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linked materials: Books
skill level: groundwork popularity: energetic
budget friendly: $400 (shortest tune)
summary:For Mac OS X technical coordinators and entry-level device administrators who've a groundwork in Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server core functionality and an potential to configure key services and duty simple troubleshooting of the essential Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server capabilities.
preliminary necessities:You should circulate two tests ($200 each and every). the first exam is Mac OS X assist essentials (passing this examination by myself will deserve you an Apple licensed befriend professional certification aka ACSP). The 2nd examination is Mac OS X Server necessities. practising is purchasable but not required.
carrying on with requirements:None particular
Offline elements:Apple iServices presents instructor led lessons to aid you build together.
See vulgar Apple Certifications
dealer's page for this certification
When it comes to Intel Macs, the best circumstance of portability not holds genuine. Apple definitely ships Intel Macs with an Intel-native edition of Mac OS X and considerations divorce Mac OS X updates for Intel Macs. which you can view facts by using searching on the build numbers between Mac OS X releases on Intel and vigour computing device Macs. youngsters two Macs might possibly live operating Mac OS X 10.4.6 with the latest security updates, the build numbers for the OS X free up will parade to live 8I1119 and 81127, respectively.
This might arrive as a shock because Apple has indicated that vulgar the software that comes bundled with a fresh Mac is typical (it truly is, it consists of the code vital to hurry natively on each power laptop and Intel Macs). even though it is actual for just about vulgar applications and utilities that ship with Mac OS X (Safari, TextEdit, iTunes, and the different iLife and iWork applications), it isn't undoubted of the entire operating device. There are elements of Mac OS X which are positive to Intel or vitality laptop hardware. most of these data appear fancy paraphernalia drivers and kernel extensions.
This throws a wrench into the idea of the usage of a lone Mac OS X photo as a deployment alternative in a community that includes both Intel and power laptop Macs. basically, at present, Apple has formally brought up that it doesn't aid the introduction of a time-honored Mac OS X version by artery of pause clients. however, Apple has furthermore indicated that it does device to finally reintegrate both Intel and vitality laptop adaptations of the working gadget into a lone release (although unconfirmed, many call that this could ensue in Mac OS X 10.5, a.ok.a. Leopard). however, here's no longer the only disagreement that exists between Intel and vitality workstation Macs that absorb an effect on the potential to create a intimate photograph that can furthermore live used for deployment to both forms of machines.
besides the fact that children I’ve been aiding Macs considering the fact that they got here out in 1984 (when i used to live in high college), I haven’t obtained any “formal” practising. It has ordinarily been researching by using doing, reading the occasional booklet and now of direction, TheAppleBlog. Does formal certification really compose a disagreement as a technician? You inform me.advertisement
recently I bought into an controversy with a supplier that one artery or the other notion a technician who first started repairing Macs sixth months in the past trumped my 25 years journey. Did certification compose this adult a stronger technician? Having executed well slightly of hiring myself, I’ve too often organize that certification most effective verifies your capability to prefer a test and might now not absorb demeanor within the actual world.
Now that the market has modified and everyone seems to live competing for scarce components, possibly a certification would live an further aspect? What’s the company approach for unbiased Mac technicians looking greater? The own took loads of research — even Apple wasn’t in a position to own my questions — so study from my experience.
credit score goes to each Brian best of BestMacs and Doug Hanley of MacTEK practicing, because without them I wouldn’t recall the alphabet soup of ACSP, ACMT, ACTC, ACSA, AASP, ACN and more. Didn’t vulgar of us develop into Mac users to stay away from mysterious phrases? As lots of you understand, the benefit of the Apple consumer interface is equalled handiest by means of the frustration of trying to live mindful Apple’s certifications courses. figuring out this direction was an dreadful lot harder than any video video game I’ve ever performed, however a “game” may well live the optimum metaphor to define the system.The game
You start the “online game” as a common Mac consumer. The three worlds you’ll frequently view in the online game are IT, seasoned Apps, and revenue. As an IT grownup might live you absorb got advantage, might live you don’t. Nothing stops you from effectively repairing Macs on your own, until you conclude things that principally void the warranty and you salvage caught doing so. You will not absorb permission per se from Apple to drudgery on Macs. Many folks are tickled at this flat accumulating cash separately, but which you could’t proceed any extra until you salvage a certification — the key that unlocks the next stage in the online game.
the first certification most slide for is Apple certified befriend professional (ACSP) which was once called an Apple certified assist Desk professional (ACHDS). This certifies your potential to suffer in intellect the operating paraphernalia and is earned in line with the OS edition. therefore, you are an Apple certified befriend skilled in 10.5 (or quickly 10.6). every OS requires certification, but your certification does not expire. for this reason, if you are a ACHDS in 10.three, you could designation your self licensed with out realizing 10.5 at all. Your can prefer the check without working towards (many do), self-analyze by artery of materials from Peachpit, or attend an instructor-lead course at an Apple approved working towards middle (AATC). MacTek is a benign of centers. You’ll prefer the check at a Prometric testing focus and pay round $200. The verify takes about 90 minutes or so and you salvage the effects automatically.Apple Consultants network
whereas certification is the capability, the conclusion you could live reaching for is the skill to live allotment of the Apple Consultants network (ACN). becoming a member of the ACN requires any Apple certification, such as the ACSP mentioned above, or any variety of other certifications (described under, though one source says now not vulgar certifications are valid, so watch out). retaining with the video video game analogy, the ACN is fancy a all fresh area of the video online game you want to discover, but the boss that absorb to live defeated first is Apple, and your weapon is a certification!
After getting a certification you can then exercise to live a allotment of the ACN. The application payment is $60 and the precise payment to associate is $395 as a sole proprietor. the entire requirements are prerogative here. You’ll salvage a lot of merits corresponding to product discounts as smartly as the competence to community with other Macintosh consultants. As an ACN, Apple keep employees may additionally hand out your card to clients within the shop. Now your enterprise can in fact extend as each Apple store client is a potential customer for you.
ACN membership is excellent and a lot of live at this stage of the “game” the usage of the ACN membership as a multiplier for their revenue. youngsters, you nonetheless can’t conclude hardware repairs under assurance nor order Apple parts. As with the video video game, you’re stuck at this stage unless you explore further and prefer a inspect at to beat the subsequent boss. Apple always controls the guidelines. accept it as a allotment of the video game. Fail to accept it and furthermore you’ll salvage slapped lower back to the starting of the video game sooner than that you could click on the home button.Server Administration Certification
From this point, you've got a yoke instructions that you may go. that you would live able to focal point on restore and service, or you can focus on server or superior application administration (many individuals will conclude both). i will talk about the server administration certifications and the hardware features certifications. that you may suppose of each and every of these as two divorce worlds within the game. that you can select one or the other, or determine them both.
the first stage server administration certification is one other four-letter acronym: ACTC: Apple licensed Technical Coordinator. apart from passing the examine for ACSP, you’ll puss the Server essentials test. This extends your notebook expertise to servers. an excellent greater degree of certification in the server realm is an ACSA — Apple certified techniques Administrator. For the ACSA, you’ll deserve to stream 4 tests: Server essentials, directory features, Deployment, and Mobility and security for 10.6 (or superior device Administration for 10.5).
Apple furthermore offers the ACMA (Apple licensed Media Administrator) which contains Server necessities, Xsan, final reduce Server and as an alternative, assist necessities, Deployment, directory functions, or ultimate slit degree 1. other certifications aren't necessarily IT linked and are software-concentrated. That’s a realm I’m no longer exploring as they chose the IT track at the rise of the online game.Hardware fix Certification
relocating on from server administration to exact Apple hardware fix, the basic certification you are going to deserve is the Apple licensed Macintosh Technician (ACMT), formerly the Apple licensed moveable Technician (ACPT) and Apple certified computing device Technician (ACDT). This certification capability you are theoretically certified to conclude assurance repairs on Apple Macintosh device. The expertise required for ACMT are those of hardware repair and utility troubleshooting. You don’t necessity an ACSP to live an ACMT, however many people deserve each. The tutorial manner for hardware repair is greater inordinate and it’s less probably you’ll stream the examine with out some practicing. At this degree, that you may additionally slide to an AATC and pay about $four,800 for both the hardware and utility features of the path, or your should buy self-study materials from Apple known as “Apple supervision Technician practicing” for $299.Apple licensed service provider
similar to how passing the ACSP means that you can associate the Apple Consultants network, passing the ACMT allows you to enter the realm of an Apple authorized carrier provider (AASP). You may additionally now not immediately become one though, and only AASP’s salvage compensation from Apple for warranty work. youngsters, being an ACMT is terribly helpful in case you wish to salvage a job as an AASP. You might furthermore additionally exercise to conclude warranty repairs on your larger corporation of over 50 Macs via the Self-service software. in case you wish to enhance to being in a position to conclude warranty repairs for any one, you’ll puss that equal boss once again, Apple. note that becoming an ACMT will now not always deserve you from now on cash than an ACSA or ACTC. facing the subsequent boss may well live too costly and too restricting, but when you conclude covet the subsequent degree, examine on.
getting to that AASP flat is in reality the ultimate stage of the video game. You’ll should absorb an ACMT on staff and comply with stricter requirements than joining the Apple Consultants network. often you’ll necessity a actual store front and not live a one-grownup operation. Apple provides exceptions (doesn’t every video game absorb cheat codes?), however don’t matter number on it. after getting your AASP you can live listed with Apple as a provider company and salvage reimbursed for warranty repairs.
So I’ve loaded the online game and pressed delivery. Is certification value it? What about ACN or AASP? Which practicing may noiseless i slide for? Is teacher lead practicing price it? Any working towards vendors willing to sponsor me? What concerning the self-look at classes? partake with me your experiences within the online game and let’s ameliorate a definitive sheperd together with “cheat codes.”Apple-authorized agencies
ACN (Apple Consultants network)What it is: community on Apple gurus, receives discounts and assistance from Apple, and can live referred from Apple retail outlets.requirements: Any certification.
AASP (Apple licensed provider company)what is it: company it truly is permitted to conclude Apple assurance repairs for compensation and order parts from Apple.necessities: absorb an Apple licensed Macintosh Technician on team of workers, among other requirements.Certifications
Apple certified aid professional: primary knowing of the client Mac operating system and troubleshooting.
Apple licensed Technical Coordinator: Deeper knowing of the Mac OS, including the Mac OS X Server and Server essentials.
Apple certified techniques Administrator: Even more suitable technical understanding of the Mac OS X Server, including passing exams on Server necessities, listing features, Deployment, and Mobility and safety.
Apple licensed Media Administrator: here's a sister track of the “Apple licensed techniques Administrator” with a spotlight on the needs of media administration, and comprises working towards in XSan or final reduce.
Apple certified Macintosh Technician: that you could conclude Apple hardware repairs, both in and out of guarantee. Required to birth (or salvage a job with) an Apple licensed carrier provider, or self-provider your huge organization.
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Mozilla today announced that it will pause Firefox champion for OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, OS X 10.7 Lion, and OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion in August 2016. Unlike Google, which furthermore dropped Windows XP and Vista support, Mozilla seems to live sticking to only removing champion for frail Macs.
This means Mozilla will provide regular Firefox updates and security patches for Mac users on these operating systems for four more months. After that, the browser will noiseless work, but it will live stuck on the ultimate version released in August.
Mozilla furthermore offers a Firefox version called Extended champion Release (ESR) for schools, universities, businesses, and others who necessity befriend with mass deployments. Firefox ESR releases are maintained for one year, and so Mozilla will continue to champion it on OS X 10.6, 10.7, and 10.8 “until mid-2017.” Firefox ESR 45 will live the ultimate version that supports these frail OS X versions.
Mozilla correctly notes that “all three of these versions are no longer supported by Apple” and that “unsupported operating systems receive no security updates, absorb known exploits, and are Dangerous for you to use.” If you want to continue getting Firefox updates, the company thus recommends upgrading your Mac.
It’s luckless that Mozilla is not doing the same with frail Windows versions. keep in intellect that Microsoft retired Mainstream champion for Windows XP on April 14, 2009 and then pulled Extended champion for the operating system on April 8, 2014. Mozilla is thus going out of its artery to champion XP for additional years, even longer than Microsoft.
Windows XP users cannot upgrade to newer versions of Microsoft’s browser: IE8 is the latest version they can install. IE9 is only available for Windows Vista and Windows 7, while IE10 and IE11 are only for Windows 7 and Windows 8. Many XP users thus choose to utilize third-party browsers.
With Chrome no longer an option, many are likely going with Firefox.
Last month, XP noiseless had about 11 percent market share, according to Net Applications. Vista had 1.41 percent market share, and the three frail OS X versions had a combined 0.83 percent.
So if you’re wondering why exactly Mozilla keeps supporting Firefox on Windows XP and Vista, the numbers uncover the actual story. There are hundreds of millions using the browser on the ancient operating systems, and Mozilla would rather absorb those users than lose them.
But fancy Google before it, Mozilla is not helping these users by not encouraging them to upgrade. Even with an up-to-date browser, using Windows XP and Vista is simply a needy security choice.
The information panel (below) presents every supported language, the version, its installed location, a description of the font, its copyright and trademark data, the number of glyphs supplied, whether it is embeddable, enabled, copy protected or installed as a duplicate.
Duplicate font files are flagged with a warning icon, and can live fixed automatically or resolved manually from a comparison drop down sheet (below).
The fresh Apple Color Emoji font supplies 502 glyphs in a TrueType font. Apple previously added emoticon champion in iOS within Japanese input, which replaced typed characters with suggested faces created from Roman characters. The fresh slide in Lion suggests company is likely to add actual Emoji input to the iOS as well.
Mac OS X 10.7 was first shown to the public in October 2010. The presentation was understated, especially compared to the bold rhetoric that accompanied the launches of the iPhone ("Apple reinvents the phone") and the iPad ("a magical and revolutionary device at an unbelievable price"). Instead, Steve Jobs simply called the fresh operating system "a sneak peek at where we're going with Mac OS X."
Behind Jobs, the screen listed the seven previous major releases of Mac OS X: Cheetah, Puma, Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard, and Snow Leopard. Such brief retrospectives are de rigueur at major Mac OS X announcements, but long-time Apple watchers might absorb felt a slight tingle this time. The public "big cat" branding for Mac OS X only began with Jaguar; code names for the two earlier versions were not well known outside the developer community and were certainly not allotment of Apple's official marketing message for those releases. Why bring the cat theme back to the forefront now?Want an eBook or PDF copy? champion Ars and it's yours.
The own came on the next slide. The next major release of Mac OS X would live called Lion. Jobs didn't compose a stout deal out of it; Lion's just another stout cat name, right? Within seconds, they were on to the next slide, where Jobs was pitching the fresh release's message: not "king of the jungle" or "the biggest stout cat," but the "back to the Mac" theme underlying the entire event. Mac OS X had spawned iOS, and now Apple was bringing innovations from its mobile operating system back to Mac OS X.
Apple had respectable intuition to diffident away from presenting Lion as the pinnacle that its designation implies. The ultimate two major releases of Mac OS X were both profoundly shaped by the meteoric rise of their younger sibling, iOS.Steve Jobs presents the first seven releases of Mac OS X in a slightly unusual format
Leopard arrived later than expected, and in the same year that the iPhone was introduced. Its successor, Snow Leopard, famously arrived with Your browser does not champion the audio element. Click here to listenno fresh features , concentrating instead on internal enhancements and bug fixes. Despite credible official explanations, it was difficult to quiver the emotion that Apple's burgeoning mobile platform was stealing resources—not to mention the spotlight—from the Mac.
In this context, the designation Lion starts to prefer on darker connotations. At the very least, it seems fancy the pause of the stout cat branding—after all, where can you slide after Lion? Is this process of taking the best from iOS and bringing it back to the Mac platform just the first phase of a complete assimilation? Is Lion the pause of the line for Mac OS X itself?
Let's build aside the pessimistic prognostication for now and deem Lion as a product, not a portent. Apple pegs Lion at 250+ fresh features, which doesn't quite match the 300 touted for Leopard, but I guess it vulgar depends on what you deem a "feature" (and what that "+" is putative to mean). Still, this is the most significant release of Mac OS X in many years—perhaps the most significant release ever. Though the number of fresh APIs introduced in Lion may topple short of the landmark Tiger and Leopard releases, the most significant changes in Lion are radical accelerations of past trends. Apple appears tired of dragging people kicking and screaming into the future; with Lion, it has simply decided to leave without us.Table of Contents
A brief note on branding: on Apple's website and in some—but not all—marketing materials, Apple refers to its fresh Mac operating system as "OS X Lion." This may well eddy out to live the designation going forward, but given the current condition of confusion and my own stubborn nostalgia, I'm going to summon it "Mac OS X" throughout this review. Indulge me.Installation
Lion's system requirements don't disagree much from Snow Leopard's. You noiseless necessity an Intel-based Mac, though this time it must furthermore live 64-bit. The ultimate 32-bit Intel Mac was discontinued in August of 2007; Apple chose a similar four-year cut-off for dropping PowerPC support, with minimal customer backlash. Time marches on.
But sometimes time marches on a bit too fast. Though this is the second version of Mac OS X that doesn't champion PowerPC processors, this is the first version that won't hurry PowerPC applications. In Snow Leopard, the Rosetta translation engine allowed PowerPC applications to run, and hurry well, often faster than they ran on the (admittedly older) PowerPC Macs for which they were developed. Lion no longer includes Rosetta, even as an optional install.
No one expects eternal champion for PowerPC software, and any developer that doesn't yet absorb Intel-native versions of vulgar its applications is clearly not particularly dedicated to the Mac platform. Nevertheless, people noiseless reckon on some PowerPC applications. For example, I absorb an frail PowerPC version of Photoshop. Though Photoshop has long since gone Intel-native, it's an expensive upgrade for someone fancy me who uses the program only rarely. The PowerPC version suits my needs just fine, but it won't hurry at vulgar in Lion.
Another common instance is Quicken 2007, noiseless the most capable Mac version of Intuit's finance software, and noiseless PowerPC-only. This is clearly Intuit's fault, not Apple's, but from a regular user's perspective, it's difficult to understand why Apple would remove an existing, completed feature that helped so many people.
