922-089 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Test Code : 922-089
Test denomination : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor denomination : Nortel
: 30 real Questions
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newsMicrosoft-Nortel observe Unified Communications capable points
The Alliance lately won three original purchasers as well, together with Indiana tuition, U.okay.-primarily based Worcestershire fitness tips and Communications know-how services, and an IT and telephony issuer called 4ward.
Microsoft and Nortel fashioned the imaginitive Communications Alliance in July of ultimate yr with the even of offering unified communications solutions to agencies. below the Alliance, the groups initiated joint analysis and pile efforts. They likewise created customer demonstration centers and engaged in joint sales and advertising.
within the Alliance's initial press release, Jeff Raikes, Microsoft's enterprise Division president, brought up that the joint unified communications retort would allow a "single id across electronic mail, voice mail, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) denomination processing, rapid messaging and video."
The Alliance's distinguished product is called Nortel Converged office, a unified communications device that integrates Nortel's VoIP telephony system with Microsoft's server know-how.
The main components of Converged office include:
there's likewise a Nortel utility hub participate that supports not obligatory capabilities, together with net integration, interactive voice response and contact core features.
Unified communications receives described in quite a few techniques, however based on the IEEE, it typically encompasses "unified messaging, collaboration and interplay programs." These methods additionally customarily permit actual-time and immediate precise-time communications. in addition, mixed media (voice, email, fax, etc.) may likewise breathe accessed from a sole application, independent of the access device.
competitors within the unified communications house is thick with big names. In March of this yr, IBM and Cisco, introduced a collaborative pains on unified messaging customer technology called Unified Communications and Collaboration (UC2). UC2 is in accordance with open technologies, akin to Eclipse pile atmosphere and the Open services Gateway Initiative framework. Citrix methods and Nokia, among others, hold expressed assist for the UC2 platform.
under the IBM-Cisco unified communications partnership, Cisco plans to promote IBM's Lotus Sametime collaboration solution and IBM plans to sell Cisco's Unified Communications supervisor, Cisco solidarity and Cisco Unified MeetingPlace items. The entire unified communications retort is designed and delivered by route of IBM international know-how capabilities.
Kurt Mackie is senior word producer for the 1105 enterprise Computing neighborhood.
newsMicrosoft and Nortel existing Alliance Roadmap
both businesses first introduced their collaboration closing summer.
The highway map contains three original joint solutions “to dramatically enhance enterprise communications through breaking down the boundaries between voice, email, rapid messaging, multimedia conferencing and other kinds of communication,” according to a statement with the aid of both organisations.
also blanketed within the announcement are 11 original implementation capabilities from Nortel and the opening of greater than 20 joint demonstration centers where consumers can journey the expertise, the remark continued.
moreover, both agencies said they hold got signed agreements with dozens of purchasers, and hold developed a “pipeline of lots of of possibilities who want to recognise the benefits of unified communications.”
From Microsoft's point of view, it's outright participate of the enterprise's long-term play to merge outright types of communications and messaging into a sole framework. A yr ago, the enterprise introduced that it turned into merging its change Server group with its precise-Time Collaboration (RTC) neighborhood, and that it had begun to believe of both applied sciences comprising a "platform."
the brand original neighborhood turned into named the Unified Communications neighborhood (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's commerce Division. The notion for the brand original community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of adding continuity to a myriad of communications contraptions, technologies and modes -- from email and immediate messaging to Voice over internet Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and net conferencing -- in a unified method.
The three original joint options announced with the aid of the alliance this week are named Unified Communications integrated branch, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.
When it's obtainable within the fourth quarter, UC built-in department will incorporate Nortel and Microsoft expertise on a sole piece of hardware that promises VoIP and unified communications in far off workplaces.
Coming a bit of prior in the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will even to simplify customer deployments, indigenous session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel verbal exchange Server 1000 and Microsoft exchange Server 2007. The retort contains Nortel knowledgeable capabilities for design, deployment and aid.
also coming within the fourth quarter, Conferencing will prolong Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft office Communicator 2007. It goals to give a sole customer undergo constant throughout functions comparable to voice, immediate messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.
This year, the businesses additionally procedure to extend their latest unified communications retort — a unified desktop and choice mobilephone for VoIP, electronic mail, immediate messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a carrier-grade enterprise telephony product helping as much as 200,000 clients on a sole equipment, in line with enterprise statements.
As for the street map, the two organizations hold equipped more than 20 joint demonstration facilities in North the united states, Europe and Asia, with more than one hundred additional centers scheduled to open through midyear.
Nortel has additionally added 11 core integration services to back consumers build, installation and aid joint unified communications options, including end-to-end venture management. Nortel claims it has already trained more than 2,200 VoIP consultants to carry these functions and may add more as deployment ramps up.
Stuart J. Johnston has coated expertise, particularly Microsoft, due to the fact that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, tips Week, and computing device World, as well as for commercial enterprise Developer, XML & internet features, and .net magazines.
common utility movement gives complete, reasonably priced, and Scalable solution throughout systems and into offshoot places of work
TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Nov. 3, 2009) - tiny and medium-sized corporations (SMBs) can reap productiveness, can charge-savings and the funding insurance policy captious to success in synchronous commerce environment with original unified communications-based (UC) software from Nortel* (OTCBB:NRTLQ). The latest application unencumber 5.0 for Nortel's award-winning enterprise Communications manager (BCM) provides original UC capabilities, including unified presence, and enhanced simplicity with the introduction of a typical application movement for BCM50 and BCM450.
