9L0-614 exam Dumps Source : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Test Code : 9L0-614
Test appellation : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Vendor appellation : Apple
: 67 true Questions
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Apple has posted a back word titled “put together for alterations to macOS Server,” and boy are they not kidding about great changes coming. In an supplant to macOS Server due in “spring 2018,” Apple will deprecate ten functions via hiding them on novel installations. in case you’ve already configured one of the most deprecated features, you’ll live in a position to hold using it in that replace.
In a future unencumber of macOS Server, Apple will hobble extra and hold away the deprecated capabilities completely. The writing is on the wall — it’s time to start discovering alternate options.
The deprecated features are:
For each, Apple’s assist live alert links to alternatives, youngsters I’m unavoidable the Mac admin community could hold extra assistance and ideas. if you’re no longer already in a solitary of these corporations, i fancy to recommend the MacEnterprise mailing listing and the MacAdmins Slack team.
If I’m diffing appropriately, the features as a way to remain in macOS Server include these three (Apple didn’t convoke out application supplant for elimination, however’s already hidden, so it looks destined for the slicing shroud as well):
That record is in accordance with Apple’s statement that “macOS Server is altering to focus more on management of computers, instruments, and storage in your network.”
Over at Krypted, Charles side has been retaining a web page that tracks the ebb and rush of services in Server over time. The number peaked relatively a number of revisions ago and has been losing ever when you deem that. in part, that’s as a result of Apple has moved a number of capabilities into macOS for outright to design utilize of, notably content material Caching and Time computing device Server.
as a result of Apple’s evident requisite of activity in macOS Server in fresh years, few americans are shocked via Apple’s announcement. youngsters, many are distressed by way of it since it sends a troubling message to minuscule businesses that hold lengthy relied on OS X Server and macOS Server. Consultants and IT admins who counseled, installed, and maintained these macOS Server setups are concerned about having to research, set up, and sustain with the wide diversity of apps vital to change outright of the capabilities that macOS Server supplied in a solitary coherent kit. and naturally, besides the fact that the options are improved technically, stirring to them would require non-trivial investments of time and money.
Are you the utilize of OS X Server or macOS Server now? What’s your way for dealing with losing these features? relate us in the feedback.
Are you dealing with challenge in sending and receiving Cox electronic mail from your Mac OS X EI Capitan? If yes, then comply with the steps mentioned in this post to supplant your server settings as a result of your problem could live happening as a result of server supplant issue.
Updating a server will most probably repair your issue and you will live in a position to ship and receive the messages to your Cox com login.
follow the beneath-outlined steps to edit the incoming and outgoing e mail server settings of your Mac 10.eleven OS.Server settings to acquire mail on account:
The steps to edit the settings are explained beneath. You hold to pay variety consideration to each and each step.
· Open the software folder in your Mac machine and faucet on mail. click on the dock purchasable at the bottom of the screen to open the mail.
· hobble to ‘preferences’ from the cox aid drop down menu.
· Now, click on on ‘debts’ and hobble to Cox e-mail login to choose the specific account for modifying.
· Now complete the under-outlined projects:
Ø hobble to ‘superior tab’.
Ø Uncheck the box, which says ‘immediately realize the account and change settings’.
Ø you are going to find the red coterie on the properly left of window display. click on on it.
Ø eventually, click on ‘keep’ to rescue the ameliorations.
· again click on ‘preferences’ from the drop down menu of your Cox account. in case you learn any issue in locating the issues to your machine, then that you can hold Cox email advocate from the provider officials as well.
· hobble to the ‘account’ area.
· Enter the username, identify of the server, and password within the crucial field. you can hold further aid from the Cox lead hyperlink.
· once more click on on the red coterie to rescue the adjustments, you made recently together with your account server.
· Now exit the window and check out sending the mail to your cox account out of your Gmail or from other mail service provider.Server settings to ship emails out of your account:
The settings to dispatch e mail from your account are being discussed here as below:
· hobble to app folder again from your home monitor and click on on ‘mail’ icon from the backside of the reveal.
· click ‘preferences’ to alternate the settings. If the updating technique is not executing effectively, then that you can determine your cyber web connection or convoke at cox web lead number.
· Now comply with the selfsame procedure as followed for the aged settings i: e, open the money owed section and click on on the unavoidable account you are looking to edit.
· under SMTP box, investigate the appellation being displayed with the aid of clicking on the arrows obtainable subsequent to the Outgoing mail server field.
· finished here job now:
Ø choose the prerogative SMTP server from the server listing.
Ø hobble to the ‘superior’ tab.
Ø Uncheck the container with option ‘automatically detect and alter the account settings’
word: if you locate that the settings are once again modified to instantly become alert of mode after re-opening the mail app out of your apple gadget, then outright you requisite to achieve is alternate the authentication category for your mail outgoing server. change it to password authentication class from the MD5 response authentication.
· determine the server settings before finally submitting it. you could hobble to Cox tv advocate link for more details.
· click ‘adequate’ adopted by ‘store’ to rescue the modified settings of your outgoing server.
· determine the field which says ‘Use this server only’. And the outgoing server may soundless live appropriately selected.
· once more click on the pink circular button on the top of the account settings monitor.
· signal out from outright accounts of the mailbox box.
· Now open the mailbox again and signal onto outright accounts.
· Exit and re-open the mail app on Mac.
In both Mac OS X Server and customer variations, Samba allows Macs to participate files with windows valued clientele on the community and entry home windows file servers. It has too later allowed Mac OS X Server to labor as an NT domain Controller to control network debts and design roaming profiles and home directories accessible to home windows notebook clients.
besides the fact that children, the Samba crew has moved energetic construction of the assignment to the extra strict GPLv3 license, which prevents Apple from realistically the usage of the utility commercially.
builders file that Apple has internally formally introduced that it is going to drag Samba from Mac OS X Lion and Lion Server, and change it with home windows networking application developed by means of Apple. the brand novel alternative for Samba is declared to live named SMBX, and supports Microsoft's more moderen SMB2 edition of its proprietary but overtly posted protocol, which was at the mount released in home windows Vista.
while Mac OS X's previous Samba simplest supported the customary SMB1, Microsoft's novel SBM2 is each sooner and greater productive, reducing the number of instructions and subcommands from over 100 to just 19, while adding pipelining of instructions (to greater correctly transact over late hyperlinks), back for symbolic links, caching of file houses, and bigger storage fields helping superior performance of tremendous file transfers over quick networks.