In reality, every feature has some associated maintenance cost. This is perhaps even more actual of a binary translation framework that may absorb abysmal hooks into the operating system. I'm willing to give Apple the benefit of the doubt and assume that disentangling PowerPC-related code from the operating system once and for vulgar was significant enough to justify the customer inconvenience. But it noiseless stings a little.
The future shock continues with the purchase and installation process. Lion is the first version of Mac OS X to live distributed through Apple's recently introduced Mac App Store. In fact, the Mac App Store is the only area where you can buy Lion.
Apple's conclusion ultimate year to sell its iLife and iWork applications through the Mac App Store was not unexpected, but the presence of Apple's professional photography application, Aperture, caught some people off guard—as did its greatly reduced price ($80 vs. $200 for the boxed version).
The developer preview releases of Lion were furthermore distributed through the Mac App Store. Apple's developer releases absorb been distributed digitally for many years now, but the switch from downloading disk images from Apple's developer website to "redeeming" promo codes and downloading fresh builds from the Mac App Store raised some eyebrows. When Apple announced that its fresh Final slit Pro X professional video editing application would—you guessed it—be distributed through the Mac App Store, and at a greatly reduced price, even the most dense Apple watchers started to salvage the hint.The Lion installer application icon
And so they absorb Lion, priced at a mere $29 (the same as its "no fresh features" predecessor), available exclusively through the Mac App Store. It's an audacious move, yes, but not unexpected.
Apple is so done with stamping bits onto plastic discs, putting the discs into cardboard boxes, putting those boxes onto trucks, planes, and boats, and shipping them vulgar over the world to retail stores or to mail-order resellers who will eventually build those same boxes onto a different set of trucks, trains, and planes for final delivery to customers, who will then remove the disc, sling away the cardboard, and instruct their computers to extract the bits. No, from here on out, it's digital distribution vulgar the way. (This, I suppose, marks the pause of my longstanding tradition of showing the product boxes or optical discs that Mac OS X ships on. Instead, you can view the installer application icon on the right.)
Lion is a great download and speedily network connections are noiseless not ubiquitous. But fresh Macs will arrive with Lion, so the most apropos question is, how many people who device to upgrade an existing Mac to Lion don't absorb a speedily network connection? The class of people who accomplish OS upgrades probably has a higher penetration of high-speed Internet access than the generic population. I furthermore suspect that Apple retail stores may live willing to befriend out customers who just can't manage to download a 3.76GB installer in a reasonable amount of time.
[Update: Macworld reports that there will, in fact, live a physical manifestation of Lion. Starting in August, Apple will sell Lion on a USB stick for $69. Apple has furthermore said that customers are welcome to bring their Macs to Apple retail stores for befriend buying and installing Lion.]
In the meantime, if you're reading this, chances are respectable that you absorb a speedily broadband connection; feel free to cease reading prerogative now, launch the Mac App Store, and start your multi-gigabyte download before continuing. What you'll live rewarded with at the pause is an icon in your Applications folder labeled "Install Mac OS X Lion." (See?)
Once you absorb the installer application, you could (were you so inclined) dig into it (control-click, then note Package Contents) and find the meaty center, a 3.74GB disk image (InstallESD.dmg, stored in the Contents/SharedSupport folder). You could then utilize that disk image to, say, parch a Lion installation DVD or create an emergency external boot disk.
I doubt any of these things are officially supported by Apple, but the point is that there's nothing exotic about the Lion installer. fancy vulgar past versions of Mac OS X, Lion has no serial number, no product activation, and no DRM of any kind. In fact, the Mac App Store's licensing policy is even more permissive than past releases of Mac OS X. Here's an excerpt from Lion's license agreement:
If you obtained a license for the Apple Software from the Mac App Store, then matter to the terms and conditions of this License and as permitted by the Mac App Store Usage Rules set forth in the App Store Terms and Conditions (http://www.apple.com/legal/itunes/ww/) ("Usage Rules"), you are granted a limited, non-transferable, non-exclusive license:
(i) to download, install, utilize and hurry for personal, non-commercial use, one (1) copy of the Apple Software directly on each Apple-branded computer running Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server ("Mac Computer") that you own or control;
The references to Snow Leopard are a bit confusing, but keep in intellect that you necessity Snow Leopard to purchase and download Lion for the first time. I suspect the license agreement will live updated once Lion has been out for a while.
There's furthermore another piquant clause in the license, from that same section:
(iii) to install, utilize and hurry up to two (2) additional copies or instances of the Apple Software within virtual operating system environments on each Mac Computer you own or control that is already running the Apple Software.
Putting it vulgar together, Apple says you're allowed to hurry up to three copies of Lion—one real, two inside virtual machines—on every Mac that you own, vulgar for the low, low price of $29. Not a imperfect deal.
The installer itself is extinct simple, foreshadowing the pervasive simplification in Apple's fresh OS. There are no optional installs and no customization. The only response the user provides is agreeing to the obligatory EULA, and the only configurable install parameter is the target disk.Enlarge
But wait a second—how exactly is this going to work? Surely an entirely fresh operating system can't live installed on top of the currently running operating system by an application stored on the same volume. Without a plastic disc to boot from, how is it even workable to upgrade a standalone Mac with just one difficult drive?
These questions probably won't occur to an unconcerned consumer, which is sort of the point, I guess. positive enough, if you just immediate your eyes, launch the installer application, and click your artery through the handful of screens it presents, your Mac will reboot into what looks fancy the benchmark Mac OS X installer application from years past. When it's done, your Mac will reboot into Lion. Magic!
Okay, it's not magic, but it is a bit complicated. The first and most lasting flabbergast is that the Lion installer will actually repartition the disk, carving out a 650MB slice of the disk for its own use.
Don't worry, vulgar existing data on the disk will live preserved. (Mac OS X has had the competence to add partitions to existing disks without destroying any data for many years now.) vulgar that's required is enough free space to reshuffle the data as needed to compose room for the fresh partition.
Here's an instance from my testing. I started with a lone 250GB difficult drive split into two equal partitions: the first named "Lion Ex," currently running Snow Leopard, and the intended target of the Lion install, and the second named "Timex," the Time Machine backup volume for Lion Ex. The output from the diskutil list command appears below./dev/disk1 #: type designation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *250.1 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_HFS Lion Ex 125.0 GB disk1s2 3: Apple_HFS Timex 124.6 GB disk1s3
Now here's that same disk after installing Lion, with the fresh partition highlighted:/dev/disk1 #: type designation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *250.1 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_HFS Lion Ex 124.5 GB disk1s2 3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 654.6 MB disk1s3 4: Apple_HFS Timex 124.6 GB disk1s4
The fresh partition is actually considered a different type: Apple_Boot. The Recovery HD volume won't live automatically mounted upon boot and therefore won't parade in the Finder. It's not even visible in the Disk Utility application, appearing only as a tiny blank space in the partition map for the disk. But as shown above, the command-line diskutil program can view it. Diskutil can mount it too.
Doing so reveals the partition as a typical HFS+ volume. The top flat contains a directory named com.apple.recovery.boot which in eddy contains a few minute files related to booting along with an invisible 430MB internally compressed disk image file named BaseSystem.dmg. Mount that disk image and you find a 1.52GB bootable Mac OS X volume containing Safari, most of the contents of the benchmark /Applications/Utilities folder (Disk Utility, Startup Disk, Terminal, etc.), plus a Mac OS X Lion installer application. In other words, it looks a lot fancy a benchmark Mac OS X installer DVD.
A subset of the files copied to the recovery partition is furthermore copied to the installation target disk by the installer and blessed as the fresh bootable system. This is what the Lion installer reboots into. The files to install will live read from the Lion installer application downloaded earlier from the Mac App Store. After the installation is complete, the temporary boot files are removed, but the Recovery HD partition remains on the disk. Hold down ⌘R during system startup to automatically boot into the Recovery HD partition. (Holding down the option key during startup—not a fresh feature in Lion—will furthermore note the Recovery HD partition as one of the boot volume choices.)
Booting from the recovery partition really means mounting and then booting from the BaseSystem.dmg disk image on the recovery partition. Doing so presents a list of the traditional Mac OS X install disc options, including restoring from a Time Machine backup, reinstalling Mac OS X, running Disk Utility, resetting your password, and so on. There's furthermore an option to salvage befriend online, which will launch Safari. Including Safari on the recovery partition is a nice touch, since most people's first cease when diagnosing a problem is Google, not the Genius Bar.
The upshot is that after vulgar the file compression magic added in Snow Leopard to reduce the footprint of the OS, Lion steals over half a gigabyte of your disk space as allotment of its installation process, and never gives it back. The partition's designation makes Apple's intent clear: it's meant as a last-ditch mechanism to diagnose and repair a Mac with a hosed boot volume. (Hosed, that is, in the software sense; existing as it does on the boot disk itself, the recovery partition won't live much utilize if the disk has hardware problems.)
Apparently Apple has decided that the competence to boot a Mac into a known-good (software) condition is well worth sacrificing a minute amount of disk space. MacBook Air owners or other Mac users with diminutive solid-state disk drives may disagree, however. In that case, the disk space can live reclaimed by some judicious repartitioning with Disk Utility (or the diskutil command-line tool) while booted from another disk. But don't live surprised when the fellow at the Genius Bar frowns a tiny at your aberration from the Apple Way.Reconsidering fundamentals
The user-visible changes in Lion are legion. You'll live hard-pressed to find any allotment of the user interface that remains completely unchanged from Snow Leopard, from the inspect and feel vulgar the artery down to basic behaviors fancy application and document management. In Lion, Apple has taken a difficult inspect at the assumptions underlying the ultimate ten years of Mac OS X's development—and has decided that a lot of them necessity to change. salvage ready.Lion's fresh look
Let's ease into things with a tour of Lion's revised user interface graphics. Though Apple noiseless uses the designation "Aqua" to advert to Lion's interface, the inspect is a far whoop from the lickable, candy-coated appearance that launched the brand. If you can imagine three dials labeled "color," "contrast," and "contour," Apple has been turning them down slowly for years. Lion accelerates that process.
The shapes absorb started to change, too. The traditional capsule shape of the benchmark button has given artery to a squared-off, Chiclets-style appearance. The tubular shape of the progress bars, a fixture since even before the dawn of Mac OS X, has been replaced with a vaguely puffy stripe of material. Radio buttons, checkboxes, slider thumbs, segmented controls, "tab" controls—nearly everything that used to protrude from the screen now looks as if it was pounded down with a rubber hammer.Finder sidebar: gray
Even the elements that inspect identical, fancy the modest gray window title bars, are slightly different from their Snow Leopard counterparts. The fresh inspect is not a radical departure—everything hasn't gone jet black and grown fur, for example—but this is the first time that nearly every element of the benchmark GUI has been changed in a artery that's identifiable without a color meter or a magnifying glass.
For the most part, the fresh inspect speaks in a softer voice than its predecessor. The total removal of blue highlights from several controls (e.g., pop-up menus, combo boxes, slider thumbs, and tab controls) makes most interfaces parade slightly less garish. On the other hand, the additional green in the blue highlights that noiseless conclude exist makes those controls parade more saccharine.
Apple says that its goal with the Lion user interface was to highlight content by de-emphasizing the surrounding user interface elements. You can view this most clearly in sidebar and toolbar icons, which are now monochromatic in most of the significant bundled applications. But this has the luckless side effect of making interface elements less distinguishable from each other, especially at the minute sizes typical in sidebars. I'm not positive the "increased stress on content" is enough to equilibrium out the loss, especially in applications fancy the Finder.Lion Snow Leopard
Appearance changes can absorb effects beyond emphasis, fashion, and mood. prefer the "traffic light" red, yellow, and green window widgets, for example. As you can view in the images on the right, they've gotten smaller in Lion. Or rather, the colored portion has gotten smaller; the actual clickable area has lost only one pixel in height and five pixels in total width across vulgar three widgets.
But the psychological effect of the shrunken appearance is something else entirely. Despite the tiny disagreement in the functional size, I find myself being ever-so-slightly more observant when targeting these widgets in Lion. It's a tiny annoying, especially since it's not lucid to me how the new, smaller size fits into Lion's fresh look. Does such a minute reduction in size really serve to better emphasize window content? After all, not one of the other controls absorb gotten any smaller.
Other aspects of the fresh inspect absorb clearer intentions. The flatter, more matte inspect of most controls, and especially the squared-off shape of the benchmark button, vulgar bring to intellect the inspect of Apple's other operating system, iOS. One control in particular takes the iOS connection even further.
Finally, there's Apple's budding fancy affair with a particular linen texture. It made its first appearance on the backside of some Dashboard widgets. More recently, it was used as the background pattern for the notifications sheet in iOS 5. In Lion, it's featured even more prominently as the background for the newly restyled login screen, now featuring circular frames for user icons. (Also note the subset of menu bar status icons noiseless visible in the top-right corner of the screen.)Enlarge / Linen for your login screen Scroll bars
Scroll bars, which Apple likes to summon "scrollers" these days, are among the least-changed interface elements in Mac OS X. While the repose of the Aqua interface was refined—edges sharpened, pinstripes removed, shines flattened—scrollbars stubbornly retained their original Aqua inspect for over a decade.A scroll bar from Mac OS X DP3, released in 2000 A scroll bar from Mac OS X 10.6, released in 2009
Scroll bars haven't been entirely static in Mac OS X, however. For many years, iTunes has had its own custom scroll bar look.A scroll bar from iTunes 10.2.2, released in 2011
When these fresh scroll bars were first introduced in iTunes 7 in 2006, there was some speculation that this was a tribulation hurry for a fresh inspect that would soon spread throughout the OS. That didn't happen. But now, five years later, scroll bars are finally changing system-wide in Mac OS X. Here's a scroll bar from Lion:A scroll bar from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion
The smeared gradient and fuzzy edges of the iTunes scroll thumb are nowhere to live seen. Instead, they absorb a narrow, monochrome, sharp-edged lozenge. Just fancy the window widgets, the scroll thumb appears slightly smaller than its Snow Leopard counterpart. (In this case, total scroll bar width and the clickable area are actually the same as in Snow Leopard.)
The change in appearance might distract you from what's really different: where are the scroll arrows? You know, the tiny buttons on either pause of the scroll bar (or grouped together on one end) that you click to slide the scroll thumb a bit at a time? Well, they're gone.
But wait, there's more. Here's a Finder window.The complete contents of Lion's Applications folder…or is it?
Though I can assure you that Lion comes with more than eight applications, you wouldn't know it from looking at this screenshot. Forget about the arrows, where are the scroll bars?
Placing the cursor into the window and using the scroll wheel on the mouse or two-finger scrolling on a trackpad reveals what you might absorb already guessed based on the shape and appearance of the fresh scroll thumbs. Extremely thin, monochrome scroll thumbs fade in as the scrolling begins, and fade shortly after it ends. These ephemeral scroll thumbs parade on top of the window's content, not in alleys reserved for them on the edges of the window.Initiating scrolling (via mouse wheel or trackpad) reveals overlay scroll bars. More applications below! An iOS scroll bar
These ghostly overlay scroll bars are straight out of iOS. When they were introduced in 2007 on the iPhone's 3.5-inch screen, they made impeccable sense. Dedicating one or more finger-width strips of the screen for always-visible, touch-draggable scroll bars would absorb been a colossal squander of pixels (and anything less than a finger's width of pixels would absorb been too narrow to comfortably use). Overlay scroll bars were essential in iOS, and completely in keeping with its direct manipulation theme. In iOS, you don't maneuver an on-screen control to scroll, you simply grab the all screen with your finger and slide it.
Apple isn't (yet) asking us to start poking their fingers at their Mac's screen, but it does now ship every Mac with some benign of touch-based input device: internal trackpads on laptops, and external trackpads or touch-sensitive mice on desktops. Lion further cements the dominance of finger by making vulgar touch-based scrolling drudgery fancy it does on a touchscreen. Touching your finger to a control surface and touching it downwards will slide the document downwards, revealing more content at top and hiding some of the content that was previously visible on the bottom. This sounds perfectly logical, but it furthermore happens to live exactly the contrary how scrolling has traditionally worked with mouse scroll wheels. The effect is extremely disconcerting, as their fingers unconsciously flick at the scroll-wheel while their eyes view the document touching the "wrong" way.Scroll direction setting in the Mouse preference pane. Checked means the fresh Lion scrolling direction is in effect.
Thankfully, there is a preference to restore the frail mapping of finger movement to scroll direction. There's a second setting in the Trackpad preference pane, phrased in the contrary way. Unfortunately, the settings are linked; you can't absorb different values for each benign of input device.
Though the unification of scrolling gestures is logical, it's difficult to salvage used to after so many years of doing things the other way. The most common scrolling direction is downwards, and the most natural finger movement is curling inwards. These two things align when using a mouse wheel with the "old" scrolling direction setting. frail habits aside, it may live that the disagreement between touching a screen directly and touching a divorce device on a horizontal surface in front of the screen is just too powerful to justify a lone input vocabulary.
Either way, there's positive to live an uncomfortable transition period for everyone. For example, the two-finger swipe to the left or prerogative used to switch between screens in Launchpad (described later) feels "backwards" when the scroll direction preference is set to the traditional, pre-Lion behavior. Perhaps just seeing a screen covered with a grid of icons unconsciously triggers the "iOS expectations" region of their brains. (And if you set the scroll direction to "feel right" for two-finger swiping in Launchpad, then the four-finger swipe between Spaces feels backwards! Sigh.)
Scroll bars conclude more than just let us scroll. First, their condition tells us whether there's anything more to see. A window with "inactive" (usually shown as dimmed) scroll bars indicates that there is no content beyond what is currently visible in the window. Second, when a document has more content than can felicitous in a window, the scroll bars uncover us their current position within that document. Finally, the size of the scroll thumb itself—or the amount of room the scroll thumb has to slide within the scroll bar, if you want to inspect at it that way—gives some hint about the total size of the content.Classic Mac scroll bars
Most computer users aren't conscious of such subtleties, but their combined effects are profound. Long-time Mac users might recall a time when scroll thumbs were perfectly square regardless of the total size of a window's content. When I arbitrator back to my time using those scroll bars, I don't recall any problems. But just try using these so-called "non-proportional" scroll bars today. The modern computer user's intellect revolts at the necessity of information, usually treating it instead as delusory information about the total size of a window's content. ("This window looked fancy it had pages and pages of content, but when I dragged the tiny square scroll thumb vulgar the artery from the top to the bottom, it only revealed two fresh lines of text!") Only when this cue is gone conclude you realize how much you've been relying on it.
