing and Revenue Management expertise. Nick moreover holds a graduate diploma in Hotel and Tourism traffic Management from Boston University.   Sources:

    October 3rd, 2016 in topple 2016, History, Hotels, Restaurants, Technology, Uncategorized

    By Peter Szende and Annie Holcombe

    The evolution of society and technology has created recent trends and innovations. The hospitality industry tries to linger level with recent technological advances in order to maintain up and engage with their guests. This modernization has eliminated various practices and inventions that were once predominant in the industry.

    Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, tourism changed dramatically due to the industrial revolution. A middle class emerged in society. This recent class had the money and break to spend on food and travel. Travel was made easier with the invention of steam engines that powered locomotives and automobiles. Through modernization, steam engines acquire been eradicated and replaced by diesel-powered engines.

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for tidings ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. The Servidor enhanced a guest’s privacy during their hotel stay. In Chicago, the Berghoff restaurant successfully operated on an outmoded German system of coins until 1980. These once revolutionary innovations acquire gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

    The Servidor – The silent Servant

    During the early 1900’s, technological advances such as the electric fridge invented in 1910 and the creation of stainless steel in 1916 started to modernize the hospitality industry. In June 1918, the contraption known as the Servidor began emerging in hotels. The Hotel Fort Shelby of Detroit was the first hotel in the world that implemented Servidor service. (Ibbotson, p. 45).  The Servidor transformed the course hotels provided guest services by offering guests the privacy of a actual home.

    hotel cleveland Hotel Cleveland advertising Servidor Service. Source: Hotel Cleveland [Advertisement]. (1922, January). The Hotel Monthly, 30(346), 103.

    Servidors consisted of a full-length cabinet, which has one door on the margin side and another one on the corridor side. Its privacy feature was the fact that the doors could not subsist opened at the same time due to an interlocking device. For safety, the door to the margin side could only subsist opened from inside the guest room, not from the outside. This protected guests from intruders. In order to notify the guests that there was a completed delivery in the door there was a silent signal device on the margin side of the door. (Hastings, 1919).

    A Servidor was used to minimize interaction between guests and employees. Guests would telephone the front desk and request for items to subsist delivered to their rooms. Guests could moreover leave their clothes to subsist pressed or shoes to subsist shined in the Servidor. A hotel employee would grab it and then return it without disturbing or interrupting guests.  Servidors provided a modernized, efficient system for guests to receive and deliver their personal belongings. Guests were saved the pains of bringing their parcels to and from the lobby.

    SErvidor Co Hotels highlighting minimized interaction with staff. Source: The Servidor Co. [Advertisement]. (1921, June). The Hotel World, 92(26) 4.

    This particular invention reduced inefficient practices such as delayed messengers and repeated service calls when guests were out of the room. everything of these faulty practices resulted in an ineffective employ of employees paid time.  Regardless of where the guests were and the time of day, Servidors allowed for a 24/7, delivery service, whether it was to the guest margin or from the guest room. Employees would subsist able to leave guests’ belongings in the Servidor, thus making the hotel’s labor more efficient.

    The following magazine ad summarizes the anticipated advantages of Servidor. According to the Servidor company, installing their doors is a not only a service enrichment but moreover a profitable investment.

    Source: The Servidor Co. [Advertisement]. (1922, June). Hotel Management, I(5) 237.

    When the Hotel Pennsylvania, the largest hotel in the world at the time opened its door in 1919, the Statler management, known for breakthrough innovations, equipped the hotel with servidor. They enhanced this recent feature with a morning newspapers facility delivered discreetly through the servidor. (World’s biggest, 1919).

    Hotel Pennsylvania Source: Hastings, C. W. (1919, March) Hotel Pennsylvania, recent York. Architecture and Building. LI, Number 3. 18-24.

    The Servidor changed the course hotels provided service to its guest, but moreover created recent problems within its hotels. One issue was that guests would request items and acquire them charged to their hotel bills, but leave without having paid their bills. These guests were commonly known as skippers. In addition, because the Servidor minimized the interaction between hotel employees and guests, tipping occurred less frequently. When ensuring items were taken from and delivered to the Servidor employees did not arrive in contact with the guests in order to subsist tipped.

    Although the Servidor was widely seen in hotel advertisements in the middle of the twentieth century, the concept soon disappeared altogether from hotel advertisements. As hotels underwent upgrades and renovations the Servidor slowly disappeared. Today, the only status in the United States where Servidors noiseless exist is the Hotel Pennsylvania in recent York City. However, the Servidors are no longer in employ and acquire not been for decades. The doors acquire been sealed shut and are slowly being phased for modern wooden doors, eventually becoming a fragment of the hotel industry’s past.

