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9L0-607 System Administration using Mac OS X Server v10.3

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9L0-607 exam Dumps Source : System Administration using Mac OS X Server v10.3

Test Code : 9L0-607
Test denomination : System Administration using Mac OS X Server v10.3
Vendor denomination : Apple
: 54 existent Questions

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Apple System Administration using Mac

main vulnerability in Apple's macOS provides system Administrator access with few guidance [u] | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

  a current security flaw in macOS immoderate Sierra has been create out by researchers —one that can supply users access to the system administrator account on a target computing device, enabling entry to the account with out requiring a password.

Posted on Twitter by application engineer Lemi Orhan Ergin, the vulnerability requires highly few steps to accomplish, and takes abilities of a bit in the gadget Preferences menu. AppleInsider is not publishing the complete set of directions for the sake of protection, but corpse of workers assessments beget demonstrated it to subsist purposeful, and extremely benchmark to follow.

as soon as the few steps were performed, AppleInsider staff create out the "root" gadget Administrator account on the Mac mini with macOS 10.13.1 being used for testing become enabled, regardless of having been prior to now disabled. After disabling the account, following the identical guidance re-enabled the account.

The flaw exists in totality models of immoderate Sierra, including Beta 5 that was launched earlier on Tuesday.

Granting entry to the system Administrator account makes it workable for clients free reign to the macOS desktop, including the means to view totality info stored on the desktop in totality consumer bills, edit the credentials of alternative clients, and alter different settings on the equipment.

it is dubious if Apple was recommended of the security difficulty before Ergin's Twitter disclosure, but his question to Apple back asks "Are you privy to it @Apple?" suggesting no such develop warning was made.

whereas an necessary vulnerability, it nevertheless requires access to the computer either in the community or with a faraway access connection. It likewise wants a certified user to subsist logged in to generate the root account and not using a password. Disabling the guest account provides a stage of insurance plan, by means of requiring clients to beget a possibly secure password to entry the computer in the first vicinity.

In a help page, Apple says that the foundation consumer is not reputed for movements use, with the consumer getting privileges that allow alterations to information that are required through the Mac.

The most useful coverage in opposition t the originate the most is to disable guest entry. This will likewise subsist achieved through opening up device Preferences, and turning off allow guests to log in to this computer

To disable the basis user, select system Preferences, then click on clients & corporations.

click on on the lock icon, and authenticate with an administrator's identify and password. click Login alternatives

click on unite or Edit.

click on Open listing Utility, and click on the lock icon to authenticate. drag down the Edit menu, and select Disable Root person that could subsist in the identical vicinity as permit Root consumer.

There is not any technique to generate the basis account from the login display. After disabling the basis person, except the method is adopted once again, the computing device is secured.

however, from the listing Utility, the basis account password may likewise subsist changed. this can wait away from the exploit from working again but can beget unintended consequences, and the invocation of Root credential entry at sudden times.

update: Apple due to this fact issued a press release to iMore

"we're engaged on a utility supersede to address the subject. meanwhile, surroundings a root password prevents unauthorized entry to your Mac. To permit the basis consumer and set a password, delight commemorate the guidance here: If a Root person is already enabled, to originate sure a black password is not set, delight commemorate the instructions from the "exchange the foundation password" section.

How Apple File rig works and what Mac admins should know | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Mac administrators ought to collect to understand the bits and bobs of Apple's current file system, primarily since it can assist expand storage skill.

An prepared file device is vital because it helps sequester and preserve track of each piece of facts that an organization processes, shops it and permits clients to retrieve it. The Hierarchical File system (HFS) has been Apple's usual file system for iOS and Mac arduous disk drives on the grounds that the Eighties; the up-to-date version, HFS Plus, debuted in 1998. however, dawn with this year's iOS 10.three and macOS elevated Sierra, Apple File device (APFS) is the current general.

Attendees at JAMF application's annual user convention, Jamf Nation, discovered what's new, the way to set up APFS and how to control storage going ahead. wealthy Trouton, IT know-how senior advisor at SAP, shared here information in a session at the adventure.

HFS vs. Apple File system

The largest incompatibility between HFS and Apple File device has to accomplish with storage skill. APFS supports greater than 9 quintillion (or 9 billion billion) files, versus HFS Plus help for four billion on a single volume. APFS additionally includes help for sparse information, which aid utilize space greater effectively.

HFS is made of volumes in disks which are then separated into allocation blocks of cupboard space. the bottom storage unit of APFS is containers, which could assist varied storage volumes that each one beget entry to any free locality it truly is attainable. This space-sharing capacity faculty that it may expand or lower volumes' capability dynamically without counting on pre-allocated locality it is set in stone for each volume. It applies to strong-state drives (SSDs), plus disk pictures and different forms of storage.

despite the fact macOS elevated Sierra nevertheless supports HFS Plus, Apple will doubtless section out HFS Plus eventually, so or not it's a salubrious suggestion to waddle to APFS, Trouton spoke of.

Formatting and managing Apple File equipment

to originate utilize of and exploit Apple File device volumes, that you can utilize diskutil, a command-line utility in macOS for managing disks and partitions.

To layout the disks, birth by way of constructing containers the usage of diskutil instructions. The Create Container command creates a storage enviornment, however it's empty off the bat. So, you should then add storage quantity to it. you could accomplish that and additionally add a denomination to the APFS quantity through diskutil again.

To develop a container to add allocated storage space when extra actual house is attainable, utilize the diskutil command resizeContainer, and specify which container you necessity to expand. eschew the diskutil record command to originate sure that it improved the amount of GB.

within the Disk Utility settings web page in macOS, that you can additionally view how tons space is attainable on each and every container.

A Mac with an SSD converts to APFS automatically, but others may likewise now not.

APFS cloning is likewise current in this file device. This technique permits you to originate a replica of a file or listing that makes utilize of no further space but quite simply outlets an actual replica of the original. that is constructive in case of unintended deletion or other issues within the file gadget that might influence info.

"What occurs if you ditch that usual file?" Trouton pointed out. "Nothing."

APFS holds on to the copied version and means that you can entry and control it just relish the long-established.

converting from HFS to Apple File system

When a Mac improvements to immoderate Sierra, it may well or might likewise now not subsist automatically converted to Apple File equipment, counting on the nature of compel it has, in response to Apple. A Mac with an SSD converts to APFS automatically, as an instance, however others might likewise no longer.

In a manual conversion, the power needs to subsist unmounted to originate the switch from HFS Plus to APFS. which you could readily eschew a conversion command in diskutil to transform it over.

"here's anything i used to subsist concerned about, however I haven't heard too plenty screaming so far," Trouton mentioned.

you can additionally utilize the command line to consume APFS snapshots with the tmutil command. To entry the snapshot's contents, travel to the Time laptop web page in macOS settings, where you'll notice the picture appear in the checklist of established drives. Snapshots are efficacious in case someone by chance gets rid of a program or file or there's anything that you simply necessity to restoration.

To accomplish a file or system healing with APFS, travel to restore in Time desktop to elect boot drive and the picture, then select Roll again to restore the compel to the photo state. current with APFS is that, when you've got a software update that requires a restart of a laptop, the file device instantly creates a photograph of itself ahead of the update in order that you beget got convenient a duplicate of the rig with totality of the data to originate sure they're intact after the update.

Teenage Hacker's Evil App Steals Apple Mac Passwords | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Apple isn’t commenting on the truth an adolescent in Germany discovered a doubtlessly extreme vulnerability affecting totality synchronous Macs.2018 Anadolu company

Yet another teen has uncovered a significant weak spot in Apple expertise.

just terminal week it emerged that a 14-12 months-old uncovered a bug that allowed snooping on iPhone and Mac users thanks to a problem in FaceTime. Now German 18-12 months-historical Linus Henze has uncovered a vulnerability affecting the latest Apple macOS that leaves saved passwords open to malicious apps. That might comprehend logins for your bank website, Amazon, Netflix, Slack and a lot of greater apps. And besides the fact that this is a Mac-best computer virus, in case you’re the usage of the iCloud keychain, passwords synced across iPhones and Macs can likewise also subsist in danger.

To originate matters worse, it’s probably that no fix is in the works. Henze isn’t disclosing his findings to Apple, telling Forbes the shortcoming of payment for such research became at the back of his resolution to preserve the hack’s details covert from the Cupertino significant.

The researcher, who has uncovered different iOS and macOS bugs in the synchronous previous, create a way into the Apple “keychain.” That’s the locality of the macOS that outlets private keys and passwords, making it a goldmine for hackers.

Henze create he may create an app that changed into able to read what became within the keychain devoid of requiring specific leave from the sufferer. His mock malware didn’t require particular privileges, relish administrator-degree permissions. “working an facile app is totality that’s required,” Henze noted.

As for a way the malware might collect onto the Mac in the first region, a malicious hacker may cover the keychain consume handicap of in a cogent app, Henze hypothesized. Or a consumer can subsist directed to a webpage that could launch rogue code. and because the attack might seize tokens for having access to the iCloud, it could subsist workable to consume over an Apple identification and down load they keychain from the business’s servers, spoke of Henze.