Apple's home windows file sharing utility in Lion will continue to allow Macs to both supply and entry home windows-fashion file shares, but reportedly will no longer aid the NT locality Controller features of Samba, which relate to Microsoft's 1990's, NT-era directory carrier supported in foster of lively listing, which became launched alongside windows 2000.
despite its age, some networks soundless utilize NT locality Controller configurations because of its relative simplicity compared to Microsoft's greater up to date energetic directory. Apple is now talked about to live recommending energetic directory to clients who are soundless elegant upon the older NT domain Controller community directory services.
however, the edition of Samba Apple had been the utilize of averted Macs from seamlessly working with contemporaneous PCs operating windows 7, which include safety changes in how encryptions protocols work. Apple's personal application may not live confined via the design issue of Samba.
end users may conceivably obtain Samba on their own and integrate it into their Mac OS X ambiance themselves, however Samba doesn't presently deliver able to utilize binaries for Mac OS X, and a simple port of Samba would requisite Apple's effortless to design utilize of person interface and tense integration with other Apple software, together with Open listing, the business's own listing capabilities answer.
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OpenVPN is famously difficult to rate up and running, but the veracity is that it needn’t be. In this second and concluding OpenVPN article I am going to hobble through what it takes to rate an OpenVPN Ethernet tunnel set up between a laptop computer and an office or home machine acting as an OpenVPN server.Downloading and Installing OpenVPN
Before you can rate OpenVPN running on any computer you requisite to download and install it:Creating a Public Key Infrastructure
Once you’ve got OpenVPN successfully installed, it’s time to build the public key infrastructure needed for certificate-based authentication. If you don’t know what this means, don’t worry: just ensue the instructions. A fuller explanation can live institute at http://openvpn.net/index.php/documentation/howto.html#pki
To rate started, you’ll requisite to utilize the Easy-RSA PKI suite.
On Windows machines you’ll find it at: C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa
On Linux machines this will probably live installed in an easy-rsa directory machines at /usr/share/doc/packages/opevpn or /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.0, but it’s a obliging notion to hobble this to /etc/openvpn to obviate it getting overwritten by future updates.Generating the Master Certificate Authority (CA) Certificate & Key
Windows: From the Start button select cmd, and in the command window type:
cd "C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa
Linux/BSD/UNIX: Open a terminal window and type
(assuming you hold moved the easy-rsa directory to this location)
Then kind the following commands, followed by return:
Windows:init-config vars clean-all build-ca
Linux/BSD/UNIX:./init-config ./vars ./clean-all ./build-ca
The last command will invoke a window which will quiz for a chain of values. You can press the revert key to enter the default values for outright of these except the value for Common Name. For this, type: TestVPNGenerating the Server and Client Certificates and Keys
Then next step is to generate a server certificate and key, again using the Easy-RSA suite. The command for this is:
In the interactive session that follows, simply press Enter to provide the default value each time, until you are asked for a Common Name. For Common appellation enter “server” , then continue entering the default values until prompted to sign the certificate. respond “y” to this question and to the following one to finish.
Then generate the certificate and key for your client machine. The process is similar to the one for edifice the server certificate and key, but this time enter client1 as the common name.
If you deem you may want to access the OpenVPN server from more than one laptop, reiterate the process, replacing client2 or client3 for client1 each time.
The final step is to generate Diffie-Hellman parameters for key exchange:
You’ll find the results of outright this labor in a subfolder called keys in the easy-rsa folder, and the final job is to hobble the client key and certificate to your client device. The files in question are client1.key and client1.crt. (If you hold created more than one client certificate key and certificate, hobble the client2.key and client2.crt files to the second machine, and so on.)
Your public key infrastructure is now set up.Creating the OpenVPN Configuration Files
When OpenVPN runs it reads a configuration file at c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or in /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix). This text file contains outright the information OpenVPN needs to know to design or receive a connection, so it’s crucial that these files are correct.
The easiest way to rate OpenVPN working in the way they want is to edit the highlighted lines in the following config files to match your network setup, rescue them as a text file and copy them to the preempt location.
Server configuration file:#server config file start
local 192.168.1.15 # Change this address to the IP address of the network card attached to your router. To ensure this does not change you requisite either to hold a static local IP address, or to configure your router to always assign this local IP address to your server.
port 1194 # This is the port OpenVPN will Run on. Change it to a different port if you prefer
push "dhcp-option DNS XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX" # supplant the Xs with the IP address of the DNS server for your network
push "dhcp-option DNS YYY.YYY.YYY.YYY" # supplant the Xs with the IP address of the secondary DNS server for your network
ca "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\ca.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn (without quotation marks) for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
cert "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
key "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.key" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
dh "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\dh1024.pem" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems
server 192.168.10.0 255.255.255.128 # This will live the virtual IP address and subnet of the server’s OpenVPN connection. Change it to something similar fancy 192.168.11.0 if this subnet is already in useifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt push "redirect-gateway def1" keepalive 10 120
cipher BF-CBC # Blowfish (default)If you prefer, you can utilize one of the two ciphers listed below (which must live the selfsame as the client)#cipher AES-128-CBC # AES #cipher DES-EDE3-CBC # Triple-DES comp-lzo max-clients 3 # Change the 3 to the number of client keys you hold created persist-key persist-tun status openvpn-status.log # user nobody # remove the # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems # group nobody # remove the first # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems verb 1 #config file ends
Save this file as server.ovpn, and hobble it to c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix)What to achieve If You Don’t hold a Static Public IP Address
OpenVPN clients connect to the OpenVPN server using a public IP address or host appellation that needs to live entered into the client config file. If your ISP provides your industry or home network with a dynamic IP address that changes each time an Internet connection is reset then your client config will no longer labor after a reconnection. To rate round this you can rate a free hostname from DynDNS which automatically points to your dynamic IP address, even when it changes. To rate a dynamic host appellation (such as myhost.dyndns.org) visit http://www.dyndns.com.