    One of the few remaining Servidors in the Hotel Pennsylvannia. (Source: the author) One of the few remaining Servidors in the Hotel Pennsylvania. (Source: the author)

    Servers are Independent Contractors: The German System of Coins

    When the first author did his military service in the early 1980th in Hungary, he worked as a server for a night in an upscale military club where drinks could only subsist delivered to the guests if he paid for the drinks from his own pocket at the bar and then charged it to the customers. At that time he didn’t know too much about outmoded time European restaurant cash control systems.      

    During the 1890’s Herman Berghoff, a German restaurateur began his career by selling beer from a stand outside the World’s Columbia Exposition in Chicago. He went on to open the Berghoff Café in 1898 where he sold his Berghoff Dortmunder Beer for five cents a glass and ten cents a stein. During the Prohibition era, which lasted from 1920 through 1933, Berghoff refocused his efforts from beer to making Bergo soda pops. To this day, the Berghoff Rootbeer is noiseless popular. When the discontinuance of the prohibition came in 1933, Berghoff became the first person to receive his liquor license, Liquor License #1 was awarded to him for his bar and Liquor License #2 was awarded to him for his restaurant. Since then, Berghoff has received the first liquor license in Chicago every year.

    Berghoff Restaurant

    Throughout the years the bar itself has gone through various changes. Originally, Berghoff’s was a men-only bar. However, during the American Feminist Movement in the 1960s through 1970s, Gloria Steinem, a illustrious women’s rights activist walked into Berghoff’s and demanded to subsist served. Since, then Berghoff became a men and women’s bar. She modernized the traditional course Berghoff operated. In the 1950’s and 1960’s barstools became very current and could soon subsist found in every restaurant and bar. Until 2001, Berghoff was a stand-up bar. Stools could not subsist found in the bar until 2001. Men and women would consume their sandwiches and drink their beer while standing up. To champion themselves they would set their foot on a brass rail that can subsist found along the bottom of the mahogany bar.

    However, the biggest change the bar experienced occurred with modern technology in the 1980’s. Until 1980, the restaurant staff operated on the outmoded German system of coins. The outmoded German system of coins consisted of the waiters buying metal coins from the restaurant at the nascence of their shifts and using those coins to buy their customers’ food and beverages. In return, customers would pay for their bills using cash. At the discontinuance of their shifts, waiters’ checks were audited and to prevent theft, they had to “zero out.” (Berghoff, p. 41) Why coins? Servers were assiduous carrying plates in one hand, so they could easily achieve the coins in the pocket of their aprons. (Ledermann, 2004). Their source of income came from their cash tips. With the 1980’s bringing about recent technology, this system was soon eradicated with the modernization of computers, credit cards, and the recent automated ordering and billing systems.

    True, this system seems to acquire largely disappeared but sporadic, outmoded time examples bespeak restaurants’ relentless efforts to secure their revenue. recent Orleans’ Café Du Monde is one example of a modern restaurant that loosely follows the German System of Coins. (First stop in recent Orleans, 2010). Servers acquire trays that they will fill with Du Monde’s illustrious beignets and chicory root coffee. After they fill their trays, the food is purchased with their cash and the waiters serve their customers with the food. After, they acquire been served the customers pay the servers for their meal, therefore mimicking the German system of coins. Though the system has largely been eradicated it noiseless influences how some businesses today are run.

    Coins (Photo Courtesy of The Berghoff) Szende Dr. Peter Szende has over 25 years of management undergo in the hospitality industry in both Europe and North America. He joined the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration as an coadjutant Professor in 2003. He was promoted to Associate Professor of the drill in 2010. Currently, he serves as Associate Dean of Academic Affairs.     Annie Annie Holcombe is a senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration. Her studies and areas of interest include sales and digital marketing, revenue management, and finance.   



    References: Berghoff, C., Ryan, N. R. & Berghoff, J. (2007). The Berghoff Family Cookbook: From Their Table to Yours, Celebrating a Century of Entertaining. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC. Berghoff Restaurant History Facts [Information Sheet]. (n.d.) Chicago, IL: Berghoff Restaurant. First stop in recent Orleans, Café Du Monde. (2010, November 15). ChefsOnTheRoad. Retrieved from Hastings, C. W. (1919, March) Hotel Pennsylvania, recent York. Architecture and Building. LI, Number 3. 18-24. Ibbotson, P. (2007). Detroit’s Historic Hotels and Restaurants. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. Mazur, A. (2016. May 23.) Personal Interview. Ledermann, R.P. (2004). Chicago’s status Street Christmas Parade. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. World’s biggest hotel opens today (1919, January 19). The recent York Times, p. 9.   Acknowledgments: The authors of this article would enjoy to concede the staff of the Hotel Pennsylvania who made taking pictures of the Servidor possible. The authors would moreover enjoy to thank Ashley Mazur, Marketing & Media Manager of Berghoff Catering & Restaurant Group as well as Paul Turner, server at the Berghoff for their assistance.