Henze’s discovering comes just a week after one other teen, provide Thompson, uncovered a extreme situation in iOS. It allowed uncommunicative snooping on iPhones by means of a FaceTime malicious program. Apple has promised a fix and will reportedly supply the 14-year-ancient fee by way of its iOS computer virus bounty application. It presents up to $200,000 in return for assistance on protection weaknesses in its cellular working gadget.

malicious program bounty bash

but Apple’s bug bounty initiative is invite-most efficacious and for iOS. “or not it's relish they don’t basically custody about macOS,” Henze noted. “discovering vulnerabilities relish this one takes time, and that i just suppose that paying researchers is the perquisite component to accomplish as a result of we’re helping Apple to originate their product extra secure.”

as an alternative of informing Apple directly, Henze is now telling the world, posting a YouTube video prior this week.

Kudos, kid

Forbes had Apple Mac protection professional Patrick Wardle peek at various the originate the most. Wardle, a former NSA analyst, changed into impressed with the younger researcher’s discover. “big kudos to Linus. It’s a extremely attractive bug," he talked about, joking that “unless Apple wraps its head round security, I’m shutting off my Mac and going surfing.

“It’s a bit disheartening that Apple can’t toil out a way to secure the keychain. What’s the factor of developing anything to store totality the most fine tips on the device if that mechanism itself is constantly insecure.”

a quick repair

Apple referred to it had no comment on the time of publication. because it has no technical suggestions from Henze, it’s dubious when a repair will develop into purchasable. The latest macOS Mojave is 10.14.3.

Wardle, who uncovered a similar computer virus in 2017, told Forbes users may consume steps to avoid any apps stealing their passwords. most likely the surest current defense is to manually set a password for the keychain. however as a way to insinuate every time a legitimate software wishes to originate utilize of a password from the keychain, the consumer will should enter the login.

every so often protection wins over usability.

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System Administration using Mac OS X Server v10.3

Pass 4 sure 9L0-607 dumps | 9L0-607 existent questions |

Server, simplified: A power user’s usher to OS X Server | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Server, simplified: A power user’s  usher to OS X Server reader comments with 53 posters participating, including chronicle author Share this story
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    Update: We've covered the current features in updates 2.1 and 2.2 here.

    Even long-time Mac users could subsist forgiven for not knowing anything about OS X Server, the business-oriented version of the operating system that has been developed alongside the better-known consumer version for as long as OS X has existed. For a long while, the software shipped only with the Xserve, Apple's enterprise-class server hardware. Standalone licenses for the unlimited client version of the software cost $1,000 totality the way up until Snow Leopard, when the price dropped to a still-imposing $500.

    All this changed in early 2011 when Apple discontinued the Xserve and replaced it with repurposed configurations of the Mac Mini and Mac Pro. The former sold (and continues to sell) at the $1,000 price so appealing to power users and wee businesses, though the Mini lacks the Xserve's hardware monitoring features or expandability.

    With Lion Server and now Mountain Lion Server, the software has followed the hardware in becoming cheaper and simpler, and in shifting its focus from large businesses to wee ones. At $50, Lion Server cost only five percent of what Leopard Server did; at $20, Mountain Lion Server costs less than half of that. As the product has gotten cheaper and within gain of regular people, the tools used to administer it beget become correspondingly less complex, both in terms of how difficult they are to utilize and in how powerful they are.

    Because of OS X Server's newly lowered price, because so much has changed since Snow Leopard, and because Ars Technica's lengthy OS X reviews beget never touched on Server before (with the exception of a piece they ran in January about using Lion Server in the home), we've got a lot of ground to cover. This article should serve as an introduction to the software's capabilities, an evaluation of how those services toil compared to the competition, and a basic how-to usher for getting everything up and running. By the time you're done reading, you should beget a decent working knowledge of what this software can do, how to configure it, and whether it's perquisite for you.

    Introduction and installation

    Unlike Windows Server, which contains a huge number of under-the-hood changes that originate it substantially different from the client versions of Windows, Mac OS X Server is and always has been more or less indistinguishable in operation from Mac OS X. The server OS is really just the client OS with the server bits tacked on, and totality of the observations made in John Siracusa's characteristically thorough review of Mountain Lion also apply to the server product.

    Installing Mountain Lion Server is done through the Mac App Store, just as Lion Server was. Downloading the OS X Server app (hereafter "") will circle any Mac running Mountain Lion into a server. Snow Leopard Server and previous versions of the software required you to eschew the software on some sort of desktop, relish an iMac or a Mac Mini or an XServe, but Lion Server dropped that stipulation and Mac laptops can now subsist used as servers, too. Once you've purchased, you can originate as many Macs into OS X Servers as you want. You can likewise utilize to remotely manage your OS X Server from an OS X client.

    Configuring a hostname is the most complicated decision you'll  beget to  originate when turning your Mac into a server.Configuring a hostname is the most complicated decision you'll beget to originate when turning your Mac into a server.

    When you first eschew, its wizard will collect your server up and running in a few uncomplicated steps. It first walks you through configuring your server for utilize on a local network or with a domain denomination you've registered, setting up the server's host denomination and IP address, and enabling shove Notifications. We'll talk more about how shove Notifications in OS X Server toil a tiny later, but totality you necessity to set them up is an Apple ID (Apple recommends you utilize a sever Apple ID for your organization, not a personal Apple ID used to purchase apps), which will collect you a shove Notifications certificate that needs to subsist renewed yearly. Once those steps are complete, you're ready to configure your server.

    Downloading and running prompts a few changes to the operating system itself: the Screen Sharing and Remote Login features are both enabled automatically to originate remote administration easier, for example. A Lion server would likewise set itself never to travel to sleep while plugged in, and it would likewise change the About This Mac dialog to divulge you that you were in fact running OS X Server—but these changes aren't made in Mountain Lion.

    Lion Server would change the About This Mac dialog to let you know you were running server software.Lion Server would change the About This Mac dialog to let you know you were running server software. Mountain Lion Server makes no such changes.Mountain Lion Server makes no such changes.

    The first issue is facile enough to revise if you necessity an always-on server. The second was only ever a cursory change, but it makes a point: "OS X Server" no longer exists as a sever product. There's only OS X, which runs something called OS X Server lives on in Apple's branding, but such a distinction is no longer made in the operating system itself. Depending on how Apple chooses to proceed, this could subsist the dawn of an effort to sever Server from the customary OS X progress cycle, making it a version-agnostic app instead, but that's something they probably won't know for sure until they start hearing about OS X 10.9.

    Goodbye Server Admin Tools, hello again

    The primary tools used to administer past OS X Server versions were called the Server Admin Tools. These tools—which included Server Admin, Workgroup Manager, and System Image Utility—were each sever applications that gave users fairly comprehensive control over their server's settings. Server Admin, in particular, was the bread-and-butter administration instrument that exposed the settings for most of OS X Server's features. (For you Windows Server admins out there, Server Admin in OS X is roughly analogous to Server Manager in Windows.) controls  totality of the available services in Mountain Lion Server, whether you  relish it or controls totality of the available services in Mountain Lion Server, whether you relish it or not.

    Lion changed that with something called, which took some of OS X Server's services and greatly simplified their administration, to mixed effect.'s role was to originate the product more appealing to users and to novice server administrators, and it's no mistake that the services managed by in Lion were the ones of most utilize to home users and wee offices: file-sharing, mail, calendar, chat, Time Machine, VPN, podcast, the Web and Wiki servers, and basic user, group, and device management. And talk about simplicity—many of these services were reduced to substantial On/Off switches and a couple of checkboxes. If you wanted to accomplish anything more complicated, the GUI wasn't going to help you much.

    To unlock totality of Lion Server's features, however, you still needed the Server Admin Tools, which were and still are available as a sever download. Installing and running Server Admin granted access to some of the more advanced services (DHCP, DNS, NAT, the NetBoot service, the Software Update server, Open Directory, the firewall, and a few others) while exposing more advanced settings for the Mail service, while things relish Workgroup Manager enabled more advanced user and computer management. Other services that had been present in Snow Leopard Server and older versions (Print, QuickTime Server, and others, most of which could safely subsist considered vestigial) didn't originate the jump, and aren't present in either or Server Admin.

    In Mountain Lion, though, the Server Admin Tools are departed with only a couple of exceptions. picks up most of the slack, adding DNS, FTP, NetBoot, Open Directory, Software Update, and Xsan to the list of things it could already do, but basic networking functions relish DHCP and NAT are gone from the GUI, and are now handled through the command line and by Internet Sharing in the System Preferences, as is the server's software firewall. The Podcast service is gone entirely.

    The waddle to bury things relish DHCP makes sense: most home users and wee offices are going to beget a router that already takes custody of DHCP and NAT for them, while medium-to-large businesses will likely beget Windows or Linux-based implementations already in place. Mountain Lion's subtractions should subsist harmless for many users, but if you relied on OS X Server for any of this before, you'll either beget to re-learn the GUI or peek elsewhere to provide these services now.

