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9L0-063 Mac OS X Troubleshooting 10.7

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9L0-063 exam Dumps Source : Mac OS X Troubleshooting 10.7

Test Code : 9L0-063
Test appellation : Mac OS X Troubleshooting 10.7
Vendor appellation : Apple
: 65 actual Questions

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Apple Mac OS X Troubleshooting

Is Apple FaceTime down? a way to fix FaceTime issues | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

questioning if FaceTime is offline? Are you experiencing complications with FaceTime no longer working?  if you are wondering why FaceTime isn't working in your iPhone, Mac or iPad breathe sure to locate the reply in this article.

discover why FaceTime is never working and how to repair it. This duty looks at what to accomplish if FaceTime is rarely working. They clarify how to determine even if the vicissitude is at Apple's conclusion, checking out even if FaceTime is down, and what to accomplish if Apple’s FaceTime isn’t working for one more reason. These FaceTime fixes will champion you troubleshoot Apple’s video phone appellation app.

Apple has taken neighborhood FaceTime offline whereas it addresses a controversy that made it workable for a person to pay attention and notice you by means of FaceTime with out you even answering the call! The flaw turned into found out on Monday 28 January 2019 and Apple is trying to fix the safety hole.

FaceTime Group Call FaceTime Group Call

related: how to obtain free cellphone calls on iPhone and iPad and The most confiscate apps for making free mobile calls.

With FaceTime you could obtain free video or audio calls to any person who owns an iPhone, iPad or Mac. that you would breathe able to talk to each other for free over your WiFi information superhighway connection (that you may besides disburse a cellular connection however as a result of this may consume into your free statistics allowance their tips is to expose that off in Settings > cellular information in case you shouldn't fill a huge facts allowace). In 2018 Apple delivered group FaceTime characteristic so for you to add distinctive individuals to a call. which you could study more about that here: a way to disburse group FaceTime.

Is FaceTime down?

If Apple's FaceTime server is down there is not a total lot that you can accomplish about it, but you will at least know that FaceTime is down and it's now not you who has damaged it. privilege here, they expose you a way to investigate no matter if FaceTime is having server issues.

Apple has its own device status webpage here. The Apple system status web page may noiseless provide you with up to date information in regards to the status of FaceTime along with different Apple services akin to iMessage, the App save, and Apple track. commonly a brace of of these goes down on the equal time.

Is FaceTime down

Is FaceTime down

The device status webpage additionally offers you a heads up if any features fill deliberate maintenance travail - so you could want to examine it earlier than you sort a crucial video call with a client or grandparent. Apple additionally uses the webpage to report again on any recently resolved considerations to its functions.

in case you obtain this website your first port of appellation when you fill a controversy with FaceTime (or any of Apple's services) that you would breathe able to at least rule out it being an issue together with your machine or connection to the web. If it seems that the problem is at your conclusion they now fill fixes for that beneath.

besides the fact that children, earlier than you genesis troubleshooting, you deserve to obtain absolutely sure that it's not the case that FaceTime is never working because of a localised situation that is never showing up on Apple's web page. Apple’s system status site may additionally not prefer up an issue handiest affecting a petite variety of clients, or it could breathe that the website simplest checks the service fame every 5/10/30 minutes and is yet to breathe up-to-date.

fortuitously, there are some third-birthday celebration service fame web sites that counting on crowdsourced data to present the newest repute assistance. They watch to look on Down Detector, so they can report on the popularity of Apple functions as well as different features comparable to Steam.

Down Detector offers a graph of the previous 24 hours, and a map so you can notice no matter if you’re in an affected area.

There’s additionally a free Down Detector iOS app.

Why is FaceTime no longer working?

If there isn't an issue with FaceTime that has caused Apple to discontinue it from working, and there is rarely an issue with the FaceTime servers, there are loads of other reasons why you might stumble upon problems. they will fun during the exams obtain sure you obtain under.

if your issues relate particularly to neighborhood FaceTime, read about that here: reasons why FaceTime community Video call isn't Working.

1. determine your Wi-Fi and mobile connection

the primary port of appellation if FaceTime isn’t working verify the web connection on extreme your instruments. (you are going to probably find that your cyber web is down earlier than you try to determine if Apple's FaceTime server is down).

youngsters, your cyber web can breathe working ok, however there can breathe a controversy with the way your machine is set up which is stopping it from connecting.

faucet Settings > Wi-Fi on an iOS device and equipment Preferences > community on Mac OS X and assess that the settings correspond to those in your local router.

Most UK cell phone networks additionally allow FaceTime over cellular, so examine Settings > cellular statistics on both the iPad and iPhone in case you wanted to disburse your data connection to obtain a name.

2. update your software

The next step is to obtain inescapable that the utility on your total iOS and Mac OS X contraptions are updated.

it is viable that Apple has modified a requirement of the application so that it is crucial to supplant your gadget to obtain disburse of the service. check your version of iOS is the latest one with the aid of going to Settings > well-liked > application update.

Some instances or not it's an issue with Apple's utility that reasons the issue but normally the company will supplant the software at once to lucid up it. for instance, back in April 2014 there was an dispute with FaceTime contraptions making or receiving calls as a result of expired device certificates. An Apple supplant mounted this.

three. investigate that FaceTime is switched on

Turn FaceTime on to fix non working FaceTime

Turn FaceTime on to fix non working FaceTime

examine that you fill FaceTime switched on. for your iOS gadget, faucet on Settings > FaceTime and set the FaceTime swap to On.

On Mac OS X, launch the FaceTime app and click on FaceTime > flip FaceTime On.

4. verify you are signed in to FaceTime with the amend Apple id

assess that you are signed in to extreme of your FaceTime money owed the usage of the equal Apple identity. within iOS tap on Settings > FaceTime and investigate the Apple identity. In Mac OS X faucet on FaceTime > Preferences and assess the Apple id.

If any of the instruments don’t suit. tap on signal Out and enter the equal Apple id and Password as your other gadgets (then faucet check in).

5. Is FaceTime stuck on 'anticipating Activation'

in the event you check in to FaceTime, it's going to declare expecting Activation. If any of your contraptions cling on the anticipating Activation flip off FaceTime and returned on again. privilege here is the way to flip FaceTime on and off on an iOS and Mac OS X equipment:

how to reset FaceTime on an iOS gadget: tap on Settings > FaceTime and set FaceTime to Off. Then whirl FaceTime back to On.

the way to reset FaceTime on a Mac: Open the FaceTime app and choose FaceTime > Preferences. Now set FaceTime to Off after which again to On.

6. assess the time and date

Facetime Fix check date and time

Facetime Fix check date and time

investigate that the time and date are set as it should breathe on the entire devices. Open system Preferences on a Mac, and click on Date & Time. investigate the container subsequent to Set date and time immediately and choose the Apple Europe server from the drop-down menu.

on your iOS gadget faucet Settings > commonplace > Date & Time and assess that the Set immediately option is set to On (and that point Zone is set to your current location).

7. determine your cell quantity is suitable

faucet on Settings > FaceTime on your iOS devices and determine that your suitable telephone number and Apple identification is listed below “You can breathe reached by means of FaceTime at”. If not tap on Add yet another e mail.

if you are not receiving a FaceTime call you are expecting verify that the person making an attempt to obtain the appellation has the amend contact particulars for you.

FaceTime-800

FaceTime-800 eight. examine your Blocked list

Double verify that you simply haven’t by haphazard added the person attempting to call you to a Blocked listing. On an iOS device tap on Settings > FaceTime > Blocked and determine that they are not listed here.

in the event that they are faucet on Edit, then faucet the crimson remove icon next to their appellation and Unblock.

9. breathe sure the FaceTime app is accessible

In some international locations, FaceTime isn't installed by way of default. Apple suggests you verify your device’s region of buy. note: they don’t breathe vigilant of if reinstalling iOS can travail round this block. If any readers with an iPhone in this region has greater suggestions, delight let us (and different readers) comprehend within the comments.

FaceTime is prohibited in inescapable countries, such because the UAE.

10. Restart extreme of your contraptions

eventually, restart your entire contraptions. grasp down the Sleep/Wake button on an iOS machine and disburse the skid To energy Off surroundings, then faucet the Sleep/Wake button once more to whirl on the iOS machine. click on observe > Restart on a Mac OS X equipment.

If it breathe nevertheless not working it can breathe time to obtain an appointment to head to peer an Apple Genius at the Apple keep, examine a way to try this here: how to e-book an Apple appointment: install a hunt recommendation from to the Genius Bar within the Apple keep


how to Troubleshoot the four Most usual "Oh Sh*t" Mac problems | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

like every laptop, a Mac is supine to earnest issues over the direction of its existence. a wide variety of issues can recede horribly, horribly incorrect. From an entire failure to start to that terrifying kernel panic monitor, here's a way to troubleshoot (and optimistically repair) what's plaguing your Mac.

For probably the most part, the complications you sprint into on a Mac are pretty usual across extreme types of OS X, but they will hold on with probably the most up to date operating methods here: Lion and Mountain Lion (every one of these counsel may noiseless besides travail with Snow Leopard though). if you are noiseless covered via Apple's warranty or AppleCare, the easiest solution is to stroll into the Apple shop and fill them fix every slight thing at no cost. if you accomplish not want to dissipate time otherwise you're now not lined anymore, that you may accomplish a lot of the troubleshooting yourself.

The issue: Blue or gray display on Startup

if you whirl for your desktop and Get a grey or blue monitor (or it receives caught on the Apple logo) that under no circumstances masses OS X, it breathe an exquisite first rate judgement for problem. this can whirl up for a number of reasons, so it's one of the vital frustrating issues that may whirl up to a Mac, and troubleshooting it is no effortless project. So, let's spoil it down into a few steps you could trap to design out what's happening.

the 1st step: Disconnect extreme Peripherals

one of the crucial leading motives of a grey or blue screen on startup is incompatible hardware related to the computer. This should breathe would becould very well breathe a printer, an exterior complicated pressure, or even a USB hub. So, disconnect everything apart from the mouse and keyboard, and restart your computer.

in case your Mac starts this fashion, then it breathe an dispute with a kind of peripherals. You should trial-and-error your approach through to design out which one, so connect them returned into your desktop one by one, and restart. If one of them factors your desktop to cling on the grey display once more, you've discovered your difficulty.

in case you travail out the tricky peripheral, it breathe time to accomplish some research. Head to the manufacturer's web website and notice if others are reporting the same difficulty. You might breathe capable of repair it with a application supplant or a firmware supplant to the gadget.

If no instruments are inflicting issues, and your Mac noiseless may not boot, then or not it's time to dig a bit deeper.

Step Two: operate a secure Boot

secure boot makes your Mac boot up with the minimum volume of drivers vital to obtain it work, and it tests your complicated disk within the technique (it could trap a bit longer besides up). accomplish do that, delivery up your computer whereas conserving down the Shift key except the Apple brand passes. if your Mac starts up with the safe boot, recede ahead and restart the desktop once again and notice if it boots up perpetually (as peculiar as it sounds this fixes the issue a incredible amount of the time). If now not, it breathe time to supply the tough coerce a better appear.

Step Three: sprint Disk Utility

in case you nonetheless can't boot up OS X always, or not it's time to sprint Disk Utility and check out your tough drive:

  • Boot up your desktop whereas protecting down Command+R (when you are operating Snow Leopard or previous, locate your OS installing disc, achieve it in the power, and reboot your computing device protecting down C). this could boot you into a diagnostic mode.
  • choose the Disk Utility choice.
  • select your tough pressure, and click "assess." gawk forward to Disk Utility to conclude running.
  • If complications pop up, click on "restore Disk."
  • If nothing pops up, click "fix Permissions" and wait for Disk Utility to scan your complicated drive again.
  • If Disk Utility finds and repairs some complications, recede forward and reboot.
  • In loads of situations, operating Disk Utility will trap complications with startup considerations. once in a while a unique file with the inaccurate permissions may judgement the entire equipment to collapse, or if whatever thing's now not in the amend Place it won't boot. If this does not work, you fill a lot more complications to gawk into.

    extra resources

    If the above solutions accomplish not work, it's time to dig plenty deeper into your device. Your issue might latitude from a nasty challenging power to a misguided estimable judgment board. here are just a few extra steps that should noiseless aid you unique out the difficulty:

    The issue: Persistent seashore Ball

    Ah yes, the spinning seaside ball that refuses to head away. every now and then or not it's a small, application-particular issue it's handy to lucid up, but other times or not it's fragment of a much bigger mess. if your Mac is tossing up the spinning seaside ball at extreme times, it's time to design out the exact trigger.

    step one: verify undertaking video display

    Your Mac will constantly Get a spinning seashore ball when it breathe by some means overloaded. more frequently than now not, this simply lasts a number of seconds and goes away, through which case that you may ignore it. If it doesn't, the most fulfilling strategy to design out what's going on is to launch recreation monitor and pinpoint which program is causing the problem.

  • in case you need to, coerce discontinue any classes which are probably causing the beach ball (Command+option+Esc).
  • Launch endeavor video display (applications > Utilities).
  • Now recede about your daily usage. If the seaside ball comes up, change over to activity video display and spot which app is taking up the biggest CPU load (commonly this may spike at 100%).
  • If it's an impressive piece of utility like Photoshop that is inflicting issues, then or not it's a distinguished probability you want extra RAM in your laptop. RAM can champion with multi-tasking concerns, and if the seashore ball comes up in case you're working just a few programs without retard further RAM will assist (here's very effortless to installation your self). If not, and it's anything lightweight like a file syncing carrier like Dropbox or an rapid messenger client like Adium, then it breathe doubtless a problem with the application itself. are trying quitting the app and seeing if the problem persists. If the seashore ball doesn't return, then you definately fill your issue. verify the developer's internet web site to gawk if they've issued an update, sprint utility supplant (Apple logo > software replace), or Get involved with the developer if no supplant is accessible.

    another viable problem is that your complicated disk is getting proximate to full.

    Step Two: Reclaim tough pressure house

    When your challenging disk is replete it can judgement spinning seashore ball problems. For lots of us, this just capability cleansing up two folders: your trash and your downloads folder:

  • correct-click on the trash can icon and choose "Empty Trash." when you've got a lot of stuff in there otherwise you fill not achieved this these days you may Get adequate house to retailer your file.
  • Now head to your downloads folder (users > Your identify > Downloads). lag through and delete any info you not need.
  • In a lot of cases, doing the above two steps can unencumber sufficient house to proceed working. That stated, you might nevertheless deserve to free up even more space. To obtain this manner easy, they like Disk inventory X. With Disk inventory X, that you may dissect your difficult coerce and locate the biggest house hogs at once so that you can delete them and lag on. It takes a slight time, but if you ensue their e bespeak you are going to fill your complicated drive cleared out in no time. Of course, it could besides breathe time to just improve the measurement of your challenging power.

    further supplies

    a number of other oddball issues may judgement the spinning beach ball. If nonexistent of the above work, here are a few extra elements so that you can aid you troubleshoot the difficulty.

    The issue: Kernel Panics

    if you've ever skilled the black and grey kernel panic display above, then you definately understand how horrifying and completely unhelpful it's. When one software has an issue, you Get the spinning beach ball outlined in a feeble section, but when varied programs fail—or the operating equipment itself—you Get a kernel panic. happily, it breathe not (continually) as massive of an issue as it seems.

    step one: Reboot and spot If It happens again

    In most instances, a kernel panic will drive you to reboot you computer. Let this trap place, and if you load privilege back into OS X, proceed working on your laptop as standard. In a lot of instances, the challenge resolves itself and you can movement alongside. If no longer, or if it happens handiest for those who disburse particular classes, it's time to determine what's happening.

    Step Two: update your total application

    operating application supplant can commonly fix kernel panic problems because more commonly than not, or not it's a software subject. click the Apple icon within the top left nook, and select "software replace." Let it search for and installation recent utility to notice if it fixes the problem.

    If for some purpose the kernel panic occurs if you chance to're commencing and you may't load OS X, you then'll should are trying and commence up in safe mode. Reboot the desktop and hang down the Shift key until the Apple brand looks. After a short while, you will load up secure mode, a stripped down version of OS X. here, which you could noiseless sprint software supplant the equal way as you usually would.

    it breathe additionally worth travelling the developer's internet web site to notice if different people are having an issue with a fresh update or release. If it's one selected app that always motives the kernel panic, it breathe premier to not disburse it unless an update is issued.

    Step Three: determine Your Login items

    If no utility needs updating and you may't Get your laptop to genesis with no kernel panic then it might breathe an issue with one of the vital programs you fill got loading up immediately on startup. That skill its time to lucid out your login gadgets. when you are nevertheless in secure mode you can liquidate any apps that genesis automatically:

  • Open up your equipment Preferences (applications > device Preferences).
  • opt for "users and agencies" and choose your consumer id.
  • select the "Login items" tab.
  • choose every of the applications you fill and click the minus signal to liquidate them from the listing.
  • Reboot and spot in case you can start with no kernel panic. if so, a kind of apps is inflicting the issue. are attempting loading up each to gawk which one factors it again.
  • extra components

    If the kernel panics hold going on and no selected app looks to judgement it, you might fill an even bigger difficulty. issues genesis to Get truly complicated when you are getting kernel panics and you may't isolate the vicissitude with any of the above methods, so listed below are a few guides they now fill discovered useful for pinpointing the vicissitude with more advanced measures.

    difficulty: Your divulge isn't Working or Is Distorted

    This one hit me these days on an iMac. Out of nowhere, the screen became a crazed eco-friendly and yellow, and then the computer shut down. After a brace of makes an attempt to reboot (and attempting essentially everything listed above) it eventually refused to whirl on. In my case, my portraits card turned into toast, and i needed to Get it changed, however that's now not at extreme times the difficulty. listed here are a number of issues that you would breathe able to accomplish to troubleshoot and determine exactly why your video card or screen is freaking out.

    the first step: Reset the PRAM/VRAM and SMC

    This doesn't always accomplish that a total lot first rate, nevertheless it's the least difficult component to accomplish and most effective takes a number of seconds. whirl to your Mac and hang down Command+choice+P+R except the desktop reboots. This resets the PRAM / VRAM, which is the Place things like startup disk selection, divulge decision, and speaker volume are kept. from time to time this can amend divulge concerns, and in that case, proceed the disburse of your Mac as you did.

    The other altenative is to reset the SMC (system management Controller). This controls every thing on your computer starting from the dash to the enthusiasts. every Mac has a just a slight distinctive system for doing this, so head to Apple's respectable SMC Reset web page, locate your mannequin, and comply with their guidelines (this constantly includes unplugging the energy cord on a desktop, or getting rid of the battery on a laptop). when you reset the SMC lots of your atmosphere are restored to manufacturing unit defaults and your monitor complications may additionally Get solved.

    Step Two: Boot Into safe Mode

    The subsequent step to travail out what's happening along with your photographs card or display is besides into secure mode to peer if the complications persist. vigour on your Mac and dangle down the Shift key until you Get past the Apple brand. This boots privilege into a stripped down version of OS X.

    here, that you could notice if the screen issues are persisting. This could breathe display system defects, pixelated photographs, or ample black squares far and wide. in the event that they are, it's probably a hardware situation and you should lag on to the subsequent step. If no longer, or not it's seemingly a application difficulty, and you fill got just a few diverse alternate options for troubleshooting:

  • Restart the desktop again in regular boot mode to peer if the vicissitude resolves itself (this does in reality happen).
  • If no longer, recede returned into safe Mode and investigate for application updates (Apple emblem > application Updates). if you Get an update for your graphics card or estimable judgment board, install it.
  • Double-determine your display alternatives via going into equipment Preferences (applications > device Preferences). select "displays" and obtain sure the resolution and refresh expense are appropriate.
  • if you've currently achieve in a utility update that might breathe brought about the concern, it breathe additionally worth checking out Apple's currently released updates and downloading and installing the most recent combo update again. every now and then a simple re-install can repair peculiar issues that could fill cropped up with monitor drivers.
  • If nonexistent of these work, it breathe time to sprint the Apple Hardware test to notice if it's a hardware challenge.

    Step Three: sprint Apple Hardware test

    A lesser commonly used feature of Macs is the Apple Hardware gawk at various. like the appellation suggests, here's a way to check for hardware screw ups in your computing device. or not it's no longer foolproof, nonetheless it could champion you troubleshoot your challenge affecting forward.