    PDF Version Available Here

    October 3rd, 2016 in topple 2016, Restaurants, Technology, Trends

    By Christopher Muller

    What is a restaurant?

    In today’s omni-channel foodservice system what exactly does it subsist substantive to direct something is a restaurant meal?  Does it subsist substantive a complete formal dining undergo with a chef-prepared customized meal, presented by a waiter to a guest at a table with a white tablecloth or can it subsist a hand-made burrito delivered by a kid on a bicycle working for a third party service directly to your front door?

    Ultimately the question comes down to determining the two main components of a restaurant, food and service. For the food the questions are: how fresh is it; what contour is it in; and how close to immediately edible is the preparation of each meal? For the service the main question is: how much supplier labor intensity is required versus how much consumer labor intensity is necessary?

    The Evolution of contour and Function

    Just a few decades ago the restaurant undergo was divided into only two categories, complete Service (or “white table cloth”) and Limited Service (or “counter service’) restaurants.  Both were built on the requirement that food was personally served by someone to the consumer, typically in a very structured menu format, inside a simple square meter of physical space.  The diner was expected to acquire a working learning of this system: being informed of the hand crafted preparation in the kitchen by the trained chef or a skilled short-order cook; the nature of the logical flux of the courses as they were presented; and how to order and pay (including how to properly leave a tip).  For the vast majority of customers this was something done only on special occasions or when dining away from home, and could subsist too intimidating to master.

    Then in the mid-1950’s came a recent upstart, the Fast-Food or Quick Service Restaurant, which by being systems based and not chef driven created a recent approach to how consumers viewed the dining experience.  In a disruption of tradition, both the composition and order of the meal (“…if I want to consume my fries before my burger, who cares?”) and the concept of self service (“…no waiter, no tipping, I’ll gladly pellucid my own table”) were controlled by the consumer, not the supplier.  Much of the food was prepared in an off-site facility and assembled to order or batch cooked by semi-skilled kitchen workers. Once the drive-thru window came into play, the necessity to even gain out of the car for a meal disappeared (“…is my front seat a restaurant?”).  Anyone could employ this system at any time during the day. While the QSRs were not originally considered “real” restaurants, dining out became an easy and every day option.

    During the 1990’s the market saw the explosion of the Casual Theme restaurant which took everything of the formality out of Fine Dining, including the white table cloth, and significantly sped up the dining process. Table service was noiseless an integral section of the undergo but with less personal connection to the waiter as food was often delivered by a runner directly from the kitchen. Standardized meal choices were assembled on-site by slightly more skilled journeymen led by a kitchen manager instead of a chef, who used a mass customization process to match the individual desires of the consumer.

    In the final decade the rapid Casual restaurant came to the attention of the consumer public. This recent hybrid is a merge of the self-service from rapid food with the consumer selection options presented by a traditional cafeteria system.  Table service is replaced by a modified multi-phase counter service with customers being given more customizable options, whether by a barista or a burrito-maker.  This customization is made viable with the return of an on-site short-order cook who assembles to order food which has the appearance of being hand-crafted, but is prepared in a batch style and often brought in from an off-site commissary.

    This brings us up to date where they are witnessing an explosion of segments and dining choice. Today they note a marketplace of narrow segments (Casual Elegance, Food Trucks, Grab & Go, Build Your Own, GastroPub, Convenience Store, Market Hall, Delivery) and other fine grained niches that mug simple categorization.  For example, Panera Bread is a leader in the rapid casual segment while filling the role of the top retail bakery/café offer. But it moreover leads in the technology of smartphone based customized take-out.  The top of the food chain for fine dining is at one and the same time a notable chef-driven stratospheric offering such as Keller’s French Laundry or a standardized, national prime aged steakhouse chain enjoy Del Frisco.  For the dining public, what exactly does Casual polish subsist substantive except that there are no tablecloths, there is a wine list and expensive cocktails, no chef and the wait staff wear logos on their shirts? What really is the contrast if I buy a packaged turkey sandwich at a Pret a Manger, at a 7 Eleven, or at a all Foods?

    Where Are They Heading?

    So, the respond to the question “what is a restaurant?” can really only subsist answered with “it depends.”  What does it depend on- mainly how the dining public continues to redefine how, when, why, where and what a meal actually is?  Is a smart phone a modern day vending machine? Is a communal table in a market hall a dining room? Is a “sous vide” pouch heated by a chef in a two-star restaurant a freshly prepared dinner? Is Chef Chang’s Ando really a restaurant or just a conceptual kitchen? Are Just Eat, Grub Hub, Deliveroo, Uber Eats and Amazon Prime just waiters expanding the final square meter of personal restaurant service? The answers are probably everything yes.

    When someone wants to eat, it might subsist better to hunt information from “what isn’t a restaurant?”

    A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal? Photo Source: Olive Garden If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal?

