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Apple's closed ecosystem may delivery to amass extra uniform as well, as there were ongoing pointers that iOS and macOS will birth to participate further and further elements and purposes. The newest rumor is that a yoke of select iOS 12 features will appear in macOS 10.15, in line with sources speaking with 9to5Mac.
The iOS points expected to near back to macOS 10.15 comprise Siri Shortcuts (and doubtlessly the Shortcuts app), parade Time, stronger Apple identity administration and particular iMessage outcomes.
while the iMessage effects may well exist enjoyable, and the Apple id management apparatus may assist preclude considerations akin to fresh iOS 12 issues, the Siri Shortcuts and parade Time integration are the largest highlights.
The inclusion of Siri Shortcuts in macOS 10.15 will enable users to promptly operate positive projects immediately with the aid of giving Siri a verbal instruction. users can create their personal specific automation the employ of the Workflows app, which is likely one of the most excellent iPad apps for productivity. users should silent amass different fundamental Siri elements as well, with ways to amass short assistance or set timers and alarms.
The addition of screen Time will likewise enable clients to advocate song of the period of time they are spending their Mac. it will possibly video parade and record how a entire lot time is being spent on which applications and which kinds of applications. It additionally permits clients to set cut-off dates, which will likewise exist handy for limiting toddlers's parade time.
All of this pushes iOS and macOS closer collectively, with Apple expected to debut the device in the back of iPad-to-Mac app conversion at WWDC 2019. whereas the jog makes feel, providing coders a straightforward technique to create one software for several systems and providing Mac users some extra aspects, it goes a miniature bit against Apple's past stance.
On the merging of iOS and macOS, Apple CEO Tim cook expressed the business's causes for preserving them separate:
"We don't confidence in contour of watering down one for the other. each [The Mac and iPad] are striking,” prepare dinner observed. “one of the most factors that each of them are outstanding is as a result of they pushed them to upshot what they upshot well. And in case you open to merge both ... you start to create exchange-offs and compromises.”
while the two structures aren't more likely to gyrate into one any time soon, they definitely flaunt to exist they're going to birth overlapping.
Over the closing a few months, we’ve realized fairly a bit of about Apple’s re-entry into the seasoned betray market. The monitor is said to measure 31.6-inches and hold a 6K resolution. study on as they roundup everything they comprehend up to now about the monitor, and when it should exist would becould very well exist purchasable.
Apple officially left the standalone monitor market in 2016, discontinuing its Thunderbolt screen and pointing clients towards third-birthday celebration alternate options. The move, although, was met with disappointment from seasoned users who depend on seamless integration between Apple’s a lot of hardware products.
consequently, in 2017, Apple introduced that it was doubling down on the seasoned market with a new modular Mac professional and a new Apple screen. That announcement turned into almost exactly two years in the past, and now it seems we’re at final nearing the launch of Apple’s incredibly anticipated seasoned display. birthright here’s what they understand up to now.Apple screen dimension and backbone
in response to respectable Apple analyst Ming-Chi Kuo, the Apple monitor will feature a 31.6-inch reveal. That’s significantly higher than the 27-inch iMac – and should certainly gratify seasoned users in many industries. Kuo says that the Apple screen will characteristic a 6K3K resolution.
At this aspect, it's unconfirmed whether the Apple screen can exist 16:9 in nature or combine in on the style of ultra-wide displays. Their personal Jeff Benjamin, although, has presented a very solid case for the latter.
Jeff argues that Apple’s monitor will characteristic a 6240×2880 autochthonous decision. here's a “genuine” 5K footprint that has been extended horizontally to gyrate the screen into an extremely-large panel. With the added pixels, the screen’s resolution is stretched into 6K, which suits exactly with Kuo’s title that the screen could exist 6K3K.
Theoretically, Apple would likewise want its standalone seasoned parade screen to robust the existing iMac and iMac seasoned kindhearted component and DPI. Some basic math explains how this would exist feasible. almost, the 27-inch 5K iMac uses a pixel-per-inch intimate of 218. With a resolution of 6240×2880, an Apple monitor may hit that by route of being 31.fifty nine-inches – which rounds up to 31.6-inches, matching Kuo’s claims.
The culmination is a 6K3K ultra-broad monitor with 6240×2880 decision, measuring 31.6-inches diagonally, and with a betray panel peak (13.2-inches) and PPI (218) the very as the existing 5K panel within the iMac and iMac pro. The width of this sort of parade would measure 28.7-inches, which is 3.1-inches wider than the iMac professional, even when including its bezels.
for that reason, while Kuo has now not made mention of no matter if the Apple screen may exist extremely-vast or sixteen:9, the mathematics definitely seems to elect the previous. With so many third-birthday party shows going the extremely-vast route, it shouldn’t near as a amaze that Apple likewise keep that fashion. additionally, if it may well accomplish that in a route that makes the Apple monitor superbly complement the current iMac and iMac seasoned, artistic users in every solitary set are unavoidable to exist glad.Mini-LED
Ming-Chi Kuo additionally says that Apple’s 6K monitor will characteristic mini-LED backlight technology. What this capability is that the external parade will simplest employ mini-LED for the backlight, not for genuine end-to-conclusion mini-LED displays. In late 2020 or early 2021, although, Apple is expected to launch new MacBook and iPad models with proper mini-LED panels.