  • Reboot your Mac and hold down the "D" key unless the Apple Hardware verify starts (when you are on Snow Leopard or prior you should achieve in the install disc first).
  • select your language, and then opt for the "basic verify" choice. Let it accomplish its element. If an oversight occurs, the Apple Hardware test should noiseless recount you which piece of hardware is failing and you've discovered your difficulty. If now not, select the "perform prolonged testing" choice. This may trap an hour or two to comprehensive.
  • whereas a hardware failure is rarely fun, optimistically the Apple Hardware verify will really exhibit it so you can Get the inaccurate hardware replaced. whether it is a hardware difficulty, you can trap a gawk at iFixit's Mac restore guides to notice if you can fix it yourself.

    further components

    If nonexistent of the above tricks work, which you can try a brace of other things:

    as with any desktop troubleshooting, on occasion you're going to need to lag through every kind of assessments and experiments to determine what the heck is going on. if you are fortunate, the above assistance will Get your Mac in working order very quickly.

    pictures by using Hendrick Dacquin, Jamie McCall, Paul Donway, mroach.


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    Mac OS X Troubleshooting 10.7

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    Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: recent Wi-Fi Diagnostics implement | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

     

    Feature

    Apple has added a recent Wi-Fi Diagnostics utility to monitor the performance of wireless networks, record events, capture raw network frames, and log diagnostic data that can breathe sent to Apple by users for troubleshooting.The recent app is in the hidden /System/Library/CoreServices folder, where Mac OS X stores a variety of utility apps that are integrated into the Mac desktop, including the Dock, Finder, Software Update, and Archive Utility.

    Users can launch the implement by Option clicking on the Wi-Fi Menu Bar icon, which then presents an otherwise hidden "Open Wi-Fi Diagnostics" option (below).

    After opening, the implement presents options to Monitor Performance, Record Events, Capture Raw Frames, or whirl on Debug Logs. A Learn More button outlines what these options accomplish in a drop down sheet (below).

    Monitor Performance works similar to AirPort Utility's Wireless Clients graphing feature, but provides a more detailed presentation of signal and uproar for the client, rather than tracking every active client on a given basis station. It can besides Report the collected data to Apple for disburse in troubleshooting issues.

    Other options log events or capture raw frame data in the background to a temporary .pcap (packet capture) file, which can similarly breathe reported to Apple for troubleshooting help.

    Also noticeably recent and different in Mac OS X Lion is network setup for 802.1x security. Formerly, users could manually enter settings or install a profile the automatically configured the settings. In Lion, Apple informs users that their network administrator will deliver a configuration profile (below).

    Apple created configuration profiles for iOS along with a system site administrators can disburse to roll out initial settings and subsequent updates to their users. In Lion Server, the same infrastructure can breathe used to remotely deliver network configuration files that automate the management of Macs just like iOS devices.


    Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review reader comments 401 with 262 posters participating, including epic author Share this story
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  • Mac OS X 10.7 was first shown to the public in October 2010. The presentation was understated, especially compared to the bold rhetoric that accompanied the launches of the iPhone ("Apple reinvents the phone") and the iPad ("a magical and revolutionary device at an unbelievable price"). Instead, Steve Jobs simply called the recent operating system "a sneak peek at where we're going with Mac OS X."

    Behind Jobs, the screen listed the seven previous major releases of Mac OS X: Cheetah, Puma, Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard, and Snow Leopard. Such brief retrospectives are de rigueur at major Mac OS X announcements, but long-time Apple watchers might fill felt a slight tingle this time. The public "big cat" branding for Mac OS X only began with Jaguar; code names for the two earlier versions were not well known outside the developer community and were certainly not fragment of Apple's official marketing message for those releases. Why bring the cat theme back to the forefront now?

    Want an eBook or PDF copy? champion Ars and it's yours.

    The reply came on the next slide. The next major release of Mac OS X would breathe called Lion. Jobs didn't obtain a ample deal out of it; Lion's just another ample cat name, right? Within seconds, they were on to the next slide, where Jobs was pitching the recent release's message: not "king of the jungle" or "the biggest ample cat," but the "back to the Mac" theme underlying the entire event. Mac OS X had spawned iOS, and now Apple was bringing innovations from its mobile operating system back to Mac OS X.

    Apple had estimable judgement to diffident away from presenting Lion as the pinnacle that its appellation implies. The final two major releases of Mac OS X were both profoundly shaped by the meteoric climb of their younger sibling, iOS.

    Steve Jobs presents the first seven releases of Mac OS X in a slightly unusual formatSteve Jobs presents the first seven releases of Mac OS X in a slightly unusual format

    Leopard arrived later than expected, and in the same year that the iPhone was introduced. Its successor, Snow Leopard, famously arrived with Your browser does not champion the audio element. Click here to listen

    no recent features , concentrating instead on internal enhancements and bug fixes. Despite credible official explanations, it was hard to quake the sentiment that Apple's burgeoning mobile platform was stealing resources—not to mention the spotlight—from the Mac.

    In this context, the appellation Lion starts to trap on darker connotations. At the very least, it seems like the intermission of the ample cat branding—after all, where can you recede after Lion? Is this process of taking the best from iOS and bringing it back to the Mac platform just the first facet of a complete assimilation? Is Lion the intermission of the line for Mac OS X itself?

    Let's achieve aside the pessimistic prognostication for now and deem Lion as a product, not a portent. Apple pegs Lion at 250+ recent features, which doesn't quite match the 300 touted for Leopard, but I guess it extreme depends on what you deem a "feature" (and what that "+" is suppositious to mean). Still, this is the most significant release of Mac OS X in many years—perhaps the most significant release ever. Though the number of recent APIs introduced in Lion may drop short of the landmark Tiger and Leopard releases, the most essential changes in Lion are radical accelerations of past trends. Apple appears tired of dragging people kicking and screaming into the future; with Lion, it has simply decided to leave without us.

    Table of Contents
  • Installation
  • Reconsidering fundamentals
  • Lion's recent look
  • Scroll bars
  • Window resizing
  • Animation
  • Here's to the crazy ones
  • Window management
  • Application management
  • Document model
  • Process model
  • The pitch
  • The reality
  • Internals
  • Security
  • Sandboxing
  • Privilege separation
  • Automatic Reference Counting
  • Enter (and exit) garbage collection
  • Cocoa memory management
  • Enter ARC
  • ARC versus garbage collection
  • ARC versus the world
  • The situation of the file system
  • What's wrong with HFS+
  • File system changes in Lion
  • File system future
  • Document revisions
  • Resolution independence
  • Applications
  • The Finder
  • Mail
  • Safari
  • Grab bag
  • System Preferences
  • Auto-correction
  • Mobile Time Machine
  • Lock screen
  • Emoji
  • Terminal
  • About This Mac
  • Recommendations
  • Conclusion
  • A brief note on branding: on Apple's website and in some—but not all—marketing materials, Apple refers to its recent Mac operating system as "OS X Lion." This may well whirl out to breathe the appellation going forward, but given the current situation of confusion and my own stubborn nostalgia, I'm going to call it "Mac OS X" throughout this review. Indulge me.

    Installation

    Lion's system requirements don't disagree much from Snow Leopard's. You noiseless need an Intel-based Mac, though this time it must besides breathe 64-bit. The final 32-bit Intel Mac was discontinued in August of 2007; Apple chose a similar four-year cut-off for dropping PowerPC support, with minimal customer backlash. Time marches on.

    But sometimes time marches on a bit too fast. Though this is the second version of Mac OS X that doesn't champion PowerPC processors, this is the first version that won't sprint PowerPC applications. In Snow Leopard, the Rosetta translation engine allowed PowerPC applications to run, and sprint well, often faster than they ran on the (admittedly older) PowerPC Macs for which they were developed. Lion no longer includes Rosetta, even as an optional install.

    No one expects eternal champion for PowerPC software, and any developer that doesn't yet fill Intel-native versions of extreme its applications is clearly not particularly dedicated to the Mac platform. Nevertheless, people noiseless depend on some PowerPC applications. For example, I fill an feeble PowerPC version of Photoshop. Though Photoshop has long since gone Intel-native, it's an expensive upgrade for someone like me who uses the program only rarely. The PowerPC version suits my needs just fine, but it won't sprint at extreme in Lion.

    Another common case is Quicken 2007, noiseless the most capable Mac version of Intuit's finance software, and noiseless PowerPC-only. This is clearly Intuit's fault, not Apple's, but from a regular user's perspective, it's hard to understand why Apple would remove an existing, completed feature that helped so many people.

    In reality, every feature has some associated maintenance cost. This is perhaps even more impartial of a binary translation framework that may fill deep hooks into the operating system. I'm willing to give Apple the benefit of the doubt and assume that disentangling PowerPC-related code from the operating system once and for extreme was essential enough to justify the customer inconvenience. But it noiseless stings a little.

    The future shock continues with the purchase and installation process. Lion is the first version of Mac OS X to breathe distributed through Apple's recently introduced Mac App Store. In fact, the Mac App Store is the only Place where you can buy Lion.

    Apple's determination final year to sell its iLife and iWork applications through the Mac App Store was not unexpected, but the presence of Apple's professional photography application, Aperture, caught some people off guard—as did its greatly reduced expense ($80 vs. $200 for the boxed version).

    The developer preview releases of Lion were besides distributed through the Mac App Store. Apple's developer releases fill been distributed digitally for many years now, but the switch from downloading disk images from Apple's developer website to "redeeming" promo codes and downloading recent builds from the Mac App Store raised some eyebrows. When Apple announced that its recent Final crop Pro X professional video editing application would—you guessed it—be distributed through the Mac App Store, and at a greatly reduced price, even the most dense Apple watchers started to Get the hint.

    The Lion installer application iconThe Lion installer application icon

    And so they fill Lion, priced at a mere $29 (the same as its "no recent features" predecessor), available exclusively through the Mac App Store. It's an audacious move, yes, but not unexpected.

    Apple is so done with stamping bits onto plastic discs, putting the discs into cardboard boxes, putting those boxes onto trucks, planes, and boats, and shipping them extreme over the world to retail stores or to mail-order resellers who will eventually achieve those same boxes onto a different set of trucks, trains, and planes for final delivery to customers, who will then remove the disc, pitch away the cardboard, and instruct their computers to extract the bits. No, from here on out, it's digital distribution extreme the way. (This, I suppose, marks the intermission of my longstanding tradition of showing the product boxes or optical discs that Mac OS X ships on. Instead, you can notice the installer application icon on the right.)

    Lion is a great download and speedily network connections are noiseless not ubiquitous. But recent Macs will Come with Lion, so the most apropos question is, how many people who diagram to upgrade an existing Mac to Lion don't fill a speedily network connection? The class of people who perform OS upgrades probably has a higher penetration of high-speed Internet access than the generic population. I besides suspect that Apple retail stores may breathe willing to aid out customers who just can't manage to download a 3.76GB installer in a reasonable amount of time.

    [Update: Macworld reports that there will, in fact, breathe a physical manifestation of Lion. Starting in August, Apple will sell Lion on a USB stick for $69. Apple has besides said that customers are welcome to bring their Macs to Apple retail stores for aid buying and installing Lion.]

    In the meantime, if you're reading this, chances are estimable that you fill a speedily broadband connection; feel free to discontinue reading privilege now, launch the Mac App Store, and start your multi-gigabyte download before continuing. What you'll breathe rewarded with at the intermission is an icon in your Applications folder labeled "Install Mac OS X Lion." (See?)

    Once you fill the installer application, you could (were you so inclined) dig into it (control-click, then expose Package Contents) and find the meaty center, a 3.74GB disk image (InstallESD.dmg, stored in the Contents/SharedSupport folder). You could then disburse that disk image to, say, parch a Lion installation DVD or create an emergency external boot disk.

    I doubt any of these things are officially supported by Apple, but the point is that there's nothing exotic about the Lion installer. like extreme past versions of Mac OS X, Lion has no serial number, no product activation, and no DRM of any kind. In fact, the Mac App Store's licensing policy is even more permissive than past releases of Mac OS X. Here's an excerpt from Lion's license agreement:

    If you obtained a license for the Apple Software from the Mac App Store, then matter to the terms and conditions of this License and as permitted by the Mac App Store Usage Rules set forth in the App Store Terms and Conditions (http://www.apple.com/legal/itunes/ww/) ("Usage Rules"), you are granted a limited, non-transferable, non-exclusive license:

    (i) to download, install, disburse and sprint for personal, non-commercial use, one (1) copy of the Apple Software directly on each Apple-branded computer running Mac OS X Snow Leopard or Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server ("Mac Computer") that you own or control;

    The references to Snow Leopard are a bit confusing, but hold in intellect that you need Snow Leopard to purchase and download Lion for the first time. I suspect the license agreement will breathe updated once Lion has been out for a while.

    There's besides another enchanting clause in the license, from that same section:

    (iii) to install, disburse and sprint up to two (2) additional copies or instances of the Apple Software within virtual operating system environments on each Mac Computer you own or control that is already running the Apple Software.

    Putting it extreme together, Apple says you're allowed to sprint up to three copies of Lion—one real, two inside virtual machines—on every Mac that you own, extreme for the low, low expense of $29. Not a sinful deal.

    The installer itself is departed simple, foreshadowing the pervasive simplification in Apple's recent OS. There are no optional installs and no customization. The only response the user provides is agreeing to the obligatory EULA, and the only configurable install parameter is the target disk.

    Enlarge

    But wait a second—how exactly is this going to work? Surely an entirely recent operating system can't breathe installed on top of the currently running operating system by an application stored on the same volume. Without a plastic disc to boot from, how is it even workable to upgrade a standalone Mac with just one hard drive?

    These questions probably won't occur to an tolerable consumer, which is sort of the point, I guess. sure enough, if you just proximate your eyes, launch the installer application, and click your way through the handful of screens it presents, your Mac will reboot into what looks like the yardstick Mac OS X installer application from years past. When it's done, your Mac will reboot into Lion. Magic!

    Okay, it's not magic, but it is a bit complicated. The first and most lasting astound is that the Lion installer will actually repartition the disk, carving out a 650MB slice of the disk for its own use.

    Don't worry, extreme existing data on the disk will breathe preserved. (Mac OS X has had the skill to add partitions to existing disks without destroying any data for many years now.) extreme that's required is enough free space to reshuffle the data as needed to obtain leeway for the recent partition.

    Here's an case from my testing. I started with a unique 250GB hard drive split into two equal partitions: the first named "Lion Ex," currently running Snow Leopard, and the intended target of the Lion install, and the second named "Timex," the Time Machine backup volume for Lion Ex. The output from the diskutil list command appears below.

    /dev/disk1 #: type appellation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *250.1 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_HFS Lion Ex 125.0 GB disk1s2 3: Apple_HFS Timex 124.6 GB disk1s3

    Now here's that same disk after installing Lion, with the recent partition highlighted:

    /dev/disk1 #: type appellation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *250.1 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_HFS Lion Ex 124.5 GB disk1s2 3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 654.6 MB disk1s3 4: Apple_HFS Timex 124.6 GB disk1s4

    The recent partition is actually considered a different type: Apple_Boot. The Recovery HD volume won't breathe automatically mounted upon boot and therefore won't materialize in the Finder. It's not even visible in the Disk Utility application, appearing only as a tiny blank space in the partition map for the disk. But as shown above, the command-line diskutil program can notice it. Diskutil can mount it too.

    Doing so reveals the partition as a household HFS+ volume. The top flat contains a directory named com.apple.recovery.boot which in whirl contains a few petite files related to booting along with an invisible 430MB internally compressed disk image file named BaseSystem.dmg. Mount that disk image and you find a 1.52GB bootable Mac OS X volume containing Safari, most of the contents of the yardstick /Applications/Utilities folder (Disk Utility, Startup Disk, Terminal, etc.), plus a Mac OS X Lion installer application. In other words, it looks a lot like a yardstick Mac OS X installer DVD.

    A subset of the files copied to the recovery partition is besides copied to the installation target disk by the installer and blessed as the recent bootable system. This is what the Lion installer reboots into. The files to install will breathe read from the Lion installer application downloaded earlier from the Mac App Store. After the installation is complete, the temporary boot files are removed, but the Recovery HD partition remains on the disk. Hold down ⌘R during system startup to automatically boot into the Recovery HD partition. (Holding down the option key during startup—not a recent feature in Lion—will besides expose the Recovery HD partition as one of the boot volume choices.)

    Booting from the recovery partition really means mounting and then booting from the BaseSystem.dmg disk image on the recovery partition. Doing so presents a list of the traditional Mac OS X install disc options, including restoring from a Time Machine backup, reinstalling Mac OS X, running Disk Utility, resetting your password, and so on. There's besides an option to Get aid online, which will launch Safari. Including Safari on the recovery partition is a nice touch, since most people's first discontinue when diagnosing a problem is Google, not the Genius Bar.

    The upshot is that after extreme the file compression magic added in Snow Leopard to reduce the footprint of the OS, Lion steals over half a gigabyte of your disk space as fragment of its installation process, and never gives it back. The partition's appellation makes Apple's intent clear: it's meant as a last-ditch mechanism to diagnose and repair a Mac with a hosed boot volume. (Hosed, that is, in the software sense; existing as it does on the boot disk itself, the recovery partition won't breathe much disburse if the disk has hardware problems.)

    Apparently Apple has decided that the skill to boot a Mac into a known-good (software) situation is well worth sacrificing a petite amount of disk space. MacBook Air owners or other Mac users with diminutive solid-state disk drives may disagree, however. In that case, the disk space can breathe reclaimed by some judicious repartitioning with Disk Utility (or the diskutil command-line tool) while booted from another disk. But don't breathe surprised when the fellow at the Genius Bar frowns a slight at your deviation from the Apple Way.

    Reconsidering fundamentals

    The user-visible changes in Lion are legion. You'll breathe hard-pressed to find any fragment of the user interface that remains completely unchanged from Snow Leopard, from the gawk and feel extreme the way down to basic behaviors like application and document management. In Lion, Apple has taken a hard gawk at the assumptions underlying the final ten years of Mac OS X's development—and has decided that a lot of them need to change. Get ready.

    Lion's recent look

    Let's ease into things with a tour of Lion's revised user interface graphics. Though Apple noiseless uses the appellation "Aqua" to advert to Lion's interface, the gawk is a far sob from the lickable, candy-coated appearance that launched the brand. If you can imagine three dials labeled "color," "contrast," and "contour," Apple has been turning them down slowly for years. Lion accelerates that process.

    The shapes fill started to change, too. The traditional capsule shape of the yardstick button has given way to a squared-off, Chiclets-style appearance. The tubular shape of the progress bars, a fixture since even before the dawn of Mac OS X, has been replaced with a vaguely puffy stripe of material. Radio buttons, checkboxes, slider thumbs, segmented controls, "tab" controls—nearly everything that used to protrude from the screen now looks as if it was pounded down with a rubber hammer.

    Finder sidebar: grayFinder sidebar: gray

    Even the elements that gawk identical, like the modest gray window title bars, are slightly different from their Snow Leopard counterparts. The recent gawk is not a radical departure—everything hasn't gone jet black and grown fur, for example—but this is the first time that nearly every factor of the yardstick GUI has been changed in a way that's identifiable without a color meter or a magnifying glass.

    For the most part, the recent gawk speaks in a softer voice than its predecessor. The total removal of blue highlights from several controls (e.g., pop-up menus, combo boxes, slider thumbs, and tab controls) makes most interfaces materialize slightly less garish. On the other hand, the additional green in the blue highlights that noiseless accomplish exist makes those controls materialize more saccharine.

    Apple says that its goal with the Lion user interface was to highlight content by de-emphasizing the surrounding user interface elements. You can notice this most clearly in sidebar and toolbar icons, which are now monochromatic in most of the essential bundled applications. But this has the hapless side sequel of making interface elements less distinguishable from each other, especially at the petite sizes typical in sidebars. I'm not sure the "increased stress on content" is enough to balance out the loss, especially in applications like the Finder.

    LionLion Snow LeopardSnow Leopard

    Appearance changes can fill effects beyond emphasis, fashion, and mood. trap the "traffic light" red, yellow, and green window widgets, for example. As you can notice in the images on the right, they've gotten smaller in Lion. Or rather, the colored portion has gotten smaller; the actual clickable region has lost only one pixel in height and five pixels in total width across extreme three widgets.