    Notes for upgraders

    When upgrading a computer running Snow Leopard Server to Lion from the App Store, the installer was knowing enough to download and install along with it, transferring settings from Server Admin to The Server Admin Tools were still a sever download, but settings for services managed by Server Admin were still there.

    The upgrade path from Lion Server to Mountain Lion Server is slightly less automated: Mountain Lion will withhold Lion's version of (which won't eschew in Mountain Lion), and you'll necessity to download the current version from the App Store separately. Happily, most of your Lion Server's settings remain intact (with the notable exception of File Sharing share points), and the settings from the terminal of the ripen Server Admin services appear to arrive over into without any issues, but it's odd that upgrading requires a manual download of when Apple is clearly able to provide it automatically. Once you've installed the Mountain Lion version of, the Lion version can subsist trashed; if the Server Admin Tools were present on your Lion computer, they are uninstalled automatically during the upgrade.

    One final recommendation for upgraders: I recommend resignation even when upgrading OS X clients since the updates that fix the most severe bugs usually arrive out quickly, and this recommendation is doubly prudent for OS X Server. Check out the release notes from the server version of 10.7.4 and compare them to the client version—OS X Server's updates hold major and far-reaching fixes for services, and the unreliability and inconsistency that current OS X versions often exhibit at first is much, much harder to tolerate in a server elbowroom than on your desktop. If you're the nature to install current OS X versions on your Macs as soon as they're out, you should wait until at least 10.8.2 before you even speculate about upgrading a server. The fact that Mountain Lion Server doesn't drastically change or upgrade many of Lion Server's services should originate this wait easier.


    With the death of the Server Admin Tools, has become the heart of OS X Server: if it's not in here, you either 1) can't accomplish it or 2) you will necessity to hack around in the command line to originate it happen. is used to:

  • Manage local and Open Directory users and groups
  • Enable, disable, and configure services, totality of which we'll subsist discussing individually
  • Add SSL certificates
  • Set remote management preferences
  • Enable shove notifications
  • Check your server's status and log messages
  • You can launch the app directly from the server itself, or you can install it on any OS X client computer and connect to your Mountain Lion servers using their host names or IP addresses—just click Connect to Server from the Manage menu.

    You can download to client computers and administer your OS X servers remotely.You can download to client computers and administer your OS X servers remotely.

    The ripen Server Admin could subsist used to manage servers running the current version of OS X Server and the immediately preceding version, but can only subsist used to manage the same version of OS X. That is, Lion versions of can't manage Mountain Lion servers and vice versa. The Lion version of the Server Admin Tools likewise cannot subsist installed on a computer running Mountain Lion, and the Server Admin Tools will subsist removed during installation when upgrading from Lion to Mountain Lion.

    Configuring remote access and SSL certificates is  totality done from within remote access and SSL certificates is totality done from within

    The Hardware tab is, obviously, where you can notice your server's tech specs, but it's likewise where you configure remote administration settings, network settings, and shove notifications. shove notifications are used with the Mail, Contacts, Calendar, and Profile Manager services to alert your users when current events or messages occur and to shove out current configuration settings, and they are likewise used to alert server administrators when current Alerts are generated—any Mac that has connected to your server using will receive these Alerts in its Notification Center.  shove notifications in the Notification shove notifications in the Notification Center.

    Push notifications can subsist pushed from your server to any OS X or iOS client that it manages—you first necessity to collect a shove Notification Service certificate from Apple using an organizational Apple ID, as opposed to the personal Apple ID that you might utilize in the Mac App Store or with an Apple Developer account. The certificate, which is used to encrypt the communication between your server and your clients, is free, but it must subsist renewed yearly.

    Creating a  current self-signed SSL certificate with a current self-signed SSL certificate with

    You likewise manage your server's SSL certificates from—one self-signed SSL certificate is created automatically for you, but clicking Edit will allow you to create current self-signed certificates and import signed certificates. You can elect to utilize one certificate for totality services your server offers, or assign sever certificates to different services.

    The Status section is where you can view service logs, resource usage information, and alerts about your server's status.

    Customizing Alerts settings in Alerts allow for some light hardware monitoring, including disk space shortages,  arduous drive S.M.A.R.T. status, and network configuration changes. Enlarge / Customizing Alerts settings in Alerts allow for some light hardware monitoring, including disk space shortages, arduous drive S.M.A.R.T. status, and network configuration changes. Processor, memory, and network usage graphs can  subsist viewed in, memory, and network usage graphs can subsist viewed in Each service running in generates its own log, which can  subsist viewed (and searched through) here.Each service running in generates its own log, which can subsist viewed (and searched through) here. has two major shortcomings: the first is that while its extreme simplicity is worthy for consumers, almost every service here has fewer options than it did in the ripen Server Admin. Some things can still subsist changed via the Terminal, but the GUI has become far less sophisticated.

    The second problem is that can subsist a bit unstable. In the weeks I’ve spent with the Mountain Lion version, I’ve had it crash on me a number of times, normally while trying to change settings. At best, it’s a bit laggy—Lion Server has some of the same lag problems, but I don’t smack many crashes with it, so I’d hope at least these problems to subsist ironed out as Mountain Lion point updates start to filter out.

    Open Directory The Open Directory service is Apple's version of Microsoft's  energetic Directory.The Open Directory service is Apple's version of Microsoft's energetic Directory.

    Open Directory, one of the core services of OS X Server, is an LDAP-based directory system that allows you to create and manage user accounts and groups of user accounts. relish Microsoft's energetic Directory, it allows your users to log in to computers and services using one username and password, and administrators can utilize it to implement preferences and security settings on Macs and iOS devices, which we'll collect into when they talk about the Profile Manager.

    Open Directory creation and administration is handled completely within—open the service and switch it on to trigger the configuration wizard.

    Creating a Directory Administrator account for Open Directory. Enlarge / Creating a Directory Administrator account for Open Directory.

    We'll subsist creating a current Open Directory domain for their testbed, but note that you can likewise bind one Open Directory server to another to create a replica server which will provide redundancy in the case of server failure. If any of your servers travel down, your client computers should automatically fail over to one of the working replicas until the borked machine comes back up. If you beget multiple Open Directory servers, you can utilize the Locales feature to assign different servers to different network subnets to help with load balancing.

    While setting up a current Open Directory, you'll subsist asked to set up a directory administrator account that's sever from the administrator account used to manage the server itself. We'll stick with the default "diradmin" username for their purposes, but the account can subsist named anything you want. Once you've finished this step, you're basically done with setup; you can circle to the Users and Groups sections to start pile your directory.

    Users and Groups Creating a  current Open Directory user.Creating a current Open Directory user.

    Users and user groups used to subsist configured using a Server Admin instrument called Workgroup Manager, which was still doable in Lion if you didn't relish the current controls in Workgroup Manager is still available as a sever download in Mountain Lion, but the Users and Groups panes in beget been tweaked to comprehend the most necessary of the ripen options.

    Three different kinds of users can live on your Open Directory server: local user accounts that can only log into the server itself, network user accounts that can log into computers bound to your directory and originate utilize of your server's services, and network service accounts that can only subsist used to access services. You can view and create totality these types of users in the Users pane.

    When creating network users, you must give them a replete name, a short name, and a password, and you can likewise enter an e-mail address for them—the Contacts service pulls from Open Directory to autofill names and e-mail addresses, so subsist sure to input the information just as you'd relish to notice it. The Home Folder drop-down menu is where you elect whether to originate this a benchmark network account or a service account.

    If you set up a file share to store user Home folders in the File Sharing service, you can likewise elect whether to let your network users beget their profiles stored on the arduous drives of Macs they log into, or whether the profile is saved to the server. The second option is Apple's version of Microsoft's Roaming Profiles—logging in and working with files can subsist a bit slower due to network latency, but totality of the user's files and settings are automatically available no matter what computer they're using.

    Using the Disk Quota field, you can confine the amount of server space a user's profile is allowed to consume. It's worth noting that this quota amount doesn't apply to totality services—Mail accounts beget their own quotas, and the Time Machine service doesn't loom to respect any quota settings at all.

    Once created, you can manage users' access to individual services on your server—allowing them to utilize Mail, for example, without using Time Machine or the VPN. Within the users pane, you can likewise set password policies (including things relish minimum length and expiration dates), and the Edit Mail Options territory allows you to set up mail forwarding for individual accounts if you won't subsist giving them access to their own e-mail account on your server.

    Managing large numbers of users with Groups is more convenient than managing them individually.Managing large numbers of users with Groups is more convenient than managing them individually.

    If you beget a large number of users, splitting them up into groups and managing their settings that way may subsist more convenient. While you can't set disk quotas and home directories according to group, you can concede and block groups' access to services, and you can likewise give each of your groups a file share, a Wiki page, a group mailing list, and automatically originate group members buddies in the Messages application if you beget the service turned on.