Pity the minuscule office when it comes to technology. With anywhere from several to several dozen employees, there's often no budget for an IT director to manage outright the network services required for a modern company of any size. Offices may requisite to ply email, file-sharing, calendar and contacts hosting, collaboration tools, and other matters. Especially in this economy, how can an office of that size—perhaps your office?—afford the technician needed to install and preserve a Microsoft Server 2008 installation on the rails, plus the initial cost in per-seat licenses. Unix and Linux distributions may live free or hold relatively inexpensive purchase and service contracts, but you pay for that in requiring more expertise in house or on demand.
That may lead firms to Google's door, turning to Web hosted services via Google Apps. But the $50 per-user, per-year fee can add up, and Google Apps doesn't tender everything a minuscule industry needs. Some companies may not want to hobble this route, or may live topic to regulatory issues that obviate proprietary or confidential data from being located offsite with Google—or anyone. That seems to leave a great niche in which companies want an affordable product that runs on commodity hardware and doesn't requisite the constant ministrations of an IT expert, even if one's required to set it up.
Apple has such a product, Mac OS X Server, but has been infirm at exploiting this niche despite the server's long history. Apple has focused instead on advocate for great corporations' enterprise networks, data heart and cluster use, and academic deployments. Releases before version 10.6 (Snow Leopard) had numerous difficulties for those who couldn't quickly fire up a command line and start entering commands from memory. Further, OS X Server was often too focused on providing services for networks mostly comprised of Macs; a lot of lip service was paid to Windows support, but it's only seemingly fully matured in 10.6.
But what makes OS X Server 10.6 a perfectly reasonable option for small-to-medium-sized businesses is novel pricing coupled with a custom Mac mini configuration. For $999, you can buy a perfectly speedy office server with a full, unlimited-seat license.
In this review, I spy at a few specific aspects of the Mac mini server model and OS X Server as they relate to sub-enterprise-scale networks, especially where IT staff back isn't assumed. I too tender you two key tips for fixing problems in OS X Server that tripped me up during testing.
(This is not a replete review of OS X Server, which would hold many tens of thousands of words and months of testing, much fancy John Siracusa's in-depth OS X client reviews.)Hardware, OS, and Pricing
The Mac mini server—its replete appellation is the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server—brings together two divide developments: a substantial cost gash for OS X Server and increasingly powerful Mac mini models that hold the gumption to labor as servers.
Before 10.6, Apple charged $999 for its unlimited user license, and $499 for a 10-user version. The 10-user limit, however, applied only to simultaneous logins for unavoidable kinds of services, including AFP (Apple Filing Protocol), Apple's indigenous file-sharing service. The 10.6 release threw that pricing out the window. There's one version of OS X Server 10.6: $499 for an unlimited user version. OS X Server can live installed on nearly any system capable of running the regular version of Snow Leopard (which itself costs $29 for a 10.5 Leopard upgrade version that could live used for a replete installation). OS X Server since 10.5 can too live virtualized with one paid license per virtualization; the $499 cost makes virtualization cheaper, too.
By comparison, Windows minuscule industry Server 2008 comes in two editions (naturally) for either $1,089 (standard) or $1,899 (premium) with five client licenses, and charges $77 or $189 respectively for each additional client license. The premium version includes Microsoft SQL Server 2008 for minuscule businesses, and, because MySQL is included with OS X Server, one could wrangle the premium version is most comparable.
The Mac mini Server ($999) is the other development. Before this particular model, Apple shipped only one yardstick server system in multiple configurations with a replete software license included: its rack-mounted Xserve (starting at $2,999), designed for server rooms and data centers. Until an update in March 2009, the Mac mini was too underpowered to ply multiple server tasks, although the mini was often institute in data centers.
If you're weren't racking your server, then an iMac or Mac Pro could serve, but both models can live overkill. The Mac Pro can live purchased in a build-to-order configuration starting at $2,999 with OS X Server installed, but the Mac Pro has a tough graphics orientation, designed to live best used by 2D, 3D, and video professionals. An iMac can ply OS X Server, too, but you're paying for a built-in monitor you likely don't need.
The March 2009 Mac mini update gave the tiny desktop true performance, bringing it reasonably proximate to iMac system specs. The October 2009 Mac mini update bumped specs and made the server pricing labor with Mac mini server.
For $999, you rate a 2.53 GHz Intel Core Duo, 4GB of 1066 MHz DDR3 RAM, two 500GB drives, one FireWire 800 port and five USB 2.0 ports, gigabit Ethernet, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR, and Wi-Fi (802.11n).
The server flavor omits an internal CD/DVD drive, which Apple sells as a USB attachment for $99; the second 500GB hard drive fills the optical drive's space. Instead of the external optical drive, you can utilize the networked CD/DVD feature—Remote Disc—that was added for the MacBook Air. Mount a disc on computer elsewhere on the network with CD/DVD sharing enabled—separate software for Windows or via the Sharing system preference pane in Mac OS X—and the mini can mount it and even install a novel operating system from it.Two mistakes
Apple made only two missteps on system specs. First, a server nearly always does better with more memory, and while 4GB isn't unreasonable, an 8GB top circumscribe would hold been better if it were possible. Several Mac tech sites hold tested putting in 8GB without any trouble, but Apple doesn't advocate such a configuration, which means future versions of Snow Leopard could unintentionally antecedent trouble. (The worst wretchedness I hold had in 9 years of running OS X has been with system updates and incompatible third-party RAM.)
The second stumble is by limiting the Mac mini to 5400 rpm drives, the selfsame as are used on the low finish in laptops, instead of widely available 7200 rpm drives. Servers benefit from faster drives because disk i/o runs continuously with many different sizes and types of file operations.
It may hold been a heat issue, because the retail contrast in cost can live as microscopic as $20 to $30 per drive, and Apple would pay some fraction of that. However, it likely would hold boosted the mini's street cost by $50 to $100, and that may hold been seen as unacceptable.