    Photo Source: Olive Garden

    Is Eataly a restaurant or a market?Source: Creative Commons / Mary Crosse Is Eataly a restaurant or a market?

    Source: Creative Commons / Mary Crosse

    What Does It   subsist substantive If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone? Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App Screenshot What Does It subsist substantive If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone?

    Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App Screenshot

    If I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And  consume In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App Screenshot If I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And consume In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?

    Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App Screenshot

    How About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door? Photo Source: Uber How About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door?

    Photo Source: Uber

    Is It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? Is It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? chris-muller-423x636Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the drill of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email

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    January 15th, 2016 in Hotels, Marketing, Restaurants, Technology, Winter 2016

    By Leora Halpern Lanz

    It’s challenging to subsist a hotel market today, let alone one who needs to understand and masterfully manage digital marketing for one or more properties. How carry out the hotel marketer and revenue manager ride the endless wave of online travel agency (OTA) distribution, commission structures, and rate parity? How much should a hotel budget for key word searches, Google Ad Sense, and Facebook ads? When carry out they determine to “turn on” or “shut off” the search engine marketing campaign? Who is the voice of their product and services on gregarious media? How effectively is that voice engaging with guests, ultimately resulting in effective customer relationship management (CRM) and brand advocacy? Is the website sufficiently optimized to produce an actual cyber network of digital visibility, online presence, and distribution channels? How much does it cost to acquire a recent guest and how carry out they embolden this recent guest to bespeak directly through a brand’s website?

    As Sean McCracken, Hotel tidings Now editor, wrote in his December 22, 2015 piece, Digital Marketers Deal With Shifting Landscape, digital marketers in the hotel industry are working to drive bookings among a changing climate for OTA’s, guest expectations, and advertising. Attempting to demystify the confusing arena that is digital marketing for hospitality is challenging. Is it productive to learn by trial and error?

    Here are a few pertinent strategies to account when trying to find a status in the digital marketing landscape:

    A Hotel Website Connects to Cyber Network: Link and Hyperlink

    Websites are dynamic vehicles. In addition to being an attractive and interactive dashboard, a site should subsist continuously updated and optimized for searchability to subsist truly functional. building a website with no objective of continuous enhancement is destitute planning; building it properly and keeping the content fresh will champion a strong online presence.

    1. account reducing text and adding more visuals, images, videos and opportunities for viewers to comment or hunt information from questions.

    2. account how someone would search to potentially find you when writing site copy.

    3. Create strategic links from the website to a brand’s gregarious channels and traffic partner’s.

    “It’s not enough to acquire a beautifully designed website anymore,” says Sara O’Brien, Associate Director of Marketing at HeBS Digital, “The technology behind it is what will allow you to generate more bookings and appointment from visitors. Responsive / Adaptive design for the mobile, tablet, laptop and desktop screens is a must, along with the competence to personalize content based on the visitor, entice visitors to return, complete the booking, and more. This ilk of technology is affordable and accessible, even for independent properties without great budgets.”

    Photo by Viktor Hanacek A suited website is more than just aesthetics – it considers how users will find the information they necessity and how they will potentially search for the site.  (Photo by Viktor Hanacek)

    Responsive websites duty properly on a variety of devices – tablet, mobile, desktop, laptop – and they are more faultfinding than ever. Even four years ago, author Sam Laird shared that more than 65% of people who bespeak a hotel margin within 24 hours of checking in carry out so from a mobile device ( According to Expedia, more than 15% of travelers who bespeak a flight 24 hours or less in forward moreover carry out so via mobile device. Hotels with ratings between two and three stars are most commonly reserved via mobile devices, indicating that they are likely the best (or most available) last-minute lodging option. Smart phones acquire given recent power to the harried, last-minute traveler and the companies with the applications that are easy to access and intuitive to employ are most likely to attract these customers.

    Search Engine Marketing and Search Engine Optimization Assessment: Understanding Key Words, Google, and Facebook Marketing

    Search engine marketing (SEM), the process of maximizing the number of visitors to a particular website by ensuring that the site appears towering on the list of results returned by a search engine, is imperative to extend web traffic and gregarious media news. Successful navigation of key word auctions can best subsist achieved with the aid of digital agencies that understand the nuances of purchasing search terms in return for higher search engine rankings. Another less expensive strategy that can subsist extremely effective is the employ of Long Tail Keywords, specific phrases that palpate upon a variety of customer needs. A phrase such as, “midtown Manhattan hotel flawless for gregarious event and with ample parking” may expose precisely the right search results to extend a specific customer’s likelihood of purchase. Branded terms that directly related to a particular product or service are moreover effective search engine marketing tools. Such terms, for example, “Inn at Fox Hollow, Long Island, NY” must subsist purchased requiring a larger marketing budget.