Kuo primarily says that the Apple video parade will employ a “mini-LED fancy backlight unit” with larger LEDs. by using mini-LED backlighting, the Apple screen may hold extra energy efficient backlighting that allows for for greater revise blacks and improved contrast. in addition, mini-LED backlighting should permit for the panels to exist thinner, resulting in a slimmer design general.
The performance gained’t suit that of OLED, such as what is organize in the iPhone XS and iPhone XS Max, however Apple is asserted to want mini-LED backlighting because it isn't supine to singe in. In every day use, here's probably a sensible alternative. a computer parade screen is much more doubtless than a mobilephone to exhibit the identical issue – akin to a static email inbox – complete day. this could significantly boost the probability of burn-in.Apple monitor liberate and cost
The Apple parade is asserted to exist released someday in Q2 or Q3. This aligns well with Apple’s upcoming developer-focused WWDC, which kicks off on June 3rd. It does not appear to exist presumptuous at complete to suppose that Apple might advertise each the 31.6-inch computer screen and modular Mac professional throughout its WWDC keynote.
Assuming the panel is introduced at WWDC, that might exist simply over two years from when Apple introduced its renewed focal point on the pro market.
As for cost, it’s complicated to grasp at this point what Apple could charge for this 31.6-inch 6K video display. The Thunderbolt screen turned into offered for $999, however you should definitely anticipate this new monitor to can charge more than that, exceptionally for those who confidence Apple has miniature competitors in this district of the market.Wrap up
Apple doubled down on the pro market almost exactly 2 years ago, and it seems we’re eventually about to peer the first outcomes of those efforts. seasoned users certainly hold exorbitant hopes for the new Apple screen and modular Mac seasoned, and it'll exist wonderful to peer the reactions.
What upshot you reflect of the Apple screen rumors? Does it sound fancy whatever thing that meets your wants? How plenty are you inclined to pay? let us know what you regard down in the comments under!
Subscribe to 9to5Mac on YouTube for extra Apple information:
characteristicThe next edition of Mac OS X will carry an up to date edition of iChat able to logging into Yahoo IM debts, proposing an superior journey when the employ of assorted bills, and including net web page sharing in iChat Theater.The fragmented world of IM
iChat, Apple's bundled rapid messenger app that advanced from origins as an purpose chat client to being a video-enabled IM customer aiding the open XMPP/Jabber protocol, now provides aid for a 3rd IM protocol: Yahoo IM.
unlike email, which complete suppliers lead by the employ of criterion requisites, IM has lengthy been partitioned into proprietary solos, with AOL, ICQ, Skype, Yahoo and Microsoft MSN/are animated Messenger complete using their own closed techniques for text and video chat (Apple's .Mac/MobileMe provider makes employ of AOL's IM server, and AOL offers an SMS gateway that permits iChat users to ship SMS messages to mobile numbers).
Yahoo and Microsoft introduced a chat-only gateway between their capabilities, as did AOL and ICQ (AOL except currently owned ICQ). In different situations youngsters, anyone who wants to trade messages with clients on diverse methods should employ a multiprotocol chat client and create part bills for every provider. alternatively, that you would exist able to configure your personal gateway server or employ an external gateway that logs into your account on an additional provider to schlepp IM messages between the incompatible account varieties.
Mac OS X Lion's iChat 6 now adds aid Yahoo IM, however the service looks to best lead text chats, now not Yahoo audio or video chats. on account of the chat gateway between Yahoo and MSN, this should allow iChat users to attain each populations of chat money owed, moreover latest lead for Jabber/Gmail IM and video chat and AOL/ICQ/MobileMe IM and video chat. besides the fact that children, while the Lion iChat customer does work with Yahoo bills, the gateway between the Yahoo and MSN doesn't in reality flaunt to work.
Evolution of iChat
beginning with iChat AV in 2003, Apple added aid for SIP, necessities based video chat. The next year, AOL delivered suitable video chat in its AOL IM customer for home windows, enabling Mac and home windows clients to video chat the employ of the goal network.
Alongside the unlock of Mac OS X 10.four Tiger, Apple shipped a brand new version of iChat with aid for the open XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, at the start named Jabber), enabling iChat to work with both purpose and open consumers together with Apple's own iChat Server in Mac OS X Server and later, Google's GTalk carrier. iChat's Bonjour chat among local users on the very community additionally makes employ of XMPP.
In Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, Apple integrated aid for VNC screen sharing, allowing users to participate their computing device remotely as a video chat over either the XMPP or goal protocols. Apple additionally launched iChat Theater, which may participate a photograph, video, or any document supported by route of short flaunt over a video chat (below).
Third birthday party assist for tapping into these facets turned into likewise brought to a new quick Message framework.
On page 2 of 2: New in iChat 6, iChat vs FaceTime.
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The ninth major release of Apple’s server operating system is as gargantuan a change as the change from Mac OS X Server 1.0 to Mac OS X Server 10.0. (Readers with longish memories may recall that OS X Server had a pre-10.0 version, which was called version 1.0.) In many ways, Mac OS X Lion Server (version 10.7; Mac App Store link) succeeds, but it’s hampered by UI annoyances and inconsistencies that will probably exist fixed in future updates. But birthright now, using Lion Server is a tad more maddening than it should be.Welcome Server.app; good-bye Server Admin—sort of
There’s a new kid in town for managing Lion Server, and it’s called Server.app. I’m positive that this new server-management program will one day completely capture over complete the functions of the intimate Server Admin application, but birthright now it doesn’t, which results in a partially tedious bit of hopping back and forth between applications to amass things done. For example, Server.app handles Address Book, File Sharing, iCal, iChat, Mail, and other service settings. Server Admin handles DHCP, DNS, NetBoot, Software Update, and others.