And keep in intellect that proportional scroll thumbs are the most subtle of the cues that scroll bars provide. The others are even more widely relied upon. The complete necessity of visible scroll bars leaves a huge information void.
Let's build aside the intimate for a moment. In the absence of scroll bars, are there other visual cues that could provide the same information? Well, if truncated content appears at the edge of a window, it's usually a safe bet that there's more content in that direction. The prevalence of whitespace (between icons in the Finder, between lines of text, etc.) can compose such truncation less obvious or even undetectable, but at least it's something. For total content size and position within the document, there's no alternative even that good.
But panic not, gentle scroller. fancy the scroll direction, scroll bar visibility has a dedicated preference (in the generic preference pane):Scroll bar settings in the generic preference pane
The default setting, "Automatically based on input type," will utilize overlay scroll bars as long as there's at least one touch-capable input device attached (though the trackpad on laptops doesn't matter if any other external pointing devices are connected). If you don't fancy this benign of second-guessing, just choose one of the other options. The "When scrolling" option means always utilize overlay scroll bars, and the "Always" option means always note scroll bars, using the appearance shown earlier.
Lion includes fresh APIs for briefly "flashing" the overlay scroll bars (i.e., showing them, then fading them out). Most applications included with Lion briefly note the scroll bars for windows that absorb just appeared on the screen, absorb just been resized, or absorb just scrolled to a fresh position (e.g., when showing the next match while searching within a document). This helps soften the blow of the missing information previously provided by always-visible scroll bars, but only a little.Extra UI in the scroll bar area
Applications with other UI elements whose amend placement relies on the existence of a reserved 16-pixel stripe for the scroll bar outside the content area of the window may live forced to parade what Apple calls "legacy" scroll bars. (Apple's term for non-overlay scroll bars tells you vulgar you necessity to know about which artery the wind is blowing on this issue.) You can view an instance of one such UI element in the image on the right. The document scale pop-up menu (currently showing "100%") pushes the horizontal scroll bar to the left to compose room for itself. Clearly, this will not drudgery if the scroll bar overlays the content area and is hidden most of the time. Apple suggests that such applications find fresh homes for these interface elements, at which point the AppKit framework in Lion will allow them to parade overlay scroll bars.
Lion's scroll bars are a microcosm of Apple's fresh philosophy for Mac OS X. This is definitely a case of reconsidering a fundamental allotment of the operating system—one that hasn't changed this radically in decades, if ever. It's furthermore nearly a straight port from iOS, which is in keeping with Apple's professed "back to the Mac" mission. But most importantly, it's a concrete instance of Apple's newfound dedication to simplicity.
In particular, this change reveals the tremendous weight that Apple gives to visual simplicity. A complete necessity of visible scroll bars certainly does compose the unconcerned Mac OS X screen inspect a lot less busy. A necessity of visual clutter has been a hallmark of Apple's hardware and software design for years, and iOS has only accelerated this theme. Also, practically speaking, the sum of vulgar those 16-pixel-wide stripes reserved for scroll bars on window edges may add up to a nontrivial augment in the number of pixels available for displaying content on a Mac's screen.
But there is a price to live paid for this simplicity; one person's din is another person's essential source of information. Visual information, fancy the size and position of a scroll thumb, is one of the most efficient ways to communicate with humans. (Compare with, say, numeric readouts showing document dimensions and the current position as a percentage.)
These sacrifices were an essential allotment of the iPhone's success. The iPad, though larger, is clearly allotment of the same touch-based family of products, and is wisely built on the same foundation. But the Mac is a different kettle of fish—and not just because the screen sizes involved may live vastly larger, making the space savings of hidden scroll bars much less important.
The Mac user interface, with its menus, radio buttons, checkboxes, windows, title bars, and yes, scroll bars, is built on an entirely different interactivity model than iOS. The Mac UI was built for a pixel-accurate indirect pointing device; iOS was built for direct manipulation with one or more fingers. The visual similarity of on-screen elements and the technical feasibility of porting them from one OS to the other should not blind us to these essential differences.
It's piquant that vulgar of the scrolling changes in Lion absorb preferences that allow them to live reverted to their pre-Lion behaviors. The defaults clearly attest the direction that Apple wants to go, but the settings to transpose them—public, with actual GUIs, rather than undocumented plist hacks—suggest caution, or perhaps even some internal strife surrounding these features.
Such caution is well-founded. Hidden scroll bars in particular absorb trade-offs that change dramatically based on the size of the screen and the input device being used. fancy many features in Lion, the scrolling changes are most useful and usurp on the Macs that are closest to iOS devices in terms of size and input method (the 11-inch MacBook Air being the best example). But on a Mac Pro with dual 27" 2560x1440-pixel displays attached, Lion's scrolling defaults compose far less sense.Window resizing Resize widget
A necessity of traditional scroll bars furthermore means the elimination of the minute patch of pixels in the lower-right corner of a window where the perpendicular and horizontal scroll bars meet. Since 1984, this area has been home to the one and only control used to resize a window. Setting the scroll bar appearance preference to "always visible" restores the clickable actual estate, albeit sans the traditional "grip lines."
Despite the modest appearance, this resize control works as expected; what's unexpected is the cursor change that accompanies the action. The double-arrow cursor has been used in other operating systems for years, mostly to differentiate two-axis resizing (width and height) from single-axis resizing (height only or width only). When there's only one resize control per window, it's obvious that it can live used to change both the width and the height. Lion's fresh cursor can denote only one thing…Window resizing from vulgar edges (composite image)
That's right, long-suffering switchers, Lion finally allows windows to live resized from any edge and from vulgar four corners, with a special cursor for each of the eight starting points. (When a window is at its size limit, the cursors note an arrow pointing in a lone direction—a nice touch.)
As you can view from the image above, what Apple hasn't done is add borders to the windows. So where, exactly, conclude they "grab" when resizing from a borderless window edge? There's no artery around it: some pixels must live sacrificed to the gods of Fitts's law.
A few pixels within the outer edge of the content area of the window (two to three, depending on where you matter from) are commandeered for window resizing purposes. You can noiseless click on these areas, and the click event will correctly propagate to the application that owns the window, but you'll live clicking with a resize cursor instead of a typical arrow cursor.
Two to three pixels doesn't compose for a very wide target, however, which is why Apple has chosen to usurp pixels from both sides of the window border. Four to five pixels outside the content area of the window are furthermore clickable for window resizing purposes. Clicks in these areas don't salvage sent to the window (they're out of the window's bounds) and they don't salvage sent to whatever happens to live behind the energetic window—you know, the thing that you ostensibly just clicked on. Effectively, Lion windows absorb thin, invisible borders around them used only for resizing. (Unlike Mac OS 8 and 9 windows, which had real, visible borders, Lion windows can't live dragged by their borders.)
When overlay scroll bars are in use, the full 16x16 pixel home of the traditional resize widget in the lower-right corner is clickable, making this noiseless the easiest target for window resizing, whether it's visible or not.Unzoom widget Zoom widget
Lion has a few more surprises on window edges, one of which is window size-related. Windows belonging to applications that champion Lion's fresh full-screen mode may note an embossed double arrow icon on the far-right side of their title bars. Clicking it will intuition the window to fill the entire screen. Other windows, the Dock, and even the menu bar are hidden in this mode. The window's title bar furthermore disappears, making it unclear how to exit this mode. But just stab the cursor at the top of the screen and the menu bar slides back down into view, containing vulgar the expected menus plus a reversed version of the double arrow symbol. Click the inward-facing arrows to prefer the current window out of full-screen mode.Animation
Mac OS X has always used animation in its user interface, starting with the genie effect over a decade ago, and really ramping up with the introduction of the Core Animation framework three years ago. Lion continues this trend. In nearly vulgar fresh or changed applications in Lion, if something conceivable can live animated, it is. The Finder is a respectable example. Even features whose functionality hasn't actually changed in Lion, such as dragging multiple items from one window to another, are given a fresh coating of animation and fades.
At its best, animation explicitly communicates information that was either absent or only implied before. For example, the genie animation tells the user where a window goes when it's minimized. In other cases, such as the water ripple effect in Dashboard, animation can add a bit of fun to an interface.
But danger lurks. A newly discovered animation might delight the user the first time it's shown, but the 350th time might not appear quite so magical. This is especially actual if the animation adds a detain to the task, and if that task is done frequently as allotment of a time-sensitive overall task. The Dashboard water ripple is acceptable because adding a fresh widget to the screen is an infrequent task. But if the screen rippled every lone time a fresh window appeared anywhere in the OS, users would revolt.
Well, guess what happens every time a fresh window appears on the screen in Lion? No, it's nothing as garish as a water ripple, but there is an animation. Each window starts as a tiny dot centered on the window's eventual position on the screen, then quickly animates to its full size.
This animation conveys no fresh information. It does not uncover the user where a window came from, since the animation starts at the final position of the window. Whether or not the animation actually delays the opening of the window, it certainly feels fancy it does, which is even more important. This type of animation can compose Lion feel slower than Snow Leopard. And when an animation fancy this stutters or skips a few frames due to cumbersome disk i/o or CPU usage, it makes your all Mac feel slower, fancy you're playing a 3D game with an inadequate video card. And for what? For what someone at Apple hopes will live a lasting emotion of delight?
Perhaps it could live argued that the animation catches the eye more than a window that appears instantly (though that probably depends on the size of the window and what's behind it on the screen). For "unexpected" windows fancy oversight dialog boxes, that could live a benefit. But for "expected" windows (i.e., those that parade in response to deliberate user input), the powerful, primordial tug of these touching images is an unwelcome distraction, not a benefit.
It's conceivable that this animation could delight some users, but I absorb a difficult time believing that the enjoyment will ultimate much past the first week. (Interestingly, this animation does not play in transpose when a window is closed. This, perversely, makes window closing feel faster than window opening in Lion.)
Unlike the scrolling behaviors discussed earlier, there are no user-visible preferences for these fresh animations, which makes it vulgar the more significant for Apple to strike a respectable balance. In my estimation, Lion crosses the line in a few places; the fresh window animation is the most egregious example. I inspect forward to discovering a artery to disable it. [Update: here it is: defaults write NSGlobalDomain NSAutomaticWindowAnimationsEnabled -bool NO]Here's to the crazy ones
Bruce Tognazzini, founder of the Apple Human Interface Group and 14-year Apple veteran (1978-1992), is best known as the man behind the publication of the Apple Human Interface Guidelines. In 1992, he published a bespeak of his own: Tog on Interface. Most of the examples in the bespeak were taken from his drudgery at Apple. Here's an excerpt from pages 156-157:
Natural objects absorb different perceivable characteristics, among which people can easily discriminate. prefer the bristlecone pine. The oldest living thing on earth, it has been formed and shaped by the wind and scarred by thousands of years of existence. The youngest school kids inspect at it and know there must live a lot of wind around there. They know the pine may live even older than their father. They furthermore know, to a certainty, that it is a tree.Hypercard "Home" icons
Kristee Kreitman Rosendahl, amenable for not only the realistic design of HyperCard, but furthermore much of its spirit, created a collection of Home icons that shipped with the product.
No one has ever shown confusion at seeing various tiny houses on various cards. Never once has someone turned around and said, "Gee, this tiny house has three windows and seems to live a Cape Cod. Will that prefer me to a different Home card than that two-story bunk house back in the other section?" People are designed to maneuver multiplexed meanings gracefully, without conscious thought.
In System 7, they multiplexed the signification of system extensions, by developing a characteristic "generic" extension look, to which developers can add their own unique inspect for their specific product. As the "bandwidth" of the interface increases, these kinds of multiplexings will become more and more practical.System 7 extension icons
This is Tog, godfather of the old-school Apple Human Interface Guidelines, stating emphatically that interface elements conclude not absorb to inspect exactly the same in order for their duty to live discerned. In fact, in the final sentence, Tog predicts that increased computing power will lead to more diverse representations. The increased "bandwidth" of user interfaces that Tog wrote about almost 20 years ago has now arrive to pass, and then some.
Examples of "multiplexed meanings" in Mac OS X are not difficult to find. inspect at the Dock, which has changed appearance several times during the history of Mac OS X while noiseless remaining immediately identifiable. And, as discussed earlier, nearly every benchmark GUI control has changed its appearance in Lion. As Tog notes, people are excellent at discarding unimportant details and focusing on the most salient aspects of an item's appearance.
Now, keeping vulgar this in mind, I invite you to glare upon this screenshot of the version of iCal that ships with Lion.
Enlarge / A stitch in time saves…something, presumably
When this change was first revealed in the second developer preview of Lion, there was much gnashing of teeth. But anticipate yourself, is the duty of every control in the toolbar clear? Or rather, is it any less lucid than it would live if iCal used the benchmark Mac OS X toolbar appearance?
The immediate, visceral negative reaction to the moneyed Corinthian leather appearance had tiny to conclude with usability. What it came down to—what first impressions fancy these always appear to arrive down to—is whether or not you arbitrator it's ugly. People will prefer "really cool-looking but slightly harder to use" over "usable but ugly" any day.
But there's something much more significant than the change in appearance going on here. Lion's iCal doesn't inspect different in an capricious way; it's been changed with purpose. After the initial stitched-leather shock wore off, Apple watchers everywhere leapt on the fresh iCal's deeper sin: its skeuomorphic design. From Wikipedia (emphasis added):
A skeuomorph is a derivative protest that retains ornamental design cues to a structure that was necessary in the original. Skeuomorphs may live deliberately employed to compose the fresh inspect comfortably frail and familiar, such as copper cladding on zinc pennies or computer printed postage with circular town designation and cancellation lines. An alternative definition is "an element of design or structure that serves tiny or no purpose in the artifact fashioned from the fresh material but was essential to the protest made from the original material."
Apple has been down this road before, most notably with the QuickTime 4.0 player application which included gleaming ideas fancy a "dial" control for adjusting the volume. Dials drudgery powerful in the real, physical world, and are certainly intimate to most people. But a dial control in the context of a 2D mouse-driven GUI is incongruous and ungainly at best, and completely incomprehensible at worst.
The brushed metal appearance of the QuickTime player would later inspire an officially supported Mac OS X window appearance starting in version 10.2, only to live dropped completely five years later in 10.5's grand interface unification. Now, three years after that, the pendulum is swinging in the other direction again—and hard.
In the case of iCal, Apple has aped the appearance of an analogous physical protest (a tear-off paper calendar) but retained the deportment of benchmark Mac OS X controls. This avoids the problems of the QuickTime 4.0 player's dial control, but it's far from a cleanly win.
The misfortune is, the fresh iCal looks so much fancy a intimate physical protest that it's effortless to start expecting it to behave fancy one as well. For example, iCal tries very difficult to sell the tear-off paper calendar illusion, with the stitched binding, the tiny remains of already-removed sheets, and even a page curl animation when advancing through the months. But can you grab the corner of a page with your mouse and tear it off? Nope, you absorb to utilize the arrow buttons or a keyboard command, just fancy in the previous version of iCal. Can you scribble in the margins? Can you cross off days with a pen? Can you riffle through the pages? No, no, and no.
At the same time, iCal is noiseless constrained by some of the limitations of its physical counterpart. A paper calendar must choose a lone artery to crack up the days in the year. Usually, each page contains a month, but there's no intuition for a virtual calendar to live limited in the same way. When dealing with events that span months, it's much more convenient to view time as a continuous stream of weeks or days. This is especially actual on great desktop monitors, where zooming the iCal window to full screen doesn't note any more days but just makes the days in the current month larger.
The fresh version of Address bespeak in Lion is an even more egregious example.Enlarge / These graphics are writing checks this interface can't cash
Address bespeak goes so far in the direction of imitating a physical analog that it starts to impair the identification of benchmark controls. The window widgets, for example, are so integrated into the design that they're effortless to overlook. And as in iCal, the fanciful detail of the appearance implies functionality that doesn't exist. Pages can't live turned by dragging, and even if they could, the number of pages on either side of the spine never changes. The window can't live closed fancy a book, either. That red bookmark can't live pulled up or down or removed. (Clicking it actually turns the page backwards to divulge the list of groups. Did you guess that?) The three-pane view (groups → people → detail) is gone, presumably because a bespeak can't note three pages at once. Within each paper "page" sits, essentially, an excerpt from the user interface of the previous version of Address Book. It's a mixed metaphor that sends mixed signals.
These newly redesigned Mac OS X applications are clearly inspired by their iOS counterparts, which suffer similar graphical flourishes and skeuomorphic design elements. (Address bespeak in particular is a extinct ringer for the Contacts app on the iPad.) In iOS, the inability to eddy pages with the flick of a finger or yank out that tantalizing red bookmark is even more frustrating. In both environments, when the behaviors seemingly promised by the graphical design aren't delivered, vulgar this artwork that was so clearly labored over fades into the background. The application trains us to ignore it. What was once, at best, a momentary amusement is reduced to visual noise.
In 2011, we're far past the point where computer interfaces necessity to reference their forebearers in the physical world in order to live understandable (though it's workable Apple thinks the familiarity of such designs is noiseless an effective artery to reduce intimidation, especially for novice users). At the same time, hardware and software absorb advanced to the point where there's now ample "bandwidth" (to utilize Tog's term) to champion visual and functional nuances beyond the bare necessities.
Interface designers are faced with the challenge of how best to utilize the glut of resources now at their disposal. As Lion's iCal and Address bespeak applications demonstrate, an alternate description of this situation might live "enough rope to hang yourself."Window management
Over the years, Apple has added several features that could loosely live defined as "window management aids." The first, and arguably most successful, was Exposé, introduced in Panther back in 2003. Two years later, Tiger shipped with Dashboard, which provided a dedicated screen for minute "widget" windows, keeping them off the main screen. In 2007, Leopard brought official champion for virtual desktops to Mac OS X under the designation Spaces.
Each of these features came with its own set of configurable keyboard shortcuts, smarting screen corners, and (eventually) multi-touch gestures. While each was understandable and useful in isolation, it was up to each user to device out how best to incorporate them into a workflow. In Lion, Apple has taken a stab at consolidation under the umbrella designation of Mission Control. Each individual feature noiseless exists, albeit in slightly more limited forms, but activating one thing now provides access to them all.
