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As mentioned in a conventional tip, organizations are enforcing IP telephony greater often on their records infrastructures. The expanded deployment has created a necessity for licensed IP telephony engineers to provide confirmed, most appropriate-of-breed know-how.
The IP telephony certifications Nortel at present presents are divided into 4 classes: steer expert, Design professional, aid professional, and Design knowledgeable. This tip discusses the Nortel aid tune.
The advocate professional certifications are hypothetical to exhibit someone's skill to enforce, function, and troubleshoot a Nortel Networks IP Telephony solution. The advocate professional certification reflects a candidate with three to six months of event that can wield movements technical concerns of a common Nortel IP Telephony answer.
NNCSS - VoIP Succession BCM 3.0
This certification checks the capacity to outcome in force, function, and troubleshoot the enterprise Communications manager three.0. This certification covers hardware, birth-up, information and voice networking, functions, and troubleshooting the BCM. To accelerate the certification, two checks must exist effectively completed: know-how requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and Succession BCM three.0. The expertise requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony options exam is an outline of convergence applied sciences.
NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0
This certification tests the skill to implement, operate, and troubleshoot the VoIP CallPilot 2.0. This certification covers hardware, administration, interoperability with Meridian 1 switches, and safety of a lone website CallPilot system. To rush the certification, two checks possess to exist effectively achieved: Meridian Database and CallPilot 2.0.
NNCSS - Symposium summon core Server or Symposium name center Server installation and protection
These two certifications test the capacity to outcome into effect, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium summon core Server. both certifications cowl hardware, utility setting up, administration, and upkeep of Symposium name center Server four.2, Symposium internet client 4.0, and Symposium categorical 3.0. besides the fact that children, the Symposium name core Server certification moreover checks the structure, customized configuration and integration of the server. To rush either of these certifications, one exam must exist correctly completed: Symposium name middle or Symposium name core setting up and protection, respectively.
NNCSS - Symposium summon core TAPI/Agent or name center TAPI/Agent installation and protection
These two certifications verify the skill to outcome into effect, operate, and troubleshoot the Symposium summon middle TAPI/Agent. each certifications cover hardware, utility installation, administration, and preservation of Symposium TAPI 2.three and Symposium Agent 2.3. besides the fact that children, the Symposium name middle TAPI/Agent certification moreover exams the structure, integration, and customized configuration of the TAPI/Agent. To accelerate either of these certifications, one exam possess to exist efficaciously completed: Symposium name center TAPI/Agent or Symposium summon center TAPI/Agent Inst/leading, respectively.
NNCSS - Symposium specific summon center or Symposium categorical name middle installation and maintenance
These certifications verify the capacity to enforce, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium express name core. each certifications cowl hardware, utility installing, administration, and upkeep of Symposium express name middle 4.2. however, the Symposium categorical summon core certification additionally assessments the architecture and integration of the summon middle. To rush both of the certifications, one examination ought to exist effectively accomplished: Symposium categorical name core or Symposium categorical name center Inst and Maint respectively.
NNCSS - VoIP Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0
This certification tests the capacity to enforce, function, and troubleshoot the VoIP Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. This certification covers installing of the hardware and software, configuration, protection, and administration of the Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. To accelerate the certification, two checks should exist efficaciously achieved: know-how requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and VoIP Multimedia communication Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. The expertise requisites and Protocols for IP Telephony options exam is an outline of convergence applied sciences.
NNCSS - VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator
This certification exams the skill to maintain and troubleshoot the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0 DB Administrator. This certification covers the architecture, configuration, preservation, and administration of the Meridian 1, Succession 1000 Rls. three.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. 3.0 using primary Alternate Route option (BARS) and community Alternate Route preference (NARS). To pass the certification, two exams should exist efficaciously accomplished: expertise specifications and Protocols for IP Telephony options, and Succession 1000/1000M Rls. 3.0 DB Administrator.
NNCSS - VoIP Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0 installation and protection
This certification exams the capability to deploy, configure, and hold the VoIP Succession 1000/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the setting up, structure, configuration, upkeep, and administration of the Meridian 1, Succession one thousand Rls. 3.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. three.0, cyber web Telephones i2xxx, and Optivity Telephony manager (OTM) 2.1. To accelerate the certification, three tests must exist successfully accomplished: know-how necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and Succession 1000/1000M Rls. 3.0 for Technicians, and Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0.