    Paid Advertising

    It is well-known to budget for paid ads because relying on organic posts is just not enough in today’s world of information overload and marketing clutter. Marketers necessity to understand the unique advertising sales routine for each platform. For example, Twitter ad sales are often based on appointment rates as opposed to Facebook where one can pay per impression. It is extremely beneficial to labor with experts who can optimize user data to target specific content to the right audience, and determine which content would discharge best with paid support.

    Both Facebook and Twitter advertising allow for targeting users based on demographic and psychographic data. Both platforms moreover tender Promoted Posts as a course of boosting a post to recent or existing fans. These posts may consist of imagery, stories, or testimonials. Facebook’s Carousel ads can appeal to multiple markets as a rotating gallery is embedded into each ad. Additionally, Facebook’s Remarketing Ad option uses “cookie” tracking to identify audiences that may acquire already visited the site, thus acquire shown interest in the brand.

    Facebook's Carousel ad option Facebook’s Carousel ad option gives the brand space for multiple photos as seen above. (Image via Facebook Advertising) Geo-Targeting an Ad

    Geo-targeting advertising is particularly useful for local or neighborhood food and beverage establishments as it allows a traffic to achieve existing and prospective customers by radius, geographic zip code, or specific location. It is always well-known to communicate and engage with your “internal” audience and local community as they can subsist your brand affiliates, spreading the word to their networks. Geo-targeting can subsist added to most gregarious and digital ads.

    Twitter and Facebook provide particular advertising analytics, but Google Analytics is a useful tool to track website activity in conjunction with an ad campaign. gregarious media ads paired with the purchase of Google’s Keywords, Ad Words, and Pay Per Click (PPC) ads provide an break to boost a website to the top of apposite search rankings.

    No matter what ilk of paid advertising channel is used, marketers must set measurement goals for paid posts. Doing so gives them the competence to monitor performance at different stages of the campaign, and rule if the ad should subsist adjusted, taken down, or has “done it all”.

    Social Media Presence: Regram and Hashtag

    Hashtag (noun \ hash·tag \ˈhash-ˌtag): a word or phrase preceded by the emblem # that classifies or categorizes the accompanying text (such as a tweet)

    Effective branding and marketing in the 21st century demands gregarious presence and two-way conversation. Specifically, gregarious media marketing requires the combination of manpower, time, and expertise in proper gregarious media propriety while utilizing branding, engagement, and relationship management (CRM) tools. Successful gregarious presence is achieved by using existing data to create specific, targeted content based on the intended audience and the purpose of a specific gregarious channel.

    Marriott Hotels strategically uses both short video and inspirational text to capture its audience on Instagram. Additionally, they employ a crusade hashtag, #TravelBrilliantly, to enhance the contents searchability and messaging.

    Social media marketing can subsist a cost-effective and efficient routine to interact with existing and prospective customers. A hashtag emblem that precedes a word or phrase classifies the text to subsist easily searched on gregarious media (such as with Twitter). Properly using hashtags helps a brand start a conversation with consumers and identifies who is already talking about them. Brands should regularly search for and employ hashtags with a brand-name and category keywords. For example a local Boston restaurant could employ its name, #TellersIslip and #LongIslandRestaurants, in Instagram posts. Instagram users often post photos of their meals followed by captions reviewing their undergo at the restaurant,, and include a hashtag with the brand appellation , and relatable keywords (e.g.#BestMealEver!). These searchable posts arrive to serve as reviews for a brand.

    Regramming: It is  suited practice, upon finding an Instagram fan who has posted a Great image with a rave review, to   hunt information from for permission to “regram” the photo on the hotel or restaurant account. Mobile apps  enjoy or Repost are specifically designed for ease of “regramming” and properly crediting the original photographer.   hunt information from the original photographer for permission to share the photo as a  course of initiating engagement, trust, and loyalty. (Image via #Tremont647 Instagram results)

    Regramming: It is suited practice, upon finding an Instagram fan who has posted a Great image with a rave review, to hunt information from for permission to “regram” the photo on the hotel or restaurant account. Mobile apps enjoy or Repost are specifically designed for ease of “regramming” and properly crediting the original photographer. hunt information from the original photographer for permission to share the photo as a course of initiating engagement, trust, and loyalty. (Image via #TellersIslip Instagram results)

    In addition to Instagram, visually-focused tools enjoy Pinterest and YouTube can powerfully convey a message and brand through strong imagery. Pinterest uses virtual bulletin boards for brands and users to showcase and categorize images of everything from places to products. Hospitality brands can employ these platforms to highlight amenities that are best shared visually. In determining which platforms to employ and how to employ them, it is vital to research the primary audience that uses each platform. For example, Facebook is most used by audiences ages 29-40; Twitter is used by those 18-29 years old. With the requisite demographics in mind, brands can subsist more effective in selecting proper photography, imagery, and copy to capture the attention of the targeted markets.