Using any one of the supported Mission Control activation methods—a keyboard shortcut, a smarting screen corner, or a four-finger upwards swipe—causes the current desktop picture to recede slightly into the focus of the screen, revealing behind it their frail friend the linen pattern. Overlaid on this are groups of windows, badged by the icons of the applications to which they belong. Along the top of the screen sit vulgar open Spaces. (In Lion, each full-screen window creates a fresh Space, so those windows parade at the top rather than grouped with the other windows from the same application.) Dashboard is furthermore (optionally) given its own Space.Enlarge / Mission Control: Exposé + Spaces + Dashboard
A surprising number of things can live done from this screen. As with Exposé, clicking on any window will bring it to the front. Windows can furthermore live dragged into any of the available Spaces (excluding Dashboard and those that hold a lone full-screen window). touching the cursor (or dragging a window) to the upper-right corner of the screen causes a panel with a "+" character to appear; clicking this creates a fresh space. Holding down the option key makes Dashboard-style "close" widgets parade on any non-fullscreen-window Spaces (except the original Desktop Space, which can never live closed).
The biggest limitation of this fresh arrangement is that Spaces are now confined to a one-dimensional line of virtual desktops. Four-finger swiping between spaces feels great, but there's no wrap-around when you hit the end.
As stout a step down as this is from the much more flexible grid arrangement of Spaces in earlier versions of Mac OS X, the fresh limitations are probably a respectable idea. The fresh deportment of full-screen windows and the surprisingly natural-feeling four-finger swipes used to switch between them and enter Mission Control means that many more Mac users will likely find themselves using these fresh features than ever used the combination of Exposé and Spaces in earlier versions of the OS. A simple line of spaces with no wrap-around provides a safe, understandable environment for vulgar these fresh Spaces users.
For the experts, well, consolidation always has its price. In this case, as in many others, Apple has decided that the respectable of the many outweighs the respectable of the few.Application management
For vulgar its warts, the radical simplification of application management brought to Mac OS X by the Dock really has benefitted the platform. As I wrote in my ten year Mac OS X retrospective, "For every user who continues to live frustrated by the Dock's limitations, there are thousands of others who are buoyed in their computing efforts by its reassuring simplicity and undemanding design."
But the Dock falls short, especially for novice users, as an application launcher. Or rather, it falls short if the application to live launched isn't actually in the Dock. Most novice users I know want to absorb every application they are likely to utilize available in the Dock at vulgar times. As these users gain experience, the Dock can become a very crowded place. But why are these increasingly Mac-savvy users stuffing their Docks to the gills rather than limiting its contents to just the applications they utilize most frequently?
The own lies in how applications not in the Dock are located and launched. Choices embrace the Finder, Spotlight, or (I suppose) a Terminal window. touching from an always-visible line of colorful icons that's front and focus on the screen to any one of those alternatives represents a huge augment in conceptual and mechanical complexity.
If you don't understand how typing the designation of an application into a search box can live so much more difficult than clicking an icon in the Dock, I insinuate that you absorb not spent enough time with novice users. Such users often don't even know the designation of the application they want—or if they do, they don't know how to spell it. That's before considering the frequent disorientation caused by the rapid-fire search results refinement animation in the Spotlight menu, or the existence of multiple files whose contents or names hold the string being searched for. And this vulgar assumes novices know (or remember) what Spotlight is and how to activate it in the first place.
The jump in complexity from the Dock to the Finder, I think, needs less explanation. As a generic rule, novice users just don't understand the file system. They don't understand the hierarchy of machines, devices, and volumes; they don't grasp the concept of the current working directory; they don't know how to identify a file or folder's position within the hierarchy. panic of the file system practically defines novice users; it is usually the ultimate and biggest hurdle in the journey from timid experimentation to basic technical competence.
To build it another way, your dad can't find it if it's not in the Dock. (Well, my dad can't, anyway. Sorry to vulgar the Mac-savvy dads out there; I am one, after all.)
In Lion, Apple aims to fill that gap with an application launching interface that's meant to live as effortless to utilize as the Dock while providing access to every application on the system. It's called Launchpad, and you'll live forgiven for thinking that it looks fancy yet another interface element shamelessly ported from iOS.Enlarge / Launchpad: iOS’s SpringBoard on your Mac
Launchpad can live activated with a Dock icon (which, importantly, is in the Lion Dock by default), a multitouch gesticulation (a well ungainly pinch with the thumb and three fingers), or by dragging the mouse cursor to a designated corner of the screen. The grid of application icons that appears doesn't just inspect fancy iOS's SpringBoard, it furthermore behaves fancy it, prerogative down to the "folders" created by dragging icons on top of each other.
Holding down the option key makes vulgar the icons sprout immediate widgets as they start to wiggle. Swiping prerogative and left on the touchpad or with a click and drag of the mouse will slide from screen to screen, accompanied by a intimate iOS-like dotted page indicator.Enlarge / Launchpad “folders”
Launchpad will find applications in the benchmark /Applications folder as well as ~/Applications (i.e., a folder named "Applications" in your home directory), and any subfolders within them. Applications in the ~/Downloads folder or on the desktop are not detected, which may actually live a problem for Mac users who absorb not yet figured out how to accomplish drag-and-drop application installations—yet another area where the Mac App Store will befriend compose things simpler.Mac App Store download progress
Speaking of which, when purchasing an application in the version of the Mac App Store that ships with Lion, the application icon leaps out of the Mac App Store window and lands in the next available position in the Launchpad grid, with an iOS-like progress bar overlaid on the fresh application's icon. If the Launchpad icon is in the Dock, it displays a similar progress bar and the icon bounces once when the download finishes.
Both serve as examples of animation that conveys useful information. "Here's where the application you just purchased has 'landed' on your Mac," the animation says. "To find it again, click the icon that just bounced in your Dock."
Given the wealth of excellent third-party application launchers available for the Mac, I'm not positive there's any intuition for an expert user to utilize Launchpad instead of their current favorite alternative. But unlike, say, the Dock, Launchpad is easily ignored. eddy off the gesture, deactivate the smarting corner, and remove the icon from the Dock and you'll never absorb to view it.
For everyone else, however, Launchpad will provide a huge improvement in usability. Even expert users should live excited about its arrival because it should compose telephone or e-mail-based family technical champion a bit easier.Document model
Lion introduces what Apple calls, with characteristic conviction, a "modernized" document model. I'm inclined to harmonize with this word choice. fancy so many other aspects of Lion, document management is attempting to shed its legacy baggage—and there's plenty to shed. The conventions governing the interaction between users, applications, and documents absorb not changed much since the personal computer became approved in the early 1980s.
Apple first attempted a minor revolution in this area with OpenDoc in the 1990s. Instead of launching an application in order to create a document, OpenDoc promised a world where the user would open a document and then drudgery on it using an interchangeable set of components created by multiple vendors. In other words, OpenDoc was document-centric rather than application-centric.
The changes in OpenDoc promised to radically shift the equilibrium of power in the application software market. But powerful software companies fancy Microsoft and Adobe were not particularly motivated to crack their popular, full-featured applications into smaller components that customers could fuse and match with components from other vendors. At the time OpenDoc was released, Apple was nearing the nadir of its popularity and influence in the industry. Predictably, OpenDoc died on the vine.
Fast-forward to today, where a much more powerful and confident Apple takes another crack at the same area. The most pressing problem, today's Apple has decided, is not the interaction between application code and document data, but rather the interaction between the user and the computer.
Despite decades of public exposure to personal computers, human expectations and habits absorb stubbornly refused to align with the traditional model of creating, opening, and saving documents. The tales of woe absorb become clichés:
At this point, they can no longer summon this a problem of education. We've tried education for years upon years; children absorb been born and grown to adulthood in the PC era. And yet even the geekiest among us absorb lost data, time, or both due to a "stupid" mistake related to creating, opening, and saving documents.
And so Apple's decree in Lion is as it was on the original Macintosh in 1984, and as it is on iOS today: the machine must serve the human, not the other artery around. To that end, Apple has added APIs in Lion that, when used properly, enable the following experience.
Earlier versions of Mac OS X supported a figure of automatic saving. If you had an open TextEdit document with unsaved changes, TextEdit would (eventually) redeem a backup copy of the file with the text " (Autosaved)" appended to the file name. If the application crashed or the Mac lost power, you could retrieve (some of) your unsaved changes by finding the autosaved file and opening it.
Lion introduces a variant of this practice: autosave in place. Rather than creating a fresh file alongside the original, Lion continuously saves changes directly to the open document. It does this when there are great document changes, during idle times, or on exact in response to requests from other applications for access to the document's data.
For vulgar of this to work, applications must live updated to utilize the fresh APIs. In particular, a fresh File Coordination framework must live used in order for an application to notify another that it wants to access a document that's currently open. The application that has the document open will then trigger an autosave to disk before allowing the requesting application to reference the document's data. Attaching a document to an e-mail or using Quick inspect in the Finder are two examples of when this might happen.
At this point, a tiny bit of "geek panic" might live setting in. For those of us who understand the pre-Lion document model and absorb been using it for decades, the idea that they are no longer in control of when changes to open documents are saved to disk seems insane! What if I accidentally delete a huge swath of text from a document and then Lion decides to autosave immediately afterwards?
Not every change is meant to live saved, after all. The exercise of speculatively making radical changes to a document with the solace of knowing that not one of those changes are permanent until they hit ⌘S is something experienced Mac users prefer for granted and may live loath to give up.The artist formerly known as “Save”
I confess, I omitted one detail from the list of changes enabled by Lion's modern document model. Here it is:
If you noiseless don't salvage it, check out the detail in the File menu formerly known as "Save." It now reads "Save a Version" instead. Every time a Lion-savvy application autosaves a document, it stores a copy of the previous version before it overwrites the file with the fresh data. A pop-up menu in the title bar of each document window provides access to previous versions.A menu in the title bar provides access to previous versions of a file
Select the "Browse vulgar Versions…" menu detail to enter a Time Machine-like space-themed screen showing vulgar previous versions of the file. Using this interface, the document can live reverted to any earlier version, or snippets of data from earlier versions may live copied and pasted into the current version. Though the star bailiwick background and surrounding timeline interface are provided automatically, the document windows themselves are actual windows within the application. They can live scrolled and manipulated in any artery allowed by the application, though the contents of previous versions may not live modified.Enlarge / Document version browser…in spaaaaace!
The benchmark Cocoa document framework will manage many of the details for application developers, including automatically purging very frail versions of files. The document versioning interface shown above is furthermore integrated with Time Machine, showing both locally stored file versions and older versions that only exist on the Time Machine backup volume. Going forwards or backwards in the document timeline is accompanied by a well-kept star-field "warp" animation.
Restoring the document to an earlier condition actually just pushes a duplicate of that condition to the front of the stack of vulgar changes. In other words, restoring a document to its condition as of an hour ago does not discard vulgar the changes that happened during that hour.
Returning to the title bar pop-up menu, the "Revert to ultimate Saved Version" menu detail returns the document to its ultimate explicitly saved condition (i.e., what it looked fancy the ultimate time the user typed ⌘S or selected the "Save a Version" menu item). "Duplicate" will create a fresh document containing the same data as the current document. Finally, the "Lock" detail will prevent any further changes to the document until it is explicitly unlocked by the user. Documents will furthermore automatically live locked if they're not modified for a tiny while. The auto-lock time is configurable in the "Options…" screen of the Time Machine preference pane (of vulgar places), with values from one day to one year. The default is two weeks.The auto-lock detain setting, cleverly hidden in the Time Machine preference pane
There is no graphical interface to previous versions of documents outside of an application. Previous versions can't live viewed or restored from within the Finder, for example. Forcing vulgar version manipulation to live within the application is limiting, but it furthermore neatly solves the problem of how to present document contents with full fidelity—beyond what Quick inspect offers—when looking at past revisions.
One unexpected implication of autosave is that it makes quitting applications much less painful. If you've ever had to quickly log out or shut down a Mac that has been up and working difficult for weeks or months, you know how dreadful it is to absorb to wade through umpteen dialog boxes, each demanding a conclusion about unsaved changes before allowing you to continue.
These are not effortless questions, especially for files that may absorb been open for a long time. build aside deciding whether the changes are worth saving; can you even recall what the unsaved changes are? Were they intentional, or did you accidentally spare on the keyboard and delete a selected detail some time ultimate week? Now multiply this jam by the number of open documents with unsaved changes—and imagine you're in a hurry. It's not a pleasant experience.
Autosave eliminates these hassles. Quitting an application that supports autosave happens instantly, with no additional user input required—always.
Of course, by quitting an application (or quitting vulgar applications by logging out or restarting) you're furthermore losing vulgar of your accumulated state: vulgar your open documents, the size and position of their windows, scroll positions, selection state. Losing condition can prove even more painful than playing "20 questions" with a swarm of "unsaved changes" dialog boxes. Assuming you can recall what documents you had open, can you find them again?
Lion offers fresh APIs to address this problem as well. A suite of fresh condition encoding/decoding hooks allow Lion applications to redeem and restore any and vulgar aspects of document state. Upon relaunch, an application is expected to restore vulgar the documents open when it was ultimate quit, with vulgar their condition preserved.
So, how's that "geek panic" now? noiseless there, huh? Well, let me try to reassure you. As a committed user of a powerful Mac text editor that, years ago, implemented its own version of almost vulgar the document management features described so far, I can uncover you that you salvage used to it very quickly. Spoiled by it, in fact. Ruined by it, some would say. Yes, it's a very different model from the one we're vulgar used to. But it's furthermore a better model—not just for novices, but for geeks too.
Think about it: never lose data because you forgot to save. Quit applications with impunity. Retrieve frail versions of documents at any time, in all or in part. Build up a nice arrangement of open documents and windows, knowing that your difficult drudgery will not live trashed the next time you quit the application or necessity to restart for an OS security update.
The final piece of the mystify is not strictly document-related, but it puts the bow on the package. When logging out or restarting, Lion presents an option (selected by default) to restore vulgar open applications when you next log in. And relaunching a Lion-savvy application, of course, causes it to restore its open documents.
Putting it vulgar together, this means that you can log out or shut down your Mac without being asked any questions by needy applications and without losing any of your data or window state. When you next log in, the screen should inspect exactly the same as it did just before you logged out. (In fact, Lion appears to "cheat" and briefly presents a static image of your earlier screen while it works on relaunching your apps and restoring your open documents. Sneaky, but an effective artery to compose condition restoration feel faster than it really is.)Process model
If you were flipping out over the document changes described in the previous section, buckle up, because the discomfort flat is about to rise yet again.
The minute indicator lights shown beneath running applications in the Dock are now optional in Lion.Three of these applications are running
In pre-release builds of Lion, vulgar applications in the Dock looked exactly the same, running or otherwise. At the ultimate minute, it seems Apple chickened out and enabled the indicator lights by default.Dock indicator lights preference
Apple's message with this feature is a simple one, but furthermore one that the nerdly intellect rebels against: "It doesn't matter if an application is running or not. You shouldn't care. cease thinking about it." Geek panic!
Remain calm. Let's start with the APIs. Sudden Termination, a feature that was introduced in Snow Leopard, allows applications to attest to the system that it's safe to Kill them "impolitely" (i.e., by sending them SIGKILL, causing them to terminate immediately, with no random for potentially time-consuming clean-up operations to execute). Applications are expected to set this bit when they're positive they're not in the middle of doing something, absorb no open files, no unflushed buffers, and so on.
This feature enables Snow Leopard to log out, shut down, and restart more quickly than earlier versions of Mac OS X. When it can, the OS simply kills processes instead of politely asking them to exit. (When Snow Leopard was released, Apple made positive its own applications and daemon processes supported Sudden Termination, even if third-party applications didn't.)
Lion includes a fresh feature called Automatic Termination. Whereas Sudden Termination lets an application uncover the system when it's okay to terminate it with extreme prejudice, Automatic Termination lets an application uncover the system that it's okay to politely anticipate the program to exit.
But wait, isn't it always okay for the OS to politely anticipate an application to exit? Isn't that what's always happened in Mac OS X on logout, shutdown, or restart? Yes, but what makes Automatic Termination different is when and why this might happen. In Lion, the OS may terminate applications that are not in utilize in order to reclaim resources—primarily memory, but furthermore things fancy file descriptors, CPU cycles, and processes.
You read that right. Lion will quit your running applications behind your back if it decides it needs the resources, and if you don't parade to live using them. The heuristic for determining whether an application is "in use" is very conservative: it must not live the energetic application, it must absorb no visible, non-minimized windows—and, of course, it must explicitly champion Automatic Termination.
Automatic Termination works hand-in-hand with autosave. Any application that supports Automatic Termination should furthermore champion autosave and document restore. Since only applications with no visible windows are eligible for Automatic Termination, and since by default the Dock does not attest whether or not an application is running, the user might not even notice when an application is automatically terminated by the system. No dialog boxes will anticipate about unsaved changes, and when the user clicks on the application in the Dock to reactivate it, it should relaunch and parade exactly as it did before it was terminated.
This is effectively a deprecation of the Quit command. It also, perhaps coincidentally, solves the age-old problem of former Windows users expecting applications to terminate when they no longer absorb any open windows. When Automatic Termination is enabled in an application, that's exactly what will happen—if and when the system needs to reclaim some resources, that is.
As if vulgar of this isn't enough, Lion features one final application management twist. When an application is terminated in Lion, vulgar the habitual things parade to happen. If the running application indicator is enabled, the minute dot will fade from beneath the application's Dock icon. Assuming it's not a permanent resident, the application icon will fade from the Dock. The application will no longer parade in the command-tab application switcher, or in Mission Control. You might therefore conclude that this application's process has terminated.
A quick trip to the Activity Monitor application or the "ps" command-line utility may deter you of that notion. Lion reserves the prerogative to keep an application's process around just in case the user decides to relaunch it. Upon relaunch, the application appears to start up instantly—because it was never actually terminated, but was simply removed from vulgar parts of the GUI normally occupied by running applications.