    Comparison with energetic Directory

    Open Directory is without a doubt simpler to configure than a full-blown energetic Directory implementation. Configuring users and groups in is likewise much simpler than it was in the ripen Workgroup Manager, while not being as useless as it was in Lion's

    That simplicity comes at the cost of features, however. Most notably, Open Directory lacks any of the software installation features of energetic Directory—administrators will necessity to rely on Apple Remote Desktop or a third-party product relish the Casper Suite for the installation and patching of third-party applications.

    Another missing feature (one that has been missing since Snow Leopard) is the faculty to bind Windows computers to an Open Directory server. For mixed networks of Windows and OS X computers, Apple now tells server admins to bind Macs to both an energetic Directory server and an Open Directory server, a configuration it calls a "magic triangle"—the energetic Directory server handles authentication and settings for the Windows computers and authentication for the Macs, while the Open Directory server controls settings for Macs. It's a pretty substantial feature to lose, though in rehearse most businesses aren't going to notice. energetic Directory is more or less ubiquitous in the enterprise, so it's usually enough for OS X Server to subsist able to integrate with those existing directories rather than trying to supplant them.

    Profile Manager

    In previous versions of the software, Mac settings were managed centrally with the Workgroup Manager app. Lion Server introduced a instrument called Profile Manager, which manages the same settings for Macs and likewise allows you to manage iOS devices.

    After Open Directory, Profile Manager is probably the most valuable service included in OS X Server—with it, you can create and disseminate configuration profiles to your Macs and iOS devices, automatically configuring everything from e-mail accounts to passcode requirements to Dock icons. Once clients beget installed one of your configuration profiles, you can likewise shove out updated settings automatically if you beget a shove Notifications certificate enabled on your server.

    Profiles are created in the form of .mobileconfig files, the same sort of files that are created by the iPhone Configuration Utility and the Apple Configurator, but they can likewise subsist used to manage Macs. Once you've enabled the Profile Manager, enable Device Management and enter the settings it wants—an organization denomination and e-mail address and an SSL certificate—and you'll subsist ready to start managing devices.

    The default profile is called "Settings for Everyone" and can subsist configured or replaced by using the Web-based Profile Manager portal. For services that you've configured—Mail, VPN, Calendar, and a few others—checking the "Include configuration for services" box is an facile way to originate sure everyone connected to your network can at least beget access to those services. If you necessity more granular options, click the Open Profile Manager link in, likewise accessible by typing <your server name>/profilemanager into your browser of choice.

    Profile Manager profiles can  subsist distributed to users, user groups, devices, and device groups. Enlarge / Profile Manager profiles can subsist distributed to users, user groups, devices, and device groups.

    Once in Profile Manager, you can view totality of the users and groups they created in Open Directory earlier. They can likewise notice fields for devices and device groups, but they aren't populated yet. To originate things display up there, we'll necessity to navigate to the Profile Manager login page at <your server name>/myprofiles from each of the devices you want to manage. I'll subsist using an iPad in totality of my examples here, but iPhones, iPod Touches, and Macs running OS X 10.7 or 10.8 are totality handled pretty much the same way. Older OS X versions are not supported by Profile Manager, but can still subsist managed with Workgroup Manager, which we'll argue momentarily.

    The  faculty to remotely lock and wipe both iOS devices and Macs in the event of theft, included with Profile Manager, is  likewise available through iCloud and Exchange servers, but this is a  worthy fallback if you don't  beget the latter and don't  dependence your users to set up the former.The faculty to remotely lock and wipe both iOS devices and Macs in the event of theft, included with Profile Manager, is likewise available through iCloud and Exchange servers, but this is a worthy fallback if you don't beget the latter and don't dependence your users to set up the former.

    Once you've signed in using a network user account, you'll subsist presented with a substantial blue button that will let you enroll your device. Once enrolled, it will display up in your administrator's Profile Manager, where you can view, edit, and shove out current settings as desired. If you're working with a self-signed SSL certificate, you may likewise necessity to install the dependence Profile for your organization from the Profiles tab before your devices will subsist able to install your profiles.

    After devices are enrolled, administrators can view them, lock or wipe them, and arrange them into groups for easier administration. Users can likewise lock and wipe devices on their own without intervention from an administrator.

    Grouping many devices that  necessity to share the same settings—like Macs in a computer lab, for example—can simplify administration. Enlarge / Grouping many devices that necessity to share the same settings—like Macs in a computer lab, for example—can simplify administration.

    Almost every setting available in the iOS Settings app or OS X's System Preferences window can subsist controlled using the .mobileconfig files generated by Profile Manager. Click Edit and you'll notice totality of the settings you can configure. Some, relish Mail, VPN, security certificates, and wireless network settings can subsist configured for both OS X and iOS, while others are restricted specifically to iOS (device restrictions relish the utilize of iCloud backups or in-app purchases) or OS X (Dock icons, Gatekeeper settings, roaming profiles, printer settings, and others). You can likewise upload custom .plist files to apply to your OS X computers to configure third-party apps not accounted for in the Profile Manager, and deploy volume licensed iOS apps.

    Profile Manager is a powerful instrument for directory administrators, and it's likewise usable if you beget a large number of OS X and iOS devices at home (or if your children beget their own iOS devices and you'd relish to subsist able to set universal restrictions on them)—you'll just beget to settle if managing the devices centrally is more of a hassle than just configuring each one manually.

    Workgroup Manager: Managing older Macs

    The Workgroup Manager is the sole Server Admin instrument still available from Apple as a sever download. If the Users and Groups options in aren't to your liking, it can subsist used to expose more advanced options, but where it's most useful in Mountain Lion Server is in its faculty to manage older Macs, since pre-Lion operating systems don't back the configuration profiles that Profile Manager spits out.

    After downloading and installing the Workgroup Manager, open it and connect to your server using the Directory Administrator account you created when you first configured Open Directory. Once authenticated, you'll subsist able to view totality users and user groups in your directory, as well as totality of the Macs that you've bound to Open Directory. These Macs can likewise subsist placed into groups for your convenience.

    Selecting any user, user group, computer, or computer group and clicking the Preferences button at the top of the window will expose a System Preferences-like list of settings that you can utilize to configure your Macs' docks, network settings, login window settings, and more. You can already accomplish totality of this for Lion and Mountain Lion-equipped Macs using Profile Manager profiles, but Workgroup Manager enables management of totality settings for both Leopard and Snow Leopard, and management of some settings for Tiger as well, in the event that you still beget any computers that ripen still in energetic service.

    File Sharing

    The file-sharing service in Mountain Lion is unchanged from Lion. It's still an extension of the file-sharing features in the client version of OS X, adding WebDAV back and more robust permissions management to the existing Apple File-sharing Protocol (AFP) and Server Message block (SMB) protocols supported by the client version of the operating system. You can likewise add custom greetings to your AFP share points here, and you can view the IP addresses, protocols, and usernames of totality users connected to one of your share points. The AFP protocol likewise allows you to route messages to connected users and disconnect them from the server in the event that they've been idle for too long or are causing other problems.

    After enabling the service, the system will create a number of default share points, totality of which can subsist edited or deleted as needed. Click the plus button to add a current volume or folder as an additional share point, and then click the Settings button and "Edit share point" to adjust the permissions on the share. You can concede users read-only access, read and write access, or no access; allow or disallow guest access for a particular share; and elect to originate sure shares available for the roaming user profiles that they touched upon earlier.

    Choosing protocols, taking names.Choosing protocols, taking names.

    The AFP protocol is rock-solid as you would expect, but communication over the other protocols is a bit spottier. For example, trying to eschew any executable on a Windows computer from a Mountain Lion-hosted SMB share will result in an error message. In Lion, Apple switched to using its own in-house SMB protocol rather than the open-source Samba implementation it had been using before, and while there are some benefits (browsing an SMB server with many files is much faster from a Lion client than from a Snow Leopard client), it likewise introduces some quirks. For example, I create running Windows executables from an SMB share on my test server to subsist impossible, a problem I likewise had with Lion Server. In both cases, running files required me to first copy them from the share to my arduous drive.

    Sending a message to an AFP user. The message will  loom on their screen once it has been sent.Sending a message to an AFP user. The message will loom on their screen once it has been sent.

    WebDAV sharing isn't as flaky in its operation, but it is particular about who can utilize it and how WebDAV shares are accessed. Most notably, the service will only allow Open Directory users, not users local to your server, to access WebDAV shares. You'll likewise necessity the precise URL for every share point you'd relish to access; the format is http(s)://<your server name>/webdav/<case-sensitive share point name>. Once I was doing totality of these things properly, I was able to connect to my WebDAV shares from both OS X and Pages and copy some documents back and forth.

    Connecting to my WebDAV share from Pages. remember to  comprehend the "https" for SSL-enabled servers, and  likewise the case-sensitive share name.Connecting to my WebDAV share from Pages. remember to comprehend the "https" for SSL-enabled servers, and likewise the case-sensitive share name.