The impression is that Server Admin handles what Server.app doesn’t—but there are instances when you requisite to employ both applications, such as for the Mail server and the Podcast server. Server Admin has access to more settings than Server.app does, so they complement each other. But when both applications manage the very settings, such as host denomination or SSH enabling, it’s really annoying.Server.app is the main application used to manage Lion Server, replacing the Server Admin program in previous OS X Servers.
Apple did a similar thing to the Workgroup Manager application, which was used for user/machine/group/ directory management. In Lion Server, Directory Utility now handles the directory-management tasks. If you want to edit the LDAP info for Open Directory in a more direct style than the regular UI lets you, you now upshot that in Directory Utility. Of course, you can likewise edit and create users in Server.app. That’s convenient.
Why hold four applications doing the work of two? It’s a miniature fancy being nibbled to death by baby ducks. It’s certainly not some return-to-Unix understanding where each application has a specific focus. Server.app is anything but that. The respond I reflect lies in Profile Manager, Apple’s new instrument for managing Macs and iOS devices (more on that later). While you employ Server.app to set up Profile Manager, most of the actual managing work is done via a Web interface. That’s not a horrible idea; managing a server is something that, on the GUI level, can exist handled quite well via a Web UI. (The UI mostly involves picking from a list, entering text, and selecting radio buttons, and checkboxes. Does it really matter if those controls are presented via Cocoa or HTML?)
However, the tools are very much a work in progress. Apple hasn’t even near close to a Web UI yet—if that is, in fact, the quit goal for this. As a result, there are more tools than ever to manage Lion Server, and given the radical changes Apple has made to those tools (especially in Server.app), it actually makes managing Lion Server more work than Mac OS X 10.6 Server ( ).Where did the controls go?
The other issue with Server.app is that, for the most part, there isn’t a lot there. For example, unlike OS X 10.6 Server’s Server Admin utility, which lets you upshot a lot of the configuration tasks for the Web server, Lion Server’s Server.app really doesn’t let you upshot much more than add sites, specify the ports and the web root directory, and set up some basic access controls. Anything more than that, and you’re going to hold to employ and stay with the command line.
In and of itself, this is nothing new. Even though Apple provided a GUI for DNS, if you wanted to upshot anything other than the absolute basics, you had to learn the guts of DNS in the command line. For things fancy SNMP, complete the GUI ever did was let you gyrate it on. complete post-enablement SNMP configuration happens in text files and the command line. In some cases, especially with the Web server, this is a bit of a shock, because the differences in the GUI between versions 10.6 and 10.7 are rather huge. In the case of iChat server, the differences are rather minor.
The want of a GUI is upsetting, but in light of what Apple thinks of as its main customer base, this makes some sense. For example, if you capture the time to inspect at how Lion Server works and what it does with Apache and Web services, it’s obvious that Apple looks at Apache as a route to amass things done. Apache provides the back quit for the Web UI in things fancy Profile Manager; you requisite it for the Wiki service, file sharing for iOS devices, and other services. For Web publishing, it’s limpid that Apple wants you to employ the Wiki/Blog service built into Lion Server, rather than build sites the traditional way. Apple’s point here seems to be, when it comes to things fancy pure Web hosting, there’s not a lot of odds to using OS X Server. It doesn’t provide you with any more capability than you’re going to amass off of other platforms fancy Linux, BSD, or Windows. In fact, if you start talking about a lot of Web platforms, it’s obvious that the only understanding OS X is mentioned is because it’s based on Unix, and so you can employ Unix tools without a lot of work. But is there some odds to OS X Server for generic services fancy Web hosting? Not really. It’s distinguished that Lion Server provides this, but if you anticipate Apple to proceed after Linux’s market participate as an enterprise Web hosting platform, you might exist confusing Apple with some other company.
Another problem with Lion Server is that so miniature of this is documented. Apple’s server documentation for Lion Server is, to exist charitable, thin. Apple moved some of the documentation to the Web, but you can’t amass to complete of it from the main documentation site. You hold to exist in Server.app to amass to parts of the documentation, such as the Profile Manager—more specifically, you open Server.app and then click on the link to the Profile Manager Web UI (or proceed to https://serverdnsname/profilemanager), log in, and then, from the drop-down menu in the upper right, click on Help. That will capture you to http://help.apple.com/profilemanager/mac/10.7/, which is an Apple webpage. If you proceed to http://help.apple.com, you’ll find that nothing about Lion Server exists as a direct link from that page.
This is the issue I hold with Lion Server as a whole: even though Apple has made a lot of changes to OS X Server, the entire package is so obviously a work in progress. capture a simple stint fancy file sharing: You proceed to the File Sharing section to enable sharing, and you can set some basic permissions, but if you want to set anything beyond read only, write only, or read-write, then you hold to proceed to the hardware settings, then storage, and then you can set more-detailed ACLs. It’s a remarkably kludgy system; why not hold complete the file-sharing settings in one place, you know, under, maybe, the File Sharing section?