The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-based mostly IP/TDM PBXs providing utility-rich, all-in-one options for converged voice and information communications. The BCM50 serves organizations with as much as 50 users while the greater capability BCM450 is appropriate for starting to breathe medium to huge companies and department offices with as much as 300 users. each helps a mingle of IP and digital customers and might permit corporations to store as much as 70 percent of their customary investment by route of reusing present machine.
As participate of the original BCM Rls 5.0 software, BCM450 and BCM50 provide SMBs with dynamic UC facets relish InTouch, which promises genuine federated presence, and widely wide-spread built-in communications functions and capabilities. InTouch lets users communicate simply with anyone in their own listing – across Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click-to-name, click on-to-IM, and click on-to-e mail. by route of connecting people quicker, improving collaboration and rushing up the time to determination, Nortel estimates that unified communications can aid organizations realize cost-savings and an enlarge in productivity of as much as 18 %.
closing 12 months, the Nashville conference and guests Bureau** (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 solution to booklet greater than 650,000 hotel rooms whereas advertising and marketing tourism on behalf of quite a lot of companions. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch application in the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of guidance know-how, is keen for seeing actual-time presence for every person on the network and having a view into ignored calls even when a caller does not leave a voicemail. For now, NCVB is having fun with the first BCM Rls 5.0 characteristic it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which permits simultaneous ringing of up to 5 extra exterior instruments. "each denomination is abilities business," spoke of Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe potential, their revenue team under no circumstances has to miss a further profits-generating convoke once again."
Minitel**, a premier Nortel companion featuring carrier throughout Canada, additionally selected to ordeal BCM Rls 5.0 in its own office construction device. Its Toronto vice chairman of Operations, Dan Silverman, became so completely satisfied with the development of the in-house ordeal he convinced a big accounting hard customer to deploy it as neatly. "The setting up became as smooth as could breathe and the client is now rolling out both InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to dissimilar clients of their corporation with ease. They hold been able to procure their customer as much as hasten on the interface and rolling the application out by themselves in less than an hour," referred to Silverman.
Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana** (ULA) in a similar fashion established the latest BCM software with wonderful outcomes. "we're in the enterprise of educating synchronous youth and making ready them for the long hasten and the challenges forward," renowned Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of methods, ULA. "To accomplish that, they matter on having the latest in communications know-how that helps us tender a loaded UC adventure for workforce and students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, they discovered that the product's original characteristic set enhances their UC event, while maximizing device already in place."
BCM50 consumer, Philkeram-Johnson**, the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, likewise welcomed the brand original application free up. "Our Nortel BCM50 offers us room to grow, when it comes to capability and performance, and it grants the facets they should evolve to a unified communications atmosphere," spoke of Christos Syropoulos, commerce supervisor, Philkeram-Johnson. "we are at outright times seeking ways to boost their products and their productiveness in order to reply more immediately to shoppers. i'm desperate to find out greater in regards to the original features purchasable in BCM Rls 5.0 and the route they will consume them to boost their communications."
in addition to the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a person forward a voice message the usage of a file in order that it can likewise breathe performed or examine by route of any cellular equipment on this planet. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now gives up to a hundred twenty five ports with back for as many as 300 users. professional convoke Recording, a means usually provided through a 3rd birthday party is additionally attainable as participate of the newest BCM unlock.
As a further capacity of streamlining charges and operations making it even more primary for SMBs and Nortel channel partners to install, provision, and migrate pre-current data, the original BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio includes commonplace software and applications, O/S, practicing, accreditation, user interfaces, and documentation.
Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 on the earth in variety of hybrid-IP lines shipped and #2 in SMB market revenue for the 2nd quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM options are localized and offered in over one hundred twenty nations via greater than one thousand channels.
Hear from extra BCM users and companions:
Nortel offers communications capabilities that build the swear of company Made yardstick a verity for their valued clientele. Their next-generation technologies, for both service provider and enterprise networks, succor multimedia and enterprise-vital applications. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to succor eliminate brand original boundaries to effectivity, hasten and efficiency through simplifying networks and connecting individuals to the guidance they need, when they want it. For more assistance, talk over with Nortel on the net at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel news, visit www.nortel.com/news.
certain statements in this press release might likewise accommodate words comparable to "might", "expects", "may additionally", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "ambitions", "envisions", "seeks" and different similar language and are regarded forward-looking statements or assistance below relevant securities legislation. These statements are according to Nortel's present expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections in regards to the operating environment, economies and markets through which Nortel operates. These statements are sphere to distinguished assumptions, risks and uncertainties, that are intricate to predict and the genuine outcome may well breathe materially different from those contemplated in ahead-searching statements. For more information with respect to inevitable of those and other elements, observe Nortel's Annual document on Form10-k, Quarterly studies on profile 10-Q and other securities filings with the SEC. unless in any other case required by applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any goal or responsibility to update or revise any forward-looking statements, even if on account of original suggestions, future hobbies or otherwise.
*Nortel, the Nortel logo and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.
**this is a third party link as described in their net linking practices.
Use of the terms "associate" and "partnership" doesn't imply a prison partnership between Nortel and every other celebration.
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UPDATED: January 2019
Last September, consumers began to observe the first service bundles offered by telecommunications companies in their area, marketed with some profile of the term "5G." "5G is here," declared Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, specifically for cities such as Sacramento, Los Angeles, and Indianapolis where rival AT&T had already been drumming up excitement around its 5G trials.
It was a bit relish SpaceX's 2016 announcement, its 2017 announcement, and its 2018 announcement that the race to Mars had begun.
Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint merger: The numbers and assumptions you exigency to know
5G Wireless is an categorical set of technologies specified by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as "Release 15" and "Release 16." 3GPP is an organization consisting of essentially outright the world's telecommunications standards bodies who agreed to participate the definition of 3G Wireless, and to lunge on from there to successive generations.
Overlooked by London's skyscrapers EE's 5G mobile ordeal kicks off.Image: EE Who gets to mutter what 5G really is and isn't
Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies constitute 5G Wireless and, by exclusion, which Do not. 5G is an pains to create a sustainable industry around the wireless consumption of data for outright the world's telcos. One key goal of 5G is to dramatically improve trait of service, and extend that trait over a broader geographic area, in order for the wireless industry to remain competitive against the onset of gigabit fiber service coupled with Wi-Fi.
The 5G transition plan, once complete, would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history. Imagine if, at the immediate of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had near together in a joint decision to implement a staged transition to fax. That's essentially the scale of the shift from 4G to 5G. The real intuition for this shift is not so much to procure faster as to build the wireless industry sustainable over the long term, as the 4G transmission scheme is approaching unsustainability faster than the industry experts predicted.
SEE: How 5G will transform commerce (ZDNet special report) | Download the report as a PDF (TechRepublic)
To build the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telcos are looking to lunge customers into a 5G commerce track now, even before most actual 5G services exist yet. More to the point, they're laying the "foundations" for technology tracks that can more easily breathe upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services Do become available.New commerce models
Equipment staged by NTT DOCOMO for 5G urban locality trials in Japan.(Image: Ericsson)
The initial costs of these infrastructure improvements may breathe tremendous, and consumers hold already demonstrated their intolerance for rate hikes. So to recoup those costs, telcos will exigency to tender original classes of service to original customer segments, for which 5G has made provisions. These include:
"It's not only going to breathe they humans that are going to breathe consuming services," remarked Nick Cadwgan, director of IP mobile networking, speaking with ZDNet. "There's going to breathe an terrible lot of software consuming services. If you behold at this whole thing about massive machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it's been primarily the human either talking to a human or, when they hold the internet, the human requesting services and experiences from software. poignant forward, they are going to hold software as the requester, and that software is going to breathe talking to software. So the whole dynamic of what services we're going to hold to deliver through their networks, is going to change."Driving for higher yields
5G is comprised of several technology projects in both communications and data hub architecture, outright of which must collectively bow benefits for telcos as well as customers, for any of them to breathe individually considered successful. The majority of these efforts are in one of three categories:
Projection of interrelated 5G service tiers(Image:International Telecommunications Union)
It was during the implementation of 4G that telcos realized they wished they had different grades of infrastructure to back different classes of service. 5G allows for three service grades that may breathe tuned to the special requirements of their customers' commerce models:
"The first generation of mobile systems that were launched around 1991 -- popularly known as 2G/GSM -- was really focused on massive mobile device communication," explained Sree Koratala, head of technology and strategy for 5G Wireless in North America for communications equipment provider Ericsson, speaking with ZDNet. "Then the next generation of mobile networks, 3G, launched starting in 1998, enabled mobile broadband, feature phones, and browsing. When 4G networks were launched in 2008, smartphones popularized video consumption, and data traffic on mobile networks really exploded.
"All these networks primarily catered towards consumers," Koratala continued. "Now when you behold at this next generation of mobile networks, 5G, it is very unlike the previous generation of network. It's truly an inflection point from the consumer to the industry."
The complete release of the first complete set of 5G standards (officially "Release 15") by 3GPP took space in June 2018. By the halt of 2019, the organization expects to declare a supplemental set of 5G standards called "Release 16." That release is slated to comprise specifications for:
The actual purpose of 5G Wireless, as you'll observe momentarily, is to bow a global commerce model where expenses are lower and revenue from services is higher, on account of the presence of more and greater services than 4G could provision for. So there is a sound argument, from a marketing standpoint, in favor of a gradual deconstruction of 4G branding. As consumers hear more and more about the onset of 5G, enumeration leaves them feeling more and more relish their 4G equipment is old-fashioned and obsolete.
With so many technologies under the 5G umbrella -- home broadband, office broadband, home television, Internet of Things, in-vehicle communication, as well as mobile phone -- there's no guarantee that, when it comes time, any consumer will pick the same provider for each one unless that consumer is willing to sign a condense beforehand. That's why telcos are stepping up their 5G branding efforts now, including rolling out preliminary 4G upgrades with 5G monikers, and re-introducing the whole notion of 5G to consumers as a fuzzy, cloudy, nebulous entity that encapsulates a sci-fi-like example of the future.
"The generic purpose technology for the Fourth Industrial Revolution is actually the equivocal sort of connectivity that 5G can bring," admitted Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, in no less conspicuous an arena than the keynote address of CES 2019.
Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg explains "5G for All" to attendees at CES 2019.[Photo courtesy Verizon]
"So what is 5G? 5G is a promise," Vestberg continued, "of so much more than we've ever seen in any wireless technology. From the beginning, they had the 1G, the 2G, the 3G, and the 4G. They were sort of leaps of differences, when it comes to hasten and throughput. When they mediate about 5G, they mediate about 10 gigabits per second throughput, they talk about 10x battery life, they mediate about 1000 times more data volumes in the networks. It's just radically different. I would mutter it's a quantum leap compared to 4G."
The first wave of 5G-branded services are effectively 4G, or 4G extensions, that space consumers on the prerogative track for future 5G upgrades, thus guaranteeing the revenue sources that 5G will require to breathe successful, or if only to just atomize even.