    If you're a home user who wants to originate your files available over the Internet (or if you'd relish to originate any of your services available when you're away from your home network), you'll probably necessity to configure port forwarding on your router, and to originate things easier you'll probably likewise want a DNS denomination to travel with your IP address (since the address used to gain your network from the Internet sometimes changes for most home users). keeps excellent guides for configuring port forwarding on a wide sweep of routers, and services like DynDNS offer DNS services for home Internet users (they've recently discontinued their free product, but their Remote Access tier is still only $20 per year).

    FTP (and SFTP) Shares from the File Sharing service automatically  display up in the FTP service.Shares from the File Sharing service automatically display up in the FTP service.

    The FTP service was completely removed from and Server Admin in Lion, and had to subsist enabled via the command line. Mountain Lion brings it back. FTP isn't technically section of the File Sharing service, but it works much the same way and it fits in nicely with the other file transfer protocols. You can enable FTP for any sites you've configured with the Websites server, circle on FTP for share points already available over one or more of the File Sharing protocols, and configure sever standalone FTP shares as well.

    Enabling SFTP and enabling SSH are one and the same. If you enable one, you enable both.Enabling SFTP and enabling SSH are one and the same. If you enable one, you enable both.

    Remember, there's no security inherent to the FTP protocol, so you'll want to subsist observant with what you utilize it for. If you'd relish to enable encrypted SFTP transfers instead, enable SSH in the Hardware settings in You can likewise accomplish this from within System Preferences on the server. travel to Sharing and enable Remote Login, which will enable SFTP along with the SSH remote login service.

    NetInstall The NetInstall service can  subsist used to install or   eschew OS X on your clients from an image stored on your server.The NetInstall service can subsist used to install or eschew OS X on your clients from an image stored on your server.

    The NetInstall service, formerly known as NetBoot, is current to in Mountain Lion. While the interface has changed in its waddle from Server Admin, its underpinnings remain the same: NetInstall is a BOOTP-based system that allows Macs to boot from network volumes, usually for the purposes of recovering files, running diagnostics, or installing antiseptic or pre-configured OS X images on Macs.

    Booting from a networked volume can subsist initiated either by holding the N key as your Mac starts up, or by selecting a network volume in the Startup Disk preference pane. NetInstall forms the backbone of the Lion Internet Recovery feature that lets newer Macs download a fresh copy of OS X from Apple's servers; the incompatibility is that with NetInstall you can serve up your own OS X bits locally. Apple provides tools for the creation of bootable images, though third parties relish DeployStudio likewise utilize the technology to simplify OS X imaging and deployment.

    Apple distinguishes between three different kinds of bootable volumes: first are NetBoot images, which allow computers to boot to a replete OS X installation hosted on a server. To store user files, NetBoot images can utilize space on the local Mac's arduous drive or they can subsist "diskless" images that store user data on the server and allow for the built-in arduous drive to subsist completely unmounted—useful for disk imaging and diagnostics. Second, there are NetInstall images, which are more or less network-hosted versions of OS X install media. Third, you beget NetRestore images, which can dump a custom OS X image directly to your Mac's arduous drive.

    Before you can enable the NetInstall service, you'll  beget to give it a   locality to store images and other data.Before you can enable the NetInstall service, you'll beget to give it a locality to store images and other data.

    We necessity to attend to a couple of things before they can flip on the NetInstall service: first, elect which Ethernet port you'll utilize to serve these images (WiFi isn't an option) and the volume you'll utilize to store both the images themselves and any user data they generate. You'll only really necessity to worry about the latter if you're configuring diskless NetBoot images. If you store the images on the boot volume, which is the default setting, the NetInstall service creates a NetBootSP0 folder for images and a NetBootClients0 folder for user data in the /Library/NetBoot folder.

    The terminal step is to give the service an image to toil with—this is a job for the System Image Utility.

    Creating a basic image with the System Image Utility The System Image Utility can  originate NetInstall images from bootable volumes and OS X installers from the Mac App Store. Enlarge / The System Image Utility can originate NetInstall images from bootable volumes and OS X installers from the Mac App Store.

    The System Image Utility, the only one of the ripen Server Admin Tools to survive the transition to Mountain Lion, is buried in's Tools menu. By default, it gives you a simple menu that you can utilize to originate NetBoot, NetInstall, and NetRestore images from either a bootable OS X volume (either on an external disk or a sever volume on the Mac's arduous drive; you cannot originate an image of the boot volume) or a Mountain Lion installer located in the Applications volume (this installer can easily subsist re-downloaded from the Mac App Store after installing Mountain Lion).

    One of the System Image Utility's limitations is that it can only create images of the currently running version of OS X—Mountain Lion's System Image Utility can only originate Mountain Lion images, Snow Leopard's version can only originate Snow Leopard images, and so on. This can originate it a bit tedious to create images for multiple OS X versions if you necessity to back Macs dropped by newer OS X releases.

    The System Image Utility comes with Automator actions you can  utilize to customize your OS X images.The System Image Utility comes with Automator actions you can utilize to customize your OS X images.

    Clicking the Customize button reveals an Automator-like workflow builder that you can utilize to customize your images with application install packages, local user accounts, and to set model and/or MAC address-related restrictions on the Macs that can utilize the image you're creating.

    Creating a network-bootable image of the Mountain Lion installer. Enlarge / Creating a network-bootable image of the Mountain Lion installer.

    For their purposes, let's just download the Mountain Lion installer from the Mac App Store and create a basic NetInstall image of it so that they can install Mountain Lion on their Macs without having to re-download the installer a bunch of times or hack around with a USB drive. Once you download the Mountain Lion installer, start up the System Image Utility, select the Install OS X Mountain Lion entry from the Sources menu, select NetBoot, and click Continue. denomination the image whatever you want, click Create, and coincide to the license agreement, and the System Image Utility will automatically dump a NetBoot image in their NetBootSP0 folder from earlier.

    Configuring images for booting

    Return to and peek under the Images tab, then double click the newly created Mountain Lion image to configure it for distribution. Check the box under Availability and elect the protocol you'd relish to utilize to dispense the images. Distributing images over HTTP won't originate you open any current ports, but it means that anyone sniffing your Web traffic can notice your images and everything in them. Using NFS, which has historically been the default, gets you some security-through-obscurity, but you'll necessity to open up more ports in your firewall.

    In past OS X versions, the service has worked more reliably with NFS than the HTTP protocol, which would often hang while machines attempted to boot, but Mountain Lion doesn't appear to beget the same problem. Your mileage may vary depending on your server’s configuration.

    NetInstall can host bootable images for multiple OS X versions at once, so you can  back older Macs even if they don't  back Mountain Lion. Enlarge / NetInstall can host bootable images for multiple OS X versions at once, so you can back older Macs even if they don't back Mountain Lion.

    After choosing a protocol, you can then set up MAC or model-based restrictions on individual images—this is in addition to the universal access restrictions you can configure in the service's Settings tab. Once you've configured your options and enabled an image, you can circle on the service, at which point your NetBoot images will subsist visible in the Startup Disk preference pane on other Macs on your network. You can host multiple images at once, but the image set as default will subsist the one your Macs try to boot from if you start them while holding down the N key.

    The Mac Model Filter can  withhold your Macs from trying to boot OS X versions they don't support.The Mac Model Filter can withhold your Macs from trying to boot OS X versions they don't support.

    When working with Mountain Lion images, the Mac Model Filter is now knowing enough to let you select only Macs that the image can actually boot—for Lion and older images, OS X Server just gives you a substantial list of totality Mac models, allowing you to accomplish something as counterproductive as setting a Snow Leopard image as the default for PowerPC computers. As long as you're up on your OS X compatibility lists, though, you can happily host images for PowerPC Macs alongside both newer Intel Macs and older ones dropped from the back list in Lion and Mountain Lion.

    Bizarrely, some of the names and descriptions of the Macs in the filter list don’t match their actual model number, but if you hover the cursor over the entry you can collect the exact model identifier (MacBook 3,1, iMac 11,3) just to subsist sure. Using properly configured filters, you can easily provide network booting for Macs going totality the way back to the G3 iBooks and PowerBooks.

    Mail, Calendar, Contacts, and Messages

    The Mail, Calendar, Contacts, and Messages services don't necessity much explanation beyond their names, which beget been changed to reflect the denomination changes in their corresponding OS X apps (Address Book, iCal, and iChat are out, Contacts, Calendar, and Messages are in).

    Taken together, they're OS X Server's reply to Exchange, though not anyone of these services are nearly as complicated or feature-rich. With the exception of Mail, totality of these services had already migrated from Server Admin to in Lion, and there haven't been many changes since, apart from sync back for Mountain Lion's current Notes and Reminders apps (and their iOS counterparts).

    Mail Configuration options for the Mail service  beget been severely curtailed in Mountain Lion, and the Web client has been removed entirely.Configuration options for the Mail service beget been severely curtailed in Mountain Lion, and the Web client has been removed entirely.

    Mail was one of the services that appeared in in Lion, but left most of its advanced settings back in the ripen Server Admin app. A few current settings beget been added to to compensate for the loss of Server Admin, but Mail remains one of the services most affected by Lion and Mountain Lion's quest for simplification.