    Managing and Monitoring gregarious Media

    There are dozens of programs available to succor manage and monitor gregarious accounts such as Hootsuite and Buffer. These programs can organize each gregarious account (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and stream information based on certain criteria. For example, in Hootsuite, a stream can subsist set-up just to expose Tweets in which a particular brand is mentioned. Another could subsist established to expose only Instagram posts that employ a specific crusade hashtag, such as Marriott’s #TravelBrilliantly. Most notably, the platform allows for posts to subsist pre-scheduled, creating continuity of messaging on various gregarious sites. After content is posted, analysis and data features enable marketers to assess which posts are most effective or necessity to subsist changed.

    LMA Communications founder Larry Mogelonsky contends that marketing will eventually subsist “limited to infographics, photos and videos.” (, 12/2015). Every action will subsist built around mobile devices. There will subsist scant text and descriptions on websites. Infographics will subsist used to define and provide most technical information. This prediction into the future of content reminds marketers to maintain content visual, meaningful, and tight.

    Online Review Sites

    Consumers depend heavily on the reviews from others in their online communities. Consequently, brand-presence on a user generated content (UGC) site enjoy TripAdvisor and Yelp is extremely important. In as such asAs customers who post reviews acquire the potential to subsist brand advocates, there is an ever-growing necessity to learn how to properly engage with online reviews and comments. Replying to positive reviews and addressing complaints or faultfinding comments transmits a tone of confidence to a UGC community. According to industry expert and Rouse Media president Glenn Haussman, the impact of a customer rating three stars versus four stars on Yelp or TripAdvisor can subsist a significant impact to a restaurant’s bottom line.

    Some hotel companies hire firms to monitor online brand reputation and respond to customer inquiries, guest comments and create guest surveys. Providing particular analytics, vendors such as ReviewPro can succor hoteliers prioritize operations and service enhancements to deliver more memorable guest experiences. These companies can create complete assessments of guest feedback, enabling organizations to ameliorate rankings on TripAdvisor and OTA’s with the goal of boosting revenues and differentiating from their competitors.

    The Langham Hotel in Boston, Mass. regularly responds to both compliments and concerns from its guests on Trip Advisor. The Langham Hotel in Boston, Mass. regularly responds to both compliments and concerns from its guests on Trip Advisor. E-Mail Marketing

    E-mail continues to provide a successful tactic to achieve recent customers and reinforce relationships with current customers. Travel intelligence platforms, such as Adara, acquire access to loyalty program data, historical purchase patterns and other significant information that can aid in building strong customer profiles. With guest data, special offers through targeted emails can subsist personalized to achieve express audiences – not due to specific purchases, but rather based on buying habits made over time. When customers receive emails that are designed especially for them, and in ways in which they interact with the hotel or restaurant, it can enhance the likelihood of restate business. effective email campaigns, with the succor of firms enjoy Revinate, can boost the rate at which customers open targeted emails, click-though to a company’s on-line tender and hopefully convert (book) the business.

    So Much More to Learn

    There are many lessons to learn from this tip of the iceberg sight at digital marketing. The following are immediate take-aways:

    1. Technology changes so rapidly, it is well-known to continually learn.

    2. It’s well-known to labor collaboratively. Hospitality marketers must surround themselves with vendors and partners who are equally pushing for mutual success

    3. Remain unruffled and confident, willing to experiment and modify when necessary. When decisions or tactics don’t look effective or produce results, it is perfectly acceptable to change paths. Just give recent channels some time to work.

    4. The choices and options for marketing are overwhelming – carry out not attempt to employ every channel and spread yourself and the brand too thin. Select a few preempt marketing or gregarious media channels. carry out not attempt to employ every channel because that will spread human resources and fiscal resources, as well as the brand itself.

    5. achieve out for professional expertise along the way. hunt information from colleagues to share best practices for a robust exchange of ideas and solutions.

    6. effective marketing alone is not enough. Product quality, service, undergo and the investment of manpower, time, and/or capital will always subsist necessary to maintain quality, guest satisfaction, and long term success.

    [1] Sean McKutchen. (2015, December 22). Digital Marketers Deal With Shifting Landscape, Hotel tidings Network. Lanz  recent 2016Leora Halpern Lanz is the president of LHL Communications, a hospitality content marketing, branding and media relations advisory firm. LHL clients include hotels, hospitality investment conferences, leisure products, hotel management companies as well as other industry related services. Previously, for 15 years Leora served as global director of marketing and head of the marketing drill for hospitality consulting giant HVS. Prior to HVS, she  served for 10 years as director of public relations and advertising for ITT Sheraton Hotels of recent York and for 5 years as director of public relations for the Greater Boston Convention &Visitors Bureau. She is currently moreover a full-time lecturer at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration.