The advocate skilled certifications build on the professional's advantage through demonstrating their skill to outcome in force, operate, and troubleshoot an superior Nortel Networks IP Telephony solution. The profit knowledgeable certifications reflect a candidate with six to twelve months of arms-on event with the potential to steer or assist intermediate-stage personnel to retain knotty Nortel IP Telephony options.
NNCSE - CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options
This certification exams the capacity to outcome in force, operate, troubleshoot and optimize the VoIP CallPilot Unified Messaging respond 2.0. This certification covers the installing, administration, interoperability, protection, upgrade tactics and possess utilization for a multi web site CallPilot device. To pass the certification, the candidate must first obtain their NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0. as a result, the CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options exigency to exist efficiently completed to acquire this certification.
NNCSE - Contact core
This certification checks the skill to implement, function, troubleshoot and optimize the Contact center products. This certification covers the candidate's capabilities on the Symposium name core Server (SCCS)/Symposium specific name center/Symposium net client, Symposium TAPI service provider (TAPI SP), Symposium Agent, and the Symposium net center Portal. To accelerate the certification, the candidate should first acquire their NNCSS - Symposium summon core Server and the NNCSS - Symposium name middle TAPI/Agent certification. in consequence, the Contact core examination exigency to exist efficaciously accomplished to achieve this certification.
NNCSE - IP Convergence Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. three.0
This certification exams the skill to install, configure, retain, and optimize the VoIP Succession 1000/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the configuration, succession arm office (BO), far flung workplace, operation, and Meridian 1 to Succession 1000M three.0 migration methods for the Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0, internet Telephones i2xxx, far flung workplace 91xx, and Optivity Telephony supervisor (OTM) 2.1. To accelerate the certification, the candidate must first garner their NNCSS - VoIP Succession CSE a thousand Rls. 2.0 or the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 installation & renovation certification. because of this, yet another greater complicated edition of the Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 examination ought to exist effectively achieved to gain this certification.
within the IT industry, certifications are a means to validate an individual's lore inside a unique enviornment. The above Nortel IP Telephony certifications are one of the crucial tools that may exhibit the capabilities of an IP Telephony profit expert. These certifications could not supersede years of industry event, but they Do supply the foundation to aid and manage Nortel Voice over IP options.
The next tip will focus on Nortel's Design IP Telephony certification tune.
Richard Parsons (CCIE#5719) is a manager of knowledgeable services for Callisma Inc., a totally owned subsidiary of SBC. He has developed a superior groundwork in networking ideas, advanced troubleshooting, and monitoring in areas comparable to optical, ATM, VoIP, routed, routing, and storage infrastructures. prosperous resides in Atlanta GA, and is a graduate of Clemson college. His historical past includes senior and most essential consulting positions at alien network capabilities, Lucent, and Callisma.
With the announcement of release three.0, Nortel’s software communication apparatus (SCS) solution now caters to organizations beyond miniature and medium-measurement businesses. The solution, which comprises significant, dispensed commercial enterprise networks, is designed to advocate businesses add unusual users and outcome other alterations in-apartment.
The answer helps groups converge their communications into a centralized, effortless-to-set up, -manipulate and -use respond that may integrate seamlessly into an latest IT environment with open net-primarily based interfaces.
free up 3.0 of SCS extends advocate to trade-typical structures from IBM, Dell and HP, including IBM dash programs and system i, Dell Optiplex, and HP Proliant DL360, as neatly as the currently announced IBM x3350 and Dell PowerEdge R300 methods. moreover the supported platform enlargement, the Nortel SCS Developer program additionally presents dozens of interoperable third-birthday party items corresponding to desktop telephones, tender phones, gateways, IP consoles, purposes fancy name recording and contact accounting, wireless mobility solutions, and lots extra.