    You can utilize the Mail service to provide POP and IMAP e-mail service for your domain and other domain names that you configure, and you can set the server to accept authentication from local users, energetic Directory, and Open Directory users depending on your server and network configuration. You can likewise add an SMTP mail relay if your Internet service provider puts you behind a firewall that prevents you from sending e-mail directly from your server, and you can set a universal e-mail quota for totality accounts here as well (this appears to subsist an all-or-nothing settings; if one user needs a quota bump, you'll necessity to give it to everyone). Simple virus and junk mail filtering as well as back for third-party blacklist servers round out the service's features.

    Only a few configuration options  beget survived; the rest died with Server Admin.Only a few configuration options beget survived; the rest died with Server Admin.

    Of the many things that Mail has lost since Lion (including the faculty to easily set maximum attachment sizes, view user accounts with usage and quota information, and more springy options for creating mailing lists), the webmail client is probably the one that people will notice the most.

    The webmail client in Lion, based on the open-source Roundcube client, could subsist politely described as "antiquated," and was in desperate necessity of an update (perhaps with the comparatively slick client that iCloud uses) but Apple instead chose to supersede it with... nothing. You'll beget to rely on the built-in Mail clients in OS X and iOS (or your IMAP client of choice) by default, though if you're really interested, you should subsist able to utilize the Websites service to manually install and configure a webmail front discontinuance for your mail server.

    The one addition that Mountain Lion Server makes to the Mail service is that it can now subsist used to store Notes for utilize with the OS X and iOS apps of the same name, just as third-party e-mail services can store Notes now.

    Calendar After enabling the Calendar service, you can create and manage meeting rooms and other resources for it in enabling the Calendar service, you can create and manage meeting rooms and other resources for it in

    The Calendar service gives each of your users their own calendar and new-to-Mountain Lion Tasks list (which integrates with the Reminders apps in Mountain Lion and iOS), and will likewise let you create locations (like meeting rooms) and resources (like loaner laptops or projectors) that people can reserve. When creating locations and resources, you can either elect to let reservations subsist approved automatically or assign one of your users to subsist the delegate who approves and rejects them.

    Assigning a delegate who can  sanction or reject  totality scheduling requests for my  current meeting room.Assigning a delegate who can sanction or reject totality scheduling requests for my current meeting room.

    Unlike Mail, the Calendar service's Web client remains intact in Mountain Lion as long as you've likewise got the Websites service turned on, accessible from your browser at http(s)://<your servername>/webcal. Using the Web client, you can create and view appointments and invitations; oddly enough, while the Tasks list is visible in the Web client, events can't subsist added (or even viewed once they're added in the OS X and iOS applications). If you've used calendar software in the terminal few years, you won't subsist surprised by any of OS X Server's Calendar features.

    Contacts There's not much to  accomplish for the Contacts service.There's not much to accomplish for the Contacts service.

    There's very tiny to yell about the Contacts service. It will sync contacts you create across multiple computers (making it potentially useful for families or other groups who want to maintain a shared list of contacts), and will optionally allow results from your directory's users to subsist displayed when you execute a search in the Contacts app.

    Messages The Messages service is only slightly less sparse.The Messages service is only slightly less sparse.

    The Messages service enables a simple Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP, or the protocol formerly known as Jabber) server that allows your users to communicate with one another without using a third-party service relish train or Google Talk. The service's only options allow you to archive totality chats (located on the server in /Library/Server/Messages/Data/message_archives) and enable something called "server-to-server federation," which can both enable and restrict communication between user accounts stored in sever directories on different servers.

    Connecting to your server

    In OS X and iOS, the easiest way to collect your clients connected to these services is to comprehend them in configuration profiles you're pushing out. If you're not using Profile Manager (or if you've got Windows, Linux, Android, or other clients), Apple's utilize of well-supported protocols in totality of these services means that you can connect manually from just about any client without much trouble.

    Connecting to the services we've configured in Mail, Contacts &amp; CalendarsConnecting to the services we've configured in Mail, Contacts & Calendars

    To connect to your services in OS X, open up the Mail, Contacts & Calendars preference pane, scroll to the bottom, and click Other. Select "Add a Mac OS X server account" and enter your server's address if it doesn't loom automatically. Click Continue, enter your user credentials, and then select the services you'd relish to use. Only Mountain Lion supports the syncing of Reminders and Notes, but older OS X clients can still connect to and utilize the older services.

    To connect with other operating systems, you'll just beget to plug your server's denomination and credentials into programs that back the protocols Apple is using: IMAP and SMTP for Mail, CalDAV for Calendar, CardDAV for Contacts, and XMPP/Jabber for Messages. The process is not as automated as in OS X, but it works.


    Mail, Calendar, Contacts, and Messages are usable, but even when they were more full-featured they couldn't quite compete with Exchange. The features stripped from the Mail app originate them even less competitive now.

    Whatever their feature set, I don't notice most users getting much mileage out of them: individuals and wee businesses will subsist better served by Google Apps or Office 365, and enterprises could collect by either with those services or with their own locally installed Exchange or IMAP servers.

    Websites The Websites service is <a href="">Apple's official replacement</a> for the Web Sharing feature in the client versions of OS X.The Websites service is Apple's official replacement for the Web Sharing feature in the client versions of OS X.

    Even if it isn't activated, the Websites service provides the backbone for several of the other services we've talked about: Profile Manager, the Web-based Calendar, and the Wiki service. The service's back discontinuance is supplied by Apache 2.2.22—not, you might notice, the most recent version, which is 2.4—and you can likewise eschew PHP (version 5.3.13 with the Suhoshin security patch installed) and Python (version 2.7.2) code on the server if you've enabled them. If you necessity access to Apache's directory structure, it's located at /Library/Server/Web/Config/apache2.

    The Websites service's simple landing page, with links to some of my other services below.The Websites service's simple landing page, with links to some of my other services below.

    Turning the Websites service on creates a default website, which you can notice if you nature localhost/default in your server's browser. By default, it's just a simple landing page with links to some of the different Websites-supported services (like the Web-based calendar and the Profile Manager) linked below, but you can drop different files into the /Library/Server/Web/Data/Sites/Default directory to change that up. Clicking the Edit pencil will allow you to change who can access the site, where its files are stored, and what domains, redirects, and aliases it uses.

    You can create as many  current sites as you  beget space and bandwidth for.You can create as many current sites as you beget space and bandwidth for.

    You can create current sites by clicking the plus button and setting the domain name, access permissions, SSL certificate, and other settings, and you can configure as many sites on your server as you beget storage space (and bandwidth) for. Configuring advanced settings requires going into the Apache configuration files, a process which is partially minute in Apple's advanced server administration documentation and likewise on Apache's own documentation for version 2.2.

    There are two deterrents to using the Websites service to host anything other than the pages for Server's other services: the first is that, as they saw above, Apple is using less-than-current versions of Apache, PHP, and other software packages. The second is that updates for these packages are bundled with OS X point updates (and later, the security update roll-ups that are released periodically for older OS X versions). If these point updates fix critical problems with one service but an included PHP update breaks a bunch of your code, there's not an facile way to sever them from one another.


    The Wiki service goes hand-in-hand with the Websites service, both because Wiki depends on Websites to operate and because it's the easiest way to collect your users doing something useful with Websites. If you've got any smack with Wikis of any kind, the Wiki service doesn't beget many surprises in store for you—they're simple websites that you can utilize to collaborate with other users, create and maintain posts, and upload and share files.

    Creating a Wiki page. Enlarge / Creating a Wiki page. Nedroid

    The Wiki service fills a role similar to Google Sites in the Google Apps suite, and likewise has more than a tiny in common with Microsoft's SharePoint (though that software is both more intricate and more capable than what's on parade here). Using this Wiki software, you can edit and comment on pages, associate pages with other, related pages, notice revision history, and collect notified when documents or comments are added to a site. Users with access to the Wiki service can create as many Wikis or pages as they want, and user groups you create in Open Directory can subsist given their own Wikis to facilitate collaboration.

    The built-in Wiki service is admittedly pretty simple, but if it isn't to your liking, it's facile enough to install something relish MediaWiki to your Websites server and utilize that instead—OS X Server already includes Apache and PHP, so you'll just beget to set up some database server software and you'll subsist salubrious to go.

    Everything else

    The aforementioned services are the biggest pieces of the software, and the ones with the most affecting parts to talk about. The rest of the offerings sweep from the practical to curios—by the discontinuance of their guide, you'll know about every service OS X Server has to offer, substantial and small.

    VPN With proper port forwarding, OS X Server's VPN service provides a fairly cheap,  facile way to set up your own VPN server.With proper port forwarding, OS X Server's VPN service provides a fairly cheap, facile way to set up your own VPN server.

    As in Lion Server, the VPN service in Mountain Lion server supports both L2TP and PPTP VPN connections. totality you necessity to accomplish is select the protocols you want to support, your VPN server's hostname (which is sever from your server's regular hostname, a feature current to Mountain Lion), and your shared covert password.

    If you'd relish to provide VPN settings to clients without handing out information relish the shared covert password, you can deliver a standalone .mobileconfig file perquisite from the VPN service window to hand out (useful if you're not already handing out these settings with the Profile Manager).