    But the psychological sequel of the shrunken appearance is something else entirely. Despite the tiny incompatibility in the functional size, I find myself being ever-so-slightly more careful when targeting these widgets in Lion. It's a slight annoying, especially since it's not lucid to me how the new, smaller size fits into Lion's recent look. Does such a petite reduction in size really serve to better emphasize window content? After all, nonexistent of the other controls fill gotten any smaller.

    Other aspects of the recent gawk fill clearer intentions. The flatter, more matte gawk of most controls, and especially the squared-off shape of the yardstick button, extreme bring to intellect the gawk of Apple's other operating system, iOS. One control in particular takes the iOS connection even further.

    Finally, there's Apple's budding like lookout with a particular linen texture. It made its first appearance on the backside of some Dashboard widgets. More recently, it was used as the background pattern for the notifications sheet in iOS 5. In Lion, it's featured even more prominently as the background for the newly restyled login screen, now featuring circular frames for user icons. (Also note the subset of menu bar status icons noiseless visible in the top-right corner of the screen.)

    Linen for your login screen Enlarge / Linen for your login screen Scroll bars

    Scroll bars, which Apple likes to call "scrollers" these days, are among the least-changed interface elements in Mac OS X. While the leisure of the Aqua interface was refined—edges sharpened, pinstripes removed, shines flattened—scrollbars stubbornly retained their original Aqua gawk for over a decade.

    A scroll bar from Mac OS X DP3, released in 2000A scroll bar from Mac OS X DP3, released in 2000 A scroll bar from Mac OS X 10.6, released in 2009A scroll bar from Mac OS X 10.6, released in 2009

    Scroll bars haven't been entirely static in Mac OS X, however. For many years, iTunes has had its own custom scroll bar look.

    A scroll bar from iTunes 10.2.2, released in 2011A scroll bar from iTunes 10.2.2, released in 2011

    When these recent scroll bars were first introduced in iTunes 7 in 2006, there was some speculation that this was a trial sprint for a recent gawk that would soon spread throughout the OS. That didn't happen. But now, five years later, scroll bars are finally changing system-wide in Mac OS X. Here's a scroll bar from Lion:

    A scroll bar from Mac OS X 10.7 LionA scroll bar from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion

    The smeared gradient and fuzzy edges of the iTunes scroll thumb are nowhere to breathe seen. Instead, they fill a narrow, monochrome, sharp-edged lozenge. Just like the window widgets, the scroll thumb appears slightly smaller than its Snow Leopard counterpart. (In this case, total scroll bar width and the clickable region are actually the same as in Snow Leopard.)

    The change in appearance might distract you from what's really different: where are the scroll arrows? You know, the slight buttons on either intermission of the scroll bar (or grouped together on one end) that you click to lag the scroll thumb a bit at a time? Well, they're gone.

    But wait, there's more. Here's a Finder window.

    The complete contents of Lion's Applications folder…or is it?The complete contents of Lion's Applications folder…or is it?

    Though I can assure you that Lion comes with more than eight applications, you wouldn't know it from looking at this screenshot. Forget about the arrows, where are the scroll bars?

    Placing the cursor into the window and using the scroll wheel on the mouse or two-finger scrolling on a trackpad reveals what you might fill already guessed based on the shape and appearance of the recent scroll thumbs. Extremely thin, monochrome scroll thumbs fade in as the scrolling begins, and disappear shortly after it ends. These momentary scroll thumbs materialize on top of the window's content, not in alleys reserved for them on the edges of the window.

    Initiating scrolling (via mouse wheel or trackpad) reveals overlay scroll bars. More applications below!Initiating scrolling (via mouse wheel or trackpad) reveals overlay scroll bars. More applications below! An iOS scroll barAn iOS scroll bar

    These ghostly overlay scroll bars are straight out of iOS. When they were introduced in 2007 on the iPhone's 3.5-inch screen, they made perfect sense. Dedicating one or more finger-width strips of the screen for always-visible, touch-draggable scroll bars would fill been a colossal dissipate of pixels (and anything less than a finger's width of pixels would fill been too narrow to comfortably use). Overlay scroll bars were essential in iOS, and completely in keeping with its direct manipulation theme. In iOS, you don't manipulate an on-screen control to scroll, you simply grab the total screen with your finger and lag it.

    Apple isn't (yet) asking us to start poking their fingers at their Mac's screen, but it does now ship every Mac with some kind of touch-based input device: internal trackpads on laptops, and external trackpads or touch-sensitive mice on desktops. Lion further cements the dominance of paw by making extreme touch-based scrolling travail like it does on a touchscreen. Touching your finger to a control surface and affecting it downwards will lag the document downwards, revealing more content at top and hiding some of the content that was previously visible on the bottom. This sounds perfectly logical, but it besides happens to breathe exactly the antithetical how scrolling has traditionally worked with mouse scroll wheels. The sequel is extremely disconcerting, as their fingers unconsciously flick at the scroll-wheel while their eyes notice the document affecting the "wrong" way.

    Scroll direction setting in the Mouse preference pane. Checked means the  recent Lion scrolling direction is in effect.Scroll direction setting in the Mouse preference pane. Checked means the recent Lion scrolling direction is in effect.

    Thankfully, there is a preference to restore the feeble mapping of finger movement to scroll direction. There's a second setting in the Trackpad preference pane, phrased in the antithetical way. Unfortunately, the settings are linked; you can't fill different values for each kind of input device.

    Though the unification of scrolling gestures is logical, it's difficult to Get used to after so many years of doing things the other way. The most common scrolling direction is downwards, and the most natural finger movement is curling inwards. These two things align when using a mouse wheel with the "old" scrolling direction setting. feeble habits aside, it may breathe that the incompatibility between touching a screen directly and touching a divorce device on a horizontal surface in front of the screen is just too distinguished to justify a unique input vocabulary.

    Either way, there's sure to breathe an uncomfortable transition era for everyone. For example, the two-finger swipe to the left or privilege used to switch between screens in Launchpad (described later) feels "backwards" when the scroll direction preference is set to the traditional, pre-Lion behavior. Perhaps just seeing a screen covered with a grid of icons unconsciously triggers the "iOS expectations" region of their brains. (And if you set the scroll direction to "feel right" for two-finger swiping in Launchpad, then the four-finger swipe between Spaces feels backwards! Sigh.)

    Scroll bars accomplish more than just let us scroll. First, their situation tells us whether there's anything more to see. A window with "inactive" (usually shown as dimmed) scroll bars indicates that there is no content beyond what is currently visible in the window. Second, when a document has more content than can apt in a window, the scroll bars recount us their current position within that document. Finally, the size of the scroll thumb itself—or the amount of leeway the scroll thumb has to lag within the scroll bar, if you want to gawk at it that way—gives some hint about the total size of the content.

    Classic Mac scroll barsClassic Mac scroll bars

    Most computer users aren't conscious of such subtleties, but their combined effects are profound. Long-time Mac users might bethink a time when scroll thumbs were perfectly square regardless of the total size of a window's content. When I mediate back to my time using those scroll bars, I don't recall any problems. But just try using these so-called "non-proportional" scroll bars today. The modern computer user's intellect revolts at the lack of information, usually treating it instead as deceptive information about the total size of a window's content. ("This window looked like it had pages and pages of content, but when I dragged the tiny square scroll thumb extreme the way from the top to the bottom, it only revealed two recent lines of text!") Only when this cue is gone accomplish you realize how much you've been relying on it.

    And hold in intellect that proportional scroll thumbs are the most subtle of the cues that scroll bars provide. The others are even more widely relied upon. The complete lack of visible scroll bars leaves a huge information void.

    Let's achieve aside the intimate for a moment. In the absence of scroll bars, are there other visual cues that could provide the same information? Well, if truncated content appears at the edge of a window, it's usually a safe pot that there's more content in that direction. The prevalence of whitespace (between icons in the Finder, between lines of text, etc.) can obtain such truncation less obvious or even undetectable, but at least it's something. For total content size and position within the document, there's no alternative even that good.

    But panic not, gentle scroller. like the scroll direction, scroll bar visibility has a dedicated preference (in the generic preference pane):

    Scroll bar settings in the  generic preference paneScroll bar settings in the generic preference pane

    The default setting, "Automatically based on input type," will disburse overlay scroll bars as long as there's at least one touch-capable input device attached (though the trackpad on laptops doesn't signify if any other external pointing devices are connected). If you don't like this kind of second-guessing, just choose one of the other options. The "When scrolling" option means always disburse overlay scroll bars, and the "Always" option means always expose scroll bars, using the appearance shown earlier.

    Lion includes recent APIs for briefly "flashing" the overlay scroll bars (i.e., showing them, then fading them out). Most applications included with Lion briefly expose the scroll bars for windows that fill just appeared on the screen, fill just been resized, or fill just scrolled to a recent position (e.g., when showing the next match while searching within a document). This helps soften the blow of the missing information previously provided by always-visible scroll bars, but only a little.

    Extra UI in the scroll bar areaExtra UI in the scroll bar area

    Applications with other UI elements whose amend placement relies on the being of a reserved 16-pixel stripe for the scroll bar outside the content region of the window may breathe forced to display what Apple calls "legacy" scroll bars. (Apple's term for non-overlay scroll bars tells you extreme you need to know about which way the wind is blowing on this issue.) You can notice an case of one such UI factor in the image on the right. The document scale pop-up menu (currently showing "100%") pushes the horizontal scroll bar to the left to obtain leeway for itself. Clearly, this will not travail if the scroll bar overlays the content region and is hidden most of the time. Apple suggests that such applications find recent homes for these interface elements, at which point the AppKit framework in Lion will allow them to display overlay scroll bars.

    Lion's scroll bars are a microcosm of Apple's recent philosophy for Mac OS X. This is definitely a case of reconsidering a fundamental fragment of the operating system—one that hasn't changed this radically in decades, if ever. It's besides nearly a straight port from iOS, which is in keeping with Apple's professed "back to the Mac" mission. But most importantly, it's a concrete case of Apple's newfound dedication to simplicity.

    In particular, this change reveals the tremendous weight that Apple gives to visual simplicity. A complete lack of visible scroll bars certainly does obtain the tolerable Mac OS X screen gawk a lot less busy. A lack of visual clutter has been a hallmark of Apple's hardware and software design for years, and iOS has only accelerated this theme. Also, practically speaking, the sum of extreme those 16-pixel-wide stripes reserved for scroll bars on window edges may add up to a nontrivial expand in the number of pixels available for displaying content on a Mac's screen.

    But there is a expense to breathe paid for this simplicity; one person's uproar is another person's essential source of information. Visual information, like the size and position of a scroll thumb, is one of the most efficient ways to communicate with humans. (Compare with, say, numeric readouts showing document dimensions and the current position as a percentage.)

    These sacrifices were an essential fragment of the iPhone's success. The iPad, though larger, is clearly fragment of the same touch-based family of products, and is wisely built on the same foundation. But the Mac is a different kettle of fish—and not just because the screen sizes involved may breathe vastly larger, making the space savings of hidden scroll bars much less important.

    The Mac user interface, with its menus, radio buttons, checkboxes, windows, title bars, and yes, scroll bars, is built on an entirely different interactivity model than iOS. The Mac UI was built for a pixel-accurate indirect pointing device; iOS was built for direct manipulation with one or more fingers. The visual similarity of on-screen elements and the technical feasibility of porting them from one OS to the other should not blind us to these essential differences.

    It's enchanting that extreme of the scrolling changes in Lion fill preferences that allow them to breathe reverted to their pre-Lion behaviors. The defaults clearly argue the direction that Apple wants to go, but the settings to transpose them—public, with actual GUIs, rather than undocumented plist hacks—suggest caution, or perhaps even some internal strife surrounding these features.

    Such caution is well-founded. Hidden scroll bars in particular fill trade-offs that change dramatically based on the size of the screen and the input device being used. like many features in Lion, the scrolling changes are most useful and confiscate on the Macs that are closest to iOS devices in terms of size and input mode (the 11-inch MacBook Air being the best example). But on a Mac Pro with dual 27" 2560x1440-pixel displays attached, Lion's scrolling defaults obtain far less sense.

    Window resizing Resize widgetResize widget

    A lack of traditional scroll bars besides means the elimination of the petite patch of pixels in the lower-right corner of a window where the plumb and horizontal scroll bars meet. Since 1984, this region has been home to the one and only control used to resize a window. Setting the scroll bar appearance preference to "always visible" restores the clickable actual estate, albeit sans the traditional "grip lines."

    Despite the modest appearance, this resize control works as expected; what's unexpected is the cursor change that accompanies the action. The double-arrow cursor has been used in other operating systems for years, mostly to differentiate two-axis resizing (width and height) from single-axis resizing (height only or width only). When there's only one resize control per window, it's obvious that it can breathe used to change both the width and the height. Lion's recent cursor can breathe essential only one thing…

    Window resizing from   extreme edges (composite image)Window resizing from extreme edges (composite image)

    That's right, long-suffering switchers, Lion finally allows windows to breathe resized from any edge and from extreme four corners, with a special cursor for each of the eight starting points. (When a window is at its size limit, the cursors expose an arrow pointing in a unique direction—a nice touch.)

    As you can notice from the image above, what Apple hasn't done is add borders to the windows. So where, exactly, accomplish they "grab" when resizing from a borderless window edge? There's no way around it: some pixels must breathe sacrificed to the gods of Fitts's law.

    A few pixels within the outer edge of the content region of the window (two to three, depending on where you signify from) are commandeered for window resizing purposes. You can noiseless click on these areas, and the click event will correctly propagate to the application that owns the window, but you'll breathe clicking with a resize cursor instead of a household arrow cursor.

    Two to three pixels doesn't obtain for a very wide target, however, which is why Apple has chosen to confiscate pixels from both sides of the window border. Four to five pixels outside the content region of the window are besides clickable for window resizing purposes. Clicks in these areas don't Get sent to the window (they're out of the window's bounds) and they don't Get sent to whatever happens to breathe behind the active window—you know, the thing that you ostensibly just clicked on. Effectively, Lion windows fill thin, invisible borders around them used only for resizing. (Unlike Mac OS 8 and 9 windows, which had real, visible borders, Lion windows can't breathe dragged by their borders.)

    When overlay scroll bars are in use, the replete 16x16 pixel home of the traditional resize widget in the lower-right corner is clickable, making this noiseless the easiest target for window resizing, whether it's visible or not.

    Unzoom widgetUnzoom widget Zoom widgetZoom widget

    Lion has a few more surprises on window edges, one of which is window size-related. Windows belonging to applications that champion Lion's recent full-screen mode may expose an embossed double arrow icon on the far-right side of their title bars. Clicking it will judgement the window to fill the entire screen. Other windows, the Dock, and even the menu bar are hidden in this mode. The window's title bar besides disappears, making it unclear how to exit this mode. But just stab the cursor at the top of the screen and the menu bar slides back down into view, containing extreme the expected menus plus a reversed version of the double arrow symbol. Click the inward-facing arrows to trap the current window out of full-screen mode.

    Animation

    Mac OS X has always used animation in its user interface, starting with the genie sequel over a decade ago, and really ramping up with the introduction of the Core Animation framework three years ago. Lion continues this trend. In nearly extreme recent or changed applications in Lion, if something conceivable can breathe animated, it is. The Finder is a estimable example. Even features whose functionality hasn't actually changed in Lion, such as dragging multiple items from one window to another, are given a fresh coating of animation and fades.

    At its best, animation explicitly communicates information that was either absent or only implied before. For example, the genie animation tells the user where a window goes when it's minimized. In other cases, such as the water ripple sequel in Dashboard, animation can add a bit of fun to an interface.

    But danger lurks. A newly discovered animation might delight the user the first time it's shown, but the 350th time might not look quite so magical. This is especially impartial if the animation adds a retard to the task, and if that job is done frequently as fragment of a time-sensitive overall task. The Dashboard water ripple is acceptable because adding a recent widget to the screen is an infrequent task. But if the screen rippled every unique time a recent window appeared anywhere in the OS, users would revolt.

    Well, guess what happens every time a recent window appears on the screen in Lion? No, it's nothing as garish as a water ripple, but there is an animation. Each window starts as a tiny dot centered on the window's eventual position on the screen, then quickly animates to its replete size.

    This animation conveys no recent information. It does not recount the user where a window came from, since the animation starts at the final position of the window. Whether or not the animation actually delays the opening of the window, it certainly feels like it does, which is even more important. This type of animation can obtain Lion feel slower than Snow Leopard. And when an animation like this stutters or skips a few frames due to massive disk i/o or CPU usage, it makes your total Mac feel slower, like you're playing a 3D game with an inadequate video card. And for what? For what someone at Apple hopes will breathe a lasting sentiment of delight?

    Perhaps it could breathe argued that the animation catches the eye more than a window that appears instantly (though that probably depends on the size of the window and what's behind it on the screen). For "unexpected" windows like oversight dialog boxes, that could breathe a benefit. But for "expected" windows (i.e., those that materialize in response to deliberate user input), the powerful, primordial draw of these affecting images is an unwelcome distraction, not a benefit.

    It's conceivable that this animation could delight some users, but I fill a hard time believing that the enjoyment will final much past the first week. (Interestingly, this animation does not play in transpose when a window is closed. This, perversely, makes window closing feel faster than window opening in Lion.)

    Unlike the scrolling behaviors discussed earlier, there are no user-visible preferences for these recent animations, which makes it extreme the more essential for Apple to strike a estimable balance. In my estimation, Lion crosses the line in a few places; the recent window animation is the most egregious example. I gawk forward to discovering a way to disable it. [Update: here it is: defaults write NSGlobalDomain NSAutomaticWindowAnimationsEnabled -bool NO]

    Here's to the crazy ones

    Bruce Tognazzini, founder of the Apple Human Interface Group and 14-year Apple veteran (1978-1992), is best known as the man behind the publication of the Apple Human Interface Guidelines. In 1992, he published a bespeak of his own: Tog on Interface. Most of the examples in the bespeak were taken from his travail at Apple. Here's an excerpt from pages 156-157:

    Natural objects fill different perceivable characteristics, among which people can easily discriminate. trap the bristlecone pine. The oldest animate thing on earth, it has been formed and shaped by the wind and scarred by thousands of years of existence. The youngest school kids gawk at it and know there must breathe a lot of wind around there. They know the pine may breathe even older than their father. They besides know, to a certainty, that it is a tree.

    Hypercard "Home" iconsHypercard "Home" icons

    Kristee Kreitman Rosendahl, accountable for not only the lifelike design of HyperCard, but besides much of its spirit, created a collection of Home icons that shipped with the product.

    No one has ever shown confusion at seeing various slight houses on various cards. Never once has someone turned around and said, "Gee, this slight house has three windows and seems to breathe a Cape Cod. Will that trap me to a different Home card than that two-story bunk house back in the other section?" People are designed to ply multiplexed meanings gracefully, without conscious thought.

    In System 7, they multiplexed the acceptation of system extensions, by developing a characteristic "generic" extension look, to which developers can add their own unique gawk for their specific product. As the "bandwidth" of the interface increases, these kinds of multiplexings will become more and more practical.

    System 7 extension iconsSystem 7 extension icons

    This is Tog, godfather of the old-school Apple Human Interface Guidelines, stating emphatically that interface elements accomplish not fill to gawk exactly the same in order for their duty to breathe discerned. In fact, in the final sentence, Tog predicts that increased computing power will lead to more diverse representations. The increased "bandwidth" of user interfaces that Tog wrote about almost 20 years ago has now Come to pass, and then some.

    Examples of "multiplexed meanings" in Mac OS X are not hard to find. gawk at the Dock, which has changed appearance several times during the history of Mac OS X while noiseless remaining immediately identifiable. And, as discussed earlier, nearly every yardstick GUI control has changed its appearance in Lion. As Tog notes, people are excellent at discarding unimportant details and focusing on the most salient aspects of an item's appearance.

    Now, keeping extreme this in mind, I invite you to gape upon this screenshot of the version of iCal that ships with Lion.

    A stitch in time saves…something, presumably

    Enlarge / A stitch in time saves…something, presumably

    When this change was first revealed in the second developer preview of Lion, there was much gnashing of teeth. But hunt information from yourself, is the duty of every control in the toolbar clear? Or rather, is it any less lucid than it would breathe if iCal used the yardstick Mac OS X toolbar appearance?