The issue of RAM and drive speed are interrelated. More RAM would expand caching and reduce disk accesses; a faster drive would design a system with less RAM labor more efficiently.
Apple should deem offering a higher-end mini for what would likely live $1,299 to $1,399 with two 7200 rpm drives and 8GB.
When I spoke to Apple about drive performance, product managers famed that the unit includes a FireWire 800 port. Several of my colleagues who hold tested similar configurations inform that external FireWire 800 drives could outperform an internal drive. Apple is offering the swear SmartStor DS4600 RAID system alongside the mini for $799 with four 7200-rpm 1 TB drives, and two FireWire 800 ports. The device can live hardware-configured for mirroring, performance, or redundancy.
For networked Time Machine backups across an office network, this add-on might decipher two problems reasonably affordably. Four 1TB drives purchased separately can cost as much as $350 to $450 with no cases and without hardware RAID support.Booting up for the first time
I hold the edge in this review of testing two divide Mac mini servers. One I purchased days after the release of the model when it appeared as if a Mac mini I utilize for handling backups of Linux servers via Retrospect—don't ask—had given up the ghost. I had wanted to consolidate mail service, DNS, and a handful of other services onto a newer system, stirring the functions from a Linux server, so I took the plunge. (My older Mac mini wasn't dead, only resting.)
How Apple Tries to design It Easy
The other system was a short-term loan from Apple, which let me compare and contrast a machine I'd configured to Run with a pristine installation. In both cases, I didn't migrate any files from other systems, just test functions.
The Mac mini server is precisely fancy its non-server brethren. It's a squat square. You unpack it, plug in a power supply and an included mini-DVI to DVI adapter, hook up a monitor, keyboard, and mouse, and you're ready to go.
Set-up for a preinstalled copy of OS X Server is very much fancy the first boot for a client OS X system. You walk through a very minuscule number of settings, enter registration information, and create an account that can live used to administer the system. OS X Server, fancy outright of Apple's industry and professional products, has a serial number that must live entered; it's then confirmed with Apple over the Internet. As Part of setup, you respond a very few questions about what services you want to use, but you can change those choices later.
It's most likely that a server won't hold a permanent "head" or monitor, so after the initial start up, I activate my MobileMe account in system preferences and rotate on Back to My Mac, as well as Screen Sharing in the Sharing preference pane. (Back to My Mac only works with a solitary MobileMe account, so it's not yardstick for situations in which you hold multiple people who requisite remote access. Screen Sharing otherwise requires a publicly reachable IP address or port mapping that connects a public IP on a router to your server's screen-sharing port.)Server Preferences
Mac OS X Server has always been a bit of a suffer to manage. Apple uses largely open-source and free software packages which the solid overlays with what can sometimes live a thin layer of graphical interface. OS X Server splits management between Server Admin, which handles software services, log files, and the like, and Workgroup Manager, which controls users and groups, and the policies that relate to them.
In the 10.5 server release, Apple tried to design simple server setup even more straightforward by offering a control panel interface for outright the basics, called Server Preferences. You could start with Server Preferences, and graduate to Server Admin if simple wasn't enough. But there was a catch: once you started using the more sophisticated management interface, you could never utilize Server Preferences again.This cousin of System Preferences provides simple options for configuring powerful services. But it may not live enough.
In 10.6, Apple remedied this. You can utilize either configuration tool interchangeably. The bigger contrast between the two is that Server Preferences works only locally on the computer on which it's running; Server Admin and Workgroup Manager connect via an IP address or hostname regardless of the machine on which they operate.
To utilize Server Preferences, just click the icon in the dock. Server Admin is in the Server folder too located on the dock to the right. You can download server tools separately for any computer from Apple, or install from a disk included with the server. Launch Server Admin, enter the server's IP or domain name, and an administrative username and password to connect, while optionally storing the data for later use.
Server Preferences requires that you trust Apple on its default settings, especially regarding security, although that may not live a immoral stake to make. For local network iChat, Address Book, iCal, and other settings, that's not a terrible idea. For Mail, it can live a problem, and firewall settings of any true scope can't live set within Server Preferences.
I do, however, recommend setting up accounts and groups via the Users and Groups preferences in Server Preferences. The alternative is to utilize Workgroup Manager, which I soundless find difficult to utilize and which generates unpredictable results years after I've been wrestling with it. Workgroup Manager provides access to more varied and deep settings that most humans never requisite see, but it too works erratically.
OS X Server requires you to utilize Open Directory, a way of confederating accounts across systems and offering LDAP-based directory information to Address engage and other applications. You can too set up the system to labor on a standalone basis, where account information is stored in a local directory. After my experiences, I'd suggest going with the Apple flow, even though it may exhibit overkill.
Here's my first tip that will rescue you heartache should it chance to you. I had switched to utilize standalone local Open Directory authentication on my co-lo Mac mini server. After a restart when installing updates to Java and Safari, accounts other than the one set up at startup no longer accepted password authentication.
Fast forward four hours after consulting as many experts and sources as I could, and using Workgroup Manager to change passwords and check authentication settings. I had my hair pulled out when I decided to try the lowly System Preferences, because local account information is shown there as well. sure enough, changing the password there reset authentication systemwide.Setting up clients
When first setting up client Macs, OS X Server 10.6 has a well-kept trick. You can match identical account names that you add on the server to those of clients on the network. With the server active, a Mac OS X 10.6 client on startup or login with the selfsame appellation as any server account will live prompted to accept an invitation.OS X 10.6 automatically recognizes a server invite for same-named accounts, and can tender to set up several services.
If the client does accept, 10.6 configures itself with information from the server for outright local services, fancy Address Book, iCal, Mail, iChat, and others. This can too live done manually by sending an invitation to a user from the Users pane in Server Preferences. Older Macs and Windows systems will requisite to enter values manually in many cases; Apple's Mail software can often configure itself, however.