But consumers aren't the only parties facing down the exigency to climb onto a original track. Telcos hold their own service providers -- for example, Nokia, which has absorbed the assets of the former Alcatel-Lucent, and is now the holder of the massive Bell Laboratories intellectual property portfolio. These providers likewise exigency their customers to procure with the program. In a January 22 blog post, Nokia's marketing strategist Clare McCarthy stated that communications service providers (CSPs) can start tiny if they want, but to become fully 5G compliant, they'll eventually hold to overhaul their communications infrastructure completely. McCarthy wrote:
CSPs can start tiny by upgrading their radio access software and and maintaining the connection to an existing LTE core network if increased capacity is outright they need, but capacity is not outright CSPs need. They observe their role as central to a flourishing digital economy. They exigency to tender original digital services and back original operating and commerce models across industry verticals — and this requires more than a radio-only upgrade. Delivering a original kindhearted of commerce requires a network capable of higher speeds, greater spectral efficiency, a cloud indigenous core and a coherent, end-to-end framework. CSPs exigency to deploy a fundamentally different infrastructure to meet the needs for greater capacity, latency and extreme reliability.Why cooling made 5G an pressing necessity
In May 2017, AT&T President of Technology Operations Bill Hogg declared the existing wireless commerce model for cell tower rental, operation, and maintenance "unsustainable." Some months earlier, a J. P. Morgan analyst characterized the then-business model for wireless providers in Southeast Asia as unsustainable, warning that the then-current system has rendered it impossible for carriers to hold up with customer demand. And as research hard McKinsey & Company asserted in a January 2018 report, the growth path for Japan's existing wireless infrastructure is becoming "unsustainable," rendering 5G for that country "a necessity."
One senses a theme.
The world's telcos exigency a different, far less constrained, commerce model than what 4G has left them with. The only route they can accomplish this is with an infrastructure that generates radically lower costs than the current scenario, particularly for maintaining, and mainly cooling, their basis station equipment.
Read also: Stingray spying: 5G will protect you against surveillance
Cooling and the costs associated with facilitating and managing cooling equipment, according to studies from analysts and telcos worldwide, account for more than half of telcos' total expenses for operating their wireless networks. Global warming (which, from the perspective of meteorological instrumentation, is indisputable) is a direct contributor to compound annual increases in wireless network costs. Ironically, as this 2017 study by China's National Science Foundation asserts, the act of cooling 4G LTE equipment lonely may contribute as much as 2 percent to the entire global warming problem.The world's biggest example
China Mobile's breakdown of its annual capital and operational expenditures for maintaining one 3G basis station.(Image: China Mobile)
The 2013 edition of a study by China Mobile, that country's state-licensed service provider, examined the tall costs of maintaining energy-inefficient equipment in its 3G wireless network, which happens to breathe the largest on the planet in both territory and customers served. In 2012, CM estimated its network had consumed 14 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity annually. As much as 46 percent of the electricity consumed by each basis station, it estimated, was devoted to air conditioning.
That study proposed a original fashion of constructing, deploying, and managing network basis stations. Called Cloud architecture RAN (C-RAN), it's a fashion of building, distributing, and maintaining transmitter antennas that history will record as having triggered the entire 5G movement.
Read also: Samsung and KDDI complete 5G ordeal in baseball stadium
One of the hallmarks of C-RAN cell site architecture is the total elimination of the on-site basis party unit (BBU) processors, which were typically co-located with the site's radio head. That functionality is instead virtualized and moved to a centralized cloud platform, for which multiple BBUs' control systems participate tenancy, in what's called the baseband pool. The cloud data hub is powered and cooled independently, and linked to each of the basis stations by no greater than 40km of fiber optic cable.
An Ericsson 5G transmitter used in NTT DOCOMO's Japan trials.(Image: Ericsson)
Moving BBU processing to the cloud eliminates an entire basis transmission system (BTS) equipment room from the basis station (BS). It likewise completely abolishes the principal source of heat generation inside the BS, making it feasible for much, if not all, of the remaining equipment to breathe cooled passively -- literally, by exposure to the open air. The configuration of that equipment could then breathe optimized, relish the 5G ordeal transmitter shown above, constructed by Ericsson for Japan's NTT DOCOMO. The goal for this optimization is to reduce a sole site's power consumption by over 75 percent.
What's more, it takes less money to rent the site for a smaller basis station than for a big one. Granted, China may hold a unique concept of the real estate market compared to other countries. Nevertheless, China Mobile's figures exhibit that rental fees with C-RAN were reduced by over 71 percent, contributing to a total operational expenditure (OpEx) reduction for the entire basis station site of 53 percent.
Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint to merge, finally, strutting 5G clout
Keep in mind, though, that China Mobile's figures pertained to deploying and maintaining 3G equipment, not 5G. But the original standards for transmission and network access, called 5G original Radio (5G NR), are being designed with C-RAN ideals in mind, so that the equipment never generates enough heat to trip that wire, requiring OpEx to effectively quadruple.The original cloud at the original edge
It would loom a lot of the success of 5G rests upon this original class of cloud data centers, into which the functionality of today's baseband units would move. As of now, there is still considerable doubt as to where this centralized RAN controller would reside. There are competing definitions.
Some hold taken a capable behold at the emerging crop of edge data centers sprouting adjacent to today's cell towers, and are suggesting that the original Service Oriented Core (SOC) could breathe distributed across those locations. Yet skeptics are wondering, why bother with the elimination of the BTS station in the first place, if the SOC would only establish it back? Alternately, a sunder SOC station could breathe established that services dozens of towers simultaneously. The problem there, obviously, is that such a station would breathe a full-fledged data hub in itself, which would hold real estate and cooling issues of its own.