    The immediate, visceral negative reaction to the rich Corinthian leather appearance had slight to accomplish with usability. What it came down to—what first impressions like these always look to Come down to—is whether or not you mediate it's ugly. People will trap "really cool-looking but slightly harder to use" over "usable but ugly" any day.

    But there's something much more essential than the change in appearance going on here. Lion's iCal doesn't gawk different in an capricious way; it's been changed with purpose. After the initial stitched-leather shock wore off, Apple watchers everywhere leapt on the recent iCal's deeper sin: its skeuomorphic design. From Wikipedia (emphasis added):

    A skeuomorph is a derivative object that retains ornamental design cues to a structure that was necessary in the original. Skeuomorphs may breathe deliberately employed to obtain the recent gawk comfortably feeble and familiar, such as copper cladding on zinc pennies or computer printed postage with circular town appellation and cancellation lines. An alternative definition is "an factor of design or structure that serves slight or no purpose in the artifact fashioned from the recent material but was essential to the object made from the original material."

    Apple has been down this road before, most notably with the QuickTime 4.0 player application which included intellectual ideas like a "dial" control for adjusting the volume. Dials travail distinguished in the real, physical world, and are certainly intimate to most people. But a dial control in the context of a 2D mouse-driven GUI is incongruous and inept at best, and completely incomprehensible at worst.

    The brushed metal appearance of the QuickTime player would later inspire an officially supported Mac OS X window appearance starting in version 10.2, only to breathe dropped completely five years later in 10.5's grand interface unification. Now, three years after that, the pendulum is swinging in the other direction again—and hard.

    In the case of iCal, Apple has aped the appearance of an analogous physical object (a tear-off paper calendar) but retained the deportment of yardstick Mac OS X controls. This avoids the problems of the QuickTime 4.0 player's dial control, but it's far from a cleanly win.

    The exertion is, the recent iCal looks so much like a intimate physical object that it's effortless to start expecting it to behave like one as well. For example, iCal tries very hard to sell the tear-off paper calendar illusion, with the stitched binding, the tiny remains of already-removed sheets, and even a page curl animation when advancing through the months. But can you grab the corner of a page with your mouse and split it off? Nope, you fill to disburse the arrow buttons or a keyboard command, just like in the previous version of iCal. Can you scribble in the margins? Can you cross off days with a pen? Can you riffle through the pages? No, no, and no.

    At the same time, iCal is noiseless constrained by some of the limitations of its physical counterpart. A paper calendar must choose a unique way to smash up the days in the year. Usually, each page contains a month, but there's no judgement for a virtual calendar to breathe limited in the same way. When dealing with events that span months, it's much more convenient to view time as a continuous stream of weeks or days. This is especially impartial on great desktop monitors, where zooming the iCal window to replete screen doesn't expose any more days but just makes the days in the current month larger.

    The recent version of Address bespeak in Lion is an even more egregious example.

    These graphics are writing checks this interface can't cash Enlarge / These graphics are writing checks this interface can't cash

    Address bespeak goes so far in the direction of imitating a physical analog that it starts to impair the identification of yardstick controls. The window widgets, for example, are so integrated into the design that they're effortless to overlook. And as in iCal, the Amazing detail of the appearance implies functionality that doesn't exist. Pages can't breathe turned by dragging, and even if they could, the number of pages on either side of the spine never changes. The window can't breathe closed like a book, either. That red bookmark can't breathe pulled up or down or removed. (Clicking it actually turns the page backwards to divulge the list of groups. Did you guess that?) The three-pane view (groups → people → detail) is gone, presumably because a bespeak can't expose three pages at once. Within each paper "page" sits, essentially, an excerpt from the user interface of the previous version of Address Book. It's a mixed metaphor that sends mixed signals.

    These newly redesigned Mac OS X applications are clearly inspired by their iOS counterparts, which endure similar graphical flourishes and skeuomorphic design elements. (Address bespeak in particular is a departed ringer for the Contacts app on the iPad.) In iOS, the inability to whirl pages with the flick of a finger or yank out that tantalizing red bookmark is even more frustrating. In both environments, when the behaviors seemingly promised by the graphical design aren't delivered, extreme this artwork that was so clearly labored over fades into the background. The application trains us to ignore it. What was once, at best, a momentary amusement is reduced to visual noise.

    In 2011, we're far past the point where computer interfaces need to reference their forebearers in the physical world in order to breathe understandable (though it's workable Apple thinks the familiarity of such designs is noiseless an effective way to reduce intimidation, especially for novice users). At the same time, hardware and software fill advanced to the point where there's now ample "bandwidth" (to disburse Tog's term) to champion visual and functional nuances beyond the bare necessities.

    Interface designers are faced with the challenge of how best to disburse the glut of resources now at their disposal. As Lion's iCal and Address bespeak applications demonstrate, an alternate description of this situation might breathe "enough rope to hang yourself."

    Window management

    Over the years, Apple has added several features that could loosely breathe defined as "window management aids." The first, and arguably most successful, was Exposé, introduced in Panther back in 2003. Two years later, Tiger shipped with Dashboard, which provided a dedicated screen for petite "widget" windows, keeping them off the main screen. In 2007, Leopard brought official champion for virtual desktops to Mac OS X under the appellation Spaces.

    Each of these features came with its own set of configurable keyboard shortcuts, heated screen corners, and (eventually) multi-touch gestures. While each was understandable and useful in isolation, it was up to each user to design out how best to incorporate them into a workflow. In Lion, Apple has taken a stab at consolidation under the umbrella appellation of Mission Control. Each individual feature noiseless exists, albeit in slightly more limited forms, but activating one thing now provides access to them all.

    Using any one of the supported Mission Control activation methods—a keyboard shortcut, a heated screen corner, or a four-finger upwards swipe—causes the current desktop picture to recede slightly into the center of the screen, revealing behind it their feeble friend the linen pattern. Overlaid on this are groups of windows, badged by the icons of the applications to which they belong. Along the top of the screen sit extreme open Spaces. (In Lion, each full-screen window creates a recent Space, so those windows materialize at the top rather than grouped with the other windows from the same application.) Dashboard is besides (optionally) given its own Space.

    Mission Control: Exposé + Spaces + Dashboard Enlarge / Mission Control: Exposé + Spaces + Dashboard

    A surprising number of things can breathe done from this screen. As with Exposé, clicking on any window will bring it to the front. Windows can besides breathe dragged into any of the available Spaces (excluding Dashboard and those that accommodate a unique full-screen window). affecting the cursor (or dragging a window) to the upper-right corner of the screen causes a panel with a "+" character to appear; clicking this creates a recent space. Holding down the option key makes Dashboard-style "close" widgets materialize on any non-fullscreen-window Spaces (except the original Desktop Space, which can never breathe closed).

    The biggest limitation of this recent arrangement is that Spaces are now confined to a one-dimensional line of virtual desktops. Four-finger swiping between spaces feels great, but there's no wrap-around when you hit the end.

    As ample a step down as this is from the much more flexible grid arrangement of Spaces in earlier versions of Mac OS X, the recent limitations are probably a estimable idea. The recent deportment of full-screen windows and the surprisingly natural-feeling four-finger swipes used to switch between them and enter Mission Control means that many more Mac users will likely find themselves using these recent features than ever used the combination of Exposé and Spaces in earlier versions of the OS. A simple line of spaces with no wrap-around provides a safe, understandable environment for extreme these recent Spaces users.

    For the experts, well, consolidation always has its price. In this case, as in many others, Apple has decided that the estimable of the many outweighs the estimable of the few.

    Application management

    For extreme its warts, the radical simplification of application management brought to Mac OS X by the Dock really has benefitted the platform. As I wrote in my ten year Mac OS X retrospective, "For every user who continues to breathe frustrated by the Dock's limitations, there are thousands of others who are buoyed in their computing efforts by its reassuring simplicity and undemanding design."

    But the Dock falls short, especially for novice users, as an application launcher. Or rather, it falls short if the application to breathe launched isn't actually in the Dock. Most novice users I know want to fill every application they are likely to disburse available in the Dock at extreme times. As these users gain experience, the Dock can become a very crowded place. But why are these increasingly Mac-savvy users stuffing their Docks to the gills rather than limiting its contents to just the applications they disburse most frequently?

    The reply lies in how applications not in the Dock are located and launched. Choices involve the Finder, Spotlight, or (I suppose) a Terminal window. affecting from an always-visible line of colorful icons that's front and center on the screen to any one of those alternatives represents a huge expand in conceptual and mechanical complexity.

    If you don't understand how typing the appellation of an application into a search box can breathe so much more difficult than clicking an icon in the Dock, I hint that you fill not spent enough time with novice users. Such users often don't even know the appellation of the application they want—or if they do, they don't know how to spell it. That's before considering the frequent disorientation caused by the rapid-fire search results refinement animation in the Spotlight menu, or the being of multiple files whose contents or names accommodate the string being searched for. And this extreme assumes novices know (or remember) what Spotlight is and how to activate it in the first place.

    The jump in complexity from the Dock to the Finder, I think, needs less explanation. As a generic rule, novice users just don't understand the file system. They don't understand the hierarchy of machines, devices, and volumes; they don't grasp the concept of the current working directory; they don't know how to identify a file or folder's position within the hierarchy. panic of the file system practically defines novice users; it is usually the final and biggest hurdle in the journey from timorous experimentation to basic technical competence.

    To achieve it another way, your dad can't find it if it's not in the Dock. (Well, my dad can't, anyway. Sorry to extreme the Mac-savvy dads out there; I am one, after all.)

    In Lion, Apple aims to fill that gap with an application launching interface that's meant to breathe as effortless to disburse as the Dock while providing access to every application on the system. It's called Launchpad, and you'll breathe forgiven for thinking that it looks like yet another interface factor shamelessly ported from iOS.

    Launchpad: iOS’s SpringBoard on your Mac Enlarge / Launchpad: iOS’s SpringBoard on your Mac

    Launchpad can breathe activated with a Dock icon (which, importantly, is in the Lion Dock by default), a multitouch gesture (a Somewhat inept pinch with the thumb and three fingers), or by dragging the mouse cursor to a designated corner of the screen. The grid of application icons that appears doesn't just gawk like iOS's SpringBoard, it besides behaves like it, privilege down to the "folders" created by dragging icons on top of each other.

    Holding down the option key makes extreme the icons sprout proximate widgets as they start to wiggle. Swiping privilege and left on the touchpad or with a click and drag of the mouse will lag from screen to screen, accompanied by a intimate iOS-like dotted page indicator.

    Launchpad “folders” Enlarge / Launchpad “folders”

    Launchpad will find applications in the yardstick /Applications folder as well as ~/Applications (i.e., a folder named "Applications" in your home directory), and any subfolders within them. Applications in the ~/Downloads folder or on the desktop are not detected, which may actually breathe a problem for Mac users who fill not yet figured out how to perform drag-and-drop application installations—yet another region where the Mac App Store will aid obtain things simpler.

    Mac App Store download progressMac App Store download progress

    Speaking of which, when purchasing an application in the version of the Mac App Store that ships with Lion, the application icon leaps out of the Mac App Store window and lands in the next available position in the Launchpad grid, with an iOS-like progress bar overlaid on the recent application's icon. If the Launchpad icon is in the Dock, it displays a similar progress bar and the icon bounces once when the download finishes.

    Both serve as examples of animation that conveys useful information. "Here's where the application you just purchased has 'landed' on your Mac," the animation says. "To find it again, click the icon that just bounced in your Dock."

    Given the wealth of excellent third-party application launchers available for the Mac, I'm not sure there's any judgement for an expert user to disburse Launchpad instead of their current favorite alternative. But unlike, say, the Dock, Launchpad is easily ignored. whirl off the gesture, deactivate the heated corner, and remove the icon from the Dock and you'll never fill to notice it.

    For everyone else, however, Launchpad will provide a huge improvement in usability. Even expert users should breathe excited about its arrival because it should obtain telephone or e-mail-based family technical champion a bit easier.

    Document model

    Lion introduces what Apple calls, with characteristic conviction, a "modernized" document model. I'm inclined to disagree with this word choice. like so many other aspects of Lion, document management is attempting to shed its legacy baggage—and there's plenty to shed. The conventions governing the interaction between users, applications, and documents fill not changed much since the personal computer became well-liked in the early 1980s.

    Apple first attempted a minor revolution in this region with OpenDoc in the 1990s. Instead of launching an application in order to create a document, OpenDoc promised a world where the user would open a document and then travail on it using an interchangeable set of components created by multiple vendors. In other words, OpenDoc was document-centric rather than application-centric.

    The changes in OpenDoc promised to radically shift the balance of power in the application software market. But powerful software companies like Microsoft and Adobe were not particularly motivated to smash their popular, full-featured applications into smaller components that customers could fuse and match with components from other vendors. At the time OpenDoc was released, Apple was nearing the nadir of its popularity and influence in the industry. Predictably, OpenDoc died on the vine.

    Fast-forward to today, where a much more powerful and confident Apple takes another crack at the same area. The most pressing problem, today's Apple has decided, is not the interaction between application code and document data, but rather the interaction between the user and the computer.

    Despite decades of public exposure to personal computers, human expectations and habits fill stubbornly refused to align with the traditional model of creating, opening, and saving documents. The tales of woe fill become clichés:

  • The student who writes for an hour without saving and loses everything when the application crashes.
  • The businessman who accidentally saves over the "good" version of a document, then takes it upon himself to independently reinvent version control—poorly—by compulsively saving each recent revision of every document under slightly different names.
  • The Mac power user who reflexively selects the "Don't Save" button for one document after another when quitting an application with many open windows, only to accidentally lose the one document that actually had essential changes.
  • The father who swears he saved the essential document, but can't, for the life of him, bethink where it is or what he called it.
  • At this point, they can no longer call this a problem of education. We've tried education for years upon years; children fill been born and grown to adulthood in the PC era. And yet even the geekiest among us fill lost data, time, or both due to a "stupid" mistake related to creating, opening, and saving documents.

    And so Apple's decree in Lion is as it was on the original Macintosh in 1984, and as it is on iOS today: the machine must serve the human, not the other way around. To that end, Apple has added APIs in Lion that, when used properly, enable the following experience.

  • The user does not fill to bethink to save documents. extreme travail is automatically saved.
  • Closing a document or quitting an application does not require the user to obtain decisions about unsaved changes.
  • The user does not fill to bethink to save document changes before causing the document's file to breathe read by another application (e.g., attaching an open document with unsaved changes to an e-mail).
  • Quitting an application, logging out, or restarting the computer does not breathe essential that extreme open documents and windows fill to breathe manually re-opened next time.
  • Earlier versions of Mac OS X supported a figure of automatic saving. If you had an open TextEdit document with unsaved changes, TextEdit would (eventually) save a backup copy of the file with the text " (Autosaved)" appended to the file name. If the application crashed or the Mac lost power, you could retrieve (some of) your unsaved changes by finding the autosaved file and opening it.

    Lion introduces a variant of this practice: autosave in place. Rather than creating a recent file alongside the original, Lion continuously saves changes directly to the open document. It does this when there are great document changes, during idle times, or on claim in response to requests from other applications for access to the document's data.

    For extreme of this to work, applications must breathe updated to disburse the recent APIs. In particular, a recent File Coordination framework must breathe used in order for an application to notify another that it wants to access a document that's currently open. The application that has the document open will then trigger an autosave to disk before allowing the requesting application to reference the document's data. Attaching a document to an e-mail or using Quick gawk in the Finder are two examples of when this might happen.

    At this point, a slight bit of "geek panic" might breathe setting in. For those of us who understand the pre-Lion document model and fill been using it for decades, the conception that they are no longer in control of when changes to open documents are saved to disk seems insane! What if I accidentally delete a huge swath of text from a document and then Lion decides to autosave immediately afterwards?

    Not every change is meant to breathe saved, after all. The rehearse of speculatively making radical changes to a document with the comfort of knowing that nonexistent of those changes are permanent until they hit ⌘S is something experienced Mac users trap for granted and may breathe loath to give up.

    The artist formerly known as “Save”The artist formerly known as “Save”

    I confess, I omitted one particular from the list of changes enabled by Lion's modern document model. Here it is:

  • The user does not fill to manually manage multiple copies of document files in order to retrieve feeble versions.
  • If you noiseless don't Get it, check out the particular in the File menu formerly known as "Save." It now reads "Save a Version" instead. Every time a Lion-savvy application autosaves a document, it stores a copy of the previous version before it overwrites the file with the recent data. A pop-up menu in the title bar of each document window provides access to previous versions.

    A menu in the title bar provides access to previous versions of a fileA menu in the title bar provides access to previous versions of a file

    Select the "Browse extreme Versions…" menu particular to enter a Time Machine-like space-themed screen showing extreme previous versions of the file. Using this interface, the document can breathe reverted to any earlier version, or snippets of data from earlier versions may breathe copied and pasted into the current version. Though the star domain background and surrounding timeline interface are provided automatically, the document windows themselves are actual windows within the application. They can breathe scrolled and manipulated in any way allowed by the application, though the contents of previous versions may not breathe modified.

    Document version browser…in spaaaaace! Enlarge / Document version browser…in spaaaaace!

    The yardstick Cocoa document framework will manage many of the details for application developers, including automatically purging very feeble versions of files. The document versioning interface shown above is besides integrated with Time Machine, showing both locally stored file versions and older versions that only exist on the Time Machine backup volume. Going forwards or backwards in the document timeline is accompanied by a smart star-field "warp" animation.

    Restoring the document to an earlier situation actually just pushes a duplicate of that situation to the front of the stack of extreme changes. In other words, restoring a document to its situation as of an hour ago does not discard extreme the changes that happened during that hour.

    Returning to the title bar pop-up menu, the "Revert to final Saved Version" menu particular returns the document to its final explicitly saved situation (i.e., what it looked like the final time the user typed ⌘S or selected the "Save a Version" menu item). "Duplicate" will create a recent document containing the same data as the current document. Finally, the "Lock" particular will avert any further changes to the document until it is explicitly unlocked by the user. Documents will besides automatically breathe locked if they're not modified for a slight while. The auto-lock time is configurable in the "Options…" screen of the Time Machine preference pane (of extreme places), with values from one day to one year. The default is two weeks.

    The auto-lock  retard setting, cleverly hidden in the Time Machine preference paneThe auto-lock retard setting, cleverly hidden in the Time Machine preference pane

    There is no graphical interface to previous versions of documents outside of an application. Previous versions can't breathe viewed or restored from within the Finder, for example. Forcing extreme version manipulation to breathe within the application is limiting, but it besides neatly solves the problem of how to present document contents with replete fidelity—beyond what Quick gawk offers—when looking at past revisions.

    One unexpected implication of autosave is that it makes quitting applications much less painful. If you've ever had to quickly log out or shut down a Mac that has been up and working hard for weeks or months, you know how terrible it is to fill to wade through umpteen dialog boxes, each demanding a determination about unsaved changes before allowing you to continue.

    These are not effortless questions, especially for files that may fill been open for a long time. achieve aside deciding whether the changes are worth saving; can you even bethink what the unsaved changes are? Were they intentional, or did you accidentally lanky on the keyboard and delete a selected particular some time final week? Now multiply this spot by the number of open documents with unsaved changes—and imagine you're in a hurry. It's not a pleasant experience.

    Autosave eliminates these hassles. Quitting an application that supports autosave happens instantly, with no additional user input required—always.

    Of course, by quitting an application (or quitting extreme applications by logging out or restarting) you're besides losing extreme of your accumulated state: extreme your open documents, the size and position of their windows, scroll positions, selection state. Losing situation can prove even more painful than playing "20 questions" with a swarm of "unsaved changes" dialog boxes. Assuming you can bethink what documents you had open, can you find them again?

    Lion offers recent APIs to address this problem as well. A suite of recent situation encoding/decoding hooks allow Lion applications to save and restore any and extreme aspects of document state. Upon relaunch, an application is expected to restore extreme the documents open when it was final quit, with extreme their situation preserved.

    So, how's that "geek panic" now? noiseless there, huh? Well, let me try to reassure you. As a committed user of a distinguished Mac text editor that, years ago, implemented its own version of almost extreme the document management features described so far, I can recount you that you Get used to it very quickly. Spoiled by it, in fact. Ruined by it, some would say. Yes, it's a very different model from the one we're extreme used to. But it's besides a better model—not just for novices, but for geeks too.