    Tagged digital marketing, E-commerce, Hotel Marketing, gregarious media

    January 8th, 2016 in traffic Practices, Restaurants, Technology, Winter 2016

    Will technology disruption in the back-of-house enhance

    Is the next innovative disruption going to subsist found in the back-of-house?

    by Makaela Reinke

    Opening the door to the highly acclaimed fine-dining restaurant Eastern touchstone is akin to drawing back the curtain of a Broadway musical: the lights are dimmed, the music starts, and your attention is captivated by the splendid set before you. Your spirit is soothed by the muted ruby reds and royal purples that greet you, and profound shadows cast by glamorous chandeliers further erase the memories of a tiring day. The long, granite-topped bar harkens back to days of elegance, while the modern, stunning hosts, servers, and sommeliers are experts in their performance as cast and crew guiding you through a truly sensual experience. The meal is an indulgence to your taste buds, the wine an illumination to your tongue, and the entire undergo restorative to the soul. You leave the restaurant reluctantly as the candles char low, already planning your return.

    Like many of the finer things in life, such as a classic car, an Old-Master painting, or a poignant jazz performance, the fine dining undergo has changed puny in the past century. A certain degree of expectation accompanies one’s conception of “fine dining,” and this expectation differentiates fine dining from merely “going out for dinner.” This expectation does not merely include food property or preparation; it does not claim a specific setting or menu, wine list or top-shelf bottle of Scotch. Rather, the expectation is more an overall property of experience, and interestingly enough, it is the pellucid unchanging nature of both “fine dining” and “eating out” that is noteworthy and puzzling. Eating out looks much enjoy it always has, even amidst today’s storms of disruptive and breakthrough models. How is it that while so much of their world changes, the traffic of eating has essentially stayed the same? Has the restaurant industry been affected by disruptive models at all?

    Disruption capitalizes on improving the efficiency of existing systems as seen with the success in other branches of the hospitality industry: transportation (Uber) and lodging (Airbnb). Uber and Airbnb acquire achieved remarkable success because their systems capitalize on independence and convenience for the traveler. In both models the customer does not necessity to depend on a system operated by another party (hotels, hostels, taxis, etc.) but instead can subsist the captains of their own kismet by calling their Uber and booking their dream linger without third-party fees. Even more conveniently, these innovative models are utilized through the employ of smart technology and online interactions. The restaurant, however, cannot exist online, and the successful restaurant is as much experiential as it is product-based. Any adaptation of the restaurant model (pre-ordering, tablets on tables, etc.) acquire not lasted very long as they tarnish the very essence of a dining experience. A right meal in any self-respecting restaurant is tech-free, engaging, authentic, and sensory.

    This leaves quite the challenge for any entrepreneur looking to interlard innovative, disruptive models into the restaurant world without tainting the sanctity of the experience. The reality, however, is that perhaps the front-of-house model does not necessity innovation. Instead, it may subsist the back-of-house that could profit from some disruptive thinking. Eli Feldman, a 2001 SHA alum, recognized this early on. A former restaurateur himself, Eli is very close with the operations and service philosophy that restaurants hold so dear. This however, is what gave him the view for his start-up platform, Clothbound.

    Clothbound is an online platform that connects potential employees with restaurants. Similar to, it provides a convenient, simple job board specifically for the restaurant industry. Finding reliable, talented staff takes up more time and distress than most employers would enjoy to admit. With a current nation-wide turnover rate for 66% (according to the U.S. Labor Department) this time and distress amounts to an enormous monetary and time cost for restaurants that necessity to re-hire over half of their staff each year, essentially causing a bottle-neck in the employment process and productivity. Clothbound looks to lower this rate by helping employers find potential staff by searching ‘tags’ of skill sets, personality traits, and employment history allowing them to filter through candidates more easily. In short, Clothbound is innovating the current human resource model for restaurants. Throughout everything of this process however, Eli and his team acquire continued to recognize the consequence of the human component of the restaurant industry. Clothbound does not supersede a human’s job. It connects the right person to the right job so that they can succor the restaurant become more efficient in providing a personal undergo to the customer.


    The userprofile on Clothbound makes it easy for employers and job-seekers to find each other based on skills and interests. Image via Clothbound.

    Restaurants thrive because of their human component. They are vital art, culinary museums that only exist when people provide a product through considerate service. This is why other ‘disruptive’ technologies acquire not seen success in the market: they try to remove the human element through the employ of iPads at tables or ordering kiosks. But these sorts of models will only achieve initial success in fast-casual settings when the customer is looking to receive food quickly. For those looking for the bona fide dining experience, technology will not tamper with that any time soon. Clothbound’s model though, which disrupts the system behind the scenes, is nascence to construct its mark. Zagat most recently recognized Kelly Daigle, co-founder of Clothbound, in their 30 under 30 list of Boston’s finest, acknowledging her innovative thinking and impact on the market. Clothbound’s technological platform is bringing the restaurant network to a digital space, effectively bringing together the two networks of employers and their potential staff.