"The UC market is in a transition from hardware to application, and for carriers this transition requires conviction to utility openness. IP-most efficacious carriers will learn this transition a total lot more tricky. The winners during this market can exist providers who embody open, software primarily based solutions and who outcome application issue to exist another application in the community," observed Zeus Kerravala, senior vice president, Yankee group.
based on Nortel, SCS offers limpid pricing with an ‘all-in-one’ strategy. A base person license includes complete applications fancy voicemail and unified messaging, integrated voice conferencing, secure presence and quick messaging, computing device-based video conferencing, lone number reachability, an ‘informal’ summon middle, and integration with Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotus Notes and IBM Lotus Sametime.
also, through the employ of SCS, groups can fetch rid of or reduce lower back on the charges concerning outsourced conferencing costs, calling card and second line fees for teleworkers, actual property, and legacy PBX preservation costs.
Nortel Unveils network Platform
simply in case you thought you may chitchat with authority about USB specifications at your next dinner party, a unusual one comes alongside to quake everything up once more. The newest USB 3.2 ordinary goes to exist proven in September, and birthright here’s what that capability to your laptop, your phone, and people unusual USB-C cables you just went out and acquired.a extremely brief legacy of USB
USB, or accepted Serial Bus, is an agreed-upon unconcerned that makes positive if you buy kit with USB expertise built in, then it’s complete going to travail happily together. while we've a specific amount of dongle hell to contend with nowadays, it’s nothing in comparison to the early 90s, when desktop peripherals used every kindhearted of rare and marvelous connectors, and it took as a minimum half a morning to install and configure your latest purchase.
The grand computing beasts Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, and Nortel complete started travail on the USB regular in 1994, with the long-established USB 1.0 specification arriving in January 1996, with its blazing ordinary pace of 1.5 Mbit/s.
USB 2.0 adopted in April 2000, ramping up speeds to 480 Mbit/s—now not complete that crucial for a joystick however useful for an external challenging power. yet another tremendous better arrived in November 2008 with USB three.0, upping the capabilities records transfer quotes once more to 5 Gbps whereas keeping backwards compatibility with USB 2.0 equipment. when you've got the latest USB three.1 installed nowadays, then you definitely possess the talents for up to 10 Gbps of statistics transfer, in spite of the fact that most customer peripherals don’t fetch near that. There’s moreover advocate for providing 100W of power, which is why laptops can now exist charged by course of USB.Cords, plugs, and information
The USB specifications as set out via the USB Implementers forum (USB-IF) cover a number of applied sciences: not simply the protocols for poignant facts, but additionally the cables which you can use, and the connectors on the halt of those cables. The USB-C port we’ve been listening to so much about these days is linked to, but technically slice loose, the USB specifications for facts switch. It was additionally developed by using the USB-IF, and it was introduced across the identical time as USB 3.1, but it surely moreover works with USB 2.0 cables and gear.
In other words, just as a result of your cable has a USB-C connector on the conclusion doesn’t always imply you’re getting the goodness of USB three.1. most likely it’s more convenient to foster connectors and cables alongside information protocols—USB-C is specially designed to acquire abilities of the benefits of USB three.1, merits fancy carrying adequate dash to freight laptops—however they’re basically two divorce requirements, albeit closely connected. Cables the employ of the usual, flat USB-A connectors can nevertheless possess USB three.1 inside (look for the turquoise coloring as a simple course to determine).
USB-C has been designed as the port and connector of the future, one on the course to travail with every diminutive thing from telephones to laptops (and travail each approaches up as neatly, as an brought bonus). We’re no longer there yet, but over the next pair of years USB-C and USB three.1 will circle into the accustomed on electronics gear, at the least except the subsequent spec rolls around...The USB three.2 standard
USB 3.2 is (as the identify suggests) the next step up from USB 3.1, even though it won’t exist performing in your local foremost purchase any time soon—it’s most efficacious simply been introduced by means of the USB-IF, and its headline feature is its aid for what’s known as multi-lane operation, where two lanes of 5 Gbps or 10 Gbps can dash together in tandem by using using extra wires inner USB cables. The abstract maximum transfer expense hence gets bumped up to twenty Gbps.
aside from that relatively tremendous speed boost, the USB three.2 spec is a relatively minor upgrade, which might exist why it simplest receives a further 0.1 on the quantity count. it's going to of course travail with USB-C connectors, and in most situations you received’t ought to better your cables in case your laptop or phone makes employ of USB three.2 (more on this under).