    Think about it: never lose data because you forgot to save. Quit applications with impunity. Retrieve feeble versions of documents at any time, in total or in part. Build up a nice arrangement of open documents and windows, knowing that your hard travail will not breathe trashed the next time you quit the application or need to restart for an OS security update.

    The final piece of the mystify is not strictly document-related, but it puts the bow on the package. When logging out or restarting, Lion presents an option (selected by default) to restore extreme open applications when you next log in. And relaunching a Lion-savvy application, of course, causes it to restore its open documents.

    Putting it extreme together, this means that you can log out or shut down your Mac without being asked any questions by needy applications and without losing any of your data or window state. When you next log in, the screen should gawk exactly the same as it did just before you logged out. (In fact, Lion appears to "cheat" and briefly presents a static image of your earlier screen while it works on relaunching your apps and restoring your open documents. Sneaky, but an effective way to obtain situation restoration feel faster than it really is.)

    Process model

    If you were flipping out over the document changes described in the previous section, buckle up, because the discomfort flat is about to climb yet again.

    The petite indicator lights shown beneath running applications in the Dock are now optional in Lion.

    Three of these applications are runningThree of these applications are running

    In pre-release builds of Lion, extreme applications in the Dock looked exactly the same, running or otherwise. At the final minute, it seems Apple chickened out and enabled the indicator lights by default.

    Dock indicator lights preferenceDock indicator lights preference

    Apple's message with this feature is a simple one, but besides one that the nerdly intellect rebels against: "It doesn't matter if an application is running or not. You shouldn't care. discontinue thinking about it." Geek panic!

    Remain calm. Let's start with the APIs. Sudden Termination, a feature that was introduced in Snow Leopard, allows applications to argue to the system that it's safe to execute them "impolitely" (i.e., by sending them SIGKILL, causing them to terminate immediately, with no haphazard for potentially time-consuming clean-up operations to execute). Applications are expected to set this bit when they're sure they're not in the middle of doing something, fill no open files, no unflushed buffers, and so on.

    This feature enables Snow Leopard to log out, shut down, and restart more quickly than earlier versions of Mac OS X. When it can, the OS simply kills processes instead of politely asking them to exit. (When Snow Leopard was released, Apple made sure its own applications and daemon processes supported Sudden Termination, even if third-party applications didn't.)

    Lion includes a recent feature called Automatic Termination. Whereas Sudden Termination lets an application recount the system when it's okay to terminate it with extreme prejudice, Automatic Termination lets an application recount the system that it's okay to politely hunt information from the program to exit.

    But wait, isn't it always okay for the OS to politely hunt information from an application to exit? Isn't that what's always happened in Mac OS X on logout, shutdown, or restart? Yes, but what makes Automatic Termination different is when and why this might happen. In Lion, the OS may terminate applications that are not in disburse in order to reclaim resources—primarily memory, but besides things like file descriptors, CPU cycles, and processes.

    You read that right. Lion will quit your running applications behind your back if it decides it needs the resources, and if you don't materialize to breathe using them. The heuristic for determining whether an application is "in use" is very conservative: it must not breathe the active application, it must fill no visible, non-minimized windows—and, of course, it must explicitly champion Automatic Termination.

    Automatic Termination works hand-in-hand with autosave. Any application that supports Automatic Termination should besides champion autosave and document restore. Since only applications with no visible windows are eligible for Automatic Termination, and since by default the Dock does not argue whether or not an application is running, the user might not even notice when an application is automatically terminated by the system. No dialog boxes will hunt information from about unsaved changes, and when the user clicks on the application in the Dock to reactivate it, it should relaunch and materialize exactly as it did before it was terminated.

    This is effectively a deprecation of the Quit command. It also, perhaps coincidentally, solves the age-old problem of former Windows users expecting applications to terminate when they no longer fill any open windows. When Automatic Termination is enabled in an application, that's exactly what will happen—if and when the system needs to reclaim some resources, that is.

    As if extreme of this isn't enough, Lion features one final application management twist. When an application is terminated in Lion, extreme the usual things materialize to happen. If the running application indicator is enabled, the petite dot will disappear from beneath the application's Dock icon. Assuming it's not a permanent resident, the application icon will disappear from the Dock. The application will no longer materialize in the command-tab application switcher, or in Mission Control. You might therefore conclude that this application's process has terminated.

    A quick trip to the Activity Monitor application or the "ps" command-line utility may discourage you of that notion. Lion reserves the privilege to hold an application's process around just in case the user decides to relaunch it. Upon relaunch, the application appears to start up instantly—because it was never actually terminated, but was simply removed from extreme parts of the GUI normally occupied by running applications.

    That's right, gentle readers. In Lion, an ostensibly "running" application may fill no associated process (because the operating system automatically terminated it in order to reclaim resources) and an application may fill a process even when it doesn't materialize to breathe running. Applications without processes. Processes without applications. Did Lion just blow your mind?

    The pitch

    The application and document model changes in Lion are a radical smash with the past—the past of the desktop, that is. Everything described above has existed since day one on Apple's mobile platform. Indeed, iOS is the most compelling dispute in favor of the changes in Lion. For every objection offered by a long-time personal computer aficionado, there are millions of iOS users countering the dispute every day with their fingers and their wallets.

    These changes in Lion are meant to reduce the number of things the user has to custody about. And while you may mediate you really accomplish need to custody about when your documents are saved to disk or when the memory occupied by an application is returned to the system, you may breathe surprised by how slight you mediate about these things once you become accustomed to the computer managing them for you. If you're an iOS user, mediate about how often you've wanted a "Save" button in an app on your iPhone or iPad, for example.

    So that's the pitch: Lion will bring the worry-free usability of iOS application and document management to the Mac. For the vast majority of Mac users, I mediate it will breathe an effortless sale.

    The reality

    There's a common thread running through extreme of the application and document model features described above: they're extreme opt-in, and developers must add code to their applications to champion them. Apple has some skill to hasten the transition to Lion-savvy applications through evangelism, positive reinforcement (the carrot), and the increasing popularity of the Mac App Store (the stick). But no matter what Apple does, the idyllic image of an iOS-like suffer on your Mac will trap a long time to materialize.

    In the meantime, it's effortless to envision a frustrating hodgepodge of feeble and recent Mac applications running on Lion, making users second-guess their hard-won computing instincts at every turn. What I mediate will actually chance is that the top-tier Mac developers will quickly add champion for some or extreme of these recent features and users will start to gawk down on applications that noiseless behave the "old way." I'm sure that's how Apple hopes things whirl out, too.

    Internals

    The previous release of Mac OS X focused on internal changes. My review did the same, covering compiler features, programming language extensions, recent libraries, and other details that were mostly invisible to end-users.

    Lion is most definitely not an internals-focused release, but it's besides ample enough that it has its share of essential changes to the core OS accompanying its more obvious user-visible changes. If this is your first time reading an Ars Technica review of Mac OS X and you've made it this far, breathe warned: this section will breathe even more esoteric than the ones you've already read. If you just want to notice more screenshots of recent or changed applications, feel free to skip ahead to the next section. They nerds won't mediate any less of you.

    Security

    Apple's approach to security has always been a bit unorthodox. Microsoft has spent the final several years making security a top priority for Windows, and has done so in a very public way. Today, Windows 7 is considered vastly more secure than its widely exploited ancestor, Windows XP. And despite the fact that Microsoft now distributes its own virus/malware protection software, a burgeoning market noiseless exists for third-party antivirus software.

    Meanwhile, on the Mac, Apple has only very recently added some basic malware protection to Mac OS X, and it did so quietly. Updates fill been similarly quiet, giving the impression that Apple will only talk about viruses and malware if asked a direct question about a specific, actual piece of malicious software.

    This approach is typical of Apple: don't declare anything until you fill something meaningful to say. But it can breathe maddening to security experts and journalists alike. As for end-users, well, until there is a security problem that affects more than a tiny minority of Mac users, it's hard to find an case of how Apple's policies and practices fill failed to protect Mac users at least as well as Microsoft protects Windows users.

    Sandboxing

    Just because Apple is quiet, that doesn't breathe essential it hasn't been taking actual steps to improve security on the Mac. In Leopard, Apple added a basic figure of sandboxing to the kernel. Many of the daemon processes that obtain Mac OS X travail are running within sandboxes in Snow Leopard. Again, this was done with slight fanfare.

    Running an application inside a sandbox is meant to minimize the damage that could breathe caused if that application is compromised by a piece of malware. A sandboxed application voluntarily surrenders the skill to accomplish many things that a household process sprint by the same user could do. For example, a household application sprint by a user has the skill to delete every unique file owned by that user. Obviously, a well-behaved application will not accomplish this. But if an application becomes compromised, it may breathe coerced into doing something destructive.

    In Lion, the sandbox security model has been greatly enhanced, and Apple is finally promoting it for disburse by third-party applications. A sandboxed application must now involve a list of "entitlements" describing exactly what resources it needs in order to accomplish its job. Lion supports about 30 different entitlements which purview from basic things like the skill to create a network connection or to listen for incoming network connections (two divorce entitlements) to sophisticated tasks like capturing video or noiseless images from a built-in camera.

    It might look like any nontrivial document-based Mac application will, at the very least, need to declare an entitlement that will allow it to both read from and write to any directory owned by the current user. After all, how else would the user open and save documents? And if that's the case, wouldn't that entirely subjugate the purpose of sandboxing?

    Apple has chosen to decipher this problem by providing heightened permissions to a particular class of actions: those explicitly initiated by the user. Lion includes a trusted daemon process called Powerbox (pboxd) whose job is to present and control open/save dialog boxes on behalf of sandboxed applications. After the user selects a file or directory into which a file should breathe saved, Powerbox pokes a hollow in the application sandbox that allows it to perform the specific action.

    A similar mechanism is used to allow access to recently opened files in the "Open Recent" menu, to restore previously open documents when an application is relaunched, to ply drag and drop, and so on. The goal is to avert applications from having to request entitlements that allow it to read and write capricious files. Oh, and in case it doesn't recede without saying, extreme sandboxed applications must breathe signed.

    Here are a few examples of sandboxed processes in Lion, shown in the Activity Monitor application with the recent "Sandbox" column visible:

    Sandboxed processes in LionSandboxed processes in Lion

    Earlier, the Mac App Store was suggested as a way Apple might expedite the adoption of recent Lion technologies. In the case of sandboxing, that has already happened. Apple has decreed that extreme applications submitted to the Mac App Store must breathe sandboxed, starting in November.

    Privilege separation

    One limitation of sandboxing is that entitlements apply to an entire process. A sandboxed application must therefore possess the superset of extreme entitlements required for each feature it provides. As we've seen, the disburse of the Powerbox daemon process prevents applications from requiring capricious access to the file system by delegating those entitlements to another, external process. This is a specific case of the generic principle called privilege separation.

    The conception is to smash up a tangled application into individual processes, each of which requires only the few entitlements necessary to perform a specific subset of the application's total capabilities. For example, deem an application that needs to play video. Decoding video is a tangled and performance-sensitive process which has historically led to inadequate protection against buffer overflows and other security problems. An application that needs to display video will likely accomplish so using libraries provided by the system, which means that there's not much a third-party developer can accomplish to patch vulnerabilities where they occur.

    What a developer can accomplish instead is isolate the video decoding job in its own process with severely reduced privileges. A process that's decoding video probably doesn't need any access to the file system, the network, the built-in camera and microphone, and so on. It just needs to accept a stream of bytes from its parent process (which, in turn, probably used Powerbox to gain the skill to read those bytes from disk in the first place) and recrudesce a stream of decoded bytes. Beyond this simple connection to its parent, the decoder can breathe completely walled off from the leisure of the system. Now, if an exploit is found in a video codec, a malicious hacker will find himself in control of a process with so few privileges that there is slight harm it can accomplish to the system or the user's data.

    Though this was just an example, the QuickTime Player application in Lion does, in fact, delegate video decoding to an external, sandboxed, extremely low-privileged process called VTDecoderXPCService.

    QuickTime Player with its accompanying sandboxed video decoder processQuickTime Player with its accompanying sandboxed video decoder process

    Another case from Lion is the Preview application, which completely isolates the PDF parsing code (another historic source of exploits) from extreme access to the file system.

    Putting aside the security advantages of this approach for a moment, managing and communicating with external processes is kind of a twinge for developers. It's certainly less convenient than the traditional approach, with extreme code within a unique executable and no functionality more than a duty call away.

    Once again in Lion, Apple has provided a recent set of APIs to encourage the adoption of what it considers to breathe a best practice. The XPC Services framework is used to manage and communicate with these external processes. XPC Service executables are contained within an application's bundle. There is no installation process, and they are never copied or moved. They must besides breathe fragment of the application's cryptographic signature in order to avert tampering.

    The XPC Service framework will launch an confiscate external process on demand, track its activity, and rule when to terminate the process after its job is done. Communication is bidirectional and asynchronous, with FIFO message delivery, and the default XPC process environment is extremely restrictive. It does not inherit the parent process's sandbox entitlements, Keychain credentials, or any other privileges.

    The reward for breaking up an application into a collection of least-privileged pieces is not just increased security. It besides means that a crash in one of these external processes will not trap down the entire application.

    We've seen this kind of privilege separation used to distinguished sequel in recent years by Web browsers on several different platforms, including Safari on Mac OS X. Lion aims to extend these advantages to extreme applications. It besides makes Safari's privilege separation even more granular.

    Safari in Lion is based on WebKit2, the latest and greatest iteration of the browser engine that powers Safari, Chrome, and several other desktop and mobile browsers. Safari in Snow Leopard already separated browser plug-ins such as glint into their own processes. (Adobe should not deem this an insult; Apple does the same with its own QuickTime browser plug-in.) As if to further that point, WebKit2 separates the entire webpage rendering job into an external process. The number of excuses for the Safari application to crash is rapidly decreasing.

    As the WebKit2 website notes, Google's Chrome browser uses a similar approach to isolate WebKit (version 1) from the leisure of the application. WebKit2 builds the separation directly into the framework itself, allowing extreme WebKit2 clients to trap odds of it without requiring the custom code that Google had to write for Chrome. (Check out the process architecture diagrams at the WebKit2 site for more detailed comparisons with pre-Lion WebKit on Mac OS X and Chrome's disburse of WebKit.)

    Automatic Reference Counting

    Since 2005, I've been very publicly concerned about the long-term prospects of Apple's programming language and application framework, Objective-C and Cocoa, going so far as to speculate about a workable technological head a few years in the future.

    When the future arrived, I revisited the issue of Apple's language and API future in light of Apple's theatrical entrance into the mobile market and the unprecedented growth this has enabled. You can read my conclusions for yourself, but the bottom line is that I'm noiseless concerned about the issue—and mediate Apple should breathe too. Success hides problems, and Apple has been so very successful in recent years.

    Enter (and exit) garbage collection

    Apple has done a tremendous amount of travail to modernize its progress platform, including completely replacing its compiler, overhauling its IDE, and adding features and recent syntax to the Objective-C language itself.

    All of these things are great, but nonexistent address my specific concerns about memory management. Apple did eventually notice apt to add garbage collection to Objective-C, but my panic that Apple wouldn't really consign to garbage collection in Objective-C turned out to breathe well-founded. Today, years after the introduction of this feature, very few of Apple's own applications disburse garbage collection.

    There's a estimable judgement for this. Runtime garbage collection is simply a poor apt for Objective-C. For extreme its syntactic simplicity and long, distinguished history, the C programming language is actually a surprisingly tangled beast, especially when it comes to memory management. In C, any correctly aligned pointer-size bit pattern in memory can potentially breathe used as an address; the language explicitly allows casting from void * to a typed pointer, and vice versa. Objective-C, as a superset of C, inherits these charming properties. In exchange for this sacrifice, Objective-C code can breathe compiled alongside modest C code and can link to C libraries with ease.

    This means that the runtime garbage collector is expected to traverse memory allocated by an capricious conglomeration of Objective-C and modest feeble C code and obtain the amend decision—every time—about what memory may safely breathe collected. Apple's Objective-C garbage collection is a global switch. It can't breathe enabled just for the clean, object-oriented Objective-C code that application developers write; it applies to the entire process, including extreme the frameworks that the application links to.

    It seems sensible for garbage collection to trap a hands-off approach to any memory allocated outside Objective-C's gated object-oriented community. Unfortunately, memory allocated "the old-fashioned way" in modest C code routinely makes its way into the world of Objective-C, and vice versa. In theory, extreme such code could breathe annotated in such a way that it works correctly with garbage collection. In practice, Mac OS X contains way too much code—much of it not written by Apple—to breathe able to properly vet every line of it to ensure that a runtime garbage collector has enough information to obtain the privilege decisions in every case.

    And, in fact, despite Apple's bold claims of readiness, there fill been and continue to breathe cases where even code within Apple's own frameworks can muddle the Objective-C garbage collector. These kinds of bugs are particularly insidious because they may only manifest themselves when the collector runs within a inescapable window of time. The garbage collection compatibility outlook for third-party libraries is even more grim.

    Long epic short: garbage collection for Objective-C is out. (It's noiseless supported in Lion, but I wouldn't signify on Apple putting a tremendous amount of pains into it going forward. And don't breathe surprised if it goes the way of Rosetta in a few years.) In its place, Apple has created something called Automatic Reference Counting, or ARC for short. But to understand ARC, you should first understand how memory management in Cocoa has traditionally worked.

    Cocoa memory management

    Cocoa uses a memory management technique called reference counting. Each object has a reference signify associated with it. When some fragment of an application takes ownership of an object, it increments the object's reference signify by sending it a retain message. When it's done with the object, it decrements the reference signify by sending a release message to the object. When an object's reference signify is zero, it is deallocated.

    This allows a unique object to breathe used by several different parts of the application, each of which is accountable for bookending its disburse of the object with retain and release messages. If retain is sent to an object more times than release, then its reference signify will never attain zero and its memory will never breathe freed. This is called a memory leak. If release is sent more times than retain, then a release message sent after the object's reference signify has reached zero will find itself looking at the region of memory formerly occupied by the object, which may now accommodate anything at all. A crash usually ensues.

    Finally, there's the autorelease message which means "release, but later." When an object is sent an autorelease message, it's added to the current "autorelease pool." When that pool is drained, extreme objects in it are sent one release message for each time they were added to the pool. (An object may breathe added to the same autorelease pool multiple times.) Cocoa applications fill an autorelease pool that's drained at the intermission of each event loop, but recent pools can breathe created locally by the programmer.

    Simple, right? Just obtain sure your retain and release/autorelease messages are balanced and you're golden. But as straightforward as it is conceptually, it's actually surprisingly effortless to Get wrong. Experienced Cocoa programmers will recount you that retain/release memory management eventually becomes second-nature—and it does—but programmers are only human. Accurately tracking the lifecycle of extreme objects in a great application starts to thrust the limits of human mental capacity. To help, Apple provides sophisticated developer tools for tracking memory allocations and hunting down leaks.

    But education and tools only recede so far. Cocoa experts may not notice retain/release memory management as a problem, but Apple is looking towards the future, towards recent developers. Other mobile and desktop platforms don't require this sort of manual memory management in their top-level application frameworks. Based on Apple's past efforts with garbage collection, it seems lucid that Apple believes it would breathe better for the platform if developers didn't fill to manually manage memory. Now, finally, Apple believes it has found a solution that it can really Get behind.

    Enter ARC

    To understand how ARC works, start by picturing a traditional Objective-C source code file written by an expert Cocoa programmer. The retain, release, and autorelease messages are sent in extreme the privilege places and are in perfect balance.

    Now imagine editing that source code file, removing every instance of the retain, release, and autorelease messages, and changing a unique build setting in Xcode that instructs the compiler to achieve extreme the confiscate memory management calls back into your program when the source code is compiled. That's ARC. It's just what the appellation says: traditional Cocoa reference counting, done automatically.

    Xcode's ARC setting (highlight added)Xcode's ARC setting (highlight added)

    Before explaining how ARC does this, it's essential to understand what ARC does not do. First, ARC does not impose a recent runtime memory model. Code compiled under ARC uses the same memory model as modest C or non-ARC Objective-C code, and can breathe linked to extreme the same libraries. Second, ARC provides automatic memory management for Objective-C objects only (though note that blocks besides chance to breathe Objective-C objects under the covers). memory allocated in any other way is not touched and must noiseless breathe managed manually. (The same goes for other resources like file handles and sockets.) Finally, ARC is not garbage collection. There is no process that scans the memory image of a running application looking for memory to deallocate. Everything ARC does happens at compile time.