That's right, gentle readers. In Lion, an ostensibly "running" application may absorb no associated process (because the operating system automatically terminated it in order to reclaim resources) and an application may absorb a process even when it doesn't parade to live running. Applications without processes. Processes without applications. Did Lion just blow your mind?The pitch
The application and document model changes in Lion are a radical crack with the past—the past of the desktop, that is. Everything described above has existed since day one on Apple's mobile platform. Indeed, iOS is the most compelling controversy in favor of the changes in Lion. For every objection offered by a long-time personal computer aficionado, there are millions of iOS users countering the controversy every day with their fingers and their wallets.
These changes in Lion are meant to reduce the number of things the user has to supervision about. And while you may arbitrator you really conclude necessity to supervision about when your documents are saved to disk or when the reminiscence occupied by an application is returned to the system, you may live surprised by how tiny you arbitrator about these things once you become accustomed to the computer managing them for you. If you're an iOS user, arbitrator about how often you've wanted a "Save" button in an app on your iPhone or iPad, for example.
So that's the pitch: Lion will bring the worry-free usability of iOS application and document management to the Mac. For the vast majority of Mac users, I arbitrator it will live an effortless sale.The reality
There's a common thread running through vulgar of the application and document model features described above: they're vulgar opt-in, and developers must add code to their applications to champion them. Apple has some competence to hasten the transition to Lion-savvy applications through evangelism, positive reinforcement (the carrot), and the increasing popularity of the Mac App Store (the stick). But no matter what Apple does, the idyllic image of an iOS-like experience on your Mac will prefer a long time to materialize.
In the meantime, it's effortless to envision a frustrating hodgepodge of frail and fresh Mac applications running on Lion, making users second-guess their hard-won computing instincts at every turn. What I arbitrator will actually happen is that the top-tier Mac developers will quickly add champion for some or vulgar of these fresh features and users will start to inspect down on applications that noiseless behave the "old way." I'm positive that's how Apple hopes things eddy out, too.Internals
The previous release of Mac OS X focused on internal changes. My review did the same, covering compiler features, programming language extensions, fresh libraries, and other details that were mostly invisible to end-users.
Lion is most definitely not an internals-focused release, but it's furthermore stout enough that it has its partake of significant changes to the core OS accompanying its more obvious user-visible changes. If this is your first time reading an Ars Technica review of Mac OS X and you've made it this far, live warned: this section will live even more esoteric than the ones you've already read. If you just want to view more screenshots of fresh or changed applications, feel free to skip ahead to the next section. They nerds won't arbitrator any less of you.Security
Apple's approach to security has always been a bit unorthodox. Microsoft has spent the ultimate several years making security a top priority for Windows, and has done so in a very public way. Today, Windows 7 is considered vastly more secure than its widely exploited ancestor, Windows XP. And despite the fact that Microsoft now distributes its own virus/malware protection software, a burgeoning market noiseless exists for third-party antivirus software.
Meanwhile, on the Mac, Apple has only very recently added some basic malware protection to Mac OS X, and it did so quietly. Updates absorb been similarly quiet, giving the impression that Apple will only talk about viruses and malware if asked a direct question about a specific, actual piece of malicious software.
This approach is typical of Apple: don't narrate anything until you absorb something meaningful to say. But it can live maddening to security experts and journalists alike. As for end-users, well, until there is a security problem that affects more than a tiny minority of Mac users, it's difficult to find an instance of how Apple's policies and practices absorb failed to protect Mac users at least as well as Microsoft protects Windows users.Sandboxing
Just because Apple is quiet, that doesn't denote it hasn't been taking actual steps to ameliorate security on the Mac. In Leopard, Apple added a basic figure of sandboxing to the kernel. Many of the daemon processes that compose Mac OS X drudgery are running within sandboxes in Snow Leopard. Again, this was done with tiny fanfare.
Running an application inside a sandbox is meant to minimize the damage that could live caused if that application is compromised by a piece of malware. A sandboxed application voluntarily surrenders the competence to conclude many things that a typical process hurry by the same user could do. For example, a typical application hurry by a user has the competence to delete every lone file owned by that user. Obviously, a well-behaved application will not conclude this. But if an application becomes compromised, it may live coerced into doing something destructive.
In Lion, the sandbox security model has been greatly enhanced, and Apple is finally promoting it for utilize by third-party applications. A sandboxed application must now embrace a list of "entitlements" describing exactly what resources it needs in order to conclude its job. Lion supports about 30 different entitlements which orbit from basic things fancy the competence to create a network connection or to listen for incoming network connections (two divorce entitlements) to sophisticated tasks fancy capturing video or noiseless images from a built-in camera.
It might appear fancy any nontrivial document-based Mac application will, at the very least, necessity to declare an entitlement that will allow it to both read from and write to any directory owned by the current user. After all, how else would the user open and redeem documents? And if that's the case, wouldn't that entirely beat the purpose of sandboxing?
Apple has chosen to decipher this problem by providing heightened permissions to a particular class of actions: those explicitly initiated by the user. Lion includes a trusted daemon process called Powerbox (pboxd) whose job is to present and control open/save dialog boxes on behalf of sandboxed applications. After the user selects a file or directory into which a file should live saved, Powerbox pokes a cavity in the application sandbox that allows it to accomplish the specific action.
A similar mechanism is used to allow access to recently opened files in the "Open Recent" menu, to restore previously open documents when an application is relaunched, to maneuver drag and drop, and so on. The goal is to prevent applications from having to request entitlements that allow it to read and write capricious files. Oh, and in case it doesn't slide without saying, vulgar sandboxed applications must live signed.
Here are a few examples of sandboxed processes in Lion, shown in the Activity Monitor application with the fresh "Sandbox" column visible:Sandboxed processes in Lion
Earlier, the Mac App Store was suggested as a artery Apple might expedite the adoption of fresh Lion technologies. In the case of sandboxing, that has already happened. Apple has decreed that vulgar applications submitted to the Mac App Store must live sandboxed, starting in November.Privilege separation
One limitation of sandboxing is that entitlements apply to an entire process. A sandboxed application must therefore possess the superset of vulgar entitlements required for each feature it provides. As we've seen, the utilize of the Powerbox daemon process prevents applications from requiring capricious access to the file system by delegating those entitlements to another, external process. This is a specific case of the generic principle called privilege separation.
The idea is to crack up a knotty application into individual processes, each of which requires only the few entitlements necessary to accomplish a specific subset of the application's total capabilities. For example, deem an application that needs to play video. Decoding video is a knotty and performance-sensitive process which has historically led to inadequate protection against buffer overflows and other security problems. An application that needs to parade video will likely conclude so using libraries provided by the system, which means that there's not much a third-party developer can conclude to patch vulnerabilities where they occur.
What a developer can conclude instead is isolate the video decoding task in its own process with severely reduced privileges. A process that's decoding video probably doesn't necessity any access to the file system, the network, the built-in camera and microphone, and so on. It just needs to accept a stream of bytes from its parent process (which, in turn, probably used Powerbox to gain the competence to read those bytes from disk in the first place) and recur a stream of decoded bytes. Beyond this simple connection to its parent, the decoder can live completely walled off from the repose of the system. Now, if an exploit is organize in a video codec, a malicious hacker will find himself in control of a process with so few privileges that there is tiny harm it can conclude to the system or the user's data.
Though this was just an example, the QuickTime Player application in Lion does, in fact, delegate video decoding to an external, sandboxed, extremely low-privileged process called VTDecoderXPCService.QuickTime Player with its accompanying sandboxed video decoder process
Another instance from Lion is the Preview application, which completely isolates the PDF parsing code (another historic source of exploits) from vulgar access to the file system.
Putting aside the security advantages of this approach for a moment, managing and communicating with external processes is benign of a pain for developers. It's certainly less convenient than the traditional approach, with vulgar code within a lone executable and no functionality more than a duty summon away.
Once again in Lion, Apple has provided a fresh set of APIs to encourage the adoption of what it considers to live a best practice. The XPC Services framework is used to manage and communicate with these external processes. XPC Service executables are contained within an application's bundle. There is no installation process, and they are never copied or moved. They must furthermore live allotment of the application's cryptographic signature in order to prevent tampering.
The XPC Service framework will launch an usurp external process on demand, track its activity, and choose when to terminate the process after its job is done. Communication is bidirectional and asynchronous, with FIFO message delivery, and the default XPC process environment is extremely restrictive. It does not inherit the parent process's sandbox entitlements, Keychain credentials, or any other privileges.
The reward for breaking up an application into a collection of least-privileged pieces is not just increased security. It furthermore means that a crash in one of these external processes will not prefer down the entire application.
We've seen this benign of privilege separation used to powerful effect in recent years by Web browsers on several different platforms, including Safari on Mac OS X. Lion aims to extend these advantages to vulgar applications. It furthermore makes Safari's privilege separation even more granular.
Safari in Lion is based on WebKit2, the latest and greatest iteration of the browser engine that powers Safari, Chrome, and several other desktop and mobile browsers. Safari in Snow Leopard already separated browser plug-ins such as shimmer into their own processes. (Adobe should not deem this an insult; Apple does the same with its own QuickTime browser plug-in.) As if to further that point, WebKit2 separates the entire webpage rendering task into an external process. The number of excuses for the Safari application to crash is rapidly decreasing.
As the WebKit2 website notes, Google's Chrome browser uses a similar approach to isolate WebKit (version 1) from the repose of the application. WebKit2 builds the separation directly into the framework itself, allowing vulgar WebKit2 clients to prefer odds of it without requiring the custom code that Google had to write for Chrome. (Check out the process architecture diagrams at the WebKit2 site for more particular comparisons with pre-Lion WebKit on Mac OS X and Chrome's utilize of WebKit.)Automatic Reference Counting
Since 2005, I've been very publicly concerned about the long-term prospects of Apple's programming language and application framework, Objective-C and Cocoa, going so far as to speculate about a workable technological crossroad a few years in the future.
When the future arrived, I revisited the issue of Apple's language and API future in light of Apple's melodramatic entrance into the mobile market and the unprecedented growth this has enabled. You can read my conclusions for yourself, but the bottom line is that I'm noiseless concerned about the issue—and arbitrator Apple should live too. Success hides problems, and Apple has been so very successful in recent years.Enter (and exit) garbage collection
Apple has done a tremendous amount of drudgery to modernize its evolution platform, including completely replacing its compiler, overhauling its IDE, and adding features and fresh syntax to the Objective-C language itself.
All of these things are great, but not one address my specific concerns about reminiscence management. Apple did eventually view felicitous to add garbage collection to Objective-C, but my panic that Apple wouldn't really confide to garbage collection in Objective-C turned out to live well-founded. Today, years after the introduction of this feature, very few of Apple's own applications utilize garbage collection.
There's a respectable intuition for this. Runtime garbage collection is simply a needy felicitous for Objective-C. For vulgar its syntactic simplicity and long, distinguished history, the C programming language is actually a surprisingly knotty beast, especially when it comes to reminiscence management. In C, any correctly aligned pointer-size bit pattern in reminiscence can potentially live used as an address; the language explicitly allows casting from void * to a typed pointer, and vice versa. Objective-C, as a superset of C, inherits these charming properties. In exchange for this sacrifice, Objective-C code can live compiled alongside modest C code and can link to C libraries with ease.
This means that the runtime garbage collector is expected to traverse reminiscence allocated by an capricious conglomeration of Objective-C and modest frail C code and compose the amend decision—every time—about what reminiscence may safely live collected. Apple's Objective-C garbage collection is a global switch. It can't live enabled just for the clean, object-oriented Objective-C code that application developers write; it applies to the entire process, including vulgar the frameworks that the application links to.
It seems sensible for garbage collection to prefer a hands-off approach to any reminiscence allocated outside Objective-C's gated object-oriented community. Unfortunately, reminiscence allocated "the old-fashioned way" in modest C code routinely makes its artery into the world of Objective-C, and vice versa. In theory, vulgar such code could live annotated in such a artery that it works correctly with garbage collection. In practice, Mac OS X contains artery too much code—much of it not written by Apple—to live able to properly vet every line of it to ensure that a runtime garbage collector has enough information to compose the prerogative decisions in every case.
And, in fact, despite Apple's bold claims of readiness, there absorb been and continue to live cases where even code within Apple's own frameworks can addle the Objective-C garbage collector. These kinds of bugs are particularly insidious because they may only manifest themselves when the collector runs within a positive window of time. The garbage collection compatibility outlook for third-party libraries is even more grim.
Long epic short: garbage collection for Objective-C is out. (It's noiseless supported in Lion, but I wouldn't matter on Apple putting a tremendous amount of exertion into it going forward. And don't live surprised if it goes the artery of Rosetta in a few years.) In its place, Apple has created something called Automatic Reference Counting, or ARC for short. But to understand ARC, you should first understand how reminiscence management in Cocoa has traditionally worked.Cocoa reminiscence management
Cocoa uses a reminiscence management technique called reference counting. Each protest has a reference matter associated with it. When some allotment of an application takes ownership of an object, it increments the object's reference matter by sending it a retain message. When it's done with the object, it decrements the reference matter by sending a release message to the object. When an object's reference matter is zero, it is deallocated.
This allows a lone protest to live used by several different parts of the application, each of which is amenable for bookending its utilize of the protest with retain and release messages. If retain is sent to an protest more times than release, then its reference matter will never compass zero and its reminiscence will never live freed. This is called a reminiscence leak. If release is sent more times than retain, then a release message sent after the object's reference matter has reached zero will find itself looking at the region of reminiscence formerly occupied by the object, which may now hold anything at all. A crash usually ensues.
Finally, there's the autorelease message which means "release, but later." When an protest is sent an autorelease message, it's added to the current "autorelease pool." When that pool is drained, vulgar objects in it are sent one release message for each time they were added to the pool. (An protest may live added to the same autorelease pool multiple times.) Cocoa applications absorb an autorelease pool that's drained at the pause of each event loop, but fresh pools can live created locally by the programmer.
Simple, right? Just compose positive your retain and release/autorelease messages are balanced and you're golden. But as straightforward as it is conceptually, it's actually surprisingly effortless to salvage wrong. Experienced Cocoa programmers will uncover you that retain/release reminiscence management eventually becomes second-nature—and it does—but programmers are only human. Accurately tracking the lifecycle of vulgar objects in a great application starts to push the limits of human mental capacity. To help, Apple provides sophisticated developer tools for tracking reminiscence allocations and hunting down leaks.
But education and tools only slide so far. Cocoa experts may not view retain/release reminiscence management as a problem, but Apple is looking towards the future, towards fresh developers. Other mobile and desktop platforms don't require this sort of manual reminiscence management in their top-level application frameworks. Based on Apple's past efforts with garbage collection, it seems lucid that Apple believes it would live better for the platform if developers didn't absorb to manually manage memory. Now, finally, Apple believes it has organize a solution that it can really salvage behind.Enter ARC
To understand how ARC works, start by picturing a traditional Objective-C source code file written by an expert Cocoa programmer. The retain, release, and autorelease messages are sent in vulgar the prerogative places and are in impeccable balance.
Now imagine editing that source code file, removing every instance of the retain, release, and autorelease messages, and changing a lone build setting in Xcode that instructs the compiler to build vulgar the usurp reminiscence management calls back into your program when the source code is compiled. That's ARC. It's just what the designation says: traditional Cocoa reference counting, done automatically.Xcode's ARC setting (highlight added)
Before explaining how ARC does this, it's significant to understand what ARC does not do. First, ARC does not impose a fresh runtime reminiscence model. Code compiled under ARC uses the same reminiscence model as modest C or non-ARC Objective-C code, and can live linked to vulgar the same libraries. Second, ARC provides automatic reminiscence management for Objective-C objects only (though note that blocks furthermore happen to live Objective-C objects under the covers). reminiscence allocated in any other artery is not touched and must noiseless live managed manually. (The same goes for other resources fancy file handles and sockets.) Finally, ARC is not garbage collection. There is no process that scans the reminiscence image of a running application looking for reminiscence to deallocate. Everything ARC does happens at compile time.
What ARC does at compile time is not magic. There is no abysmal artificial intelligence at drudgery here. ARC doesn't even utilize LLVM's sophisticated static analyzer to device out where to build the retains and releases. The static analyzer takes a long time to run—too long to live a mandatory allotment of the build process; it can furthermore capitulate incorrect positives. That's fine for a utensil meant to detect workable bugs, but dependable reminiscence management requires certainty.
What allows ARC to drudgery is the same thing that enables people to (eventually) become expert Cocoa programmers: conventions. Cocoa has rules about the transfer of ownership that takes area during common operations fancy getting or setting an protest attribute, initializing an object, or making a mutable copy. Furthermore, the methods that implement these operations result a set of naming conventions. ARC knows vulgar these rules and uses them to choose when to retain and when to release.
In fact, ARC follows the rules in a more academic manner than any human ever would, bracketing every operation that could possibly live influenced by protest ownership with the usurp retain and release messages. This can capitulate a huge number of reminiscence management operations. Luckily, Apple has an excellent optimizing compiler called Clang (since rechristened by Apple's marketing geniuses as the Apple LLVM Compiler 3.0). Clang sweeps through this sea of mechanically generated code, detecting and eliminating redundancies until what remains looks a lot fancy what a human would absorb written.
Conventions were made to live broken, of course. But what ARC lacks in semantic sophistication it makes up for in predictability and speed, speed, speed. In cases where the human really does know best, ARC can live told exactly what to conclude thanks to a comprehensive set of fresh attributes and macros that allow the developer to annotate variables, data structures, methods, and parameters with explicit instructions for ARC. But the idea behind ARC is that these exceptions should live rare.
To ensure that ARC can conclude what it's designed to conclude in a amend manner, a few additional language restrictions absorb been added. Most of them are esoteric, existing on the boundaries between Objective-C and modest C code (e.g., C structs and unions are not allowed to hold references to Objective-C objects). Compatibility with existing C code is one of Objective-C's greatest strengths. But since ARC is a per-compilation-unit feature and ARC and non-ARC code can live mixed freely, these fresh language restrictions compose ARC more dependable without compromising interoperability.ARC versus garbage collection
Apple's Objective-C garbage collection came with some drawbacks. As alluded to earlier, the programmer has tiny control over when the garbage collector will run, making protest reclamation non-deterministic. A garbage-collected application with a reminiscence management bug may crash or not depending on when the collector actually runs. Since garbage collection only runs periodically, the "garbage" (memory) may start to pile up in between runs. This can augment the so-called "high water mark" of an application. Finally, the garbage collection process itself can interfere with the execution of the application.