Either option might breathe more palatable, some engineers believe, if the servers operating there could delegate computing infrastructure among internal operations and special customer services -- edge computing services that could compete with cloud providers such as Amazon and Microsoft Azure, by leveraging much lower latency. The competence to Do so is entirely relative upon a concept called network slicing. This is the subdivision of physical infrastructure into virtual platforms, using a technique perfected by telecommunications companies called network functions virtualization (NFV).
Also: Microsoft Azure: Everything you exigency to know about Redmond's cloud serviceThe dicey theme of slicing
One scenario mobile operators envision for 5G network slicing.(Image: Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance)
Exactly what routes these network slices would buy through the infrastructure is completely up in the air. T-Mobile and others hold suggested slices could divide classes of internal network functions -- for instance, dividing eMBB from mMTC from URLLC. Others, such as the members of the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN), insinuate that slices could effectively partition networks in such a route (as suggested by the NGMN diagram above) that different classes of user equipment, utilizing their respective sets of radio access technologies (RAT), would perceive quite different infrastructure configurations, even though they'd breathe accessing resources from the same pools.
Another suggestion being made by some of the industry's main customers, at 5G industry conferences, is that telcos tender the premium option of slicing their network by individual customer. This would give customers willing to invest heavily in edge computing services more direct access to the fiber optic fabric that supports the infrastructure, potentially giving a telco willing to provide such a service a competitive edge over a colocation provider, even one with facilities adjacent to a "carrier hotel."
Read also: Micro circuitry innovation needed to implement 5G
But depending upon whom one asks, slicing networks by customer may actually breathe impossible. There are diametrically split viewpoints on the theme of whether slicing could congregate telco functions and customer functions together on the same cloud. Some hold suggested such a convergence is vitally necessary for 5G to fulfill the value proposition embodied in C-RAN. Architects of the cloud platforms seeking to play a central role in the SOC, such as OpenStack and CORD, squabble that this convergence is already happening, and the whole point of the architecture in the first place.
AT&T has gone so far as to insinuate the argument is moot and the discussion is actually closed: Both classes of functions hold already been physically separated, not virtually sliced, in the 5G specifications, its engineers assert. In a January 2019 statement, the company said it has already begun deployments of what it calls Multi-access Edge Compute (MEC) services with select customers, in some cases using existing 4G LTE connectivity. "The data that runs through AT&T MEC," the statement reads in part, "can breathe routed to their cloud or abide within an enterprise's private environment to succor enlarge security."
But AT&T isn't the "Bell System" any more -- it doesn't procure the final say. Thus one of the most captious decisions in 5G architecture may halt up being the result of ordeal and error.
However this issue gets resolved, the very fact that slicing must buy space somehow, if only to virtually sunder those functions that will not hold already been physically separated, suggests that 5G will not breathe "a fully meshed world of wirelessly connected everything." Security -- the topic that always waits until the ultimate second -- will ensure that inevitable things will remain strategically disconnected, for their own good.The emergence of fixed wireless
Ericsson's own forecasts of wireless connectivity hold been known to fool people. In June 2017, its annual Mobility Report estimated that mobile data traffic would grow at an middling compound annual growth rate of 42 percent through 2022, having grown eightfold by the halt of that period. "By the halt of the forecast period," stated Ericsson, "more than 90 percent of mobile data traffic will near from smartphones."
That forecast generated a truckload of headlines. A half-billion 5G mobile subscriptions are expected worldwide by 2022, reported ZDNet's Corinne Reichert. Ericsson's updated report, published ultimate November, doubled that forecast number for 2023, adding that 5G access would gain one-fifth of the world's population by the halt of that year.
Read also: Robots could procure cheaper, thanks to 5G
The keyword in the above paragraphs is "mobile." Up to now, outright the "Gs" hold pertained to the wireless access technology we've historically perceived as synonymous with mobility. For 5G to breathe truly successful, Ericsson's Koratala told us, it will exigency to open up access to a broader orbit of devices, many of which are actually not the least bit mobile.The not-so-mobile proposition
"These connections are expected to breathe going into devices in factories, transportation, and the grid," said Koratala. "So the orbit of applications means a huge diversification of performance and requirements for communication. Then there are some consume cases that might breathe demanding a 5x improvement in latency, a 100x or 1000x data volume, as well as [extending] battery life. So when you behold at that set of requirements, it's very transparent that it is not a sole consume case. It really becomes an enabler for a wide variety of consume cases, that will hold different requirements to breathe met to build them viable."
The key mission of mMTC is to service wireless devices that don't move. Its transmission scheme will breathe tuned for very tall density -- for situations relish factory floors where thousands of individual mechanical elements are sending operational data, simultaneously, to an off-site location for instant analytics.
Read also: UK government seeks city to showcase 5G connectivity
Viewed in this light, the prediction that nine-tenths of mobile data will breathe consumed by the largest class of mobile devices, seems about as spot-on as a forecast that rain will continue to breathe wet. What is completely unpredictable at this point is whether a fixed wireless consume case will breathe competitive in an environment where wired broadband is likewise undergoing a revolution.Exchanging yesterday's original technology for today's
You will hear from many sources that 5G is not about what anything is, but rather what it enables you to do. No, it isn't. 5G is about the things in which the telecom industry, and to a growing extent the data hub networking industry, must invest in order to bow the latest editions of platforms such as V2X and mMTC, so that it can start earning revenue from those services. 5G is outright about what it is.