    What ARC does at compile time is not magic. There is no deep simulated intelligence at travail here. ARC doesn't even disburse LLVM's sophisticated static analyzer to design out where to achieve the retains and releases. The static analyzer takes a long time to run—too long to breathe a mandatory fragment of the build process; it can besides produce unseemly positives. That's fine for a implement meant to detect workable bugs, but dependable memory management requires certainty.

    What allows ARC to travail is the same thing that enables people to (eventually) become expert Cocoa programmers: conventions. Cocoa has rules about the transfer of ownership that takes Place during common operations like getting or setting an object attribute, initializing an object, or making a mutable copy. Furthermore, the methods that implement these operations ensue a set of naming conventions. ARC knows extreme these rules and uses them to rule when to retain and when to release.

    In fact, ARC follows the rules in a more scholastic manner than any human ever would, bracketing every operation that could possibly breathe influenced by object ownership with the confiscate retain and release messages. This can produce a huge number of memory management operations. Luckily, Apple has an excellent optimizing compiler called Clang (since rechristened by Apple's marketing geniuses as the Apple LLVM Compiler 3.0). Clang sweeps through this sea of mechanically generated code, detecting and eliminating redundancies until what remains looks a lot like what a human would fill written.

    Conventions were made to breathe broken, of course. But what ARC lacks in semantic sophistication it makes up for in predictability and speed, speed, speed. In cases where the human really does know best, ARC can breathe told exactly what to accomplish thanks to a comprehensive set of recent attributes and macros that allow the developer to annotate variables, data structures, methods, and parameters with explicit instructions for ARC. But the conception behind ARC is that these exceptions should breathe rare.

    To ensure that ARC can accomplish what it's designed to accomplish in a amend manner, a few additional language restrictions fill been added. Most of them are esoteric, existing on the boundaries between Objective-C and modest C code (e.g., C structs and unions are not allowed to accommodate references to Objective-C objects). Compatibility with existing C code is one of Objective-C's greatest strengths. But since ARC is a per-compilation-unit feature and ARC and non-ARC code can breathe mixed freely, these recent language restrictions obtain ARC more dependable without compromising interoperability.

    ARC versus garbage collection

    Apple's Objective-C garbage collection came with some drawbacks. As alluded to earlier, the programmer has slight control over when the garbage collector will run, making object reclamation non-deterministic. A garbage-collected application with a memory management bug may crash or not depending on when the collector actually runs. Since garbage collection only runs periodically, the "garbage" (memory) may start to pile up in between runs. This can expand the so-called "high water mark" of an application. Finally, the garbage collection process itself can meddle with the execution of the application.

    Even on a multicore CPU where the collector can sprint on a divorce thread, it must noiseless interact with the running application's memory image, sometimes (briefly) blocking its progress while it cleans up the garbage. On relatively weak, often single-threaded mobile CPUs, this interference can manifest itself as stutters or glitches in the user interface.

    ARC offers a very different value proposition. To start, it suffers from nonexistent of the disadvantages of Objective-C's runtime garbage collection. ARC is deterministic; extreme the memory management code is baked into the executable and does not change at runtime. memory management is integrated directly into the program flow, rather than being done in batches periodically. This prevents execution stalls, and it can besides reduce the elevated water mark.

    Most forms of automatic memory management incur some kind of performance hit. Not ARC. To obtain up for any workable expand in the number of memory management messages generated by ARC, retain and release is 2.5 times faster in Lion; autorelease pools are 6 times faster; and to top it off, household Objective-C message sending is 33 percent faster. Furthermore, since it's the compiler, not the programmer, inserting the memory management code, the generated retain and release code does not fill to gawk exactly like a household compiled Objective-C message send. The compiler has a much more intimate relationship with the Objective-C runtime, and can therefore optimize those operations in ways that a programmer cannot (well, should not, anyway).

    Finally, unlike garbage collection, ARC is a per-compilation-unit setting. Using ARC in your application does not breathe essential that every library you link to will besides sprint under ARC. This means that you don't fill to worry about whether or not every unique one of Apple's libraries works correctly under ARC. Only Apple has to worry about that, and it can rule on a case-by-case basis which should breathe compiled with ARC and which should not. ARC and non-ARC code can breathe mixed freely.

    Objective-C garbage collection does, however, fill one leg up on ARC. The garbage collector can detect and correctly reclaim object graphs with cycles in them. Under reference counting, if object A has a reference to object B, and object B has a reference to object A, then both A and B fill a reference signify of at least one. Even if no other object in the entire application has a reference to A or B, they will not breathe deallocated when running under ARC because they both, eternally, fill nonzero reference counts.

    ARC requires the programmer to explicitly ply these situations, either manually breaking the cycles by removing one or more references or by using another Objective-C feature called "zeroing feeble references." (A feeble reference is a reference that doesn't contribute to an object's reference count.) For example, in a typical parent/child relationship, the parent might fill a reference to the child and the child would fill a feeble reference back to the parent. When the application no longer references the parent or child, the child will fill a reference signify of 1 (the parent noiseless references it) but the parent will fill a reference signify of 0 and will therefore breathe deallocated. That then leaves the child with a reference signify of 0, and it will breathe deallocated. Et voilà, no memory leak.

    The "zeroing" fragment means that feeble references will breathe set to nil when the object they reference is deallocated. (Under ARC, extreme object pointers are initially set to zero.) Under household circumstances, an object shouldn't breathe deallocated if there are noiseless outstanding references to it. But since feeble references don't contribute to an object's reference count, an object can breathe deallocated when there are outstanding feeble references to it. When this happens, the automatic zeroing of the outstanding feeble references prevents them from becoming dangling pointers. (In Objective-C, sending a message to nil is a no-op.)

    ARC versus the world

    Now they Come to the 65,536 byte question. Does ARC achieve Apple back on an even footing with its competitors when it comes to programming language abstraction? The answer, I'm afraid, is no. ARC takes custody of almost extreme the mundane Objective-C memory management tasks, but everything outside of Objective-C remains as it was. Furthermore, ARC does very slight to address the other pillar of modern, high-level programming: memory safety.

    For extreme its auto-zeroing pointers and automatic object deallocation, ARC-enabled Objective-C is noiseless a superset of C, and developers remain just a unique sinful pointer dereference away from scribbling extreme over their application's memory space. This is a far sob from the garbage collected, cycle-detecting, memory-safe, and sometimes even dynamically typed languages available on other platforms, both mobile and desktop.

    This brings us back to my six-year-old set of premises: that programming language abstraction increases over time; that Apple's competitors disburse languages that fill a higher flat of abstraction than Objective-C; and that Apple has yet to account for how or when it's going to proximate the gap. ARC may not achieve parity with the likes of Java, C#, and JavaScript, but it does, finally, provide some insight into how Apple plans to hold its progress platform technologically competitive.

    The first thing ARC reveals is that Apple does disagree that there's a gap to breathe closed. It chose to assault the lowest-hanging fruit first, the one thing about Apple's progress environment most likely to stand out as primitive and backwards to programmers coming from other platforms or even fresh out of school: manual memory management. But while doing so, Apple was not willing to sacrifice any of Objective-C's historic strengths. Objective-C with ARC retains its compatibility with existing code and libraries and remains lean, mean, and as speedily as ever—faster, in some cases.

    Right now, Apple seems committed to these two platform pillars: compatibility and performance. Compatibility is essential to protect Apple's considerable investment in its APIs and developer tools. (Apple even went so far as to enable ARC to travail on Snow Leopard, albeit without the zeroing feeble references feature.) Performance remains a competitive odds for Apple's mobile devices, not just in terms of interface responsiveness and stutter-free animations, but besides in power usage. Those runtime garbage collectors and virtual machines on other platforms can thrash caches and hold more mobile CPUs cores working longer and harder.

    Apple may fill danced with runtime garbage collection, but it's going home with compile-time automation. There is no clearer indicator of Apple's commitment than the fact that ARC is now the default for extreme recent projects created in Xcode; garbage collection never was.

    The most intriguing aspect of ARC is what it might portend for Apple's future. ARC shows that Apple is willing to add restrictions to the language in exchange for developer convenience and safety. It besides implies that Apple believes that compile-time automation and optimization is, if not preferable to, then at least as estimable as the runtime solutions available elsewhere, especially on mobile platforms.

    One thing that Apple does not apparently envision in its platforms' future is a traditional virtual machine, for extreme the reasons previously stated: performance, compatibility, and power usage. Runtime garbage collection is similarly off the table for now. (It's not that Apple believes that garbage collection necessarily precludes distinguished performance; it's just a poor apt for Objective-C and Cocoa.)

    What Apple has instead is a cutting-edge traditional compiler built on a framework that supports many of the same concepts (e.g., bytecode, JIT), but at a lower level.

    Putting it extreme together, it's not hard to imagine a future in which Apple's developers write code in a memory-managed, memory-safe language that incorporates only the highest-level aspects of Objective-C, but remains binary compatible with Objective-C libraries and code. This approach has been described as "Objective-C without the C," and that's not far off. They could arrive at this destination through a string of incremental changes—ARC being the latest—which slowly add optional (but recommended) features and restrictions to Objective-C, only the final of which would breathe touted as introducing a "new language."

    Apple has invested a lot of time and manpower in getting off of gcc and onto a faster, more capable compiler. Now that the transition is over, Apple's attention can whirl towards adding innovative features. The next few years of WWDC could breathe interesting.

    The situation of the file system

    The file system implementation is not something most Mac users mediate about—nor should they. But like any other fragment of an operating system, there's some expectation that it will improve over time. And like any piece of technology, there comes a point where incremental improvements are no longer sufficient and a fresh start is required.

    Mac OS X itself was one such fresh start, albeit one derived from an existing product that was only slightly newer than the one it was replacing. But Mac OS X's file system, HFS+, was carried over from classic Mac OS directly into Mac OS X. It didn't Get a fresh start when the leisure of the OS did.

    Hopes were elevated for a recent file system back in 2006 when Apple publicly declared its interest in a port of Sun's innovative ZFS file system. The next year, Sun's CEO announced that ZFS would breathe fragment of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard—obviously without consulting Apple first.

    It didn't happen; Leopard shipped with HFS+. Two years after that, in 2009, Apple itself listed ZFS as a feature of Snow Leopard Server, only to later remove extreme references to ZFS from its Snow Leopard webpages. A few months later, Apple shut down its open-source project to port ZFS to Mac OS X.

    In the meantime, HFS+ has certainly been incrementally improved. Apple has added champion for metadata journaling, case sensitivity, access control lists, and arbitrarily extensible metadata. nonexistent of these additions changed the basic design of the file system, however. HFS+ is thirteen years old, and is itself an extension of the HFS file system which is more than twenty-five years old. The situation of the expertise in file system design has advanced a lot since 1985.

    But again, most people don't disburse much time thinking about the file system. They mediate about files and folders, sure, but not the software that manages how the individual bytes are arranged on the storage device. My longstanding preoccupation with the nitty-gritty of file storage has often been met with indifference or even derision. "Who cares about a recent file system?" hunt information from the scoffers. "HFS+ works fine. It stores and retrieves my files just fine. What's the problem?"

    In response to this sentiment, I'd like to present some concrete reasons why HFS+ is long overdue for replacement. I believe that Apple understands these problems better than anyone, but that a string of hapless events has resulted in its next-generation operating system being hamstrung with a previous-generation file system for the past decade. Before discussing whether or not Lion makes any progress in this area, let's trap a hard gawk at their feeble friend, HFS+.

    What's wrong with HFS+

    Software is written with inescapable target hardware in mind. When HFS was created, the top-of-the-line Macintosh came with an 800K floppy drive, the "high-end" storage offered by Apple was a 20MB hard drive the size of a lunchbox, and the CPU was from the Motorola 68000 family. Thirteen years later, HFS+ replaced HFS, the floppy disks were 1.44MB, and Apple's hard drives topped out around 6GB. hold this context in intellect as they deem the following details of HFS+'s implementation.

    When searching for unused nodes in a b-tree file, Apple's HFS+ implementation processes the data 16 bits at a time. Why? Presumably because Motorola's 68000 processor natively supports 16-bit operations. Modern Mac CPUs fill registers that are up to 256 bits wide.

    All HFS+ file system metadata read from the disk must breathe byte swapped because it's stored in big-endian form. The Intel CPUs that Macs disburse today are little-endian; Motorola 68K and PowerPC processors are big-endian. (The performance cost of this is negligible; it's mostly just silly.)

    The time resolution for HFS+ file dates is only one second. That may fill been sufficient a few decades ago when computers and disks were slower, but today, many thousands of file system operations (and many billions of CPU cycles) can breathe executed in a second. Modern file systems fill up to nanosecond precision on their file dates.

    File system metadata structures in HFS+ fill global locks. Only one process can update the file system at a time. This is an embarrassment in an age of preemptive multitasking and 16-core CPUs. Modern file systems like ZFS allow multiple simultaneous updates, even to files that are in the same directory.

    The total number of blocks in an HFS+ volume is stored in a 32-bit value. With 4KB blocks, this allows for a maximum disk size of 17TB. That may sound huge to you now, but deem that it's only a sixfold expand over what they fill today, and today's largest hard drives are, in turn, a sixfold expand over what they had in 2005. (Apple can, of course, expand the obstruct size from 4KB to, say, 8KB, but you can only play that game so long.)

    HFS+ lacks sparse file support, which allows space to breathe allocated only as needed in great files. mediate about an application that creates a 1GB database file, then writes a few bytes at the start as a header and a few bytes at the intermission as a footer. On HFS+, slightly less than a gigabyte of zeros would fill to breathe written to disk to obtain that happen. On a modern file system with sparse file support, only a few bytes would breathe written to disk.

    Concurrency, metadata written in the amend byte order, sub-second date precision, champion for massive volume sizes, and sparse file champion are extreme common features of Unix file systems. Mac OS X, of course, is built on a Unix foundation. When HFS+ was ported from classic Mac OS to Mac OS X, it needed to breathe extended to champion some minimum set of features that are expected from Unix file systems.

    Some of those features were an effortless fit, but others were very difficult to add to the file system without breaking backwards compatibility. One particularly scary case is the implementation of hard links on HFS+. To hold track of hard links, HFS+ creates a divorce file for each hard link inside a hidden directory at the root flat of the volume. Hidden directories are kind of creepy to commence with, but the actual scare comes when you bethink that Time Machine is implemented using hard links to avoid unnecessary data duplication.

    Listing the contents of this hidden directory (named "HFS+ Private Data", but with a bunch of non-printing characters preceding the "H") on my Time Machine backup volume reveals that it contains 573,127 files. B-trees or no b-trees, over half a million files in a unique directory makes me nervous.

    That sentiment is compounded by the most glaring omission in HFS+—and, to breathe fair, many other file systems as well. HFS+ does not concern itself with data integrity. The underlying hardware is trusted implicitly. If a few bits or bytes Get flipped one way or the other by the hardware, HFS+ won't notice. This applies to both metadata and the file data itself.

    Data corruption in file system metadata structures can render a directory or an entire disk unreadable. (For a double-whammy, mediate about corruption that affects the "HFS+ Private Data" directory where every unique hard link file on a Time Machine volume is stored.) Corruption in file data is arguably worse because it's much more likely to recede undetected. Over time, it can propagate into extreme your backups. When it's finally discovered, perhaps years later when looking at feeble baby pictures, it's too late to accomplish anything about it.

    But how often does data corruption actually occur? The reply seems to breathe "more often than you'd think." Here's an excerpt from a 2010 academic paper on data integrity:

    In a recent study of 1.53 million disk drives over 41 months, Bairavasundaram et al. expose that more than 400,000 blocks had checksum mismatches, 8 percent of which were discovered during RAID reconstruction, creating the possibility of actual data loss. They besides found that nearline disks develop checksum mismatches an order of magnitude more often than enterprise class disk drives.

    Read the total paper (PDF) for more detail and references. (Here's another case [PDF] from CERN, and the data integrity section of the ZFS Wikipedia entry contains more information and links.)

    Most of these studies concern themselves with enterprise-scale deployments, but personal storage disburse today is where enterprise storage was only a few years ago (in terms of capacity, if not throughput). And hold in intellect that extreme of these issues only Get worse as the data volume goes up—which it inevitably does, year after year.

    It's rapidly becoming inexcusable for the storage systems they entrust with some of their most precious possessions—something we're actively encouraged to accomplish by Apple itself—to trap such a cavalier approach to data integrity. The worst fragment is that there's slight a user can accomplish to obtain up for this technological gap; backups only serve to silently spread data corruption.

    I'll discontinue here, but accomplish note that I haven't even gotten to many of the other headliner features of modern file systems: constant-time snapshots, transactional updates, data deduplication, and on and on. HFS+ has served Apple well, and probably for far longer than its designers ever imagined it would. But like extreme the other Apple-related products and technologies that apt this description (e.g., classic Mac OS, Carbon, PowerPC), there comes a time when things once treasured must pass from this world.

    File system changes in Lion

    Finally, they Come to the heart of the matter. In Lion, what does Apple declare to the god of file system death? "Not today."

    That's right, the default and only file system on which you can install Lion is their feeble friend, HFS+. As eminent earlier, I'm sure Apple is acutely vigilant of HFS+'s shortcomings and would signify its inability to domain a successor among its (rare) recent failings as steward of the platform. But it looks like it will trap a while longer for Apple's file system roadmap to Get back on track after the ZFS near-miss.

    Nevertheless, there are some file system changes in Lion—some significant ones, in fact. The biggest is the introduction of Apple's first actual crack at creating a rational volume manager: Core Storage.

    In earlier versions of Mac OS X (or classic Mac OS, for that matter), a unique physical disk could accommodate one or more volumes. That is, connecting the disk to a Mac would judgement one or more recent hard drive icons to materialize in the Finder. By far, the most common case is to fill just one volume on each physical hard drive. But Mac users with more tangled needs (e.g., people who fill to install many different versions of the operating system for testing or review purposes) trap replete odds of the skill to carve up a unique physical disk into multiple independent volumes.

    The role of HFS+ in this fuse is revealed by Apple's nomenclature. HFS+ is a "volume format." It stands to judgement that there must then breathe something above HFS+ accountable for managing the multiple volumes that may exist on a unique disk, in the same way that HFS+ manages the multiple files and folders that exist within a unique volume. And so there is. Apple supports several varieties of what it calls "partition maps." ("Partitions" are the regions of a unique disk carved out for volumes, one volume per partition. Apple's currently favored partition map is the GUID flavor.)

    Logical volume management is a broad term that usually means allowing more flexible relationships between disks and volumes than traditionally provided by partition maps. In the case of Apple's Core Storage, the key recent feature is the skill for a unique volume to span multiple physical disks.

    Somewhat obscuring this is a raft of recent terminology to picture the recent layers of the storage stack. At the very top flat is the rational Volume Group, which may accommodate one or more Physical Volumes. A Physical Volume provides storage; it may breathe a unique physical disk, a disk image file, or even a RAID device. A rational Volume Group exports zero or more rational Volume Families. A rational Volume Family contains one or more rational Volumes, each of which presents a blank canvas onto which—finally!—a volume format like HFS+ may reside.

    Got extreme that? Don't worry if you haven't. The only thing you need to understand for now is that Core Storage provides a much richer set of abstractions above the volume format. The next question is obvious: what does Lion accomplish with Core Storage?

    If you're entertaining visions of ZFS-style pooled storage, let me nip that in the bud. There is no friendly GUI for creating disk-spanning volumes, and the command-line tools provided are rudimentary and, in my brief testing, don't look to champion extreme of the features ostensibly enabled by Core Storage.

    Core Storage's purpose in Lion is discreetly hidden in the rational Volume Family tier of the layer cake. rational Volume Families don't just export rational Volumes, they besides accommodate properties that apply to them. One such set of properties in Lion enables replete disk encryption.

    Though Apple is using the appellation FileVault to brand this feature, it has absolutely nothing to accomplish with the feature of the same appellation from earlier versions of Mac OS X. The earlier incarnation of FileVault encrypted an individual user's home directory by storing it in an encrypted disk image file. This presented extreme sorts of complications to common operations, and FileVault earned a horrible reputation for poor compatibility with existing software (including Apple's own, like Time Machine).