The USB 3.2 spec is expected to exist finalized in September however how quickly they delivery seeing in purchaser electronics depends on a few components, including market developments, manufacturing schedules, and income margins. as a minimum having just a minor upgrade this time round potential the USB ports on their contraptions received’t deserve to exist tremendously retooled to fetch the accustomed supported.Future-proofing your USB buying
The edifying news for us humble consumers is that older USB necessities attend to stick round for a very long time, and newer requisites are sometimes backwards compatible—new cables will travail with historical computers and telephones, simply with probably the most performance perks dialled down. to outcome it one other means, you don’t necessarily exigency to upgrade your microUSB smartphone just to fetch on the USB-C bandwagon, as a result of microUSB goes to exist supported for a long time yet.
That stated, if you exigency to future-proof your purchases and ensure they’re going to travail with complete the other shiny unusual apparatus popping out this yr and next, search for contraptions and cables that comprehend the good-end blend of USB three.1 and USB-C connectors. You might no longer fetch blazing speeds in case you combine them up to older machine, however they’ll exist able for the next wave of hardware that comes along.
The bump to USB three.2 capability some latest cables will potentially exist in a position to double their records transfer rates. in case you’re using USB three.0 or USB three.1 cables with USB-C connectors, they’ll exist capable of ship twice as lots records—either 2 x 5 Gbps or 2 x 10 Gbps—due to the multi-lane technology in USB three.2. You’ll exigency apparatus that helps the unusual USB three.2 accustomed at each halt of the cables, however the cables themselves don’t should fetch replaced to fetch the additional speeds.
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This may exist one of the most difficult items I possess ever been given to review simply because this device can exist so many things to so many different people. The Intel Compute Stick was one of those products that, upon unboxing and holding it in my hands, made me think, “I had no idea that this technology even existed.” If you are wondering what makes this device so extraordinary it’s the fact that the Intel Compute stick is a plenary blown Windows 10 operating computer that is about the same size as a pack of gum. Now, there are other products on the market that harness similar technology in this micro contour factor fancy the Roku or Chromecast, but these devices utilize their own proprietary software, and the scope of what they can actually accomplish, is very narrow. You almost possess to hold it in your palm and employ it for a diminutive while before it really sinks in on how advanced this thing really is.
Installation and initial startup were extremely intuitive. The Compute stick plugs into the HDMI port of your TV or monitor and you provide it with power using the power cable they conveniently provided you with. In the Compute Stick’s first boot up, it was immediately able to recognize my wireless media keyboard, which for me, was the Microsoft complete In One Media Keyboard, and I was gently ushered through your typical Windows 10 setup menus. After no more than 10 minutes from when I plugged it complete in, it booted into the OS, and I was soon free to explore. I was very tickled to contemplate that there was virtually no bloatware to exist found, not that it would exist sapient to bog down a PC this miniature anyways with frivolous programs. After just a few days of use, and only installing programs fancy Google Chrome and Steam, the C drive only had 12 Gb left of the 32 Gb that it had total, before the operating system. If you are a person who would exist using this device heavily, it would really exist sapient to invest in some major cloud storage. There is a micro SD slot on the device, as well, so that you can employ for expanded physical storage space, if you are not a fan of the cloud.
In my testing, the Intel Compute Stick performed very well in nearly everything I tried to Do with it. It was able to dash everything in the Microsoft Office Suite, Photoshop, and, most importantly for me, ran very smooth as a remote desktop interface to my primary desktop… sort of. While the compute stick does boast a dual band wireless internet card, I had a difficult time getting a solid signal in my house, even in the exact same spot where my Roku and Chromecast would travail perfectly. With optimal signal, I was able to stream DOOM from my primary PC to the Compute Stick and it looked really immaculate and the controls had virtually no lag. poignant the Stick a few rooms over was another Story entirely. Streaming DOOM was extremely choppy, Street Fighter V was playable, but it didn’t sight very good. To exist completely honest, streaming games that are that graphically intensive is a huge chore for any streaming device. Games fancy Castle Crashers, Nidhogg, and liberty Planet complete worked perfectly, and looked awesome, even from across the house. I pushed the Compute Stick to its remote streaming limits, and from a gamer’s perspective, it really did impress me, under yardstick Wi-Fi circumstances. If you live in a larger house, though, and intend on trying to employ the Compute Stick to Do some remote PC gaming, you will likely need to invest in either some edifying Wi-Fi extenders, or utilize one of your USB slots for a USB-to-network adapter.