Even on a multicore CPU where the collector can hurry on a divorce thread, it must noiseless interact with the running application's reminiscence image, sometimes (briefly) blocking its progress while it cleans up the garbage. On relatively weak, often single-threaded mobile CPUs, this interference can manifest itself as stutters or glitches in the user interface.
ARC offers a very different value proposition. To start, it suffers from not one of the disadvantages of Objective-C's runtime garbage collection. ARC is deterministic; vulgar the reminiscence management code is baked into the executable and does not change at runtime. reminiscence management is integrated directly into the program flow, rather than being done in batches periodically. This prevents execution stalls, and it can furthermore reduce the high water mark.
Most forms of automatic reminiscence management incur some benign of performance hit. Not ARC. To compose up for any workable augment in the number of reminiscence management messages generated by ARC, retain and release is 2.5 times faster in Lion; autorelease pools are 6 times faster; and to top it off, typical Objective-C message sending is 33 percent faster. Furthermore, since it's the compiler, not the programmer, inserting the reminiscence management code, the generated retain and release code does not absorb to inspect exactly fancy a typical compiled Objective-C message send. The compiler has a much more intimate relationship with the Objective-C runtime, and can therefore optimize those operations in ways that a programmer cannot (well, should not, anyway).
Finally, unlike garbage collection, ARC is a per-compilation-unit setting. Using ARC in your application does not denote that every library you link to will furthermore hurry under ARC. This means that you don't absorb to worry about whether or not every lone one of Apple's libraries works correctly under ARC. Only Apple has to worry about that, and it can choose on a case-by-case basis which should live compiled with ARC and which should not. ARC and non-ARC code can live mixed freely.
Objective-C garbage collection does, however, absorb one leg up on ARC. The garbage collector can detect and correctly reclaim protest graphs with cycles in them. Under reference counting, if protest A has a reference to protest B, and protest B has a reference to protest A, then both A and B absorb a reference matter of at least one. Even if no other protest in the entire application has a reference to A or B, they will not live deallocated when running under ARC because they both, eternally, absorb nonzero reference counts.
ARC requires the programmer to explicitly maneuver these situations, either manually breaking the cycles by removing one or more references or by using another Objective-C feature called "zeroing infirm references." (A infirm reference is a reference that doesn't contribute to an object's reference count.) For example, in a typical parent/child relationship, the parent might absorb a reference to the child and the child would absorb a infirm reference back to the parent. When the application no longer references the parent or child, the child will absorb a reference matter of 1 (the parent noiseless references it) but the parent will absorb a reference matter of 0 and will therefore live deallocated. That then leaves the child with a reference matter of 0, and it will live deallocated. Et voilà, no reminiscence leak.
The "zeroing" allotment means that infirm references will live set to nil when the protest they reference is deallocated. (Under ARC, vulgar protest pointers are initially set to zero.) Under typical circumstances, an protest shouldn't live deallocated if there are noiseless outstanding references to it. But since infirm references don't contribute to an object's reference count, an protest can live deallocated when there are outstanding infirm references to it. When this happens, the automatic zeroing of the outstanding infirm references prevents them from becoming dangling pointers. (In Objective-C, sending a message to nil is a no-op.)ARC versus the world
Now they arrive to the 65,536 byte question. Does ARC build Apple back on an even footing with its competitors when it comes to programming language abstraction? The answer, I'm afraid, is no. ARC takes supervision of almost vulgar the mundane Objective-C reminiscence management tasks, but everything outside of Objective-C remains as it was. Furthermore, ARC does very tiny to address the other pillar of modern, high-level programming: reminiscence safety.
For vulgar its auto-zeroing pointers and automatic protest deallocation, ARC-enabled Objective-C is noiseless a superset of C, and developers remain just a lone imperfect pointer dereference away from scribbling vulgar over their application's reminiscence space. This is a far whoop from the garbage collected, cycle-detecting, memory-safe, and sometimes even dynamically typed languages available on other platforms, both mobile and desktop.
The first thing ARC reveals is that Apple does harmonize that there's a gap to live closed. It chose to storm the lowest-hanging fruit first, the one thing about Apple's evolution environment most likely to stand out as primitive and backwards to programmers coming from other platforms or even fresh out of school: manual reminiscence management. But while doing so, Apple was not willing to sacrifice any of Objective-C's historic strengths. Objective-C with ARC retains its compatibility with existing code and libraries and remains lean, mean, and as speedily as ever—faster, in some cases.
Right now, Apple seems committed to these two platform pillars: compatibility and performance. Compatibility is essential to protect Apple's considerable investment in its APIs and developer tools. (Apple even went so far as to enable ARC to drudgery on Snow Leopard, albeit without the zeroing infirm references feature.) Performance remains a competitive odds for Apple's mobile devices, not just in terms of interface responsiveness and stutter-free animations, but furthermore in power usage. Those runtime garbage collectors and virtual machines on other platforms can thrash caches and keep more mobile CPUs cores working longer and harder.
Apple may absorb danced with runtime garbage collection, but it's going home with compile-time automation. There is no clearer indicator of Apple's commitment than the fact that ARC is now the default for vulgar fresh projects created in Xcode; garbage collection never was.
The most intriguing aspect of ARC is what it might portend for Apple's future. ARC shows that Apple is willing to add restrictions to the language in exchange for developer convenience and safety. It furthermore implies that Apple believes that compile-time automation and optimization is, if not preferable to, then at least as respectable as the runtime solutions available elsewhere, especially on mobile platforms.
One thing that Apple does not apparently envision in its platforms' future is a traditional virtual machine, for vulgar the reasons previously stated: performance, compatibility, and power usage. Runtime garbage collection is similarly off the table for now. (It's not that Apple believes that garbage collection necessarily precludes powerful performance; it's just a needy felicitous for Objective-C and Cocoa.)
What Apple has instead is a cutting-edge traditional compiler built on a framework that supports many of the same concepts (e.g., bytecode, JIT), but at a lower level.
Putting it vulgar together, it's not difficult to imagine a future in which Apple's developers write code in a memory-managed, memory-safe language that incorporates only the highest-level aspects of Objective-C, but remains binary compatible with Objective-C libraries and code. This approach has been described as "Objective-C without the C," and that's not far off. They could arrive at this destination through a progression of incremental changes—ARC being the latest—which slowly add optional (but recommended) features and restrictions to Objective-C, only the ultimate of which would live touted as introducing a "new language."
Apple has invested a lot of time and manpower in getting off of gcc and onto a faster, more capable compiler. Now that the transition is over, Apple's attention can eddy towards adding innovative features. The next few years of WWDC could live interesting.The condition of the file system
The file system implementation is not something most Mac users arbitrator about—nor should they. But fancy any other allotment of an operating system, there's some expectation that it will ameliorate over time. And fancy any piece of technology, there comes a point where incremental improvements are no longer enough and a fresh start is required.
Mac OS X itself was one such fresh start, albeit one derived from an existing product that was only slightly newer than the one it was replacing. But Mac OS X's file system, HFS+, was carried over from classic Mac OS directly into Mac OS X. It didn't salvage a fresh start when the repose of the OS did.
Hopes were high for a fresh file system back in 2006 when Apple publicly declared its interest in a port of Sun's innovative ZFS file system. The next year, Sun's CEO announced that ZFS would live allotment of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard—obviously without consulting Apple first.
It didn't happen; Leopard shipped with HFS+. Two years after that, in 2009, Apple itself listed ZFS as a feature of Snow Leopard Server, only to later remove vulgar references to ZFS from its Snow Leopard webpages. A few months later, Apple shut down its open-source project to port ZFS to Mac OS X.
In the meantime, HFS+ has certainly been incrementally improved. Apple has added champion for metadata journaling, case sensitivity, access control lists, and arbitrarily extensible metadata. not one of these additions changed the basic design of the file system, however. HFS+ is thirteen years old, and is itself an extension of the HFS file system which is more than twenty-five years old. The condition of the art in file system design has advanced a lot since 1985.
But again, most people don't expend much time thinking about the file system. They arbitrator about files and folders, sure, but not the software that manages how the individual bytes are arranged on the storage device. My longstanding preoccupation with the nitty-gritty of file storage has often been met with indifference or even derision. "Who cares about a fresh file system?" anticipate the scoffers. "HFS+ works fine. It stores and retrieves my files just fine. What's the problem?"
In response to this sentiment, I'd fancy to tender some concrete reasons why HFS+ is long overdue for replacement. I believe that Apple understands these problems better than anyone, but that a progression of luckless events has resulted in its next-generation operating system being hamstrung with a previous-generation file system for the past decade. Before discussing whether or not Lion makes any progress in this area, let's prefer a difficult inspect at their frail friend, HFS+.What's wrong with HFS+
Software is written with positive target hardware in mind. When HFS was created, the top-of-the-line Macintosh came with an 800K floppy drive, the "high-end" storage offered by Apple was a 20MB difficult drive the size of a lunchbox, and the CPU was from the Motorola 68000 family. Thirteen years later, HFS+ replaced HFS, the floppy disks were 1.44MB, and Apple's difficult drives topped out around 6GB. keep this context in intellect as they deem the following details of HFS+'s implementation.
When searching for unused nodes in a b-tree file, Apple's HFS+ implementation processes the data 16 bits at a time. Why? Presumably because Motorola's 68000 processor natively supports 16-bit operations. Modern Mac CPUs absorb registers that are up to 256 bits wide.
All HFS+ file system metadata read from the disk must live byte swapped because it's stored in big-endian form. The Intel CPUs that Macs utilize today are little-endian; Motorola 68K and PowerPC processors are big-endian. (The performance cost of this is negligible; it's mostly just silly.)
The time resolution for HFS+ file dates is only one second. That may absorb been enough a few decades ago when computers and disks were slower, but today, many thousands of file system operations (and many billions of CPU cycles) can live executed in a second. Modern file systems absorb up to nanosecond precision on their file dates.
File system metadata structures in HFS+ absorb global locks. Only one process can update the file system at a time. This is an embarrassment in an age of preemptive multitasking and 16-core CPUs. Modern file systems fancy ZFS allow multiple simultaneous updates, even to files that are in the same directory.
The total number of blocks in an HFS+ volume is stored in a 32-bit value. With 4KB blocks, this allows for a maximum disk size of 17TB. That may sound huge to you now, but deem that it's only a sixfold augment over what they absorb today, and today's largest difficult drives are, in turn, a sixfold augment over what they had in 2005. (Apple can, of course, augment the cache size from 4KB to, say, 8KB, but you can only play that game so long.)
HFS+ lacks sparse file support, which allows space to live allocated only as needed in great files. arbitrator about an application that creates a 1GB database file, then writes a few bytes at the start as a header and a few bytes at the pause as a footer. On HFS+, slightly less than a gigabyte of zeros would absorb to live written to disk to compose that happen. On a modern file system with sparse file support, only a few bytes would live written to disk.
Concurrency, metadata written in the amend byte order, sub-second date precision, champion for massive volume sizes, and sparse file champion are vulgar common features of Unix file systems. Mac OS X, of course, is built on a Unix foundation. When HFS+ was ported from classic Mac OS to Mac OS X, it needed to live extended to champion some minimum set of features that are expected from Unix file systems.
Some of those features were an effortless fit, but others were very difficult to add to the file system without breaking backwards compatibility. One particularly scary instance is the implementation of difficult links on HFS+. To keep track of difficult links, HFS+ creates a divorce file for each difficult link inside a hidden directory at the root flat of the volume. Hidden directories are benign of creepy to open with, but the actual scare comes when you recall that Time Machine is implemented using difficult links to avoid unnecessary data duplication.
Listing the contents of this hidden directory (named "HFS+ Private Data", but with a bunch of non-printing characters preceding the "H") on my Time Machine backup volume reveals that it contains 573,127 files. B-trees or no b-trees, over half a million files in a lone directory makes me nervous.
That emotion is compounded by the most glaring omission in HFS+—and, to live fair, many other file systems as well. HFS+ does not concern itself with data integrity. The underlying hardware is trusted implicitly. If a few bits or bytes salvage flipped one artery or the other by the hardware, HFS+ won't notice. This applies to both metadata and the file data itself.
Data corruption in file system metadata structures can render a directory or an entire disk unreadable. (For a double-whammy, arbitrator about corruption that affects the "HFS+ Private Data" directory where every lone difficult link file on a Time Machine volume is stored.) Corruption in file data is arguably worse because it's much more likely to slide undetected. Over time, it can propagate into vulgar your backups. When it's finally discovered, perhaps years later when looking at frail baby pictures, it's too late to conclude anything about it.
But how often does data corruption actually occur? The own seems to live "more often than you'd think." Here's an excerpt from a 2010 academic paper on data integrity:
In a recent study of 1.53 million disk drives over 41 months, Bairavasundaram et al. note that more than 400,000 blocks had checksum mismatches, 8 percent of which were discovered during RAID reconstruction, creating the possibility of actual data loss. They furthermore organize that nearline disks develop checksum mismatches an order of magnitude more often than enterprise class disk drives.
Read the all paper (PDF) for more detail and references. (Here's another instance [PDF] from CERN, and the data integrity section of the ZFS Wikipedia entry contains more information and links.)
Most of these studies concern themselves with enterprise-scale deployments, but personal storage utilize today is where enterprise storage was only a few years ago (in terms of capacity, if not throughput). And keep in intellect that vulgar of these issues only salvage worse as the data volume goes up—which it inevitably does, year after year.
It's rapidly becoming inexcusable for the storage systems they entrust with some of their most precious possessions—something we're actively encouraged to conclude by Apple itself—to prefer such a cavalier approach to data integrity. The worst allotment is that there's tiny a user can conclude to compose up for this technological gap; backups only serve to silently spread data corruption.
I'll cease here, but conclude note that I haven't even gotten to many of the other headliner features of modern file systems: constant-time snapshots, transactional updates, data deduplication, and on and on. HFS+ has served Apple well, and probably for far longer than its designers ever imagined it would. But fancy vulgar the other Apple-related products and technologies that felicitous this description (e.g., classic Mac OS, Carbon, PowerPC), there comes a time when things once treasured must pass from this world.File system changes in Lion
Finally, they arrive to the heart of the matter. In Lion, what does Apple narrate to the god of file system death? "Not today."
That's right, the default and only file system on which you can install Lion is their frail friend, HFS+. As preeminent earlier, I'm positive Apple is acutely aware of HFS+'s shortcomings and would matter its inability to bailiwick a successor among its (rare) recent failings as steward of the platform. But it looks fancy it will prefer a while longer for Apple's file system roadmap to salvage back on track after the ZFS near-miss.
Nevertheless, there are some file system changes in Lion—some significant ones, in fact. The biggest is the introduction of Apple's first actual crack at creating a rational volume manager: Core Storage.
In earlier versions of Mac OS X (or classic Mac OS, for that matter), a lone physical disk could hold one or more volumes. That is, connecting the disk to a Mac would intuition one or more fresh difficult drive icons to parade in the Finder. By far, the most common case is to absorb just one volume on each physical difficult drive. But Mac users with more knotty needs (e.g., people who absorb to install many different versions of the operating system for testing or review purposes) prefer full odds of the competence to carve up a lone physical disk into multiple independent volumes.
The role of HFS+ in this fuse is revealed by Apple's nomenclature. HFS+ is a "volume format." It stands to intuition that there must then live something above HFS+ amenable for managing the multiple volumes that may exist on a lone disk, in the same artery that HFS+ manages the multiple files and folders that exist within a lone volume. And so there is. Apple supports several varieties of what it calls "partition maps." ("Partitions" are the regions of a lone disk carved out for volumes, one volume per partition. Apple's currently favored partition map is the GUID flavor.)
Logical volume management is a broad term that usually means allowing more flexible relationships between disks and volumes than traditionally provided by partition maps. In the case of Apple's Core Storage, the key fresh feature is the competence for a lone volume to span multiple physical disks.
Somewhat obscuring this is a raft of fresh terminology to picture the fresh layers of the storage stack. At the very top flat is the rational Volume Group, which may hold one or more Physical Volumes. A Physical Volume provides storage; it may live a lone physical disk, a disk image file, or even a RAID device. A rational Volume Group exports zero or more rational Volume Families. A rational Volume Family contains one or more rational Volumes, each of which presents a blank canvas onto which—finally!—a volume format fancy HFS+ may reside.
Got vulgar that? Don't worry if you haven't. The only thing you necessity to understand for now is that Core Storage provides a much richer set of abstractions above the volume format. The next question is obvious: what does Lion conclude with Core Storage?
If you're entertaining visions of ZFS-style pooled storage, let me nip that in the bud. There is no friendly GUI for creating disk-spanning volumes, and the command-line tools provided are rudimentary and, in my brief testing, don't appear to champion vulgar of the features ostensibly enabled by Core Storage.
Core Storage's purpose in Lion is discreetly hidden in the rational Volume Family tier of the layer cake. rational Volume Families don't just export rational Volumes, they furthermore hold properties that apply to them. One such set of properties in Lion enables full disk encryption.
Though Apple is using the designation FileVault to brand this feature, it has absolutely nothing to conclude with the feature of the same designation from earlier versions of Mac OS X. The earlier incarnation of FileVault encrypted an individual user's home directory by storing it in an encrypted disk image file. This presented vulgar sorts of complications to common operations, and FileVault earned a horrible reputation for needy compatibility with existing software (including Apple's own, fancy Time Machine).
Lion's FileVault doesn't just encrypt users' home directories, and it doesn't utilize encrypted disk image files. Instead, it's Apple's implementation of all disk encryption. This means that every byte of data that makes up the volume is encrypted. Furthermore, this encryption is completely transparent to vulgar software (including the implementation of HFS+ itself) because it takes area at a layer above the volume format—a layer that application software does not view at all.
Having used a third-party whole-disk encryption product for years, I can uncover you that this approach works amazingly well. It really is completely transparent, and the only compatibility issues I've had involved operating system upgrades. (When touching from Leopard to Snow Leopard, a fresh version of the disk encryption software was required. Presumably, this will not live a problem now that the feature is built into the OS.)