    You can define the IP address sweep that VPN-connected clients will use—by default it uses 31 addresses in the 200-range, so most home users won't eschew into any difficulty there—and set sever DNS settings for VPN-connected clients. current to Mountain Lion is the faculty to define routes for your clients as well.

    The VPN service is considerably easier to set up and configure than something relish OpenVPN, and L2TP and PPTP are both widely supported protocols that can subsist used with most extant versions of Windows, OS X, Linux, iOS, and Android with no issues. The biggest nit to pick here is that offering VPN services on an OS X server doesn't provide any particular benefits for Macs and iOS devices.

    Microsoft introduced a feature called DirectAccess in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that allows for seamless, always-on, VPN-like connections between servers and clients that originate things a bit less messy for users who necessity to collect on the corporate network from remote locations. While not a requirement for a decent VPN solution, it's too despicable that Apple hasn't arrive up with its own attempt to "fix" the VPN problem.

    Time Machine Enabling the Time Machine service is as  facile as choosing the volume you'd  relish to  utilize to store backups, but everything else is out of your control.Enabling the Time Machine service is as facile as choosing the volume you'd relish to utilize to store backups, but everything else is out of your control.

    Time Machine is another service that hasn't really changed since Lion—on the server side, you can enable and disable the service and specify the volume to utilize for your backups, and totality other settings (including file exceptions) are controlled by the clients, as Profile Manager offers no built-in configuration options for Time Machine.

    Time Machine backup functionality is offered by most home and wee businesses network-attached storage devices at this point, but if you don't beget one, the Time Machine service is especially useful for home users with multiple Macs and some free arduous drive space. The service can simplify the backup process compared to passing around an external drive.

    Once you've configured the Time Machine service, the volume you've configured for backups will loom as an option when choosing a Time Machine drive on your Mac clients. Local and network users or service accounts allowed to utilize the Time Machine service will subsist able to authenticate and utilize the drive as they would any local Time Machine disk.

    Two Time Machine servers are available on my network, and my OS X client  create both of them without issue.Two Time Machine servers are available on my network, and my OS X client create both of them without issue.

    What's frustrating about the Time Machine service is its complete lack of options—you can't specify disk usage quotas for particular users or computers (user disk quotas defined for network users don't appear to beget any demeanor on Time Machine's operation), you can't specify backup intervals or bandwidth caps, and while you can specify exceptions for folders and files on client computers, you beget no faculty to originate these exceptions on the server side.

    I've been using the Lion version of the Time Machine service on my home network for about six months, and the backup and restore processes are pretty quick and seamless if you're just backing up two or three Macs at once. The service won't scale very far beyond that, though, making it virtually useless in businesses with more than a few employees. If you've got more than a dozen Macs to back up, I'd strongly insinuate looking into a third-party alternative relish CrashPlan instead.

    Software Update Software Update downloads software updates from Apple's servers and distributes them to other Macs on your network.Software Update downloads software updates from Apple's servers and distributes them to other Macs on your network.

    The Software Update service is Apple's equivalent of Microsoft's Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). Your OS X server downloads updates directly from Apple's software update servers. Then, using Profile Manager, you point your Mac clients toward the local update server and they collect their updates from you instead of from Apple, saving Internet bandwidth and increasing the accelerate of large downloads.

    When set to Automatic, the service will automatically publish current updates to your Mac clients as they're made available from Apple. Selecting Manual gives you the option to hold back updates for testing before pushing it out to totality of your clients. Anyone who has ever installed a current OS X point update on the day it's made available knows that you're taking a sure amount of risk by doing so, and holding totality but the most critical security updates for at least a few days makes some sense if you're trying to reduce back calls.

    OS X clients  totality the way back to Tiger can  subsist kept updated with the Software Update service (though if you still  beget Tiger clients in  necessity of updates in 2012 I'd  yell you've got bigger problems).OS X clients totality the way back to Tiger can subsist kept updated with the Software Update service (though if you still beget Tiger clients in necessity of updates in 2012 I'd yell you've got bigger problems).

    The Software Update service can update totality of the same things that Apple's servers can, including Mac firmware updates; iLife, iWork, and other updates for Apple programs; and system updates for OS X versions reaching totality the way back to 10.4. A replete copy of Apple's update catalog is going to require several gigabytes of arduous drive space.

    The faculty to download and dispense iOS updates from your local server still isn't included, however.

    There are likewise a few other limitations here compared to something relish WSUS—while you can hold updates back from your users, there's no way to shove them out. Once you've approved an update, your users can drag it down through the customary Software Update process, but you can't mandate that the update subsist installed and there's no way to check update compliance throughout your organization. If your users elect to postpone the updates, there's really not much you can accomplish about it. There's likewise no way to sanction updates for sure groups or individuals while holding them back from other groups and individuals, functionality that WSUS has because of its tight energetic Directory integration.


    Of the networking services that used to subsist included in OS X Server, DNS is the only one left standing in Mountain Lion—DHCP and NAT both went out the window with the Server Admin Tools. This was no mistake: home users and wee businesses making utilize of OS X Server are usually going to beget both of these functions handled by their routers, and larger businesses will already beget Windows or Linux-based boxes providing both of these services.

    Preparing to configure a DNS entry.Preparing to configure a DNS entry.

    As DNS servers go, the one in OS X Server is pretty simple: you can specify forwarding servers to wield requests that your OS X server can't wield (which can either provide redundancy or allow you to utilize OS X for some DNS requests but not others), settle the computers for which your server should execute lookups (for the server only, for clients on the local network, and for clients on other networks), and configure your host names, IP addresses, and aliases.

    The main thing about DNS in Lion, as with totality apps that were moved from Server Admin to, was the degree to which it was condensed and simplified. This screen in Mountain Lion…

    …manages to meet more configuration options in a less confusing way than this screen from Lion:


    Despite this simplification, you don't lose options in the waddle from Lion to Mountain Lion, though that's not immediately obvious. Click the Settings button and then clicking display totality Records will let you add primary and secondary zones, and then add a number of different types of records to those zones. Many services gave up complexity in the waddle from Server Admin to, but the DNS service at least shows that is capable of complexity where necessary.

    Xsan Admin With an enterprise-level Fibre Channel network, I could  consume Xsan Admin for a spin.With an enterprise-level Fibre Channel network, I could consume Xsan Admin for a spin.

    The Xsan Admin is a bit of a niche service in an operating system packed with niche services—it interfaces with Xsan 3, an updated version of a formerly stand-alone product that serves as Apple's storage locality network (SAN) implementation. section of the instrument lives in, and the other section can subsist create in's Tools menu; between the two of them, they allow you to manage a group of pooled network storage arrays connected together via Fibre Channel.

    Because setting Xsan up requires, among other things, a Fibre Channel network, a couple of OS X Servers, and at least one networked storage array, I can't give you much more information on the service's operation than this, but Apple's documentation on the subject is fairly extensive. Suffice it to yell that most homes and wee businesses won't necessity to worry about it.

    State of the server Miss the Xserve?

    Apple replaced the Xserve with the Mac Mini Server and Mac Pro Server in January of 2011, and while the latter is too big, old, and expensive to subsist a decent alternative perquisite now, a Mini or two with a RAM upgrade can provide OS X Server functionality and a reasonable amount of power at a fraction of the price. If you necessity to mount Minis in a rack, mounts for them are pretty facile to arrive by. One of my favorites is Sonnet's awesome RackMac Mini 1U enclosure, which can meet two of the aluminum Mac Minis with ample elbowroom for ventilation. There's likewise a Thunderbolt version available, which uses the high-speed interface to regain some of the Xserve's lost expandability.

    When Apple discontinued the Xserve at the dawn of 2011, it sent a message: it was abandoning whatever ambitions it had harbored for the enterprise market, starting with the hardware. That message was restated emphatically when Lion Server came out later that year sporting a consumer-friendly price point and the dumbed-down in lieu of the administration tools OS X Server had been using for its first decade.

    The enterprise has never been a particularly tough market for Apple. As ZDNet's David Chernicoff observed in an Xserve post-mortem, Apple didn't even utilize Xserves or OS X Server in its own datacenters. The Mac server hardware and software of 2012 has been redesigned to appeal to two different kinds of people: consumers and power users who would never beget considered it before because of its price and complexity (i.e., current customers), and wee Mac-only businesses or Windows shops that were trying to integrate Macs more fully into their networks (i.e., most of the people who were buying and using OS X Server in the first place). For those people, the functionality you collect is a pilfer at $20, and the product can still accomplish most of the necessary stuff it could accomplish in previous versions.

    My scare in this gallant current world is that OS X Server will suffer the same fate as Apple Remote Desktop, another enormously useful instrument if you're trying to manage a large number of Macs. Remote Desktop's terminal major update, version 3.0, was introduced totality the way back in 2006. Though it is still technically being maintained and sold in the Mac App Store—its current version is 3.6—most of those point updates beget served only to add compatibility with current OS X versions and add incremental feature improvements relish IPv6 support.