If you halt up watching smoothly streaming 4K video on a original class of smartphone, allowing yourself to breathe ferried between cities in an otherwise unoccupied vehicle, or participate in a virtual, real-time football tournament with a few dozen goggle-wearers scattered throughout the planet, then you will breathe fulfilling the hopes of telco engineers who hope to build 5G viable. The verity is, not a bit of these consumer technologies are the real intuition 5G is being engineered. Indeed, they are the side benefits.The big gamble
Three experimental AT&T cell tower designs for desert deployment. (Yes, they're prerogative in front of you.)(Image: AT&T)
5G is a collective condense between the telecommunications industry and society. To allow for anything immediate to evenly distributed coverage over a metropolitan area, the basis stations containing the transmitters and receivers (the "cells") must breathe smaller, much lower in power, and much greater in number than they are today. Essentially, the original cell towers must co-exist with the environment. An outdoor photograph taken in any direction will breathe just as likely to comprise a 5G tower as not. (The specimen above, provided by AT&T, includes three.)
Read also: How US carriers moved up the timeline on 5G
It would not breathe unprecedented in history. We've borne telephone and electric poles through their neighborhoods and, not outright that long ago, willingly installed TV aerials the size of kites on their chimneys. Some of us still consume their old-fashioned mounting posts for their satellite dishes. In exchange for the hopefully minor imperfection on their landscapes that 5G may bring, many would wave a cheerful good-bye to lifeless spots.
All these things must happen, and in relatively quick succession, in order for telcos to afford the infrastructural overhaul they now hold no selection but to make.Explore further — From the CBS Interactive Network Elsewhere Previous and related coverage
Qualcomm touts OEM, carrier wins for global 5G launches in 2019
The chip giant announced that its Snapdragon X50 modem chipset was chosen by 19 global operators for upcoming mobile 5G trials.
Sprint eyes mobile 5G network launch for first half of 2019
5G could lead to an enlarge in customers' data plans, Sprint's CEO said.
How 5G will impact the future of farming
ZDNet caught up with Julian Sanchez, director of John Deere Technology Innovation Center, during CES 2018 to talk about how rural connectivity will impact the future of precision agriculture.
CASE STUDYSSA goes big on VOIP
Agency’s program is one of the world’s largest voice-over-IP implementations
By late February, the VOIP system had handled more than 1.6 million calls. SSA officials hope to add as many as 16 offices a week to the original system during the next two years, said Roderick Hairston, deputy associate commissioner of SSA's Office of Telecommunications and Systems Operations. When completed, the system will breathe one of the largest VOIP deployments in the world.
"For SSA to Go with VOIP to this extent, they had to hold a lot of faith in it," said Benjamin Moses, vice president of solutions at Nortel Government Solutions, the project's lead contractor.
The agency needed technology that could succor enlarge productivity during the labor crunch officials hope in the coming years. "They are losing employees, and they are getting ready to deal with the baby boom explosion of retirees," Moses said.
SSA's network of sphere offices has 63,000 employees and a budget of about $10 billion a year. The agency paid $650 billion in companionable Security benefits to 55 million people in 2008, and for years, it has been preparing for a wave of baby boomer retirements. SSA will breathe hit twice because many of its employees will gain retirement age at the same time the agency's workload spikes.
That process has already started. SSA's sphere office staff decreased by 4.4 percent from 2005 to 2008, according to a recent study by the Government Accountability Office. Visits to SSA offices increased from 42 million in 2006 to 44.4 million in 2008. Forty-four percent of the agency's staff is expected to retire by 2016, while the agency expects to breathe processing 1 million additional claims a year from retiring boomers by 2017.
Meanwhile, the agency's telephone infrastructure was aging. It had never been a sole system but rather a collection of sunder systems with different carriers at each office.
"Our system was more than 12 years old," Hairston said. "Some of it was past its halt of life, and other parts were approaching it. They hold been running out of parts," and the tasks of adding, dropping or poignant lines were lengthy and labor-intensive. "We really had to Do something to supersede them. This was a consummate chance to behold at what kindhearted of system they needed."
What officials needed was a sole system that could breathe centrally managed and tender a common behold and feel for employees and customers. They wanted to breathe able to poise traffic among offices and re-route calls in case of an outage, and they wanted to breathe able to consolidate trunk lines to save money. The result of that assessment was the 10-year, $300 million Telephone Systems Replacement Project (TSRP).
Because it was a wholesale replacement rather than an upgrade, "it was pretty much a no-brainer" to Go with VOIP, Hairston said. "We made the decision in 2003 to Do it, but only after they did a pilot. It was a fairly original technology when they made the decision."
The pilot project was conducted from 2004 to 2006 at 43 offices, with sunder systems operated by AT&T and Nortel as primary vendors. The results were satisfactory, and Nortel Government Solutions was awarded the TSRP condense in 2007. Implementation began in March 2008.
The system uses Nortel's Contact hub Manager Server, Communication Server 1000 for switching, Media Processing Server 500 for interactive voice response, Unified Messaging 2000 for voice mail and IP Phone 1100 string handsets. Other members of the contractor team comprise generic Dynamics, Black Box Network Services, Shared Technologies, York Telecom, tall Wire Networks, NetIQ, Netcom Technologies, AttivaSoft and Pal-Tech.
There are sunder parts to an IP phone system, Moses said. The IP telephony functions — the core switching and applications such as interactive voice response and convoke records — reside on the network and are independent of the means used to transport calls.