Enabling whole-disk encryption is effortless in Lion. The FileVault tab in the Security & Privacy preference pane carefully guides a user through the process, presenting lucid explanations along with an extremely generous dose of caution.FileVault whole-disk encryption
Each user who will live able to decrypt the drive must enter their password to conclude so. Next, an auto-generated "recovery key" is presented, along with a suggestion to "make a copy and store it in a safe place." This is a ultimate resort in case a user forgets his or her account password. More dire warnings about data loss escort this information.FileVault recovery key: your ultimate best hope
Will people really write down that long recovery key and store it in a safe place? Apple has its doubts, it seems, because the next screen asks if you'd fancy Apple to store the recovery key for you. There is no default altenative for this question, which is exactly right, as far as I'm concerned. Most users probably should allow Apple to store their recovery key, but making that the default might live seen as an overreach by geeks and security nerds.
If you choose to trust Apple, you must enter answers to three personal questions of your choice. The dialog claims that no one, not even Apple itself, can access your recovery password without the answers to these questions. We've heard claims fancy this before, but I'm inclined to believe that Apple has scholarly from the mistakes of others.Recovery key escrow: befriend Apple befriend you
Finally, Apple insists that a recovery partition live present on the disk that's about to live encrypted. If it isn't, and if one can't live created (e.g., because it uses the wrong benign of partition map, or because doing so would shift a Boot Camp partition to the fourth position, making it unbootable), encryption won't live allowed to proceed. (It's benign of annoying that this check is only made at the very pause of the process.)
Assuming a recovery partition exists or can live created, a restart is required to enable encryption. Upon reboot, a screen that looks a lot fancy the Lion login screen (but only containing the users who are allowed to decrypt the volume) appears instantly. Select a user and enter the amend login password and the actual boot process begins. Even if auto-login is disabled, you will boot directly into the account whose password was just entered.
Revisiting the FileVault preference pane shows an appraise of the time remaining before the encryption process is complete. Encryption happens transparently in the background, which is a respectable thing because it takes a long time. While it's running, you can utilize applications, logout, reboot, and generally utilize your Mac as you normally would without perturbing the encryption process.
If any users on the system are unable to decrypt the disk, they can live allowed to conclude so by having them enter their login password.Enable more users to access the encrypted disk
The output of the diskutil list command now looks a bit extraordinary (compare to earlier):/dev/disk1 #: type designation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *250.1 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_CoreStorage 124.5 GB disk1s2 3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 654.6 MB disk1s3 4: Apple_HFS Timex 124.6 GB disk1s4 /dev/disk2 #: type designation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: Apple_HFS Lion Ex *124.2 GB disk2
What once appeared to the OS as a lone disk device now registers as two. One contains the two non-encrypted volumes (Recovery HD and Timex) plus the fresh Core Storage volume, and the other contains the mounted incarnation of the newly encrypted (well, encrypting, in this case) volume. Using the special Core Storage variant of the list command (diskutil cs list) reveals more detail, most of which should now compose sense after the earlier terminology review.CoreStorage rational volume groups (1 found) | +-- rational Volume Group 19566D89-E29A-4C6C-88FA-6B845EF1DEBB ========================================================= Name: Lion Ex Sequence: 1 Free Space: 0 B (0 B) | +-< Physical Volume 1A645A01-E149-48B4-8C79-5FD3E20384F1 | ---------------------------------------------------- | Index: 0 | Disk: disk1s2 | Status: Online | Size: 124509331456 B (124.5 GB) | +-> rational Volume Family 58B532AA-B265-4AC7-B53B-12BB039D97B2 ---------------------------------------------------------- Sequence: 9 Encryption Status: Unlocked Encryption Type: AES-XTS Encryption Context: Present Conversion Status: Converting Has Encrypted Extents: Yes Conversion Direction: forward | +-> rational Volume 8A7ACC28-321B-4653-8E85-94CAF047D1DE --------------------------------------------------- Disk: disk2 Status: Online Sequence: 4 Size (Total): 124190560256 B (124.2 GB) Size (Converted): 2539913216 B (2.5 GB) Revertible: Yes (unlock and decryption required) LV Name: Lion Ex Volume Name: Lion Ex Content Hint: Apple_HFS
Lion doesn't compose encrypting disks other than the boot disk particularly easy. The Disk Utility application can remove encryption from a volume, change a volume's encryption password, or reformat a volume with encryption enabled (deleting vulgar the data currently on the volume in the process), but there is no option to transparently encrypt a volume without erasing it.
Command-line tools to the rescue: diskutil will happily attempt to encrypt any volume you point it at, without erasing it first. Actually, the process is to convert it to a Core Storage volume which may optionally embrace encryption. Let's encrypt the Timex volume, shown as disk1s4 in the earlier diskutil list output.% diskutil cs convert disk1s4 -passphrase mysecret Started CoreStorage operation on disk1s4 Timex Resizing disk to felicitous Core Storage headers Creating Core Storage rational Volume Group Attempting to unmount disk1s4 Switching disk1s4 to Core Storage Waiting for rational Volume to appear Mounting rational Volume Core Storage LVG UUID: B02B86AC-C487-43B3-8C2E-7918CE80ECDF Core Storage PV UUID: 76336EBE-A3B5-4E1E-98B4-8A6873746D86 Core Storage LV UUID: E1F2E293-9952-425E-A597-0954BA734102 Core Storage disk: disk3 Finished CoreStorage operation on disk1s4 Timex Encryption in progress; utilize `diskutil coreStorage list` for status
As the command output indicates, the volume is shrunk slightly to accommodate the Core Storage headers, then the layer cake of rational volume management components is created, at the very bottom of which is the fresh rational volume. No restart is required to open the process, which happens transparently in the background just fancy the one initiated from the GUI. The diskutil cs list command now shows a pair of rational Volume Groups, each of which is declared to live in the process of encryption. The exact amount of data encrypted and remaining to live encrypted on each volume is furthermore listed.CoreStorage rational volume groups (2 found) | +-- rational Volume Group 19566D89-E29A-4C6C-88FA-6B845EF1DEBB | ========================================================= | Name: Lion Ex | Sequence: 1 | Free Space: 0 B (0 B) | | | +-< Physical Volume 1A645A01-E149-48B4-8C79-5FD3E20384F1 | | ---------------------------------------------------- | | Index: 0 | | Disk: disk1s2 | | Status: Online | | Size: 124509331456 B (124.5 GB) | | | +-> rational Volume Family 58B532AA-B265-4AC7-B53B-12BB039D97B2 | ---------------------------------------------------------- | Sequence: 9 | Encryption Status: Unlocked | Encryption Type: AES-XTS | Encryption Context: Present | Conversion Status: Converting | Has Encrypted Extents: Yes | Conversion Direction: forward | | | +-> rational Volume 8A7ACC28-321B-4653-8E85-94CAF047D1DE | --------------------------------------------------- | Disk: disk2 | Status: Online | Sequence: 4 | Size (Total): 124190560256 B (124.2 GB) | Size (Converted): 16999776256 B (17.0 GB) | Revertible: Yes (unlock and decryption required) | LV Name: Lion Ex | Volume Name: Lion Ex | Content Hint: Apple_HFS | +-- rational Volume Group B02B86AC-C487-43B3-8C2E-7918CE80ECDF ========================================================= Name: Timex Sequence: 1 Free Space: 0 B (0 B) | +-< Physical Volume 76336EBE-A3B5-4E1E-98B4-8A6873746D86 | ---------------------------------------------------- | Index: 0 | Disk: disk1s4 | Status: Online | Size: 124551483392 B (124.6 GB) | +-> rational Volume Family F02B9A32-10DE-4BDF-9697-00CE1B6F1133 ---------------------------------------------------------- Sequence: 6 Encryption Status: Unlocked Encryption Type: AES-XTS Encryption Context: Present Conversion Status: Converting Has Encrypted Extents: Yes Conversion Direction: forward | +-> rational Volume E1F2E293-9952-425E-A597-0954BA734102 --------------------------------------------------- Disk: disk3 Status: Online Sequence: 4 Size (Total): 124232712192 B (124.2 GB) Size (Converted): 94633984 B (94.6 MB) Revertible: Yes (unlock and decryption required) LV Name: Timex Volume Name: Timex Content Hint: Apple_HFS
At any point, the encryption process can live reversed (using Disk Utility, the FileVault tab of the Security & Privacy preference pane, or the diskutil command-line program). The decryption process furthermore happens in the background.
Changing the encryption password for a disk does not require a lengthy decryption and re-encryption process. I assume FileVault in Lion works fancy other all disk encryption solutions in that what the password actually unlocks is the actual encryption key for the volume. Changing the encryption password only requires decrypting and re-encrypting the actual encryption key, which is tiny.
The encryption features that Apple has chosen to provide access to in the GUI divulge a lot about the protest of this feature. First, it's meant to live completely transparent. The only change as far as the user is concerned is that the login screen appears to absorb moved to the very rise of the startup process. There is no divorce password to remember; the user's login password decrypts the disk. The same goes for every other user with an account on the system.
Login passwords are only tied to a boot disk, however. Using login passwords to encrypt disks that may slide from one Mac to another could lead to confusion. This partly explains why there's no GUI option for encrypting non-boot disks. The other allotment of that conclusion is likely that FileVault is focused on mobile users. not one of Apple's laptops absorb more than one internal drive, and partitioning is rare and probably only done by users who furthermore know enough to inspect up the command-line utility to enable disk encryption on their non-boot volumes.
Transparent encryption and decryption, impeccable software compatibility, a friendly GUI with ample safety nets for non-geek users—what's not to love? Ah, I'm positive you're wondering about performance. vulgar forms of all disk encryption benefit from the current imbalance between CPU power and disk speed. In almost vulgar circumstances, the CPU in your Mac spends most of its time twiddling its thumbs with nothing to do. This is especially actual for operations that involve a lot of disk access.
Whole disk encryption takes odds of this nearly omnipresent CPU cycle glut to sneak in the tiny chunks of drudgery it requires to encrypt and decrypt data from the disk. Apple furthermore leverages the special-purpose AES instructions and hardware on Intel's newest CPUs, further reducing the CPU overhead. The pause result is that regular users will live hard-pressed to notice any reduction in performance with encryption enabled. Based on my experience with the feature in prerelease versions of Lion, I would strongly deem enabling it on any Mac laptop I device to travel with.File system future
Disk encryption that actually works, plus some basic rational volume management features—that's vulgar well and good. But where does this leave us on the file system front? Perhaps things are not as imperfect as they seem. The following is vulgar speculation, but given Apple's information vacuum on vulgar things file-system-related, it's vulgar I've got for now.
Core Storage is probably the most significant file system change in the history of Mac OS X. Let's arbitrator about what it does. Core Storage is amenable for managing the chunks of data that compose up the individual rational volumes on a disk. To conclude so, presumably it has a set of metadata structures for tracking allocated and free space and for remembering which chunks belong to which volumes.
Now imagine that those chunks open to shrink until they are the size of, say, individual files. And instead of volumes, imagine those file-sized chunks belonging to directories. Okay, it's a stretch, but again, it's vulgar they absorb to slide on. Assuming Apple is tickled with the artery Core Storage turned out, it has effectively fielded its first brand-new code that performs some of the same basic functions as a file system. Were Apple so inclined, it seems technically plausible, at least, that it could extend this drudgery into a fresh in-house file system project.
With ZFS out of the picture, Btrfs presumably eliminated due to its licensing, and future evolution of ReiserFS uncertain, its difficult to view where Apple will salvage the modern file system that it so desperately needs other than by creating one itself.
This is something I've been anticipating for years. I would absorb certainly welcomed ZFS with open arms, but I was equally confident that Apple could create its own file system suited to its particular needs. That aplomb remains, but the ZFS distraction may absorb added years to the timetable.
In the meantime, a few Brave souls are noiseless determined to bring ZFS to Mac OS X. I wish them luck, but I would much prefer a solution supported by the operating system vendor. Apple, the gauntlet has been thrown down; it's time to deliver.Document revisions
Lion's modernized document model leans heavily on the competence to manage multiple versions of a lone document. Viewed solely through the user interface, it appears to live magic. Unlike earlier incarnations of autosave, you won't view auto-generated files appearing and disappearing alongside the original document. But the data obviously has to live stored somewhere, so where is it?
Despite vulgar its flaws, the Mac OS X file system does absorb several features that might live useful for saving multiple versions of files. Version number metadata could live stored in an extended attribute; the file data itself could conceivably live stored in named forks; the existing invisibility metadata could live used to conceal the multiple versions.
Although Apple has gotten religion regarding file system metadata in recent years, leaning heavily on extended attributes in the implementation of Time Machine, downloaded file quarantines, and access control lists, metadata holdovers from classic Mac OS are noiseless out of favor. If Spotlight's implementation has taught us anything, it's that today's Apple prefers to keep things simple when it comes to the file system.
Given vulgar of this, I wasn't surprised to find a /.DocumentRevisions-V100 directory lurking at the root flat of my boot drive, prerogative alongside the /.Spotlight-V100 directory. Inside, you'll find an SQLite database file (/.DocumentRevisions-V100/db-V1/db.sqlite) containing tables for tracking files, the individual versions of those files (which Apple calls "generations"), and the storage location of the data. Here's the schema, for the curious.CREATE TABLE files ( file_row_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC, file_name TEXT, file_parent_id INTEGER, file_path TEXT, file_inode INTEGER, file_last_seen INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 0, file_status INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, file_storage_id INTEGER NOT NULL ); CREATE TABLE generations ( generation_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC, generation_storage_id INTEGER NOT NULL, generation_name TEXT NOT NULL, generation_client_id TEXT NOT NULL, generation_path TEXT UNIQUE, generation_options INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, generation_status INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, generation_add_time INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 0, generation_size INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 0 ); CREATE TABLE storage ( storage_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC AUTOINCREMENT, storage_options INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, storage_status INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1 );
Unlike Time Machine, Apple's file version storage system is not limited to saving a complete copy of each fresh revision of a file. A second SQLite database (/.DocumentRevisions-V100/.cs/ChunkStoreDatabase) tracks the individual chunks that disagree from one revision of a file to another. (Examining its schema is left as an exercise for the reader. Just recall to copy the database file to a fresh location and hurry the sqlite3 program on the copy instead of the actual database, which will likely live locked anyway.)
Intelligently splitting files into chunks such that only a few chunks change from one revision to another is actually quite a difficult problem. deem a 10MB file, initially split into ten 1MB chunks. Now imagine that the next revision of the file simply adds two bytes to the very rise of the file. Were the fresh revision to live naïvely split into ten equal-sized chunks, every chunk would live different from vulgar previously created chunks, defeating the entire purpose of splitting files into chunks rather than saving complete copies every time.
One technique Apple uses to deal with this problem is called Rabin fingerprinting. Chunks of the file are selected based on their content, rather than strictly based on their offset within the file. (The title of the research paper that introduced this technique, A Low-bandwidth Network File System, suggests that it might furthermore live useful for, say, a network-based file storage system. Hmmm.)
This algorithm is not blindly applied to every file, however. The chunk storage engine knows about the internal structure of many common file formats (e.g., JPEG images, MPEG4 video, PDFs) and can intelligently chunk them based on this knowledge, separating headers and footers, finding the borders between internal elements, and so on. Unlike Spotlight, there doesn't parade to live a plug-in system for adding explicit champion for fresh file types. Custom file types saved by third-party applications parade to live left to the whims of Rabin fingerprinting.
Very minute files (under, say, 32KB) parade not to live chunked at all. Chunking is not guaranteed to happen immediately when a file is saved; it may happen at a later time. Very great files are generally split into larger pieces, preventing a situation where a 2GB file produces thousands of chunks. This all note is hurry by a new, private GenerationalStorage.framework which includes a daemon named revisiond.
(There's an piquant opportunity here for a third-party developer to create an "unauthorized" application for browsing the contents of the generation store, perhaps even hacking in a fresh context menu detail in the Finder for listing previous revisions of a selected file. An application fancy this probably won't live allowed into the Mac App Store, and it's likely to crack in the next OS revision, but it may noiseless find enough customers to live worthwhile.)
Apple's generational storage system is an piquant fuse of tried-and-true technologies (SQLite, daemons, modest files and directories) with just enough cleverness to avoid being an undue tribulation to the system in operation. And remember, every lone file created on the system is not automatically versioned in Lion. Generational storage is a feature that developers must explicitly use. I positive hope a lot of them conclude so.Resolution independence
Resolution independence has been "coming soon to Mac OS X" since 2005. The dream of drawing the same interface elements at the same visible size but with more pixels was so immediate in 2007 that they could flavor it. Then Snow Leopard arrived and the Mac's interface scalability features actually regressed. Depressing.
Meanwhile, Mac OS X's sibling operating system waltzed prerogative into a high-resolution UI on its very first try. iOS's secret? Don't try to champion capricious scale factors, just champion one: double resolution. A 50x50-pixel square on a non-retina iPhone screen is exactly the same size as a 100x100-pixel square on a retina display. Graphics that absorb not been updated for the higher resolution are simply drawn with four-pixel squares in area of each low-resolution pixel. vulgar dimensions are nice, even, integer multiples of each other. This is a impeccable felicitous for physical screens which, of course, absorb an integer number of pixels. Fractional measurements necessarily require frightful compromises.
Lion has taken the hint from its younger brother. capricious scalability is gone. In its area is a lone check box to enable "HiDPI" parade modes. (This option is noiseless hidden away in the Quartz Debug application, so it's clearly not an end-user feature. But unlike vulgar previous incarnations of resolution independence, this one actually works.)HiDPI parade modes on a 15-inch MacBook Pro (native resolution: 1440x900)
After enabling HiDPI, fresh parade modes will become available. In the screenshot above, the 720x450 mode is half aboriginal screen dimensions, and the 640x400 mode is half the (non-native) 1280x800 setting. After selecting a HiDPI mode, everything is drawn with twice as many pixels as its non-HiDPI equivalent. Here's a screenshot featuring TextEdit, their habitual interface scalability workhorse.Enlarge / TextEdit running in Lion's "HiDPI" mode
It looks pretty good, right? The only flaws are the bitmap graphics that haven't been updated for HiDPI (look closely at the black triangles in the ruler). Unfortunately, there are a lot of these throughout the operating system and its bundled applications. But unlike in vulgar years past, the framework is finally there for third-party developers and Apple itself to finally salvage their applications ready for a world in which 300-dpi desktop and laptop displays are more than just expensive curiosities.