    There's still some good, low-hanging fruit that Apple could harvest to originate OS X Server better for the kinds of users they're gunning for—things relish centralized FileVault management, the faculty to patch iOS with the Software Update service, and local iOS device backups. If the software goes into maintenance mode, I worry that we'll never notice server features that withhold pace with the features in the OS X client.

    We'll probably know whether these fears are founded or not when they start seeing builds of OS X 10.9. For now, especially for home users who beget never tried it, OS X Server's current $19.99 price point makes it a tempting proposition. That's a pretty reasonable price even if you only intend to utilize one or two of the services I've outlined here—Time Machine, File Sharing, VPN, and, to a lesser extent, NetInstall are the only ones I utilize at home. If you were on the fence at $50, buying Server at $20 is an easier call.

    It's no longer a staid alternative to Windows or Linux servers—if in fact it ever was—but most power users in Mac households should find at least something to like.

    Update: We've covered the current features in updates 2.1 and 2.2 here.

    Further reading:

  • Mountain Lion client review
  • Apple's Advanced Server Administration guides for Mountain Lion
  • List of TCP and UDP ports used by OS X
  • port forwarding guides for home routers
  • OS X Lion Server review (Anandtech)

  • How to back Mac OS X and Linux in Windows environments | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Windows 10 will likely become the most used desktop operating system at some point, but Apple's Mac OS X and Linux beget their purposes and places in the enterprise, too.

    Many servers around the world eschew Linux, but on the desktop, the OS is used mainly by academics, researchers and developers. Amazon and Google utilize Linux to back many commerce processes, and U.S. Department of Defense employees utilize a Linux-based operating system on a CD or USB stick to log in to secure networks from untrusted PCs while they are away from the office.

    Macs beget historically been preferred by lifelike designers and digital artists, and today executives and frequent travelers unite that list because Macs tender better security and seamless integration with Apple iOS devices.

    Pretty much everybody else uses Windows. Mac OS X accounts for less than 10% of the overall desktop market share, and Linux desktops topple into the "Other" category. They're grouped with Windows Vista, Windows NT, Windows 2000 and ripen versions of Mac OS X. It's arduous to believe that systems as feature-rich and robust as the latest Ubuntu, Fedora and Mint distributions topple into the collective crumb bin of overall market share.

    Advantages of Mac OS X and Linux

    It might peek relish Mac OS X and Linux fill too narrow a niche for enterprise use, but they're simply underrated. They beget been forced out of the mainstream as many IT shops peek to standardize OSes and hardware to streamline back and maintenance.

    But Mac OS X and Linux are far less susceptible to malware than Windows. OS X in particular includes code-signing to prevent most types of malware. Because Windows is the preponderant desktop OS, malware creators target it much more often than any other OS. Fortifying the Windows OS and cleaning up after an attack cost IT an colossal amount of money every year.

    Mac OS X and Linux are much more stable and accountable than Windows, and Linux is hands down the most forgiving of older peripherals and legacy hardware. A modern Linux distribution runs reasonably well on a computer built for Windows XP. That same computer might not subsist able to eschew Windows 10, and drivers could subsist a major issue. Additionally, the productivity software packages available for Mac and Linux are comparable to Microsoft Office -- and in some cases compatible with it. Linux productivity suites are usually free.

    Integrating Mac and Linux clients on a Windows enterprise network

    Windows and Macs beget built-in features that provide simple file sharing across a network. Samba is a software application that allows Linux and Windows to share files and printers. It works fine on smaller networks, but is quickly outclassed or becomes impractical on large networks that eschew energetic Directory.

    Recent releases of Mac OS X and Linux toil with Microsoft System focus Configuration Manager (SCCM), which lets Mac and Linux PCs unite energetic Directory much relish a Windows client. With the Clients for Additional Operating Systems module, IT administrators can utilize SCCM to discover, audit, implement settings and shove patches to Mac, Linux and Unix computers.

    Admins can likewise utilize management software such as the Casper Suite from JAMF Software for Mac integration, which is similar to SCCM. energetic Directory bridging is available from a number of companies -- such as Centrify and BeyondTrust -- to manage Linux and Mac systems in a Windows environment.

    Another option to back Macs is to eschew OS X Server on the network. It doesn't comprehend energetic Directory components, as of this writing, but an admin can utilize the server's Profile Manager to set Mac policies based on energetic Directory groups. The Mac clients served by OS X Server can communicate with Windows clients, share files, share printers and more.

    Regarding email and Microsoft Exchange, Mac OS X's Mail and Calendar can connect, but will eschew with fewer hiccups if IMAP and POP3 are enabled in Exchange. Several Linux email clients provide back for Exchange.

    Running Windows programs on Mac OS X and Linux

    Companies that want to eschew Windows applications on sure Mac or Linux systems can peek to the free open source program Wine for help. It's a compatibility layer that can eschew Windows applications on other OSes. CodeWeaver CrossOver Linux is a similar option for Linux distributions. Admins can likewise install a virtual machine, such as Oracle VirtualBox or Parallels Desktop for Mac, and then eschew a Windows OS and associated applications with replete network connectivity.

    Perhaps the most springy way to provide the same applications to users regardless of OS is to utilize a software as a service (SaaS) option, such as Google Apps, Microsoft Office 365 or Zoho Office. Everything is more generic when eschew out of a Web browser, and SaaS requires tiny time and effort from IT.

    Third-party tools consume away a lot of the sting associated with running Macs and Linux systems on a Microsoft-based enterprise network. subsist sure to test-drive several tools in your own environment before deciding on the best approach.

    Seed Notes, Videos of Mac 10.7 OS X Lion Preview Published Online | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Those with access to the Mac OS X 10.7 Lion Developer Preview beget been keen to share the seed notes with the world, with the documentation being available on multiple tech-blogs and web sites.

    According to these posts, which appear to comprehend the full-length release notes, there is still a large number of issues and restrictions tied to Lion.

    First off, Lion requires hardware with a Core 2 Duo processor or better, Apple says, while Late 2006 iMacs are not supported, at least not by this seed. It likewise requires Boot Camp 3.2 or later if Boot Camp is utilized.

    In order to install Lion to additional systems, testers can copy the Mac OS X Lion Installer application from /Applications over to their second Mac and double-click on the application.

    The installation will toil only on Macs authorized by the user to share content downloaded from the Mac App Store.

    Testers’ volumes with Disk Encryption enabled will only subsist recognized by Mac OS X 10.7, while those who utilize FileVault on Snow Leopard are being advised to disable it prior to upgrading to Lion.

    Apple warns that the Services menu may not subsist fully functional in applications utilizing Application Sandboxing. These comprehend Preview and TextEdit.

    But, there’s another issue here worth mentioning.

    In Apple’s own words, “Application Sandboxing does not currently track renames while a document is open. If one opens a file in an application utilizing Application Sandboxing and renames the file in Finder while it is open, further attempts to deliver the file from the application will then fail until it is restarted.”

    Some multitouch trackpads will not beget an option to invert the scrolling direction in the Trackpad System Preferences pane. Those trackpads are the ones that only back two-finger gestures, according to Apple.

    To troubleshoot the internet connection, testers are instructed to check to notice that the Ethernet interface is listed on the left side of the Network System Preferences pane. Clicking the “+” button to add the Ethernet interface may subsist required in some cases.

    Redemption codes, such as those stemming from iTunes gift cards, cannot subsist redeemed in the Mac App Store through this Lion seed, while saving a PDF previewed in Safari is likewise currently supported.

    To atomize this huge block of text, we've included a video of this Lion developer seed running on a Mac laptop.

    Other notable ‘known issues’ include:

    · Installation to a software RAID is not currently supported.

    · Network migrations are only supported from Mac OS X v10.6.6 with the Migration coadjutant compatibility update installed.

    · iPhoto pictures cannot subsist viewed in replete Screen on MacBooks with discrete video hardware.

    · VoiceOver will not play a welcome message during initial user setup. VoiceOver works correctly otherwise, once enabled through System Preferences or by hitting ⌘-F5.

    Apple includes a set of known issues for the Server side of Lion, which will ship alongside the Client version of the OS this Summer.

    "Lion Server is now section of Mac OS X Lion," according to Apple's marketing page for OS X Lion. "It's facile to set up your Mac as a server and consume handicap of the many services Lion Server has to offer."

    Known issues with Lion Server include:

    · Lion Server must subsist installed on an empty disk.

    · Safari is currently the only supported browser for utilize with Wiki Server or Profile Manager.

    · Profile Manager does not currently allow for profiles, including the profile containing the MDM payload, to subsist locked.

    · totality users must beget an email address when using shared calendars with iCal Server.

    · current sharepoints will not inherit group permissions. You must manually change the permissions.

    · Remote administration is not supported in this release.

    · Installing the Server Admin Tools package on non-Lion Server systems is not supported.

    · During installation, Lion Server may not subsist selected as a default install package on server hardware. You must select customize and manually elect to install Server.

    To learn more about Mac OS X Lion, visit Apple's web site here.

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