(Another tip: This auto-configure option will fail if you haven't given a true domain name—one that resolves via DNS from your local DNS servers or global DNS servers—to your Mac mini when you first set it up. Either set up a true appellation and enter it while configuring the Mac mini, or utilize the OS X Server as the DNS server for client computers to avoid this problem.)Security
I'm not a paranoid guy, but I hold grown to believe that every service available for remote connection should live secured by SSL/TLS. That's nearly always viable these days, and—with the exception of FTP—OS X Server lets you quite simply utilize a solitary server certificate to protect everything it offers over a local network and the Internet.
This starts with OS X Server generating a self-signed certificate as Part of the setup process after you give the server a local or fully qualified domain name. (A local appellation would live set into the local side of a DNS server for local resolution; a fully qualified appellation can live institute in public DNS, and looked up from anywhere. As famed above, I recommend you device this out before the initial OS X Server setup.)
A self-signed cert has a lot of limitations, of course, because it requires that every client connection from every program that uses SSL/TLS has to accept that the certificate is valid. Third-party certificate authority (CA) signed certificates are automatically validated because the CA authority certificate signatures are built into the operating system or client software.A self-signed certificate has to live trusted since there's no third party that's validating whether it's what it claims to be.
However, for local networks, that may not live that sizable of a bar. Apple has long offered system-wide trust of self-signed certificates. Once a cert is trusted, it can live used throughout Mac OS X. You can too rate a free cogent certificate from StartSSL, if you don't want to pay a recurring yearly fee for a LAN server's certificate.
You can add as many certificates as you want to OS X Server, installing and managing them in a limited fashion in Server Preferences, and with much greater ease in Server Admin. It's safe to inform that if you want to utilize two or more certificates, you requisite to utilize Server Admin to configure the secure portions of services fancy Mail.
Apple made it vastly easier to import certificates in OS X Server 10.6 with improvements on the back-end and the graphical presentation in Server Admin and Server Preferences. In 10.5, you had to navigate file paths. I've never cursed as much as when trying to rate OS X Server 10.5 to accept certificates. Here's an actual log entry I made in progress report for a publication site I back manage: "GAAAAAAAA! Server Admin!!! GAAAAH."
Apple tweaked this process to design it labor as a drag-and-drop operation in 10.6, where it too conveniently doesn't fail. An SSL/TLS certificate comprises your private key (which must live unencrypted for import), the server certificate provided by the CA, and sometimes a chain certificate for CAs that hold authority provided from another organization.
With those three files on hand, you simply drag the items in. In Server Preferences, click Information, click the Edit button to the prerogative of SSL Certificate, and select the pop-up menu particular Certificate Import > Import Certificate. In Server Admin, click the server's name, click the Certificates icon at top, click the + sign below the certificate list, and choose Import a Certificate Identity. Drag the preempt items into the box. The elements light up as you add them. Click Import. Voila.OS X Server 10.6's simplified certificate import is a huge improvement over the previous version, and facile for those without certificate lore to use.
All your SSL/TLS certificates are available for selection from outright the services which allow certificate-based tunneling for security. This includes Address Book, Web, and Mail, among others.FTP and firewalls
One omission is FTP. Apple supports plain FTP and Secure FTP (SFTP). plain FTP servers accept a user appellation and password in the lucid along with outright data, but a server administrator can circumscribe access to specific directories by user login, much as with AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) and Samba file sharing. SFTP is related to SSH (Secure Shell), and it allows secure file access, but to any file to which a user logging in over SSH would hold access. This can live quite insecure on some systems. (I recommend limiting SSH access, too, only to those who requisite it. Per-service account restrictions are set by clicking the server's appellation in Server Admin, then selecting Access.)
Apple should advocate FTP over SSL/TLS, which wraps natural FTP within a secure tunnel, and is well supported by FTP client software on every platform. It's an odd omission, and I confirmed with Apple's server team that the company doesn't include it. FTP can appear fancy a fussy aged great-aunt of a protocol, but it's soundless commonly used.
In addition to using certificate-based security, I believe that every server should hold an lively firewall to obviate adventitious access to resources that weren't intentionally made widely available. One could convoke this the Google index problem, after outright the documents that Google has snarfed for its index through carelessly exposed Web servers.
Unfortunately, Apple's firewall service is difficult to utilize except for advanced users who may requisite to apply to the command line for more information or configuration.
From Server Preferences, you can enable a quite simple version of the Firewall via the Security pane. Apple lets you hold control of one of its models of Wi-Fi ground station on the network if you're using that as your path to the Internet, setting up port-based restrictions there with microscopic fuss. Or you can utilize its firewall security where the servers locally set firewall parameters.The simplified firewall probably isn't enough for robust protection, while Server Admin's controls are too confusing for those without deep expertise.
Switching to Server Admin is more satisfying, but too more complicated. If you've never had any low-level firewall experience, figuring out which services to allow open access to using ports and interface numbers, the interface doesn't provide enough cues to set things up correctly.
After turning on the firewall for my co-lo mini server, I institute that Retrospect 8 backups from clients at the co-lo failed. An ancient entry in the simplified Services tab—which shows a long list of services with descriptions and checkboxes to rotate on and off—was labeled Dantz Retrospect (the Dantz appellation is years out of date as owners hold changed). It seemed to open the revise port—497—but clients soundless couldn't connect.
I enabled logging for denied packets, and saw that the server was rejecting inbound packets on the prerogative port. That meant I had to hobble to the Advanced tab and utilize a special dialog to configure inbound access. This dialog has long been a problem because it features popup menus which, after you set outright values and click OK, exhibit different values or no values at all when edited, even though the entry is apparently revise and functioning. (This can live confirmed via the command line.)
Apple has quite a bit of latitude for improvement here to lock down a server well, allow better entry and editing, and design it clearer precisely what's happening—perhaps with a way to test a rule live or automatically troubleshoot failing operations without resorting to a log file.
With a bit of extra knowledge, you can utilize DHCP, NAT, and the Firewall service to set up the Mac mini as a true firewall, too. While the mini server only includes a solitary gigabit Ethernet port, Apple sells a $29 USB 10/100Mbps Ethernet adapter, which works nicely in one of the five USB ports on the back.