    Using Clothbound’s tagging system, Eastern touchstone can strategically post openings on the recent platform. Image via Clothbound.

    This means that restaurants can now become more selective in respect to their hiring practices. With access to more qualified staff who will moreover subsist a better fortunate in the company, restaurants will note additional benefits emerge over time: devoted staff, higher levels of customer service, higher restaurant reviews, and lower turnover rates, which extend the bottom line. The employment process now becomes more sustainable as labor costs subside and the staff become more efficient, eventually reaching a higher level of service. These employees, already a ‘best fit’ for the company, are more likely to receive promotions and positions within the company. Now they acquire the introduction of a skilled workforce in this hospitality sector, many of whom are already graduates with hospitality degrees.

    Danny Meyer, CEO of the Union Square Hospitality Group and recent York City restaurant Entrepreneur recognizes this shift in the service industry. He has just recently set everything of his servers onto salary, announcing that not a thing of them will accept tips. To him, their expertise deserves not only a higher vital wage but moreover secure full-time employment. “There’s not a more well-known stakeholder to gain right than their staff” he said in an interview with recent York Eater. By poignant his staff to salary positions, Meyer is recognizing his staff as a skilled workforce with his own disruptive behind-the-scenes model. This has introduced flaming debate over sustainable traffic production and increased minimum wage, neither of which will fade any time soon. The issue of inadequate wages for these over-qualified employees is gaining attention, which in itself may give momentum to another disruptive movement as employees claim a vital wage for their top-quality service. But with a revenue extend of 4.2% in the fine-dining industry in the past year, supporting skilled workers has become vitally well-known as restaurants compete to become the best of their markets.

    Danny Meyer, CEO of Union Square Hospitality Group is causing a shift in the restaurant industry by doing away with tipping in return for higher salaries.

    Danny Meyer, CEO of Union Square Hospitality Group is causing a shift in the restaurant industry by doing away with tipping in return for higher salaries. (Photo via Wiki/Financial Times)

    And as restaurants bring in more qualified staff to their businesses, there is the captivating domino-effect that now provides an break to re-approach the culture of each restaurant. Restaurants are now taking a proactive approach to fostering recent labor culture for the staff they acquire brought to the company. Many restaurants are now implementing learning programs: bartending classes, wine service seminars, increased menu comprehension. In hiring the ‘right people’ for the job, the company is moreover taking liberties to nurse the ‘right culture’ for a restaurant to create an atmosphere that encourages server participation, teamwork, and internal promotions.

    The result of this back-door disruption is due mostly to consumers. Consumers want to undergo memorable service. As restaurants chase to meet these expectations they must in rotate provide service that is trustworthy and organic. And here they note the break for restaurants to innovate their former systems of recruiting, hiring, training, and retention of staff in the company. This is a vulnerable turning point for the industry as it takes edge of this time to re-define what it means to labor in food service. Chefs are nascence to receive more recognition, servers are set on salaries, and hospitality and traffic degrees are prerequisites for entry-level positions. The outcome is a highly efficient workplace with a skilled workforce that wants to subsist in the restaurant doing what they carry out best. Restaurants are taking better confidence of their employees everything because of consumers who claim higher property of service, which allows restaurants to become more selective of their team. This is already present in other branches of the hospitality industry: Disney is known for its positive, ‘can-do’ cast, and Ritz-Carlton for its elite professionalism among even the hourly employees. property restaurants are looking to associate their ranks; introducing new, disruptive service models has simply taken its time. Innovation and disruption of the restaurant industry must chance slowly and cautiously. Any restaurateur worth his breadsticks will protect his space. However, he will moreover sight for creative ways to reduce costs and extend the service value. And while the tradition of food service may not change within the next decade or so, it is pellucid that recent models of employment are nascence to acquire a presence in the industry.


    As consumers hope higher property of service, restaurants can subsist more selective in their hiring and build innovative traffic models. (Photo by J. Annie Wang)

    In this they note the undeniable relation between disruption, innovation, and culture. Creative disruption has provided space for innovation which now leads to a new, exciting labor culture that will appeal to both sides of the employment relationship. If everything goes well this means the next time you fade out to eat, sight for the behind-the-scenes disruption models not in the food you eat, but in those who bring you the food. labor culture will bleed into the performance of the front-of-house service, drawing guests to consume out again and again. Restaurants, if they capitalize on these innovative models, will note success as they impress their audience with their artistic expression of the traditional dining undergo that will surely deserve a standing ovation.

    ReinkeMakaela Reinke is a student at the School of Hospitality Administration, class of 2016. Having worked at both tiny cafes and larger restaurants, she is excited about where the industry is going. As right Bostonian at heart, she enjoys exploring the city one restaurant at a time. 

    Tagged Clothbound, Danny Meyers, Eli Feldman, restaurants, Union Square Hospitality Group

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    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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