    Lion's FileVault doesn't just encrypt users' home directories, and it doesn't disburse encrypted disk image files. Instead, it's Apple's implementation of total disk encryption. This means that every byte of data that makes up the volume is encrypted. Furthermore, this encryption is completely transparent to extreme software (including the implementation of HFS+ itself) because it takes Place at a layer above the volume format—a layer that application software does not notice at all.

    Having used a third-party whole-disk encryption product for years, I can recount you that this approach works amazingly well. It really is completely transparent, and the only compatibility issues I've had involved operating system upgrades. (When affecting from Leopard to Snow Leopard, a recent version of the disk encryption software was required. Presumably, this will not breathe a problem now that the feature is built into the OS.)

    Enabling whole-disk encryption is effortless in Lion. The FileVault tab in the Security & Privacy preference pane carefully guides a user through the process, presenting lucid explanations along with an extremely generous dose of caution.

    FileVault whole-disk encryptionFileVault whole-disk encryption

    Each user who will breathe able to decrypt the drive must enter their password to accomplish so. Next, an auto-generated "recovery key" is presented, along with a suggestion to "make a copy and store it in a safe place." This is a final resort in case a user forgets his or her account password. More dire warnings about data loss conduct this information.

    FileVault recovery key: your  final best hopeFileVault recovery key: your final best hope

    Will people really write down that long recovery key and store it in a safe place? Apple has its doubts, it seems, because the next screen asks if you'd like Apple to store the recovery key for you. There is no default altenative for this question, which is exactly right, as far as I'm concerned. Most users probably should allow Apple to store their recovery key, but making that the default might breathe seen as an overreach by geeks and security nerds.

    If you choose to confidence Apple, you must enter answers to three personal questions of your choice. The dialog claims that no one, not even Apple itself, can access your recovery password without the answers to these questions. We've heard claims like this before, but I'm inclined to believe that Apple has learned from the mistakes of others.

    Recovery key escrow:  aid Apple  aid youRecovery key escrow: aid Apple aid you

    Finally, Apple insists that a recovery partition breathe present on the disk that's about to breathe encrypted. If it isn't, and if one can't breathe created (e.g., because it uses the wrong kind of partition map, or because doing so would shift a Boot Camp partition to the fourth position, making it unbootable), encryption won't breathe allowed to proceed. (It's kind of annoying that this check is only made at the very intermission of the process.)

    Assuming a recovery partition exists or can breathe created, a restart is required to enable encryption. Upon reboot, a screen that looks a lot like the Lion login screen (but only containing the users who are allowed to decrypt the volume) appears instantly. Select a user and enter the amend login password and the actual boot process begins. Even if auto-login is disabled, you will boot directly into the account whose password was just entered.

    Revisiting the FileVault preference pane shows an appraise of the time remaining before the encryption process is complete. Encryption happens transparently in the background, which is a estimable thing because it takes a long time. While it's running, you can disburse applications, logout, reboot, and generally disburse your Mac as you normally would without perturbing the encryption process.

    If any users on the system are unable to decrypt the disk, they can breathe allowed to accomplish so by having them enter their login password.

    Enable more users to access the encrypted diskEnable more users to access the encrypted disk

    The output of the diskutil list command now looks a bit eerie (compare to earlier):

    /dev/disk1 #: type appellation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *250.1 GB disk1 1: EFI 209.7 MB disk1s1 2: Apple_CoreStorage 124.5 GB disk1s2 3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 654.6 MB disk1s3 4: Apple_HFS Timex 124.6 GB disk1s4 /dev/disk2 #: type appellation SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: Apple_HFS Lion Ex *124.2 GB disk2

    What once appeared to the OS as a unique disk device now registers as two. One contains the two non-encrypted volumes (Recovery HD and Timex) plus the recent Core Storage volume, and the other contains the mounted incarnation of the newly encrypted (well, encrypting, in this case) volume. Using the special Core Storage variant of the list command (diskutil cs list) reveals more detail, most of which should now obtain sense after the earlier terminology review.

    CoreStorage rational volume groups (1 found) | +-- rational Volume Group 19566D89-E29A-4C6C-88FA-6B845EF1DEBB ========================================================= Name: Lion Ex Sequence: 1 Free Space: 0 B (0 B) | +-< Physical Volume 1A645A01-E149-48B4-8C79-5FD3E20384F1 | ---------------------------------------------------- | Index: 0 | Disk: disk1s2 | Status: Online | Size: 124509331456 B (124.5 GB) | +-> rational Volume Family 58B532AA-B265-4AC7-B53B-12BB039D97B2 ---------------------------------------------------------- Sequence: 9 Encryption Status: Unlocked Encryption Type: AES-XTS Encryption Context: Present Conversion Status: Converting Has Encrypted Extents: Yes Conversion Direction: forward | +-> rational Volume 8A7ACC28-321B-4653-8E85-94CAF047D1DE --------------------------------------------------- Disk: disk2 Status: Online Sequence: 4 Size (Total): 124190560256 B (124.2 GB) Size (Converted): 2539913216 B (2.5 GB) Revertible: Yes (unlock and decryption required) LV Name: Lion Ex Volume Name: Lion Ex Content Hint: Apple_HFS

    Lion doesn't obtain encrypting disks other than the boot disk particularly easy. The Disk Utility application can remove encryption from a volume, change a volume's encryption password, or reformat a volume with encryption enabled (deleting extreme the data currently on the volume in the process), but there is no option to transparently encrypt a volume without erasing it.

    Command-line tools to the rescue: diskutil will happily attempt to encrypt any volume you point it at, without erasing it first. Actually, the process is to transform it to a Core Storage volume which may optionally involve encryption. Let's encrypt the Timex volume, shown as disk1s4 in the earlier diskutil list output.

    % diskutil cs transform disk1s4 -passphrase mysecret Started CoreStorage operation on disk1s4 Timex Resizing disk to apt Core Storage headers Creating Core Storage rational Volume Group Attempting to unmount disk1s4 Switching disk1s4 to Core Storage Waiting for rational Volume to appear Mounting rational Volume Core Storage LVG UUID: B02B86AC-C487-43B3-8C2E-7918CE80ECDF Core Storage PV UUID: 76336EBE-A3B5-4E1E-98B4-8A6873746D86 Core Storage LV UUID: E1F2E293-9952-425E-A597-0954BA734102 Core Storage disk: disk3 Finished CoreStorage operation on disk1s4 Timex Encryption in progress; disburse `diskutil coreStorage list` for status

    As the command output indicates, the volume is shrunk slightly to accommodate the Core Storage headers, then the layer cake of rational volume management components is created, at the very bottom of which is the recent rational volume. No restart is required to commence the process, which happens transparently in the background just like the one initiated from the GUI. The diskutil cs list command now shows a pair of rational Volume Groups, each of which is declared to breathe in the process of encryption. The exact amount of data encrypted and remaining to breathe encrypted on each volume is besides listed.

    CoreStorage rational volume groups (2 found) | +-- rational Volume Group 19566D89-E29A-4C6C-88FA-6B845EF1DEBB | ========================================================= | Name: Lion Ex | Sequence: 1 | Free Space: 0 B (0 B) | | | +-< Physical Volume 1A645A01-E149-48B4-8C79-5FD3E20384F1 | | ---------------------------------------------------- | | Index: 0 | | Disk: disk1s2 | | Status: Online | | Size: 124509331456 B (124.5 GB) | | | +-> rational Volume Family 58B532AA-B265-4AC7-B53B-12BB039D97B2 | ---------------------------------------------------------- | Sequence: 9 | Encryption Status: Unlocked | Encryption Type: AES-XTS | Encryption Context: Present | Conversion Status: Converting | Has Encrypted Extents: Yes | Conversion Direction: forward | | | +-> rational Volume 8A7ACC28-321B-4653-8E85-94CAF047D1DE | --------------------------------------------------- | Disk: disk2 | Status: Online | Sequence: 4 | Size (Total): 124190560256 B (124.2 GB) | Size (Converted): 16999776256 B (17.0 GB) | Revertible: Yes (unlock and decryption required) | LV Name: Lion Ex | Volume Name: Lion Ex | Content Hint: Apple_HFS | +-- rational Volume Group B02B86AC-C487-43B3-8C2E-7918CE80ECDF ========================================================= Name: Timex Sequence: 1 Free Space: 0 B (0 B) | +-< Physical Volume 76336EBE-A3B5-4E1E-98B4-8A6873746D86 | ---------------------------------------------------- | Index: 0 | Disk: disk1s4 | Status: Online | Size: 124551483392 B (124.6 GB) | +-> rational Volume Family F02B9A32-10DE-4BDF-9697-00CE1B6F1133 ---------------------------------------------------------- Sequence: 6 Encryption Status: Unlocked Encryption Type: AES-XTS Encryption Context: Present Conversion Status: Converting Has Encrypted Extents: Yes Conversion Direction: forward | +-> rational Volume E1F2E293-9952-425E-A597-0954BA734102 --------------------------------------------------- Disk: disk3 Status: Online Sequence: 4 Size (Total): 124232712192 B (124.2 GB) Size (Converted): 94633984 B (94.6 MB) Revertible: Yes (unlock and decryption required) LV Name: Timex Volume Name: Timex Content Hint: Apple_HFS

    At any point, the encryption process can breathe reversed (using Disk Utility, the FileVault tab of the Security & Privacy preference pane, or the diskutil command-line program). The decryption process besides happens in the background.

    Changing the encryption password for a disk does not require a lengthy decryption and re-encryption process. I assume FileVault in Lion works like other total disk encryption solutions in that what the password actually unlocks is the actual encryption key for the volume. Changing the encryption password only requires decrypting and re-encrypting the actual encryption key, which is tiny.

    The encryption features that Apple has chosen to provide access to in the GUI divulge a lot about the goal of this feature. First, it's meant to breathe completely transparent. The only change as far as the user is concerned is that the login screen appears to fill moved to the very genesis of the startup process. There is no divorce password to remember; the user's login password decrypts the disk. The same goes for every other user with an account on the system.

    Login passwords are only tied to a boot disk, however. Using login passwords to encrypt disks that may lag from one Mac to another could lead to confusion. This partly explains why there's no GUI option for encrypting non-boot disks. The other fragment of that determination is likely that FileVault is focused on mobile users. nonexistent of Apple's laptops fill more than one internal drive, and partitioning is rare and probably only done by users who besides know enough to gawk up the command-line utility to enable disk encryption on their non-boot volumes.

    Transparent encryption and decryption, perfect software compatibility, a friendly GUI with ample safety nets for non-geek users—what's not to love? Ah, I'm sure you're wondering about performance. extreme forms of total disk encryption benefit from the current imbalance between CPU power and disk speed. In almost extreme circumstances, the CPU in your Mac spends most of its time twiddling its thumbs with nothing to do. This is especially impartial for operations that involve a lot of disk access.

    Whole disk encryption takes odds of this nearly omnipresent CPU cycle glut to sneak in the tiny chunks of travail it requires to encrypt and decrypt data from the disk. Apple besides leverages the special-purpose AES instructions and hardware on Intel's newest CPUs, further reducing the CPU overhead. The intermission result is that regular users will breathe hard-pressed to notice any reduction in performance with encryption enabled. Based on my suffer with the feature in prerelease versions of Lion, I would strongly deem enabling it on any Mac laptop I diagram to travel with.

    File system future

    Disk encryption that actually works, plus some basic rational volume management features—that's extreme well and good. But where does this leave us on the file system front? Perhaps things are not as sinful as they seem. The following is extreme speculation, but given Apple's information vacuum on extreme things file-system-related, it's extreme I've got for now.

    Core Storage is probably the most significant file system change in the history of Mac OS X. Let's mediate about what it does. Core Storage is accountable for managing the chunks of data that obtain up the individual rational volumes on a disk. To accomplish so, presumably it has a set of metadata structures for tracking allocated and free space and for remembering which chunks belong to which volumes.

    Now imagine that those chunks commence to shrink until they are the size of, say, individual files. And instead of volumes, imagine those file-sized chunks belonging to directories. Okay, it's a stretch, but again, it's extreme they fill to recede on. Assuming Apple is lighthearted with the way Core Storage turned out, it has effectively fielded its first brand-new code that performs some of the same basic functions as a file system. Were Apple so inclined, it seems technically plausible, at least, that it could extend this travail into a recent in-house file system project.

    With ZFS out of the picture, Btrfs presumably eliminated due to its licensing, and future progress of ReiserFS uncertain, its hard to notice where Apple will Get the modern file system that it so desperately needs other than by creating one itself.

    This is something I've been anticipating for years. I would fill certainly welcomed ZFS with open arms, but I was equally confident that Apple could create its own file system suited to its particular needs. That confidence remains, but the ZFS distraction may fill added years to the timetable.

    In the meantime, a few valiant souls are noiseless determined to bring ZFS to Mac OS X. I wish them luck, but I would much prefer a solution supported by the operating system vendor. Apple, the gauntlet has been thrown down; it's time to deliver.

    Document revisions

    Lion's modernized document model leans heavily on the skill to manage multiple versions of a unique document. Viewed solely through the user interface, it appears to breathe magic. Unlike earlier incarnations of autosave, you won't notice auto-generated files appearing and disappearing alongside the original document. But the data obviously has to breathe stored somewhere, so where is it?

    Despite extreme its flaws, the Mac OS X file system does fill several features that might breathe useful for saving multiple versions of files. Version number metadata could breathe stored in an extended attribute; the file data itself could conceivably breathe stored in named forks; the existing invisibility metadata could breathe used to conceal the multiple versions.

    Although Apple has gotten religion regarding file system metadata in recent years, leaning heavily on extended attributes in the implementation of Time Machine, downloaded file quarantines, and access control lists, metadata holdovers from classic Mac OS are noiseless out of favor. If Spotlight's implementation has taught us anything, it's that today's Apple prefers to hold things simple when it comes to the file system.

    Given extreme of this, I wasn't surprised to find a /.DocumentRevisions-V100 directory lurking at the root flat of my boot drive, privilege alongside the /.Spotlight-V100 directory. Inside, you'll find an SQLite database file (/.DocumentRevisions-V100/db-V1/db.sqlite) containing tables for tracking files, the individual versions of those files (which Apple calls "generations"), and the storage location of the data. Here's the schema, for the curious.

    CREATE TABLE files ( file_row_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC, file_name TEXT, file_parent_id INTEGER, file_path TEXT, file_inode INTEGER, file_last_seen INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 0, file_status INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, file_storage_id INTEGER NOT NULL ); CREATE TABLE generations ( generation_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC, generation_storage_id INTEGER NOT NULL, generation_name TEXT NOT NULL, generation_client_id TEXT NOT NULL, generation_path TEXT UNIQUE, generation_options INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, generation_status INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, generation_add_time INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 0, generation_size INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 0 ); CREATE TABLE storage ( storage_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC AUTOINCREMENT, storage_options INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1, storage_status INTEGER NOT NULL DEFAULT 1 );

    Unlike Time Machine, Apple's file version storage system is not limited to saving a complete copy of each recent revision of a file. A second SQLite database (/.DocumentRevisions-V100/.cs/ChunkStoreDatabase) tracks the individual chunks that disagree from one revision of a file to another. (Examining its schema is left as an exercise for the reader. Just bethink to copy the database file to a recent location and sprint the sqlite3 program on the copy instead of the actual database, which will likely breathe locked anyway.)

    Intelligently splitting files into chunks such that only a few chunks change from one revision to another is actually quite a difficult problem. deem a 10MB file, initially split into ten 1MB chunks. Now imagine that the next revision of the file simply adds two bytes to the very genesis of the file. Were the recent revision to breathe naïvely split into ten equal-sized chunks, every chunk would breathe different from extreme previously created chunks, defeating the entire purpose of splitting files into chunks rather than saving complete copies every time.

    One technique Apple uses to deal with this problem is called Rabin fingerprinting. Chunks of the file are selected based on their content, rather than strictly based on their offset within the file. (The title of the research paper that introduced this technique, A Low-bandwidth Network File System, suggests that it might besides breathe useful for, say, a network-based file storage system. Hmmm.)

    This algorithm is not blindly applied to every file, however. The chunk storage engine knows about the internal structure of many common file formats (e.g., JPEG images, MPEG4 video, PDFs) and can intelligently chunk them based on this knowledge, separating headers and footers, finding the borders between internal elements, and so on. Unlike Spotlight, there doesn't materialize to breathe a plug-in system for adding explicit champion for recent file types. Custom file types saved by third-party applications materialize to breathe left to the whims of Rabin fingerprinting.

    Very petite files (under, say, 32KB) materialize not to breathe chunked at all. Chunking is not guaranteed to chance immediately when a file is saved; it may chance at a later time. Very great files are generally split into larger pieces, preventing a situation where a 2GB file produces thousands of chunks. This total expose is sprint by a new, private GenerationalStorage.framework which includes a daemon named revisiond.

    (There's an enchanting opportunity here for a third-party developer to create an "unauthorized" application for browsing the contents of the generation store, perhaps even hacking in a recent context menu particular in the Finder for listing previous revisions of a selected file. An application like this probably won't breathe allowed into the Mac App Store, and it's likely to smash in the next OS revision, but it may noiseless find enough customers to breathe worthwhile.)

    Apple's generational storage system is an enchanting fuse of tried-and-true technologies (SQLite, daemons, modest files and directories) with just enough cleverness to avoid being an undue affliction to the system in operation. And remember, every unique file created on the system is not automatically versioned in Lion. Generational storage is a feature that developers must explicitly use. I sure hope a lot of them accomplish so.

    Resolution independence

    Resolution independence has been "coming soon to Mac OS X" since 2005. The dream of drawing the same interface elements at the same visible size but with more pixels was so proximate in 2007 that they could tang it. Then Snow Leopard arrived and the Mac's interface scalability features actually regressed. Depressing.

    Meanwhile, Mac OS X's sibling operating system waltzed privilege into a high-resolution UI on its very first try. iOS's secret? Don't try to champion capricious scale factors, just champion one: double resolution. A 50x50-pixel square on a non-retina iPhone screen is exactly the same size as a 100x100-pixel square on a retina display. Graphics that fill not been updated for the higher resolution are simply drawn with four-pixel squares in Place of each low-resolution pixel. extreme dimensions are nice, even, integer multiples of each other. This is a perfect apt for physical screens which, of course, fill an integer number of pixels. Fractional measurements necessarily require terrifying compromises.

    Lion has taken the hint from its younger brother. capricious scalability is gone. In its Place is a unique check box to enable "HiDPI" display modes. (This option is noiseless hidden away in the Quartz Debug application, so it's clearly not an end-user feature. But unlike extreme previous incarnations of resolution independence, this one actually works.)

    HiDPI display modes on a 15-inch MacBook Pro (native resolution: 1440x900)HiDPI display modes on a 15-inch MacBook Pro (native resolution: 1440x900)

    After enabling HiDPI, recent display modes will become available. In the screenshot above, the 720x450 mode is half indigenous screen dimensions, and the 640x400 mode is half the (non-native) 1280x800 setting. After selecting a HiDPI mode, everything is drawn with twice as many pixels as its non-HiDPI equivalent. Here's a screenshot featuring TextEdit, their usual interface scalability workhorse.

    TextEdit running in Lion's "HiDPI" mode Enlarge / TextEdit running in Lion's "HiDPI" mode

    It looks pretty good, right? The only flaws are the bitmap graphics that haven't been updated for HiDPI (look closely at the black triangles in the ruler). Unfortunately, there are a lot of these throughout the operating system and its bundled applications. But unlike in extreme years past, the framework is finally there for third-party developers and Apple itself to finally Get their applications ready for a world in which 300-dpi desktop and laptop displays are more than just expensive curiosities.

    Unlike iOS, Mac OS X has to contend with a much wider variety of display sizes. Thus far, there has been no Mac equivalent of the iPhone 4, arriving with a double-density display and quickly selling so many units that it represents a significant portion of the installed base. Still, the ease with which iOS developers adapted to the retina display gives me confidence that this pixel-doubling approach can travail on the Mac as well. They just fill to wait a bit longer. By now, they should breathe used to it.

    Applications

    Thanks to the comprehensively revised user interface, most applications that ship with Lion gawk new, but a few of them fill particularly significant changes. I'm not going to cover extreme of them (you'll find more extensive screenshot galleries elsewhere), but here are some highlights.