The 10/100Mbps port could live connected to the broadband connection, and hold restrictive firewall policies on that interface, while routing data through to the gigabit built-in port connected to your office network.
This would require a firewall savant, however, with perhaps a few hours of consulting time to set up, and some particular instructions on making changes without breaking your network later.Mail Handling Common industry Hosted Services in Mac OS X Server
Here's what I and every company want out of an email server. They want it to shroud spam and viruses, even when Macs are clients. They want secure connections without much fuss. They want it to labor every time. Apple has achieved some of these goals, and I've worked out a solution for some others.
The massive lifting on a server for any moderately sized industry is going to live incoming and outgoing email. Snow Leopard Server definitely improves on its predecessors for GUI-based email configuration, although you must utilize Server Admin for the replete benefits.
Apple packages together ClamAV for anti-virus, Spamassassin for spam filtering, Spamhaus for real-time blacklisting, Postfix as a mail delivery agent, Dovecot for IMAP and POP3, and, as a hidden option, Squirrelmail for Webmail.
For the most part, this combination is fine, and works well. Apple's client Mail application, along with most modern email software, has no wretchedness talking to the Mail service through any means. I recommend bypassing Server Preferences and going straight to Server Admin for configuration even if you never utilize Server Admin for any other purpose.
What's nice about the Mail service's setup is that you don't requisite to enter or change values for the most part; you can pick and choose a few captious changes. Your ISP or a consultant can provide specific settings for such things as the values for the Relay tab. (Apple automatically includes zen.spamhaus.org in the "junk mail rejection servers" list; that exquisite service lets your mail server not receive email from constantly changing lists of IPs that spew gunk.)
Where I would focus particularly is in the Filters tab and the Advanced tabs' Security pane. Filters control the spam-filtering and virus-checking behavior; Security sets encryption and authentication options for connections.
In Filters, you check Enable Junk Mail Filtering to rotate on spamassassin, an open-source application to score attributes of email for spamminess, which OS X Server then uses to shroud or accept email. You set a threshold score using a slider from Cautious (where microscopic mail is bounced) to aggressive. Apple lets you delete, archive, or label messages over the threshold.
In my years of using spamassassin on a Linux box, I find that the gray locality are scores from 5 to 7; mail with a score of 7 is extraordinarily unlikely to live "ham" instead of "spam."
You can focus spamassassin by specifying which languages and countries are most typical that you receive email from. This scores messages outside of those values as much more likely to live spam. I never receive email in, say, Russian or Mandarin, and thus it's nearly 100-percent likely for me that such messages are spam.
After setting up filtering, as well as enabling the simpler checkbox for virus filtering, I turned the firehose that is my personal mailstream at the mini server. I receive tens of thousands of messages daily, largely spam, because some of my addresses hold been in utilize for more than 10 years. That means every spammer tries to dispatch me email. Some of my domains receive dictionary spam, where endless combinations of potential accounts names are emailed.
I immediately discovered that I was receiving 20 times more spam through spamassassin in OS X Server than on my Linux box. This was unacceptable, of course. I institute one problem and one bug with Apple's approach in making it outright work.
Spamassassin does best when it's trained, which you achieve by feeding the program obliging email (ham) along with unsolicited mail. Apple offers two approaches, neither ideal. You can create accounts called junkmail and notjunkmail, and the server software will nightly scan the contents of each for training purposes. However, forwarding individual emails is an repulsive approach, and I institute that OS X Server wouldn't accept unavoidable email because of immoral formatting in the spam message. Further, you must manually delete messages each night, or they accumulate (although they aren't used again for scoring).
The other approach, clearly described by Apple in the manual, is to train the filter by hand, as it were, using the command line. Given that so much of OS X Server lets non-administrators avoid the command line, this is a shame. Apple clearly needs to add a GUI training method, possibly tying in the Junk Mail feature used in training its client Mail program to talk directly to the server. This is a captious Part of modern mail serving, and Apple has shirked simplicity here.
I utilize Mailsmith as my mail client, and it lets me rescue sets of email in the yardstick Unix mbox format, which spamassassin can read. I used AFP to rescue these mailboxes to a directory on the server in order to train the spam filter. The command to utilize with mbox files is:
sa-learn —spam —mbox _filename_
Substitute -ham for -spam to train obliging messages. I trained thousands of spams and thousands of hams, and soundless had way too much spam coming through. SpamSieve, the Mac OS X program that works with many client email programs, was catching well over 99 percent of the spam slipping through, so it wasn't a problem with training. (I've been training SpamSieve for years, too, of course.)
The bug was in a misconfigured spamassassin setup file, legal soundless in OS X Server 10.6.2, and to which I've alerted Apple through its bug-reporting system.
In /etc/mail/spamassassin/, where the system's configuration files live, the configuration file for version 3.2.0 of spamassassin had disabled the TextCat plug-in which activates scoring rules by language, particularly the UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY rule.
In the v320.pre file, I removed the # (hash sign) from in front of the line containing:
This fixed the problem. I too tweaked my own rules from years of using spamassassin on the local.cf file in the selfsame directory, to score mail that was rejected by Spamcop and various spam-tracking indexes higher than the default values:
score RCVD_IN_BL_SPAMCOP_NET 3.000 score RCVD_IN_SORBS_WEB 3.000 score URIBL_SBL 1.500
I too boosted the scores on three rules affecting how well Russian spam was being filtered, which I was seeing in vast quantities:
score MIME_CHARSET_FARAWAY 1.500 score UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY 3.000 score BAYES_00 -1.000
After changing these rules and restarting the Mail service—in Server Admin, choose Server > Restart Service, and click OK—my spam dropped down to just a microscopic bit higher than I was used to. This may appear involved, but it's the explanation that's complicated; the configuration files changes requisite live applied once, and are worth the effort.
It's a relief, by contrast, to switch to the Advanced tab's Security pane. I prefer to disable outright non-secure methods of login, and thus check the top two entries for SMTP and the top three for IMAP/POP. I design sure Login and plain are unchecked. In the SSL section, I choose utilize for SMTP and IMAP/POP certificates, and pick the certificate I created with StartSSL and installed earlier.Apple did a lovely job making security settings for email connections a cinch in Server Admin.