What’s in the Box?
Typical of Intel, the retail packaging is satiny and without much wasted space. The size of the box is much more than what you would anticipate to see, housing a CPU, and not a complete PC. Included were the yardstick safety and precautions paperwork that comes with everything these days, as well as the basic Intel Compute Stick user manual, that I Do recommend reading before setup, just so you know how to fetch your configuration and wireless peripherals working correctly the first time without having to backtrack. Thankfully, there is moreover an HDMI male-to-female dongle adapter, which is a necessity for people who don’t possess much play on your HDMI TV ports, or possess any port obstructions from a wall mount. They were moreover generous enough to comprehend not only the wall wart, but moreover complete of the different wall adapters, based on whatever region you live in. final and most importantly in the box is the computer, itself.
The computer is powered by the aforementioned wall wart, which connects to the Compute Stick via micro USB plug-in. There is one blue USB port for USB 3.0 and one black port for USB 2.0, a physical power button, and a mini-SD slot to expand on the 32 Gb of physical recollection that comes stock with the computer.
Processor: Intel Atom x5-Z8300 (2M Cache, Up to 1.8 GHz)
Storage: 32 GB
Memory: 2 GB DDR3L-1600
Graphics: Intel Integrated
Intel Wireless 802.11ac w/ Bluetooth 4.0
Check The Complete Specs HERE
I deem that the Intel Compute Stick is damn impressive. The most difficult thing for me – when trying to review it – is imagining who this device is for. It’s a diminutive too expensive and less user-friendly when trying to justify using it as an alternative to the Roku or Chromecast. While its contour factor is incredibly miniature and portable, it’s not quite powerful enough to compete with a solid productivity tablet or netbook. From a simple consumer standpoint, this is something that is really icy , but I wouldn’t necessarily recommend it to my mom and dad, due to the plane of application it takes to maintain it. Windows updates, the potential for viruses, needing to advocate a wireless keyboard handy, they complete require the user to exist pretty technical. On the other hand, in the industry and professional settings this thing is astonishing. Setting this thing up to dash simple programming macros, slideshows for the television of your miniature industry lobby, or performing presentations at a conference are just the tip of the iceberg of what this thing is capable of. This thing is a Swiss army knife of functionality. While many of its functions can exist done by other products in a more focused capacity- and Do them arguably better- the Intel Compute Stick can silent fetch the job done, as well as a dozen other jobs you might not even know you exigency it to Do yet. Plus, its miniature enough to wear around your neck!
The STK1AW32SC Intel Compute Stick was provided to Nerd Reactor for this review by Intel
On the first day of October, Joanna Rutkowska comes with news about the release and immediate availability for download of the final build of the Qubes 3.0 Linux kernel-based computer operating system.
According to the announcement, Qubes 3.0 is a major release that brings a host of unusual features, under-the-hood improvements, and bugfixes, complete in order to advocate the Qubes OS distribution reliable, stable, and useful to users worldwide. The unusual version is now based on HAL (Hypervisor Abstraction Layer), which lets Qubes OS developers to switch the underlying hypervisors more easily, even at installation time.
Furthermore, Qubes OS 3.0 updates the Xen open-source hypervisor software to version 4.4, a release that introduces better hardware advocate and performance, optimizes the performance of the Qubes' qrexec framework for inter-VM services, adds the officially supported Debian templates, and integrates the Whonix templates for optimizing TOR workflows.
"About 5 months after the initial release of Qubes 3.0-rc1, we're now releasing the final 3.0 today," says Joanna Rutkowska. "As previously announced earlier this summer, they possess decided to dedicate this release of Qubes OS to the recollection of Caspar Bowden. Caspar has been a arrogant user, supporter, and advocate for Qubes OS, and moreover a friend. I deem he would possess liked that dedication."Qubes 3.1 coming at the halt of the month
The Qubes OS developers inform us that no unusual features possess been added since the release of the first RC (Release Candidate) build of Qubes 3.0, five months ago. Only captious bugs possess been squashed and various core components optimized. Qubes 3.0 is dedicated to Caspar Bowden, a British privacy advocate, formerly chief privacy adviser at Microsoft.