Unlike iOS, Mac OS X has to contend with a much wider variety of parade sizes. Thus far, there has been no Mac equivalent of the iPhone 4, arriving with a double-density parade and quickly selling so many units that it represents a significant portion of the installed base. Still, the ease with which iOS developers adapted to the retina parade gives me aplomb that this pixel-doubling approach can drudgery on the Mac as well. They just absorb to wait a bit longer. By now, they should live used to it.Applications
Thanks to the comprehensively revised user interface, most applications that ship with Lion inspect new, but a few of them absorb particularly significant changes. I'm not going to cover vulgar of them (you'll find more extensive screenshot galleries elsewhere), but here are some highlights.The Finder
The Finder's transition from Carbon to Cocoa in Snow Leopard is starting to pay off in Lion. Several fresh APIs added to Cocoa in Lion absorb been adopted by the Finder. In days past, when the Finder was noiseless a Carbon application, it rarely got the latest and greatest features at the same time as other bundled applications. No more.
Cocoa in Lion gives developers more control over the image displayed when an detail is dragged from one area to another. The Lion Finder uses this control to transform multi-item selections from the habitual ghostly image of the source into a compressed, realigned, list-view representation. This transformation happens a jiffy or two after the drag begins.
While this is a fine demonstration of a fresh API, the experience is a bit off-putting. Imagine taking a dish out of the dishwasher and then having it start flopping around fancy a fish in your hand. This is a rare case of Apple losing sight of what's significant in real-time interaction design. Stability and responsiveness lead to comfort. A transformative animation (instability) that happens after a short detain (the appearance of unresponsiveness) does not compose for respectable experience. I wonder how many novice users will instinctively release the mouse button and inadvertently terminate the drag operation the first time this animation is triggered.Search tokens
The Finder furthermore proudly demonstrates Lion's fresh capsule-style search tokens. Free text can live entered into the search bailiwick as usual, but a pop-up menu provides options to limit the scope of the search terms typed so far. The only two options available are "Filename" and "Everything," but the interface is fun and effortless to use, and the potential is there for much more sophistication. (For more knotty searches, the full-fledged Spotlight search with nested boolean logic remains in Lion.)
By default, at the top of the Lion Finder's sidebar is the fresh "All My Files" item. It's a canned search that finds vulgar documents in the user's home directory and displays the results in a flat list. The sidebar detail representing the computer as a whole, showing vulgar attached drives and connected servers, is noiseless available, but is not in the sidebar by default. The same goes for the home directory item. The other predefined saved searches (e.g., Today, Yesterday, vulgar Images, etc.) are no longer available, though they can live recreated manually.All My Files combined with a secondary filter, arranged by kind
The addition and prominence of "All My Files" is yet another vote of no-confidence in the user's competence to understand and navigate the file system. If you've ever seen a Mac user try to navigate from the top flat of his difficult drive down to his Documents folder, you can open to understand the challenge Apple is up against here. The "All My Files" detail is just what the doctor ordered. In the increasingly rare cases when novices utilize the Finder directly, rather than managing their data from within an application fancy iTunes or iPhoto, vulgar they want to know is, "Where are vulgar my files?" Asked and answered.
Expert users with thousands upon thousands of files will likely find the "All My Files" feature less useful. But if you cease thinking of it as a "location" and start thinking of it as a saved search to which you can apply additional filters with the toolbar's search field, it starts to salvage more interesting. The only remaining barrier is performance, which does suffer as the number of files increases.
All of the existing Finder view styles (icon, list, column, and cover flow) champion a fresh "Arrange By" option which sorts items into groups. Each group has a header which "sticks" to the top of the window as the view is scrolled, until the ultimate detail belonging to that group scrolls off the top of the list. The columns in the group headers are frustratingly un-configurable and can't live individually resized. But those quibbles aside, the feature does add an piquant fresh dimension to file browsing.
A fresh sort order has furthermore been added to vulgar views: Date Added. This is an example order for the Downloads folder. Sorting by creation or modification date was always problematic for files that preserved their timestamps through the download process (e.g., zip-compressed Mac applications). This would intuition "new" downloads to parade in unexpected positions in the list. I'm tempted to declare Date Added sorting as best fresh feature in the Finder, but I'm afraid that might appear fancy damning with faint praise.
Aesthetically speaking, the Finder, fancy the repose of Lion, has been visited by the color vampire. The Finder sidebar doesn't even deference custom folder icons, showing them as generic gray folders instead. That seems a tiny tyrannical, even for Apple.The only respectable folder is a gray folder
This paternalism extends to other aspects of the Finder, as well. Library folders are now invisible in the Finder, removing the temptation for novice users to slide mucking around in directories they don't understand. The "Go to Folder…" menu command noiseless exists, so customer champion has some way, at least, to salvage users there without resorting to a shell prompt. But existing champion documents that embrace instructions and screenshots that anticipate the Library folder to live visible will absorb to live revised for Lion.View options
The Finder's destructive fuse of browser and spatial behaviors remains in Lion. The tradition of subtly changing the rules that govern when, where, and how view condition changes are applied and honored furthermore continues. Just in case anyone thought they had finally figured out how the Snow Leopard Finder decides what view to note when displaying the contents of a folder in a particular window, Lion changes the rules again.
The controls at the top of the view options palette now embrace a mysterious sub-checkbox labelled "Browse in view," where view is the window's current view style. This appears to govern the view used when opening sub-folders from a window where the toolbar is visible, but a tiny experimentation will divulge that the setting is overridden by any "Always open in view" setting of a sub-folder. The pause result is the same as it has ever been: an inscrutable system that users quickly give up any hope of understanding, resigning themselves to manually correcting view styles as needed during every interaction with the Finder.Mail
Apple's venerable Mail application gets a significant facelift in Lion. Once derided as one of the ugliest bundled applications, it's now been transformed into the classiest. (It doesn't Hurt that the competition has stumbled a bit.) The screenshot below is dominated by the glossy Apple promotional e-mail for Lion in the right-hand pane, but inspect past it at the surrounding interface.Enlarge / Mail in Lion: a class act
Or rather, inspect at how much of the surrounding interface isn't there. With the exception of the toolbar, this window is completely about the content. There are no external borders, only the barest hint of internal borders, and, as befitting a actual Lion application, no visible scrollbars. The toolbar and quick-access button bar result the monochromatic Lion style while noiseless looking crisp. The cheeky red flag icon is furthermore a nice touch.
After years of unsupported hacks to add a three-pane wide-screen view to Mail, Apple has finally taken the hint and made it official. There's also, naturally, a full-screen mode.Enlarge / At last, widescreen three-pane Mail for all
Like the Finder, Mail's search bailiwick supports Apple's snazzy fresh search tokens. These provide the fastest artery to conclude medium-complexity searches that I've ever seen in any e-mail application. It's too imperfect the search bailiwick is so narrow and doesn't expand to fill vulgar available space in the toolbar, however.
The main viewing pane shows entire threads by default, with each message appearing as a divorce virtual piece of paper. Mail aggressively collapses quoted text within messages, displaying an adorable accordion effect upon expansion.Enlarge / Mail plays an accordion animation when expanding quoted text
Keyboard champion is excellent, allowing one-handed navigation for most common tasks. Expanding a thread and selecting a lone message causes it to fill the right-hand pane, leaving behind the narcissism that each message is actually a tiny piece of paper.
Mail has become more capable, as well. Simple moneyed text editing capabilities absorb finally been added. Mail is furthermore even better about automatically setting up accounts for common services. The account setup screens just anticipate for a name, e-mail address, and password, and will usually conclude everything else for you, including (optionally) correctly configuring and integrating calendar and chat services that might live associated with the e-mail account (e.g., Google Calendar and Talk).Rich text editing: let your font flag fly
If, fancy me, you never seriously considered using any of the previous incarnations of Apple's Mail application, the version in Lion is definitely worth taking for a test drive—even if only as a random to experience an application that so thoroughly embraces the technology and aesthetic of the fresh operating system.Safari
Besides adding champion for another crop of fresh Web technologies (MathML, WOFF, CSS3 enhancements), the biggest change in Safari is its aforementioned utilize of the fresh WebKit2 rendering engine, which moves webpage rendering into a separate, low-privilege process. (Previous versions of Safari already isolated plug-ins in divorce processes.) This change is invisible to the user, but it should provide an additional layer of protection against browser-based exploits.
Safari's downloads window has been subsumed into the toolbar and is now displayed as an iPad-style popover. (This is a benchmark control available to vulgar Cocoa applications in Lion.) When starting a download, an icon leaps from the point of the click into the downloads toolbar icon, which then displays a tiny progress bar. It's cute, informative for novices, and keeps the downloads window out of the way.Safari downloads in a popover
A minute eyeglasses icon in the bookmarks bar triggers Apple's fresh Reading List feature, which saves the currently displayed webpage for later reading. This list of webpages is (or rather, will be) synchronized with Safari in iOS 5. Saved pages parade in the sidebar, accompanied by unattractively scaled favicons.Safari's Reading List: redeem webpages to read later. (High-resolution favicons recommended.)
Reading List follows in the well dubious footsteps of other Apple products that absorb clearly been "inspired," let's say, by approved third-party services. As was the case when Safari added rudimentary champion for RSS, Reading List is unlikely to dislodge users who are already cozy with their existing read-it-later service.
But most people absorb never even heard of such a thing. Reading List's prominent placement in Safari will certainly spread awareness. This could translate into more customers for competing services, even as Reading List takes the lion's partake (sorry) of users.
One ultimate note on applications. The Finder, Mail, Safari, TextEdit, and even Terminal vulgar champion full-screen mode and restore vulgar their windows when relaunched. Apple is definitely trying to lead by example.Grab bag
As this review winds down, let's relax with a tiny dip into the frail grab bag, a grand tradition where the smaller features salvage their random to shine. As in years past, Apple has its own, much snazzier and more complete incarnation. Check it out if you want a broader overview of Lion's fresh features. These are just the ones that piqued my interest.System Preferences
System Preferences absorb been shuffled, consolidated, and renamed in every major releases of Mac OS X. Lion doesn't disappoint.
The preference formerly known as Appearance is now called General, and it includes a checkbox to globally disable application condition restoration. The Exposé & Spaces preference is now called Mission Control. Security becomes Security & Privacy. Accounts is now Users & Groups—a welcome change because, in my experience, most people don't know what an "account" is. Universal Access moves to the top row. And on and on. Dance, icons, dance!Enlarge / Your favorite system preferences: where are they today?
Individual preference icons can live manually hidden by the user thanks to the fresh "Customize…" menu item. (They will remain accessible from the View menu and via search.)Enlarge / conceal the preferences you're not interested in
Click and hold on the "Show All" button to quickly jump from one preference to another via a drop-down menu. The View menu provided the same functionality in Snow Leopard, but the "Show All" button is closer to where the cursor is likely to be.Take a direct flight to your next preference pane
Perhaps surprisingly, the MobileMe preference remains. It's joined by the new, awkwardly named Mail, Contacts & Calendars preference which manages, well, mail, contacts, and calendar accounts for a variety of online services.Centralized online service account management
This includes the ever-popular "Other" service, which leads to a set of more generic configuration screens for other protocols and applications.Manual configuration and more esoteric account types
The trackpad preference pane allows some, but not vulgar of the fresh gestures in Lion to live configured in limited ways. For example, the Mission Control gesticulation must always live an upward swipe, but it can utilize three or four fingers. vulgar of the gestures can live disabled.Limited choices for gesticulation configurations
Finally, in case you needed any more evidence of Apple's newfound aversion to color in the Mac OS X interface, prefer a inspect at the fresh time zone selection screen.Your world, vulgar silvery in the moonshine Auto-correction
Lion adds optional iOS-style auto-correction to the benchmark Mac OS X text control. It looks and works just fancy the iOS incarnation from which it's so clearly derived. fancy the other spelling and grammar checking options, auto-correction can live enabled on a per-document basis.I eagerly await the Compose Text Automatically option System-wide auto-correction: try to resist the prod to tap the screen Mobile Time Machine
Time Machine isn't much befriend when you're on the road with your laptop. not one of Apple's portable Macs embrace more than one internal drive, and making a Time Machine back up to another partition of the same drive benign of defeats the purpose.
Lion includes a new, mostly invisible feature whereby Time Machine backups continue even when the backup volume is not mounted. This feature is only energetic for laptops, which is a shame (though you can enable it on desktops using the tmutil command-line tool).
The implementation is strange. The mtmfs (Mobile Time Machine file system) daemon runs an NFS server on localhost which is then mounted at /Volumes/MobileBackups. In it, you'll find the habitual Backups.backupdb directory structure that Time Machine creates for its backups. The actual copies of fresh and changed files—and only those files—are stored in /.MobileBackups by the mtmd daemon.
This system provides some basic data protection for users on the go, beyond what's offered by applications that champion Lion's autosave APIs. Mobile Time Machine, fancy regular Time Machine, tracks vulgar file changes, not just those made by positive applications.
There is some obvious overlap between Mobile Time Machine and the generational store used to champion document versioning in Lion. Having two entirely divorce storage locations and techniques for backup copies of files is suboptimal; perhaps the backends for these two features will merge in the future.Lock screen
Lion's fresh lock screen has been restyled to match the login screen, with options to unlock or switch users, and it comes with the same subset of menu bar status icons visible in the top-right corner.Lion's fresh lock screen Emoji
Lion adds Emoji champion to Mac OS X. So that happened.FACE WITH NO respectable gesticulation (U+1F645); MOON VIEWING CEREMONY (U+1F391); PILE OF POO (U+1F4A9) Terminal
The Terminal application gets a few more graphical frills, sporting a fresh parameter for window blur, with divorce settings for energetic and supine windows. The bundled Silver Aerogel theme demonstrates the effect."I want to know what's behind my terminal window, but I don't want to know every detail."
Terminal also—finally—supports 256 text colors with its fresh xterm-256color terminal type. Users of terminal-based text editors will surely approve.About This Mac
The System Profiler application has been renamed System Information and now includes a comprehensive, effortless to understand overview of the entire system. The copious links to champion documents, apropos preferences, and channels for feedback are fantastic. This will live the fresh go-to location for anyone trying to remotely diagnose a Mac problem. As before, it's most easily accessed by going to the Apple menu and selecting About This Mac, then clicking the "More Info…" button.
Don't worry, geeks, the frail System Profiler interface with its much more particular technical information is noiseless accessible via the "System Report…" button. But it's likely that you'll rarely necessity the extra detail. prefer a inspect at what the fresh screens offer.Tech specs never looked so good Did you know that your parade has a manual? There positive seems to live a lot of "other" Unfilled RAM slots are sinful. I am ashamed. Five ways to salvage support An excellent executive summary of warranty information and service options Recommendations Want an eBook or PDF copy? champion Ars and it's yours.
Even at Ars Technica, a positive percentage of readers just want to know the bottom line about a fresh operating system. Is this a respectable release? Is it worth the price and the hassle of installing it? Excluding the first few dog-slow, feature-poor releases of Mac OS X, the own to vulgar those questions has always been a resounding "yes." Lion continues this tradition, more than earning its $29 price with a raft of fresh technologies and a substantially revised interface and suite of bundled applications.
The benchmark caveats apply about software and hardware compatibility. Don't just hurry out and upgrade your system as soon as you finish this review. Lion's digital distribution makes hasty upgrades even more likely. Patience! prefer a few days—weeks, even—to research vulgar of your favorite applications and compose positive they vulgar hurry fine on Lion. If you're noiseless using some PowerPC applications, don't upgrade until you absorb replaced them with Intel-native alternatives. And before you upgrade, back up, back up, back up.All that you can't leave behind
Though the Lion designation suggests the pause of something, the content of the operating system itself clearly marks the start of a fresh journey. Seemingly emboldened by the success of iOS, Apple has taken a hatchet to decades of conventional wisdom about desktop operating systems.
The same thing happened ten years ago in an even more melodramatic vogue when Apple replaced classic Mac OS with Mac OS X. The fresh operating system changed the rules on the desktop, wedding composited graphics, smooth animation, and photorealistic artwork to a solid Unix foundation. Apple tried to leave vulgar vestiges of its frail operating system behind—the platinum appearance, the Apple menu, even the desktop itself—but eventually bowed to some demands of long-time Mac users. Lion's changes will no doubt meet with similar resistance from experienced Mac users, but I suspect Apple will remain unmoved this time around.
In the same artery that Mac OS X so clearly showed the repose of the industry what user interfaces would inspect fancy in the years to come, Apple's own iOS has now done the same for its decade-old desktop operating system. iOS was less shocking to users because it appeared to arrive from nothing, and the mobile operating system conventions it defied were ones that nobody liked anyway. The same is not actual on the desktop, where users cling fancy victims of Stockholm syndrome to mechanics that absorb Hurt them time and again.
It may live many years before even half of the applications on a typical Mac behave according to the design principles introduced in Lion. The transition period could live ugly, especially compared to the effortless uniformity of iOS. In the meantime, let Apple's younger platform serve as a lighthouse in the storm. The Mac will always live more capable than its mobile brethren, but that doesn't denote that simple tasks must furthermore live harder on the Mac. Imagine being able to stick a computer neophyte in front of an iMac with the same aplomb that you might hand that neophyte an iPad today.
The technical details of Apple's operating system that were once so significant that they practically defined its existence (e.g., reminiscence protection, preemptive multitasking) are now taken for granted. Mainstream reviews of software and hardware alike expend far less time pondering technical specifications and implementation details than they did only a few years ago.
This phenomenon extends even to the geekiest among us, those who didn't just skip to the conclusion of this review but actually read the entire thing. Fellow geeks, anticipate yourselves, conclude you know the clock hurry of the CPU in the device you're reading this on? conclude you know how much RAM it has? What about the reminiscence bus hurry and width? Now deem what your answers might absorb been ten years ago.
Over the past decade, better technology has simply reduced the number of things that they necessity to supervision about. Lion is better technology. It marks the point where Mac OS X releases cease being defined by what's been added. From now on, Mac OS X should live judged by what's been removed.
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