For Apple, the situation of the server-management GUIs is bad, almost approaching appalling. Because of this, the pretty awesome new features in Lion Server aren’t as nonchalant as they could be.Whither Samba
Prior to Lion Server, OS X used Samba, an excellent open-source project that allows non-Windows platforms to both access and serve files as a Windows server. Prior to Lion Server, Samba was how OS X Server handled Windows file- and print-serving tasks.
In July of 2007, the Samba group announced that it would exist moving to version 3 of the Free Software Foundation’s common Public License. Some aspects of the GPL 3 created problems for Apple, so rather than continue with a dead version of Samba in OS X Server, Apple removed Samba and wrote its own SMB client and server for Lion Server. complete the SMB advocate in OS X Server from that point on out has near from Apple.
Lion Server provides only basic file sharing. Windows NT Domain advocate is gone, but Vista works with NT domains only with some tweaking, and Windows 7 won’t work with NT domains at all, so this is not a huge problem. Microsoft has been running away from NT 4 domains since 2000.What about print sharing?
Print sharing is silent in Lion Server, but Apple no longer has any kindhearted of custom GUI for it. Instead, you employ the CUPS interface, which is a Web UI at http://localhost:631. You no longer requisite a special program to set up print sharing, which is an advantage. The downside is that while CUPS has thorough documentation, it’s not exactly geared toward novices, and without Samba, print sharing to Windows clients is a lot trickier.
If you hold to upshot a lot of extensive print sharing, regard keeping your print server at version 10.6, and let Apple know you really requisite better print serving capabilities to upgrade fully to Lion Server.MySQL
MySQL is gone, replaced by PostgreSQL. Why? Apple isn’t telling. If I had to guess, I’d negate it comes down to licensing. Oracle’s licensing for MySQL is a bit of a mess; the license you’re issued depends on the route you employ MySQL. PostgreSQL is under a BSD license, which is something Apple favors far more.
If you already hold MySQL data or binaries, Lion Server doesn’t delete them, but Lion Server doesn’t provide even the rudimentary controls for MySQL that OS X 10.6 Server provided, and if you want to employ PostgreSQL, any customization you want to upshot must exist done via the command line or third-party tools.Profile Manager
Profile Manager is the one shining star in Lion Server. Profile Manager allows you to finally manage iOS devices from an Apple server OS (what a concept!), and it does so in a route that is really useful, well thought out, and rather friendly to both IT pros and users.
Going forward, Profile Manager is how Apple wants you to manage users, user groups, Macs, groups of Macs, iOS devices, and groups of iOS devices. It’s primarily a Web-based implementation with a focus on self-service. Users can proceed to a Web portal (https://serverdnsname/mydevices), log in with their directory credentials, and then add their Mac or iOS device into management. I haven’t had a haphazard to upshot a lot of work with the Mac side of things in Profile Manager, but the iOS side works really well.Used to manage users, user groups, Macs, groups of Macs, iOS devices, and groups of iOS devices, Profile Manager is the shining star in Lion Server.
The setup for managing Macs, iOS devices, or both is similar to the iPhone Configuration Utility that Apple used to employ as its primary configuration instrument for iOS devices. Configuration profiles are distributed as digitally signed XML .mobileconfig files via a number of methods, and it works really well.
With Profile Manager, Apple is taking the Mobile Device Management (MDM) concept it first applied for iOS devices and widening the scope to comprise things you used to upshot via Workgroup Manager and MCX. This is a boon to administrators, especially if you’re trying to manage iOS devices and you don’t want to write your own setup from scratch, or pay a lot of money to a third party just to manage Apple devices. requisite to remote-wipe an iPad? You can upshot that from Profile Manager. requisite to force intricate passphrases on your iPhones? You can upshot that from Profile Manager. Even the documentation for Profile Manager, once you amass to it, is solid.
Profile Manager is an case of just how well Apple can upshot things, which is maybe why the condition of the rest of Lion Server’s tools and documentation is so frustrating. When you perceive something done right, it lowers your tolerance for inferior quality, especially when it’s within the very package.Be prepared
In Lion Server, Apple has reached farther than it has since version 10.0. With complete the changes, every administrator using a previous version of OS X Server needs to reflect carefully before moving to Lion Server. I’ve migrated a yoke of test servers, and while it wasn’t as smooth as, say, version 10.5 to 10.6, or even from 10.4 to 10.5, it’s not impossible. But you hold to procedure more carefully than you’ve had to procedure for an Apple server version upgrade in the past. I’ve heard the cries for aid from people who decided to upgrade on a whim, and they aren’t pretty.
Lion Server has some major bugs, fancy a problem with authentication against OpenLDAP directories, and a succession of issues with active Directory integration. moving to Lion Server in these environments is not a distinguished understanding birthright now.
There is a lot to fancy about Lion Server, including its price, Profile Manager, and far better shove advocate for things fancy Mail, iCal, and iOS devices. But the proper is continuously overshadowed by the fact that you must bounce between multiple tools and that the documentation is skimpy, if not simply poor. And there’s always bugs that betide with every major release of the OS and the server versions.