The selection of utilize instead of Require for SSL/TLS certificates can rescue you some grief with unavoidable mail clients. Some mail clients utilize a negotiation process in which it's asked whether a secure connection can live made. If you set the certificate option to Require, this negotiation is bypassed, and the client will fail. With Login and plain unchecked, and only secure connection available, the utilize option allows clients of varying kinds to connect without failure.
Apple too includes Webmail, but has hidden away the option, and didn't configure its default to labor correctly. First, you hold to rotate on the Web service, of course. Without getting too bogged down in details here, I set up a secure website from the Web service's Sites view in Server Admin using the default setup which points the index to /Library/WebServer/Documents.
Using a secure site is captious for access because otherwise the password is entered in the lucid over a Web connection—which you or a colleague might utilize at a public location, fancy a coffeeshop.
Next, back to the command line. The Webmail software, Squirrelmail, needs to live set up to utilize secure IMAP to gain your messages when you log in. Type:
sudo perl conf.pl
Enter your password when requested. You'll discern an uncommon thing these days as a result: a terminal screen based user interface. Enter 2, hit return, enter A, hit return, then:
You can now log in via Squirrelmail by using the URL https://_your_servername_/webmail.
You're welcome!Other services
We've covered outright the major points, but there are a pile of other services that might live of interest, and certainly enhance the utility and cost of OS X Server in an office.
Contacts and calendars. Clearly, one of the nicest things about a networked server is a central set to manage contacts and calendars. The Address engage and iCal programs in OS X talk directly to the server, although Apple uses LDAP (a well-established standard) and CalDAV (new and not well supported) to talk to other platforms. For solemn enterprises, Apple's contact and calendar advocate may not meet needs; for the office size I've been talking about this article, there shouldn't live any trouble. (For a differing conviction on iCal service, however, read my colleague rich Mogull's savor with OS X Server 10.6 for iPhone, Mac, and Web-based shared and local calendars over at TidBITS: Banging My Head against iCal Server's Limitations.)
File service. Using a central file server for storage and file interchange is too a key office task. Apple's advocate for AFP and SMB are just fine, with a variety of options for user-based sharepoint setup. SMB service includes the faculty to set up a WINS Server for Windows systems, and, in conjunction with Open Directory, act as a Primary Domain Controller for logins.
Networked backups. Time Machine in Leopard and Snow Leopard can back up Macs to OS X Server drives, automatically handling outright the details. I'd recommend using an external drive, both to swap backups offsite occasionally and obviate using an internal drive so heavily that it's constantly being written.
WPA/WPA2 Enterprise. Wi-Fi logins are one of my bugbears. While you can utilize a solitary password (WPA/WPA2 Personal) to allow access to an office's networked, this is a infirm method. Each computer has to hold the password stored on it, and you can't selectively let others join. With WPA/WPA2 Enterprise, you can let users log into a Wi-Fi network using their server credentials, and each user is assigned a unique encryption key. Accounts can live disabled, or not allowed to log in over Wi-Fi, too. It too increases network accountability along with security. Windows XP and later and OS X 10.3 and later hold the necessary Wi-Fi login software or options; there are free Linux downloads, too. (Apple manages this via the RADIUS service, which can automatically reconfigure Apple ground stations; or, you can configure non-Apple routers manually.)
Remote VPN access. If you, colleagues, or employees requisite remote secure access either to your office network, or simply to create security when using non-trusted networks, fancy Wi-Fi hotspots, the two forms of built-in VPN in OS X Server achieve the trick. A VPN server sets up encrypted tunnels that pass outright data from a remote client to the server. Compatible VPN clients are institute in Windows XP and later and Mac OS X 10.2 and later.A Mac mini Home in a qualify Office
Unbelievably, this article just skims across the many aspects of OS X Server and avoids much more—like the MySQL database server, configuring NAT and DHCP, and using iChat over a local network, some of which may too live useful for smaller-scale industry networks.
Is the Mac mini server and OS X Server the prerogative match for your office? It certainly depends. In my weeks with the combo, I institute much to praise, and many elements improved significantly over the 10.5 release. For a straightforward start-to-finish setup, this combination seems fancy a cop at the price, despite the problems I found—and especially if you hold my recommendation for tweaking spam-filter settings.
As with many Apple products, I would prefer if the savor were less frustrating at points at which the company should hold tested and anticipated problems. But overall, Apple has kept most of the rough edges and hidden much of the configuration madness from the potential smaller-office audience.
You can't hobble into using a Mac mini server and OS X Server expecting to achieve it outright yourself unless everything in this article made sense at first read. First find and meet with OS X Server consultants, and budget some time for setup and for regular maintenance (and emergency help).
Because Apple has packaged this offering so inexpensively, combining so many typically divide features into one offering, you can afford a microscopic outside help. The cost will soundless wind up being far less than using any of the alternatives for what you rate in one hardware and software package.
In this tutorial you’ll discern how to set up the local environment with KitchenCI using Vagrant as a driver, Chef-Solo as a provider andServerspec for integration tests under Mac OS X.
The notion behind this is that KitchenCI is elastic enough to add any types of tests (bash, rspec, etc) and Chef-Solo allows to try local changes without submitting to the source code repository or to the Chef Server.
KitchenCI too allows to pick other drivers fancy AWS. By testing the infrastructure under both Vagrant and AWS they can weed out configuration issues between the two types of instances instead of leaving the debugging for when CloudFormation is being developed.
Having a way to Run novel configurations and tests locally allows us to rate feedback faster without having to shove Chef changes to the CI environment (which might atomize the shared environments).
It too merges local configurations with outright over environments making it visible to propagate changes and allowing the laptops to become just another test environment which results are reproducible.
Sometimes using this apparently more convoluted stack makes it more painful to develop locally if the configuration management is not hardy enough but this is only pushing forward outright issues that would live lucid a few environments up. It is better to deal with broken instances locally than on other environments.Stacks
The previous stack was made up of a mingle of local installations and local vagrant configurations depending on each laptop, this was followed by an initial CI environment that would hold its own chef instances over AWS using CloudFormation.The novel stack is made up of:
Local (laptop) that runs KitchenCI with Vagrant/Virtualbox — This allows to write tests, configure instances and live used to develop against.