In some happier news, the first point release of Qubes 3 is scheduled for deployment at the halt of the month, bringing more unusual features, such as UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) support, a Live USB edition, as well as the grand killer feature: pre-configuration and management stack. In the meantime, you can download Qubes 3.0 birthright now from Softpedia.
Accurate and dependable timing and synchronization can exist an enabler of diverse unusual applications in datacenters. Accurate clocks across different nodes outcome feasible key functions fancy consistency, event ordering, causality and the scheduling of tasks and resources with precise timing. In this article the authors acquire a nearby sight at scalable and traceable time for datacenters using GNSS and White Rabbit.
In finance and e-commerce, clock synchronization is crucial for determining transaction order: a trading platform needs to match bids and offers in the order in which they were placed, even if they entered the trading platform from different gateways. In distributed databases, accurate clock synchronization allows a database to implement external consistency and improves the throughput and latency of the database.
NTP, the favorite clock synchronization protocol via internet, is cheap and simple to deploy, but its accuracy is typically in the millisecond range. The Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) provides an accuracy of around 100 ns in a local, fully “PTP-enabled” network. If the network hardware is not fully PTP-enabled, synchronization accuracy can debase by a factor of 1,000. Both NTP and PTP accomplish poorly under elevated network load.
White Rabbit (WR) is a collaborative project for the evolution of a unusual Ethernet-based technology to ensure sub-nanosecond synchronization and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the evolution of its hardware, gateware and software components. Core hardware designs and source code are publicly available.
In this article they debate the combined usage of GNSS and WR for timing and synchronization in datacenters. The topics of GNSS-to-WR aspect alignment and GNSS calibration are addressed. An error budget is moreover developed to advocate traceability analysis from the timing solution at the user halt node to a reference time scale such as UTC.White Rabbit and its Integration with GNSS
The WR project was initiated at CERN in 2008 to synchronize different processes in its particle accelerator network. One of the main aims of the project is to deliver such functionality while using – or extending where needed – existing standards. To achieve sub-nanosecond synchronization WR utilizes Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) for syntonization (frequency transfer), and IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to communicate time. A two-way exchange of the PTP synchronization messages allows precise adjustment of clock aspect and offset. The link detain is known precisely via accurate hardware timestamps and the calculation of detain asymmetry. WR extends PTP in a backwards-compatible course to achieve sub-ns accuracy. WR was originally conceived for synchronization of more than 1,000 nodes via fiber or copper connections of up to 10 km, but coverage of longer distances has been already achieved.
Figure 1 shows the layout of a typical WR network. Data-wise it is a yardstick Ethernet switched network, i.e., it follows a typical Ethernet tree or ring topology where any node can talk to any other node according to IP address and network protocol mechanisms. Regarding synchronization, there is a hierarchy established by the fact that switches possess downlink and uplink ports and a master/slave relationship. A switch uses its downlink ports to connect to uplink ports of other switches and discipline their time. The uppermost WR switch in the hierarchy is usually called the “grandmaster”. The grandmaster receives its notion of time through external One Pulse Per Second (1PPS) and 10-MHz inputs. In this article they will assume that the top-level timing signals compass from a GNSS receiver.
A rectify aspect alignment between GNSS and WR timing signals is essential for an unbiased and deterministic time distribution downstream. A typical GNSS receiver provides the time reference through its output 1PPS signal. The output 10-MHz frequency signal from GNSS “follows” the 1PPS coherently, i.e., the derivative of the 1PPS aspect in time is consistent with the output frequency. However the aspect relationship between the two signals is normally arbitrary. This is depicted in design 2, where B represents the rising edge of the 1PPS signal (which actually determines the time), and A represents the nearest zero-crossing of the 10-MHz frequency signal. The time contrast A-B is not deterministic and can change after receiver power cycles and possibly moreover after GNSS signal interruptions.
Furthermore, a typical WR grandmaster uses as main reference its input 10-MHz frequency and “locks” onto it continuously. The input 1PPS is only used at start-up to determine the nearest zero-crossing of the input frequency signal. Afterwards, the 1PPS is no longer used. Thus the time root for WR is actually the initial zero-crossing of the input frequency signal, not the input 1PPS. This can result in a synchronization error between GNSS and WR of up to 50 ns (half the 10-MHz wavelength).