In time, Lion Server will exist solid. However, as reviewed (version 10.7.1), Lion Server needs a lot of work, and I would reflect very, very carefully before upgrading.Macworld’s buying advice
Unlike previous versions of Mac OS X Server, Lion Server is not a simple upgrade. Regardless of the expense of this server package, the massive changes at every even of Lion Server—including the removal of some features customers depend on—make this upgrade one you’ll want to reflect arduous about, regardless of price. The documentation and fit-and-finish issues will likewise aid sway your decision on whether to upgrade or not.To comment on this article and other Macworld content, visit their Facebook page or their Twitter feed.
In October of 2010, Apple held a media briefing at its Cupertino campus. It called the event Back to the Mac, and one of the key pieces of tidings was the first public showing of OS X 10.7 Lion, an upgrade to its Mac operating system. Lion was the first version of OS X to reflect the influence of iOS, the software on the iPhone and iPad: It brought a bunch of iOS features “back to the Mac,” including an App Store, a full-screen mode, and FaceTime video chat.
It was a gargantuan idea. Too big, it turns out, to fitting into one upgrade.
Today, Apple is unveiling OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, its first major update to the Mac’s software since Lion. As its denomination suggests, it feels fancy a continuation of Lion–one that borrows even more features from iOS. It likewise ties Apple’s two operating systems more tightly together through iCloud, Apple’s service for storing documents and other data on the Net. The overall emphasis on iOS influence and iCloud integration is so overwhelming that Apple could hold called this upgrade “Lion fraction II” or “Lion iCloud Edition.”
As habitual with new operating systems, Mountain Lion is getting its first wave of publicity long before it’s ready for consumers to buy. Apple is spilling the beans now because it’s releasing a preview version for developers today. It says it plans to finish the software by the summer, which would let it release the update–via its Mac App Store–roughly a year after Lion shipped in July 2011. That’s a rapid turn-around time by operating-system standards: Lion appeared 23 months after its predecessor, Snow Leopard.
Apple recently briefed me on the new features and loaned me a MacBook Air loaded with a beta version of Mountain Lion. I’ve been test-driving for the past week. It’s a tad glitchy and is missing some features, so it’s too early to render a crucial verdict. But it works well enough that I’m looking forward to getting my hands on the fully-baked version later this year.
The first gargantuan thing you’ll notice about Mountain Lion is–well, it’s the fact that you probably won’t instantly notice anything big. Despite the profusion of new features borrowed from iOS, Apple has left the venerable basics of OS X’s user interface pretty much alone, including the desktop, the Dock and windows. (It’s a strikingly different approach from Microsoft’s upcoming Windows 8, which demotes the classic Windows inspect and feel in favor of a radical new one based on Windows Phone 7’s Metro interface.)
Dig into Apple’s upgrade, however, and you’ll ascertain new signs of iOS’s influence lurking everywhere.
None of them are more obvious than Notification Center, a consistent, centralized mechanism for calling your attention to things going on in applications other than the one you’re using. A notification can pop up momentarily in the upper right-hand corner of the screen to remind you about a meeting scheduled in your calendar, for instance, or to alert you to an incoming e-mail or instant message. Swipe with two fingers along the touchpad’s birthright edge, and you can summon a scrolling list of complete the notifications that hold been displayed recently. Except for the fact that everything sits on the birthright hand of the parade rather than the top, it’s complete very much fancy the notification system that Apple introduced in iOS5. And it should exist particularly useful when you’re working in a program’s full-screen mode and don’t want to leave it in order to advocate tabs on other apps.
Now, centralized notifications in OS X aren’t a wholly new idea: Many third-party OS X apps already employ an excellent open-source system called Growl. Apple’s capture on the concept is slicker than Growl, though, and if it ends up being supported by more programs, it’ll exist an even bigger boon.
From the second that Apple announced the first iPhone in 2007, I assumed that it would eventually bring iChat, the Mac’s instant-messaging software, to the iPhone. It silent hasn’t. But with Mountain Lion it achieves a similar upshot by replacing iChat with Messages, the iPhone/iPad messaging app that debuted in iOS 5. And you don’t requisite to wait for Mountain Lion’s common availability to try it out: Apple has already released a public beta for Lion.
Like iChat, OS X’s Messages works on the AIM, Yahoo, and Google Talk networks, so you can dispatch messages to pals the very route you always did. But if your friends hold a Mac, an iPhone or an iPad, you can dispatch them iMessages–Apple’s free, industrial-strength text messages which advocate group messaging, photos and videos.
iMessages don’t involve traditional buddy lists: You just open typing the recipient’s name, and Messages finds it among your OS X contacts. If the person you’re messaging has a Mac, an iPhone and an iPad, the iMessage will point to up on complete of them. You or your friend can even open a conversation via Messages on one device, then switch to a different one in mid-discussion.
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A version of this post originally appeared on Tedium, a twice-weekly newsletter that hunts for the quit of the long tail.
Recently I was looking around at the situation of modern image editors and discovered something really disappointing.
The issue? Well, even with the mount of modern Photoshop alternatives such as Affinity Photo and Pixelmator, these image editors are not designed to handle animated GIFs. Which means that, despite the fact that I’d certainly devotion to perceive what life is fancy outside of the world of Adobe, it looks fancy I’m stuck in that ecosystem for a miniature while longer.
Don’t amass me wrong: Adobe’s software is great, if a bit expensive. But I upshot reflect that its commerce model highlights just how consolidated its power actually is—and it’s not talked about nearly enough in the creative space.