CI agent that runs KitchenCI with Vagrant/Virtualbox — This allows to ensure a novel local build will labor and live tested and any commits are tested.
CI agent that runs KitchenCI with AWS- This is a copy of the previous one with EC2 instances. This allows us to find issues between Vagrant and AWS. Not used for application development.
AWS progress for CloudFormation — After ensuring the individual instances Run they try the selfsame environment with CloudFormation. This is for Cloudformation development, not used for application development.
AWS progress Integration — Now that they are unavoidable that both AWS instances and Cloudformation are fully tested they can utilize a ‘releasable’ copy of it to bring up the Integration environment used for development.
AWS progress UAT, QA, Pre-Production, Production — Other environments are variations of the AWS progress Integration environment.Mac OS X as a progress environment
To set up outright packages we’re currently using Homebrew — This managements installation of the most common tools and manages updates for those similar to Linux package managers Yum, Apt.
It is advised to hold XCode command line installed and up to date to Run Homebrew and other applications — not doing this might give you compilation errors and other problems in the future.
Some older versions of Mac OS X might not live able to Run the following command in that case you’ll requisite to rate it through Apple’s progress Portal.% xcode-select —install
To install Homebrew just run.% ruby -e “$(curl -fsSL https://raw.github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/go/install) Adding the current configuration progress repository
You’ll requisite to hold git installed. If you don’t you can utilize Homebrew to install it.% brew install git Setting up a local Ruby environment
KitchenCI and Chef Run with Ruby — The following are some best practices to ensure you hold the selfsame Ruby and Gem (Ruby’s libraries) versions as your Chef Clients. This is done by using RbEnv to manage Ruby versions and Bundler to install Gems locally so any other Ruby applications or updates achieve not corrupt this setup.
Thanks to Homebrew they can install RBenv easily. Ruby build is used to extend rbenv’s features around installing and removing Ruby versions.% brew install rbenv ruby-build
You can hold a spy on the local available ruby versions with.% rbenv versions * system
We can install more versions of Ruby with the install command. Bundler will hold a header for the ruby version on its Gemfile, if the local version is not revise it will not run. In this case we’ll install Ruby 2.0.0.% rbenv install 2.0.0-p451 Installing ruby-2.0.0-p451…Installed ruby-2.0.0-p451 to […]2.0.0-p451 % rbenv versions * system 2.0.0-p451
Using the local command they invoke that the current directory always runs the picked ruby version. Rehash updates RbEnv.% rbenv local 2.0.0-p451 % rbenv rehash % rbenv versions system* 2.0.0-p451 (set by […]/.ruby-version)
After that step we’ll requisite to install Bundler. This will live done on the system level Gem library but after this step we’ll live able to utilize it to manage Gems locally.% gem install bundler
Any Ruby application will utilize the file Gemfile to let you know about dependencies. Gemfile.lock will relate you what versions to install or if it does not exist it will live created when Bundler has a cogent run.% cat Gemfileruby ‘2.0.0' source ‘http://rubygems.org' gem ‘nokogiri’, ‘~>18.104.22.168'gem ‘json’gem ‘hashie’gem ‘chef’gem ‘test-kitchen’gem ‘kitchen-vagrant’gem ‘kitchen-ec2' gem ‘faraday’ gem ‘knife-ec2'gem ‘knife-solo’
You can Run Bundler with the following command. Which will install the required Gems on the vendor directory% bundle install —path vendor
Due to some pains of setting this up on Mac OS X you can utilize this script instead.% cat bundle_install bundle config build.nokogiri —use-system-librariesARCHFLAGS=-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in-future bundle install —path vendor
Which should finish with the following message.Your bundle is complete!It was installed into ./vendor
Please Run RbEnv rehash again to ensure that the changes applied.% rbenv rehash
A common problem seems to live a failure around using libxml2. This can live fixed by installed it with Homebrew and re-linking the files.% brew install libxml2 libxslt % brew link libxml2 libxslt
Running the chosen Ruby version with the local gems is done by running the bundle exec command, for example.% bundle exec ruby -v ruby 2.0.0p451 (2014-02-24 revision 45167) [universal.x86_64-darwin13] % bundle exec gem environment RubyGems Environment: — RUBYGEMS VERSION: 2.0.14 — RUBY VERSION: 2.0.0 (2014-02-24 patchlevel 451) [universal.x86_64-darwin13] — INSTALLATION DIRECTORY: […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0 — RUBY EXECUTABLE: /System/Library/Frameworks/Ruby.framework/Versions/2.0/usr/bin/ruby — EXECUTABLE DIRECTORY: […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0/bin — RUBYGEMS PLATFORMS: — ruby — universal-darwin-13 — GEM PATHS: — […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0 — GEM CONFIGURATION: — :update_sources => true — :verbose => true — :backtrace => false — :bulk_threshold => 1000 — REMOTE SOURCES: — https://rubygems.org/ Vagrant and VirtualBox
You’ll requisite to utilize both websites to install these applications.
VirtualBox for Mac OS X over https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads
Vagrant for Mac OS X over https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.htmlUsing Test Kitchen locally
With Bundler they can convoke Test Kitchen to achieve several things fancy list available instances.% bundle exec kitchen list
The drivers will live Vagrant, AWS or others. The Provisioner will live ChefSolo, Puppet or another. The last action will be.
Not Created — Instance does not exist
Set Up — Creation or update running or not completed.
Converged — Last update ran.
Verified — Tests ran.
You can Create or update an instance with the Converge command followed by a regex which will apply to one or more instances.% bundle exec kitchen converge INSTANCE
Run the integration tests for the local environment with Verify.% bundle exec kitchen verify INSTANCE
You can login into an instance by using a regex that will only result in one instance.% bundle exec kitchen login INSTANCE
Delete them completely with Destroy.% bundle exec kitchen extinguish INSTANCE
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