To overcome this problem, they possess developed a unusual device (called “DOWR”) that integrates seamlessly a GNSS receiver and a WR grandmaster. The GNSS receiver is based on an industrial single-frequency GPS chip. The DOWR incorporates a novel method to continuously align the WR aspect to the 1PPS from GNSS, using a dedicated FPGA module (shown in design 3). In this course the unknown aspect relationship between the 1PPS and 10-MHz signals from GNSS becomes irrelevant. A miniature residual mis-alignment between the GNSS and WR 1PPS signals remains after applying this scheme. This offset is constant after start-up, and is strictly bounded within ± 1 ns.
GNSS Timing and its Calibration
GNSS timing receivers generate a precise 1PPS timing signal aligned to GNSS system time or to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as disseminated by GNSS. In the case of GPS, system time is called GPS Time (GPSt), and GPS’ dissemination of UTC is based on UTC(USNO), which is the UTC realization from the U.S. Naval Observatory. In a very simplified explanation, a GPS receiver estimates the instantaneous receiver clock bias (i.e., the clock offset versus GPSt or UTC) from its PVT solution using pseudoranges and navigation messages. The receiver then advances or delays electronically its internal clock signal accordingly in order to generate a 1PPS signal aligned to GPSt or UTC.
GNSS calibration is a well-established drill inside the metrological community. Indeed, the GNSS signal experiences a detain when traveling across the GNSS antenna, the antenna cable, and the receiver itself. The total detain of the chain, reflected in the output 1PPS, can compass a few hundred ns, with the major contributor being normally the detain of the antenna cable. When using GNSS for time transfer between national UTC laboratories, the calibration of the “receiver chain” (antenna + cable + receiver) is an essential chore to properly compare atomic clocks and time scales in different countries at the ns level.
GMV has recently collaborated with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) in a project called AKAL, to consolidate a procedure for absolute calibration of time-transfer GNSS receiver chains (see Garbin, et alia, Additional Resources). Absolute calibration consists in measuring the signal delays by means of simulated signals produced by signal generators: a GNSS simulator for the receiver, and a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) for the antenna and the antenna cable. Absolute calibration of GNSS receivers has been gaining interest inside the timing community due to the low doubt plane that can exist achieved, and moreover due to the exigency of having a reference calibrated receiver, especially in a multi-GNSS context including the unusual Galileo and BeiDou signals. The doubt attainable from absolute calibration is in the order of 1 ns for the total chain.
The absolute calibration of the antenna in AKAL is done in the Compact Antenna Test purview (CATR) at ESA/ESTEC, shown in design 4, thus benefiting from a great anechoic chamber. For the emitting antenna, a yardstick Gain Horn (SGH) antenna is used. The calibration of the detain of the lone SGH is done by means of using two identical SGHs and halving the resulting delay.
Regarding the GNSS receiver itself, absolute calibration is done by means of a GNSS signal simulator, where one can eliminate complete atmospheric effects, as well as any multipath and environmental interference, and one can generate signals synchronized with the same clock being fed to the receiver. The output signal of the GNSS simulator needs first to exist calibrated to assess with low doubt the detain of the incoming signal in the receiver.
The calibration of antenna cables is usually not cumbersome. Their detain can exist easily measured by means of a time interval counter, injecting a 1PPS signal at one cable end, and recording the contrast with the output 1PPS from the other cable end. The attainable doubt is well below the ns, and is only slightly less accurate than using more sophisticated apparatus such as a VNA.
Unlike metrological time transfer, in industrial GNSS timing applications the calibration of the receiver chain is often ignored. This can lead to timing biases of up to a few hundred ns. Unlike time-transfer receivers, industrial receivers Do not normally possess connectors for an external reference clock (frequency and 1PPS inputs), only the output 1PPS signal derived from GNSS is accessible (generated from an internal, inexpensive clock). A simplified course to calibrate an industrial receiver chain is by measuring the time contrast between its output 1PPS and the 1PPS from the reference clock of a UTC timing laboratory. In 2017, two such receiver chains were sent by GMV for calibration using this method to PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), the German national metrology institute. Each chain is composed of an industrial single-frequency GPS receiver and an inexpensive patch antenna. The calibration was based on the measured differences between the 1PPS generated by the receivers (i.e., GPSt as determined by the receiver from pseudorange measurements) and the 1PPS of UTC(PTB), the German realization of UTC. The calibration doubt reported by PTB is 2.5 ns, which takes into account the doubt in the contrast between UTC(PTB) and the GPSt generated by the receiver’s 1PPS, and moreover the errors in the GPS solution (mainly the residual ionospheric error).