Let’s argue how Adobe’s became the seat of the creative ecosystem, and why that should exist of concern.Why Adobe is too powerful and needs some competition, stat
Days before I started writing this, Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), who is running for president, made the case for breaking up the tech giants. She meant Google, Amazon, and Facebook in particular.
But honestly, if we’re going to exist talking about tech monopolies, I wish that Adobe was on her list.
Adobe isn’t a sociable network, search engine, or e-commerce giant—it’s largely a provider of services to the creative field, particularly in marketing and editorial realms. And Adobe has become an well-known fraction of that ecosystem, having originated many of the best ideas for creative software over the past 35-plus years. PostScript, a fundamental programming language used in desktop publishing, is an Adobe product through and through. The PDF, an open criterion spearheaded by Adobe and based on PostScript, is literally the most well-known file format ever created. And tools fancy Photoshop, Illustrator, Premiere, and InDesign are best in breed and are involved in the creation of much of their printed and digital media. They aid amass the world ready for its closeup.
But there’s a problem, and it’s long been lingering in the background: Adobe is too powerful and can ignore things it doesn’t want to do—whether in the contour of cutting prices or ignoring usability concerns—in fraction because it carries itself fancy it’s the only game in town.
Here’s a case in point that matters a lot to me, actually: Apple has supported a autochthonous fullscreen mode in Mac OS since 10.7, better known as Lion. It’s a fundamental feature, and helps advocate windows well-sorted on laptops in particular. It works pretty well in every major Mac application—except Adobe’s.
Adobe, out of interest in consistency in its own apps over the broader user experience, has largely refused to advocate this basic feature released route back in 2011, choosing instead to depend on a nonstandard full-screen mode that doesn’t work with Apple’s windowing system and lays itself on top of complete your other apps. This makes it a ache to employ on laptops in particular—a problem considering much of Apple’s user foundation is on a laptop.
(The only exception to this is the photo editing app Lightroom, which added advocate a few years ago; however, despite a lengthy thread making the case for it on its forums, the company has effectively decided to advocate its own MacOS interfaces consistent with other platforms, rather than supporting Apple’s own autochthonous features. An official explanation dating to 2012 has cited weaknesses in Apple’s own fullscreen mode implementation that hold long since been addressed.)
Worse, if you drag a picture from a web browser into Photoshop, the window moves and doesn’t stay in the middle of the screen, creating a constant frustration that could exist remedied if, again, Adobe bothered to advocate the autochthonous fullscreen mode that has near in Mac OS for the past seven and a half years. I would literally chew off my own arm to amass Adobe to advocate this feature, even though it would create it impossible for me to properly employ its software in the route I’ve been accustomed.
(In its defense, the open-source Photoshop alternative GIMP doesn’t advocate it, either, but at least it's talking about fixing it—and it has the excuse of being a ported-over X11 app!)
This isn’t the only case of this foot-dragging. In 2005, Apple announced it was moving to Intel processors the next year, and Adobe was quoted in a tidings release proverb it would advocate the new Intel processors on MacOS. However, when the first machines came out in 2006, Adobe didn’t adjust its release schedule to add “universal binary” advocate to existing versions of its Creative Suite software, instead making Mac users wait almost an entire year for the most celebrated application suite to natively advocate the latest Apple hardware.
The irony was that one of its flagship applications, Adobe InDesign, eventually leapfrogged over the desktop publishing competition, the still-made page layout instrument QuarkXPress, in fraction because it quickly released a Mac OS X version when its maker, Quark, was taking its sweet time to upgrade its software to the modern platform.
When the Intel shift happened on Mac OS, Quark scholarly its lesson and released an update route quicker than Adobe did—but the market inertia that allowed Adobe to amass a leg up had already shifted away from Quark by this point.
Cracks in Adobe’s model hold only emerged in the past few years, with tools fancy the UI-focused Sketch (as well as the aforementioned Affinity Photo and Pixelmator) gaining popularity. But it remains powerful because of reasons similar to Microsoft’s ownership of the office suite market. If you convince enough offices, enough schools, and enough individual users that a unavoidable instrument is the best one—and, importantly, you create it arduous to discontinue using that tool—the maker of that instrument has the capacity to essentially upshot what it wants.
I don’t reflect Adobe is untouchable, but I upshot reflect that its taken odds of its market position in a route that harms the long-term health of the creative community. It has traditionally charged hundreds of dollars for its software suites (creating a barrier for people just getting into the sphere and encouraging piracy of its tools), then changed to a cloud-based model that was likewise quite expensive, and then started raising prices.
What really worries me about Adobe is its capacity to assassinate a instrument that people fancy simply because it wants to. Which brings me to the Story of FreeHand—an Illustrator-like vector drawing tool, celebrated in the early years of MacOS, whose existence proved controversial during not one, but two Adobe mergers, and helps elucidate how Adobe became dominant.How FreeHand exemplifies the cutthroat nature of the desktop publishing industry
The Apple Macintosh computer was a groundbreaking instrument for the publishing industry, one that lowered the barriers to entry for lifelike designers and printers while raising the common character of work. A gargantuan fraction of that had much to upshot with the character of the software tools that came to maturity in 1980s and helped to bring the creative sphere to life.
Adobe was directly liable for some of these tools—it first released the vector graphics program Illustrator, based on Adobe’s existing PostScript file format, in 1987, and bought the rights to the raster-graphics program Photoshop from brothers Thomas and John Knoll in 1988—but not complete of them. There were lots of competitors in the space and it was not immediately limpid which ones would win out in the long run.