    The Finder

    The Finder's transition from Carbon to Cocoa in Snow Leopard is starting to pay off in Lion. Several recent APIs added to Cocoa in Lion fill been adopted by the Finder. In days past, when the Finder was noiseless a Carbon application, it rarely got the latest and greatest features at the same time as other bundled applications. No more.

    Cocoa in Lion gives developers more control over the image displayed when an particular is dragged from one Place to another. The Lion Finder uses this control to transform multi-item selections from the usual ghostly image of the source into a compressed, realigned, list-view representation. This transformation happens a moment or two after the drag begins.

    While this is a fine demonstration of a recent API, the suffer is a bit off-putting. Imagine taking a dish out of the dishwasher and then having it start flopping around like a fish in your hand. This is a rare case of Apple losing sight of what's essential in real-time interaction design. Stability and responsiveness lead to comfort. A transformative animation (instability) that happens after a short retard (the appearance of unresponsiveness) does not obtain for estimable experience. I miracle how many novice users will instinctively release the mouse button and inadvertently terminate the drag operation the first time this animation is triggered.

    Search tokensSearch tokens

    The Finder besides proudly demonstrates Lion's recent capsule-style search tokens. Free text can breathe entered into the search domain as usual, but a pop-up menu provides options to circumscribe the scope of the search terms typed so far. The only two options available are "Filename" and "Everything," but the interface is fun and effortless to use, and the potential is there for much more sophistication. (For more tangled searches, the full-fledged Spotlight search with nested boolean logic remains in Lion.)

    By default, at the top of the Lion Finder's sidebar is the recent "All My Files" item. It's a canned search that finds extreme documents in the user's home directory and displays the results in a flat list. The sidebar particular representing the computer as a whole, showing extreme attached drives and connected servers, is noiseless available, but is not in the sidebar by default. The same goes for the home directory item. The other predefined saved searches (e.g., Today, Yesterday, extreme Images, etc.) are no longer available, though they can breathe recreated manually.

    All My Files combined with a secondary filter, arranged by kindAll My Files combined with a secondary filter, arranged by kind

    The addition and prominence of "All My Files" is yet another vote of no-confidence in the user's skill to understand and navigate the file system. If you've ever seen a Mac user try to navigate from the top flat of his hard drive down to his Documents folder, you can commence to understand the challenge Apple is up against here. The "All My Files" particular is just what the doctor ordered. In the increasingly rare cases when novices disburse the Finder directly, rather than managing their data from within an application like iTunes or iPhoto, extreme they want to know is, "Where are extreme my files?" Asked and answered.

    Expert users with thousands upon thousands of files will likely find the "All My Files" feature less useful. But if you discontinue thinking of it as a "location" and start thinking of it as a saved search to which you can apply additional filters with the toolbar's search field, it starts to Get more interesting. The only remaining barrier is performance, which does suffer as the number of files increases.

    All of the existing Finder view styles (icon, list, column, and cover flow) champion a recent "Arrange By" option which sorts items into groups. Each group has a header which "sticks" to the top of the window as the view is scrolled, until the final particular belonging to that group scrolls off the top of the list. The columns in the group headers are frustratingly un-configurable and can't breathe individually resized. But those quibbles aside, the feature does add an enchanting recent dimension to file browsing.

    A recent sort order has besides been added to extreme views: Date Added. This is an exemplar order for the Downloads folder. Sorting by creation or modification date was always problematic for files that preserved their timestamps through the download process (e.g., zip-compressed Mac applications). This would judgement "new" downloads to materialize in unexpected positions in the list. I'm tempted to declare Date Added sorting as best recent feature in the Finder, but I'm unafraid that might look like damning with faint praise.

    Aesthetically speaking, the Finder, like the leisure of Lion, has been visited by the color vampire. The Finder sidebar doesn't even veneration custom folder icons, showing them as generic gray folders instead. That seems a slight tyrannical, even for Apple.

    The only  estimable folder is a gray folderThe only estimable folder is a gray folder

    This paternalism extends to other aspects of the Finder, as well. Library folders are now invisible in the Finder, removing the temptation for novice users to recede mucking around in directories they don't understand. The "Go to Folder…" menu command noiseless exists, so customer champion has some way, at least, to Get users there without resorting to a shell prompt. But existing champion documents that involve instructions and screenshots that anticipate the Library folder to breathe visible will fill to breathe revised for Lion.

    View optionsView options

    The Finder's destructive fuse of browser and spatial behaviors remains in Lion. The tradition of subtly changing the rules that govern when, where, and how view situation changes are applied and honored besides continues. Just in case anyone thought they had finally figured out how the Snow Leopard Finder decides what view to expose when displaying the contents of a folder in a particular window, Lion changes the rules again.

    The controls at the top of the view options palette now involve a occult sub-checkbox labelled "Browse in view," where view is the window's current view style. This appears to govern the view used when opening sub-folders from a window where the toolbar is visible, but a slight experimentation will divulge that the setting is overridden by any "Always open in view" setting of a sub-folder. The intermission result is the same as it has ever been: an inscrutable system that users quickly give up any hope of understanding, resigning themselves to manually correcting view styles as needed during every interaction with the Finder.

    Mail

    Apple's venerable Mail application gets a significant facelift in Lion. Once derided as one of the ugliest bundled applications, it's now been transformed into the classiest. (It doesn't wound that the competition has stumbled a bit.) The screenshot below is dominated by the glossy Apple promotional e-mail for Lion in the right-hand pane, but gawk past it at the surrounding interface.

    Mail in Lion: a class act Enlarge / Mail in Lion: a class act

    Or rather, gawk at how much of the surrounding interface isn't there. With the exception of the toolbar, this window is completely about the content. There are no external borders, only the barest hint of internal borders, and, as befitting a impartial Lion application, no visible scrollbars. The toolbar and quick-access button bar ensue the monochromatic Lion style while noiseless looking crisp. The cheeky red flag icon is besides a nice touch.

    After years of unsupported hacks to add a three-pane wide-screen view to Mail, Apple has finally taken the hint and made it official. There's also, naturally, a full-screen mode.

    At last, widescreen three-pane Mail for all Enlarge / At last, widescreen three-pane Mail for all

    Like the Finder, Mail's search domain supports Apple's snazzy recent search tokens. These provide the fastest way to accomplish medium-complexity searches that I've ever seen in any e-mail application. It's too sinful the search domain is so narrow and doesn't expand to fill extreme available space in the toolbar, however.

    The main viewing pane shows entire threads by default, with each message appearing as a divorce virtual piece of paper. Mail aggressively collapses quoted text within messages, displaying an adorable accordion sequel upon expansion.

    Mail plays an accordion animation when expanding quoted text Enlarge / Mail plays an accordion animation when expanding quoted text

    Keyboard champion is excellent, allowing one-handed navigation for most common tasks. Expanding a thread and selecting a unique message causes it to fill the right-hand pane, leaving behind the vanity that each message is actually a slight piece of paper.

    Mail has become more capable, as well. Simple rich text editing capabilities fill finally been added. Mail is besides even better about automatically setting up accounts for common services. The account setup screens just hunt information from for a name, e-mail address, and password, and will usually accomplish everything else for you, including (optionally) correctly configuring and integrating calendar and chat services that might breathe associated with the e-mail account (e.g., Google Calendar and Talk).

    Rich text editing: let your font flag flyRich text editing: let your font flag fly

    If, like me, you never seriously considered using any of the previous incarnations of Apple's Mail application, the version in Lion is definitely worth taking for a test drive—even if only as a haphazard to suffer an application that so thoroughly embraces the technology and aesthetic of the recent operating system.

    Safari

    Besides adding champion for another crop of recent Web technologies (MathML, WOFF, CSS3 enhancements), the biggest change in Safari is its aforementioned disburse of the recent WebKit2 rendering engine, which moves webpage rendering into a separate, low-privilege process. (Previous versions of Safari already isolated plug-ins in divorce processes.) This change is invisible to the user, but it should provide an additional layer of protection against browser-based exploits.

    Safari's downloads window has been subsumed into the toolbar and is now displayed as an iPad-style popover. (This is a yardstick control available to extreme Cocoa applications in Lion.) When starting a download, an icon leaps from the point of the click into the downloads toolbar icon, which then displays a tiny progress bar. It's cute, informative for novices, and keeps the downloads window out of the way.

    Safari downloads in a popoverSafari downloads in a popover

    A petite eyeglasses icon in the bookmarks bar triggers Apple's recent Reading List feature, which saves the currently displayed webpage for later reading. This list of webpages is (or rather, will be) synchronized with Safari in iOS 5. Saved pages materialize in the sidebar, accompanied by unattractively scaled favicons.

    Safari's Reading List: save webpages to read later. (High-resolution favicons recommended.)Safari's Reading List: save webpages to read later. (High-resolution favicons recommended.)

    Reading List follows in the Somewhat dubious footsteps of other Apple products that fill clearly been "inspired," let's say, by well-liked third-party services. As was the case when Safari added rudimentary champion for RSS, Reading List is unlikely to dislodge users who are already comfortable with their existing read-it-later service.

    But most people fill never even heard of such a thing. Reading List's prominent placement in Safari will certainly spread awareness. This could translate into more customers for competing services, even as Reading List takes the lion's share (sorry) of users.

    One final note on applications. The Finder, Mail, Safari, TextEdit, and even Terminal extreme champion full-screen mode and restore extreme their windows when relaunched. Apple is definitely trying to lead by example.

    Grab bag

    As this review winds down, let's relax with a slight souse into the feeble grab bag, a grand tradition where the smaller features Get their haphazard to shine. As in years past, Apple has its own, much snazzier and more complete incarnation. Check it out if you want a broader overview of Lion's recent features. These are just the ones that piqued my interest.

    System Preferences

    System Preferences fill been shuffled, consolidated, and renamed in every major releases of Mac OS X. Lion doesn't disappoint.

    The preference formerly known as Appearance is now called General, and it includes a checkbox to globally disable application situation restoration. The Exposé & Spaces preference is now called Mission Control. Security becomes Security & Privacy. Accounts is now Users & Groups—a welcome change because, in my experience, most people don't know what an "account" is. Universal Access moves to the top row. And on and on. Dance, icons, dance!

    Your favorite system preferences: where are they today? Enlarge / Your favorite system preferences: where are they today?

    Individual preference icons can breathe manually hidden by the user thanks to the recent "Customize…" menu item. (They will remain accessible from the View menu and via search.)

    Hide the preferences you're not interested in Enlarge / conceal the preferences you're not interested in

    Click and hold on the "Show All" button to quickly jump from one preference to another via a drop-down menu. The View menu provided the same functionality in Snow Leopard, but the "Show All" button is closer to where the cursor is likely to be.

    Take a direct flight to your next preference paneTake a direct flight to your next preference pane

    Perhaps surprisingly, the MobileMe preference remains. It's joined by the new, awkwardly named Mail, Contacts & Calendars preference which manages, well, mail, contacts, and calendar accounts for a variety of online services.

    Centralized online service account management Centralized online service account management

    This includes the ever-popular "Other" service, which leads to a set of more generic configuration screens for other protocols and applications.

    Manual configuration and more esoteric account typesManual configuration and more esoteric account types

    The trackpad preference pane allows some, but not extreme of the recent gestures in Lion to breathe configured in limited ways. For example, the Mission Control gesture must always breathe an upward swipe, but it can disburse three or four fingers. extreme of the gestures can breathe disabled.

    Limited choices for gesture configurationsLimited choices for gesture configurations

    Finally, in case you needed any more evidence of Apple's newfound aversion to color in the Mac OS X interface, trap a gawk at the recent time zone selection screen.

    Your world,   extreme silvery in the moonshineYour world, extreme silvery in the moonshine Auto-correction

    Lion adds optional iOS-style auto-correction to the yardstick Mac OS X text control. It looks and works just like the iOS incarnation from which it's so clearly derived. like the other spelling and grammar checking options, auto-correction can breathe enabled on a per-document basis.

    I eagerly await the Compose Text Automatically optionI eagerly await the Compose Text Automatically option System-wide auto-correction: try to resist the  exhort to tap the screenSystem-wide auto-correction: try to resist the exhort to tap the screen Mobile Time Machine

    Time Machine isn't much aid when you're on the road with your laptop. nonexistent of Apple's portable Macs involve more than one internal drive, and making a Time Machine back up to another partition of the same drive kind of defeats the purpose.

    Lion includes a new, mostly invisible feature whereby Time Machine backups continue even when the backup volume is not mounted. This feature is only active for laptops, which is a shame (though you can enable it on desktops using the tmutil command-line tool).

    The implementation is strange. The mtmfs (Mobile Time Machine file system) daemon runs an NFS server on localhost which is then mounted at /Volumes/MobileBackups. In it, you'll find the usual Backups.backupdb directory structure that Time Machine creates for its backups. The actual copies of recent and changed files—and only those files—are stored in /.MobileBackups by the mtmd daemon.

    This system provides some basic data protection for users on the go, beyond what's offered by applications that champion Lion's autosave APIs. Mobile Time Machine, like regular Time Machine, tracks extreme file changes, not just those made by inescapable applications.

    There is some obvious overlap between Mobile Time Machine and the generational store used to champion document versioning in Lion. Having two entirely divorce storage locations and techniques for backup copies of files is suboptimal; perhaps the backends for these two features will merge in the future.

    Lock screen

    Lion's recent lock screen has been restyled to match the login screen, with options to unlock or switch users, and it comes with the same subset of menu bar status icons visible in the top-right corner.

    Lion's  recent lock screenLion's recent lock screen Emoji

    Lion adds Emoji champion to Mac OS X. So that happened.

    FACE WITH NO  estimable gesture (U+1F645); MOON VIEWING CEREMONY (U+1F391); PILE OF POO (U+1F4A9)FACE WITH NO estimable gesture (U+1F645); MOON VIEWING CEREMONY (U+1F391); PILE OF POO (U+1F4A9) Terminal

    The Terminal application gets a few more graphical frills, sporting a recent parameter for window blur, with divorce settings for active and passive windows. The bundled Silver Aerogel theme demonstrates the effect.

    "I want to know what's behind my terminal window, but I don't want to know every detail.""I want to know what's behind my terminal window, but I don't want to know every detail."

    Terminal also—finally—supports 256 text colors with its recent xterm-256color terminal type. Users of terminal-based text editors will surely approve.

    About This Mac

    The System Profiler application has been renamed System Information and now includes a comprehensive, effortless to understand overview of the entire system. The copious links to champion documents, apropos preferences, and channels for feedback are fantastic. This will breathe the recent go-to location for anyone trying to remotely diagnose a Mac problem. As before, it's most easily accessed by going to the Apple menu and selecting About This Mac, then clicking the "More Info…" button.

    Don't worry, geeks, the feeble System Profiler interface with its much more detailed technical information is noiseless accessible via the "System Report…" button. But it's likely that you'll rarely need the extra detail. trap a gawk at what the recent screens offer.

    Tech specs never looked so goodTech specs never looked so good Did you know that your display has a manual?Did you know that your display has a manual? There sure seems to  breathe a lot of "other"There sure seems to breathe a lot of "other" Unfilled RAM slots are sinful. I am ashamed.Unfilled RAM slots are sinful. I am ashamed. Five ways to Get supportFive ways to Get support An excellent executive summary of warranty information and service optionsAn excellent executive summary of warranty information and service options Recommendations Want an eBook or PDF copy? champion Ars and it's yours.

    Even at Ars Technica, a inescapable percentage of readers just want to know the bottom line about a recent operating system. Is this a estimable release? Is it worth the expense and the hassle of installing it? Excluding the first few dog-slow, feature-poor releases of Mac OS X, the reply to extreme those questions has always been a resounding "yes." Lion continues this tradition, more than earning its $29 expense with a raft of recent technologies and a substantially revised interface and suite of bundled applications.

    The yardstick caveats apply about software and hardware compatibility. Don't just sprint out and upgrade your system as soon as you finish this review. Lion's digital distribution makes hasty upgrades even more likely. Patience! trap a few days—weeks, even—to research extreme of your favorite applications and obtain sure they extreme sprint fine on Lion. If you're noiseless using some PowerPC applications, don't upgrade until you fill replaced them with Intel-native alternatives. And before you upgrade, back up, back up, back up.

    All that you can't leave behind

    Though the Lion appellation suggests the intermission of something, the content of the operating system itself clearly marks the start of a recent journey. Seemingly emboldened by the success of iOS, Apple has taken a hatchet to decades of conventional wisdom about desktop operating systems.

    The same thing happened ten years ago in an even more theatrical vogue when Apple replaced classic Mac OS with Mac OS X. The recent operating system changed the rules on the desktop, wedding composited graphics, smooth animation, and photorealistic artwork to a solid Unix foundation. Apple tried to leave extreme vestiges of its feeble operating system behind—the platinum appearance, the Apple menu, even the desktop itself—but eventually bowed to some demands of long-time Mac users. Lion's changes will no doubt meet with similar resistance from experienced Mac users, but I suspect Apple will remain unmoved this time around.

    In the same way that Mac OS X so clearly showed the leisure of the industry what user interfaces would gawk like in the years to come, Apple's own iOS has now done the same for its decade-old desktop operating system. iOS was less shocking to users because it appeared to Come from nothing, and the mobile operating system conventions it defied were ones that nobody liked anyway. The same is not impartial on the desktop, where users cling like victims of Stockholm syndrome to mechanics that fill wound them time and again.

    It may breathe many years before even half of the applications on a typical Mac behave according to the design principles introduced in Lion. The transition era could breathe ugly, especially compared to the effortless uniformity of iOS. In the meantime, let Apple's younger platform serve as a lighthouse in the storm. The Mac will always breathe more capable than its mobile brethren, but that doesn't breathe essential that simple tasks must besides breathe harder on the Mac. Imagine being able to stick a computer neophyte in front of an iMac with the same confidence that you might hand that neophyte an iPad today.

    The technical details of Apple's operating system that were once so essential that they practically defined its being (e.g., memory protection, preemptive multitasking) are now taken for granted. Mainstream reviews of software and hardware alike disburse far less time pondering technical specifications and implementation details than they did only a few years ago.

    This phenomenon extends even to the geekiest among us, those who didn't just skip to the conclusion of this review but actually read the entire thing. Fellow geeks, hunt information from yourselves, accomplish you know the clock precipitate of the CPU in the device you're reading this on? accomplish you know how much RAM it has? What about the memory bus precipitate and width? Now deem what your answers might fill been ten years ago.

    Over the past decade, better technology has simply reduced the number of things that they need to custody about. Lion is better technology. It marks the point where Mac OS X releases discontinue being defined by what's been added. From now on, Mac OS X should breathe judged by what's been removed.


    Download and Test Mac OS X 10.7 Lion for Free via AppleSeed | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Apple has launched Apple Software Customer Seeding, or AppleSeed, a program where customers are invited to test pre-release software products in order to provide Apple Software Engineering with real-world quality and usability feedback.

    Unfortunately, the program is only available to those who receive an invitation via email, but there’s always the Apple Developer Program which you can enroll with and download extreme the pre-release Apple software you want.

    “This program is designed for customers, not developers,” Apple outlines.

    “Software seeding is not for everyone. Participants testing developmental software must tolerate the unpolished nature of a pre-release product. There is always the risk of data loss,” Apple adds.

    If you’re selected, you are promised a first gawk at recent and upcoming software products while empowering you with the skill to provide feedback directly into Apple’s engineering team.

    This time around, you’ll Get to test out Lion, Apple’s latest desktop operating system that builds on Snow Leopard and adds specific iOS elements most common to the iPad builds.

    Apple is doing this because it needs the feedback “to improve the overall quality of their products by testing it in many different environments.”

    “Your suffer with their products impacts their future success and this program will aid us facilitate that goal,” the Mac maker adds.

    Cupertino promises to roll out confiscate forums based on the product team's needs, so anticipate a dedicated Mac OS X Lion discussions board to emerge soon.

    In addition to the upcoming forums, Apple will achieve the existing web forms, discussion lists, mailing lists, engineering questionnaires, and bug reporting tools at customers’ disposal.

    Testers are to receive specific instructions for each software seeding project, Apple said.

    It is unclear how the process of downloading and installing Mac OS X 10.7 will unfold for non developers (i.e. what does Apple provide them with in order to accomplish so?), but they confidence their readers to shed some light on that.

    Those who receive their invitations are encouraged to share the information in the comments, before they proceed with signing Apple’s confidentiality agreement.



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