"VOIP is really transport," he said. "All we're doing is pointing to a [Session Initiation Protocol] trunk rather than to a [public switched telephone network] trunk. The applications are available either way." But VOIP allows trunk consolidation and better bandwidth consume for improved pricing. "VOIP is a cost issue — it's not about application availability."
Combining the applications with the transport is the trickiest participate of the implementation.
"If it was just providing a dial tone, it wouldn't breathe much more than putting a few servers on the network," Moses said. "This customer has an extremely enthralling application environment."
One of the most unusual features of SSA's systems is the competence to partition convoke and performance data for each even of management. Managers log on through a Web front end, using SSA's authentication system, for access to the data that they are authorized to see. An office manager has access to data and security controls only for that office. District, regional and headquarters managers hold access to progressively broader swaths of data.
Applications and dial tone are provided from four redundant service delivery points at Richmond, Calif.; Kansas City, Mo.; Durham, N.C.;and the SSA computer hub in Baltimore. The service delivery points provide automatic failover in case of an outage.
"We hold experienced an outage," Hairston said. "It works very well."
Each office has a sunder gateway to the public switched telephone network for additional failover. In case of a local-area or wide-area network outage, the phone can automatically re-register to the PSTN. Emergency 911 service is directed through the PSTN gateway on a local trunk, so that the public safety answering point receives accurate information about the number and address from which the convoke is being made.
The handsets likewise Do their participate to ensure trait of service. Each acts as a voice trait agent, and when trait moves outside acceptable parameters, the system automatically alerts the service delivery point. Calls can breathe re-routed, problems identified and solutions launched without interrupting the call.
Ultimately, the trait of voice service depends on the trait of the network transporting it. Nortel works with SSA's Division of Network Engineering to analyze network health and troubleshoot problems before an office implements VOIP.
"In most cases, they are in pretty capable shape," Moses said. "Our solution is not much tolerant" of network conditions.
"We learned from the pilot how to tune the network and procure voice traffic where it needed to be," Hairston said.
SSA was fortunate that it had done a major network upgrade shortly before TSRP, during which it implemented Multiprotocol Label Switching. MPLS supports multiple services and simplifies traffic management for applications such as voice and video that are sensitive to latency. A few years ago, it was an expensive, leading-edge technology used primarily by big service providers to provision multiple services, but affordable high-performance MPLS routers now are available in a variety of sizes, making the technology practical for other organizations.
SSA still has a lot of work to Do to transition sphere offices to VOIP, said Andre Pinto-Lobo, program manager at Nortel Government Solutions. "We are coming to the halt of Year One," he said. The rate of implementation will enlarge during the second and third years and then gradual again as the implementation concludes.
But "we're seeing the advantages already," Hairston said. System management has been simplified, there is better redundancy, and calls can breathe better routed to the proper person or automated service, which should tickle both employees and retiring baby boomers.
William Jackson is a Maryland-based freelance writer.
When the USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) puts to sea later this year, it will breathe different from any other ship in the Navy's fleet in many ways. The $3.5 billon ship is designed for stealth, survivability, and firepower, and it's packed with advanced technology. And at the heart of its operations is a virtual data hub powered by off-the-shelf server hardware, various flavors of Linux, and over 6 million lines of software code.
On October 10, I flew up to Rhode Island to visit Raytheon's Seapower Capability hub in Portsmouth, where engineers assembled and pre-tested the systems at the heart of the Zumwalt and are preparing to Do the same for the next ship in line, the USS Michael Monsoor—already well into construction. There, Raytheon's DDG-1000 team gave me a tour of the centerpiece of the ship's systems—a mockup of the Zumwalt's operations center, where the ship's commanding officer and crew will control the ship's sensors, missile launchers, guns, and other systems.
Over 20 years ago, I learned how to breathe a ship watch stander a few miles from the Raytheon facility at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officer School. But the operations hub of the Zumwalt will hold more in common with the fictional starship USS Enterprise's bridge than it does with the combat information centers of the ships I went to sea on. Every console on the Zumwalt will breathe equipped with finger screens and software capable of taking on the needs of any operator on duty, and big screens on the forward bulkhead will display tactical plots of sea, air, and land.
Perhaps it's appropriate that the first commanding officer of the Zumwalt will breathe Captain James Kirk (yes, that's actually his name). But considering how heavily the ship leans on its computer networks, maybe they should behold for a chief engineer named Vint Cerf.Off the shelf and on the ship Enlarge / Data hub in a box: Electronic Modular Enclosures being configured at Raytheon's Portsmouth, Rhode Island, facility.
In the past, you couldn't just establish off-the-shelf computer systems aboard a ship for mission captious tasks—when I was aboard the USS Iowa, they had to shut down non-tactical systems before the guns were fired because the shock and vibration would crash systems hard. So typically, individual computer systems are ruggedized. But that adds heavily to the cost of the systems and makes it more difficult to maintain them.
The design of the Zumwalt solves that problem by using off-the-shelf hardware—mostly IBM blade servers running Red Hat Linux—and putting it in a ruggedized server room. Those ruggedized server rooms are called Electronic Modular Enclosures (EMEs), sixteen self-contained, mini data centers built by Raytheon.
Measuring 35 feet long, 8 feet high, and 12 feet wide, the 16 EMEs hold more than 235 equipment cabinets (racks) in total. The EMEs were outright configured and pre-tested before being shipped to Bath, Maine, to breathe installed aboard the Zumwalt. The EME approach lowered overall cost of the hardware itself, and allows Raytheon to pre-integrate systems before they're installed. "It costs a lot to Do the work in the shipyard," said Raytheon's DDG-1000 deputy program manager Tom Moore, "and they procure limited time of access."