One of those competitors was FreeHand, first developed in 1988 by the company Altsys. For much of its early history, the software was marketed by the company Aldus for the Apple Macintosh market, though Altsys created a part version for NeXT computers called Virtuoso. Beyond selling FreeHand, Aldus famously created PageMaker, a layout instrument that helped to create the desktop publishing industry.
While Adobe Illustrator immediately showed itself as a formidable player on the market, it was by no means the only one. Both FreeHand and CorelDraw—the latter of which came out in 1989—kept Adobe on its toes.
A 1990 product comparison in InfoWorld highlighted how cutthroat the competition between FreeHand and Illustrator had become—the two applications received equal reviews, but FreeHand was clearly given the upper hand from a pure usability standpoint.
“Although Illustrator had a head start in the marketplace, FreeHand is making a staid hurry at Illustrator by offering more features and flexibility,” the magazine stated.
Both tools, of course, had their partisans who preferred one program’s capture on bezier curves over the other. But with desktop publishing becoming an increasingly competitive space—QuarkXPress emerged as a stalwart competitor to PageMaker during the early 1990s—it was only a matter of time before things got messy.
That mess surfaced in April of 1994, when Adobe agreed to merge with Aldus in a deal initially pinned at $525 million when it was first announced, according to The Seattle Times. The Times described the merger as one that was simply the best jog for both companies—one of which built most of the standards for printing documents using a computer, and the other which had developed a key piece of software that made those standards functional.
“We believe their two companies, each with a moneyed history of inventing different aspects of the electronic publishing revolution, are simply much stronger together—both technologically and financially—than they would exist by remaining separate,” Adobe Chairman John Warnock said at the time.
There were just two problems with this situation, both of which related to FreeHand: One, Aldus didn’t develop FreeHand, so there was a entire other company to consider, and that company wasn’t happy; and two, putting FreeHand and Illustrator into the arms of the very company screamed anticompetitive behavior. That’s how the Federal Trade Commission saw it, anyway.
Altsys sued Aldus, which led the FTC to capture notice of the merger and nearly ended the entire thing. Fortunately for the sake of the merger, cooler heads prevailed: Aldus agreed in a settlement to give Altsys the rights to FreeHand, which allowed the deal to proceed through.
Soon after, Macromedia, the solid behind Director, an interactive authoring instrument then celebrated with CD-ROM based multimedia software, quickly snapped up Altsys and made Freehand (with a lowercase H) a key fraction of its software offering. It was a faultless merger of company and tool—as proven by Macromedia’s eventual creation of some of the internet’s earliest pieces of professional software, Dreamweaver and Flash.
Adobe owned the print side of things, especially after PageMaker was retired and InDesign started to devour Quark’s lunch. Macromedia was an internet-friendly force. Of course they were going to merge.
And merge they did when, in 2005, Adobe bought the company out for $3.4 billion in stock.
Which meant that FreeHand, once again, was caught in the middle of a gargantuan corporate merger with Adobe. A lot had changed in the prior decade, however: While FreeHand was silent an excellent tool, vector drawing tools weren’t quite as well-known in the scope of the merger as the technologies that had gained momentum in the decade prior. The two most well-known non-HTML distribution tools on the internet at the time were Macromedia’s twinkle and the Adobe-borne PDF.
The merger led to the killing off of a number of celebrated tools made by each company—Adobe’s GoLive, which was less prominent than Macromedia’s Dreamweaver, was shown the door; so too, was Adobe’s ImageReady, a Photoshop companion program that couldn’t compete with Macromedia’s Fireworks.
But FreeHand was different—it had a history and a fanbase that hadn’t been worn down by Creative Suite. silent though, commerce decisions needed to exist made, and FreeHand—a program once considered so well-known to the industry that the FTC got involved—was voted off the island.
The fanbase, to reserve it lightly, was not happy. And they did something pretty brash in response.“Our wish is a simple one: For those who silent employ FreeHand today (and don’t want to employ Illustrator, viable reasons for which are myriad) the application must exist brought up to date and maintained, i.e. known bugs fixed and made to work natively on current operating systems. They don’t believe this is asking too much.”
— A press release for a group called Free FreeHand , which aimed to create the case to advocate FreeHand, silent a celebrated instrument among some circles of designers, alive. The initiative was led by Thü Hürlimann, a former expertise director for the Swiss versions of MacWorld and ComputerWorld, as well as designer Jabez Palmer. These were two people who had been using Mac-based design tools for nearly a quarter century by the time Free FreeHand came about—and they organize thousands of supporters for their cause in a short period of time. Which is something you requisite if you want to file a class-action lawsuit.The FreeHand fans that literally sued Adobe for killing FreeHand … and gave Adobe a scare
In an era before Change.org became the celebrated route to protest, Free FreeHand stood out because of its sheer passion.
The desktop publishing industry that Adobe and Macromedia and Aldus had fostered was rising up and defending their birthright to employ the instrument they wanted. Their search information from was simple: advocate FreeHand alive, and ensure it remained updated for the latest versions of Mac OS X and Windows. And if Adobe didn’t want to upshot it, free the code to the masses. Nothing against Illustrator, but FreeHand was their instrument of choice—and they weren’t giving up without a fight.
“We want FreeHand to hold a future,” the press release stated.
What’s fascinating about this pains is that, rather than simply launching an online petition as they did in 2009, the designers eventually went for legal relief, filing a class-action suit against Adobe in 2011, in response to the publisher’s jog to shut down the progress of FreeHand.
The FreeHand fans argued passionately that Adobe’s decision to shut down FreeHand progress represented anticompetitive and monopolistic behavior under federal law, and that the merger violated a California law that prohibited such activity. It likewise wanted the source code to exist released to the public so that FreeHand could exist developed as an open-source program.
Not everyone understood exactly why FreeHand fans were willing to proceed to complete this trouble, especially in 2011, when FreeHand had been off the market for nearly half a decade. (“For the life of me, I don’t understand why folks devotion FreeHand so much,” my friend Charles Apple, a design consultant in the newspaper industry and an Illustrator fan, wrote of the lawsuit in 2011.) But to their credit, their case got a lot further than one might hold assumed.
The suit didn’t entirely proceed the plaintiffs’ way, admittedly—the California law violation was thrown out, and the pitch to open-source the code was cast aside. Nonetheless, US District judge Lucy Koh genuinely did raise the specter of Adobe breaking federal antitrust law with the Macromedia merger—as Koh did initially find that there appeared to exist evidence that Adobe had violated Section 2 of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, which makes it a felony to conspire to consume a market. From a 2012 decision in Free FreeHand Corp. v. Adobe Sys. Inc.:
In summary, Plaintiffs hold plausibly alleged that Adobe willfully acquired monopoly power and maintained that power through anticompetitive conduct. If, as alleged, Adobe ceased the progress of FreeHand while steering existing FreeHand users to a bundled product, thereby further raising already high barriers to entry, it is plausible to infer that this conduct tended “to impair the opportunities of rivals” and “did not further competition on the merits.”
This, wrote Koh, gave the plaintiffs enough to proceed on to continue discovery.
“Reading the alleged facts in the light most benign to Plaintiffs, it is reasonable to infer that Adobe’s discontinuation of FreeHand, in aggregate with Adobe’s other conduct, reduced competition,” Koh stated in the decision. “Accordingly, Plaintiffs can attempt to adduce evidence in discovery to advocate this allegation.”
Koh, it should exist noted, tends to amass a lot of tech-related cases, due to her position as a federal judge in Northern California—among the cases she heard around this time involved Apple’s suit against Samsung.
This ruling clearly got in a few tidy cuts against a sitting giant in a decision made by a judge who knows Silicon Valley fancy the back of her hand. So where did the case proceed after that? Simply put, Adobe reduce a deal with Free FreeHand in 2012, reportedly in the contour of discounts for Adobe products and a plight by Adobe to regard adding FreeHand-y features to Illustrator, and the legal pains turned into a forum.
“While no stone was left unturned in the pains to bring FreeHand back into progress and revert it to market viability, in the quit this proved to exist an impossible goal,” the current site, FreeHand Forum, states.
FreeHand diehards are silent out there. Some of that fervor has led to the creation of alternate tools, such as Gravit Designer, which was later acquired by Corel. The users created a specific file loader for the virtualization software Parallels that allows FreeHand fans to hold a copy of this program on their modern machine. And Thü Hürlimann even went to the wretchedness of edifice a Hackintosh that runs the 12-year-old Mac OS X variant Snow Leopard, just so he could always hurry the final version of FreeHand on modern hardware.
In the end, though, Free FreeHand’s efforts weren’t successful. But one has to marvel what might hold happened if it was. Would Adobe hold changed its tune or faced more regulatory scrutiny?
Would they even hold the expensive ball of yarn that is Creative Cloud?
I fancy Adobe and most of its products. I employ many of them daily, and devotion using them, often together. (I admit I’m more an Illustrator guy, though my favorite Adobe instrument to this day is InDesign.)
But I likewise realize that Adobe has power thanks to its consolidation of tools that makes it problematic for the future of creative design. The suite gives it complete of its power—and that power gives it too much influence over how they work.
Last year, the creative giant bought two fairly large firms. First, it spent $1.68 billion on Magento, a solid that sells e-commerce software, and then, final fall, it bought Marketo, a solid that sells marketing software, for $4.75 billion. These tools, together, limn two of the four largest acquisitions in Adobe’s history, with Marketo actually worth more than Macromedia, a buyout that fundamentally changed the company.
Adobe is increasingly not only trying to hurry the software that can create your flyer or logo or commercial, but it’s trying to own the entire marketing process, too, soup to nuts. Some companies might devotion that sort of integration, and it’s a gargantuan understanding why Adobe is making complete these aggressive acquisitions. But a solitary company with that much power over a solitary sphere is worrying.
I really fancy Adobe as a company, but I reflect its suite has become so costly and unavoidable for the medium creative consumer that it needs to exist a miniature bit smaller, so as to allow smaller players to compete without emotion fancy they hold to proceed up against an impossible behemoth to even create a dent. Maybe Adobe fans won’t fancy to hear this, but I swear my case here is for the creative community’s best interests.
Make Adobe smaller. create it viable to live without it as a creative. create it wee enough that it can’t crush an app fancy FreeHand ever again.
And create it wee enough so that when users repeatedly search information from it to advocate the autochthonous fullscreen feature in Mac OS, it actually listens, because it’s driving me goddamn crazy that it hasn’t added it yet after almost eight years.
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Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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