Each EME has its own shock and vibration damping, power protection, water cooling systems, and electromagnetic shielding to prevent interference from the ship's radar and other big radio frequency emitters.
The EMEs tap into the Total Ship Computing Environment, the Zumwalt's shipboard Internet. Running multiple partitioned networks over a mingle of fiber and copper, TSCE's redundantly switched network system connects outright of the ship's systems—internal and external communications, weapons, engineering, sensors, etc.—over Internet protocols, including TCP and UDP. Almost outright of the ship's internal communications are based on Voice Over IP (with the exception of a few old-school, sound-powered phones for emergency use).Enlarge / A diagram of the Zumwalt's control systems and their connections to the Total Ship Computing Environment.
There's likewise some wireless networking capability aboard the Zumwalt, but Raytheon officials giving me the tour were not at liberty to argue just what sort of wireless this is. Still, that capability is putative to allow for roving crew members to connect to data from the network while performing maintenance and other tasks.
Systems that weren't built to breathe wired into an IP network—other "programs of record" within the ship, which are installed across multiple classes of Navy ships—are wired in using adaptors based on single-board computers and the Lynx OS real-time Linux operating system. Called Distributed Adaptation Processors, or DAPs, these systems connect things relish the ship's engineering systems, fire suppression systems, missile launchers, and radio and satellite communications gear into the network so they can breathe controlled by networked clients.It looks relish you want to launch a missile Enlarge / The mock-up of the Zumwalt's operations hub at Raytheon's Portsmouth facility, complete with haze-gray paint, has the exact dimensions of the space on the ship itself. The Zumwalt will comprise a second even to host the operations of units deployed with the ship.
Some of those networked clients were what I was looking at in the mocked-up Zumwalt operations center. The operations hub isn't just where screens are watched and commands are shouted—the whole ship can breathe practically hasten from the space, from guns and missiles to engines. There's no "radio room" on the Zumwalt; outright the communications are managed from the operations center. The ship's guns are fully automated and operated by an operations hub watch stander instead of a gunner's mate in the mount. Theoretically, the ship could even breathe steered from the ops center—the ship is piloted by computer, not a helmsman. And outright of these tasks are performed from the same kind of console.
Enlarge / The sign 57 plumb launch system, developed by Raytheon, can carry a mingle of anti-ship, anti-aircraft, and land assail cruise missiles. It communicates with the operations hub over the ship's network. Called the Common display System, or CDS (pronounced as "keds" by those who work with it), the three-screen workstations in the operations hub are powered by a collection of quad-processor Intel motherboards in an armored case, which gives original sense to the nautical phrase "toe buster." Even the commanding officer's and executive officer's chairs on the bridge hold CDS workstations built-in.
Each CDS system can hasten multiple Linux virtual machines atop LynuxWorx's LynxSecure, a separation kernel tthat has been implemented in CDS as a hypervisor. This allows the workstation to connect to various networks partitioned by security even and purpose. "Every watch stander station runs out of the same box," Raytheon's DDG-1000 developer lead Robert Froncillo told me. "So they can sit at any CDS and bring up their station."
This may not seem relish a big deal to most people. But on past ships, workstations tended to breathe purpose-built for a specific weapons system or sensor. That meant every system had a different configuration and interface, and you couldn't hold a watch stander wield multiple tasks without having to switch seats. The CDS workstation uses common USB interfaces for its peripheral devices (such as trackballs and specialized button panels) and is equipped with touchscreens, as well, so that watch standers hold a selection between "classic" and finger interfaces.
That doesn't intend there's necessarily a "Clippy" to succor original operators master their systems. The Raytheon team has had sailors in to effect usability assessments from before code was even written, showing them screen shots of interfaces to procure feedback from users. "We had a chief that said, 'We don't want any 'wizards,'" said Froncillo.A digital illustration of how the Zumwalt's operations hub will look, complete with its second-level suite for hosting operations for air detachments and other units deployed aboard. Raytheon
Putting outright of the pieces together is a collection of middleware running on those IBM blade servers. Many of the shipboard systems consume a commercial publish/subscribe middleware platform to send updates to operator consoles. But for other systems that exigency to breathe more tightly coupled (like, for example, missile launch commands), the Navy has specified the consume of the Common demur Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)—the military's favorite mission-critical middleware model. (The software for the Joint Tactical Radio System's software-defined radios was likewise developed using CORBA.)The next release Enlarge / The Zumwalt bow-on at Bath Iron Works. DDG-1001, the USS Michael Monsoor, sits behind her, more than 60 percent complete.
The Zumwalt may not hold sailed yet, but its software has already shipped six times. When Release 5 was completed, Raytheon brought in more sailors to test the system, tethering it to the company's Total Ship System Simulator to hasten through a number of combat scenarios. "We did antisubmarine warfare, air, and land assail missions," Froncillo said. The lessons learned were incorporated into release 6, and 7 will breathe installed on the ship before the ship's "shakedown" cruise. Another upgrade will breathe installed post-delivery, and continual improvements will breathe made as the software is deployed to the other two ships in the class.
But the life of the technology being deployed on the Zumwalt won't halt there. CDS will breathe used as participate of the Navy's Aegis Modernization Program to upgrade the systems of the fleet's guided missile cruisers and destroyers. "And there are a lot of things we're developing that will breathe reused," Moore said.
Considering how much has been spent over the past decade trying to procure the Zumwalt built, and the other technologies that were developed in the process, one can hope that more than just the software gets some reuse.
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HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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