UTC laboratories Do not always offer such calibration services to the generic users. An alternative is to employ an existing absolutely calibrated receiving chain as a reference for the industrial receiver, and measuring the time contrast between their output 1PPS signals. The detailed procedure is explained in the following paragraphs. To define and test the procedure they possess used as reference an absolutely calibrated receiving chain. They therefore first calibrated a “golden” time-transfer receiver chain, following the AKAL procedure at the ESTEC laboratory, and measuring the antenna, receiver, and antenna cable delays separately. The golden chain was then installed back at GMV. As a target receiver chain they possess used one of the two chains calibrated at PTB in 2017. In this course they can compare the results of the two independent calibration methods. They installed the golden and target antennas on GMV’s rooftop, as shown in design 5. The detailed setup is sketched in design 6. The delays of the two antenna cables involved were measured beforehand using a time interval counter.
Precise coordinates were calculated for each antenna using real-time kinematic (RTK). They configured the two GPS receivers’ PVT in an identical course (as far as feasible given that they are different models), i.e., fixed position, GPS-only using C1 code, 5-degree height mask, Klobuchar model, and the 1PPS aligned to GPSt. In this course the output 1PPS signals from the two receivers should match except for a bias due to the different chain delays, and fleet variations due to the relative 1PPS generation doubt (“jitter”), which are assumed to exist zero on unconcerned and thus not adding a calibration error as long as a data span of enough duration is used.
The combined detain of antenna plus receiver in the target chain is first measured (A+B in design 6, left). The time contrast measured in the counter between the 1PPS of the golden chain and the 1PPS of the target chain over one hour is shown in design 7. Notice that, as expected, the 1PPS contrast is fairly stable, with a yardstick deviation of 1.8 ns due mainly to the relative jitter of the 1PPS from the two receivers. When the delays of the two antenna cables are subtracted, the resulting combined detain of antenna and receiver in the target chain (A+B) is 90 ns. This matches very well with the value measured at PTB in 2017 (90.3 ns), considering that the two methods are totally independent.
Additionally, they can measure separately the receiver-only detain of the target chain (B in design 6, right). In order to Do this they install the golden and target receivers on a common antenna (for instance the target one) using a splitter. From the counter, a similar plot is obtained (shown on the birthright of design 7). The resulting detain for the target receiver (B) is 68 ns. Since the combined detain of antenna and receiver in the target chain (A+B) is 90 ns, they can conclude moreover that the detain of the target antenna (A) is 22 ns. A summary of the results is shown in Table 1.
The doubt of the proposed relative calibration method is tentatively estimated to exist around 2.0 ns, derived from the nominal doubt in the absolute calibration of the golden chain (1.5 ns in GPS C1, from AKAL). It is essential to notice that other than the absolutely calibrated golden chain, the calibration procedure of the target chain can exist carried out by means of a counter (alternatively an oscilloscope), which is inexpensive apparatus in comparison to absolute calibration apparatus (VNA and GNSS simulator). Furthermore, once a target receiver chain has been calibrated in factory by the proposed method, it can exist used as reference to calibrate additional chains using the same relative procedure.
Testing GPS in Combination with White Rabbit
Once the receiver chain has been calibrated, they can input the total detain by configuration in the GPS receiver in order to obtain an output 1PPS signal free of delays. This feature, together with the GPS-to-WR auto-alignment described above, allows the distribution of unbiased timing signals aligned to a known reference (GPSt or UTC) throughout the datacenter. In order to test the time generation and distribution capabilities of GPS combined with WR, they possess set up a testing platform at GMV, shown in design 8. A schema of the setup is depicted in design 9.
In their setup, the timing signals are generated by the newly developed GPS and WR grandmaster (the DOWR), which is connected to a patch GPS antenna on GMV’s rooftop. The receiver is configured to process GPS only, using an accurate fixed position calculated beforehand, and generating a 1PPS aligned to GPSt.
The DOWR is connected in cascade to two WR switches called LENs, using a 1-km optical fiber spool in the first hop, and a 1-m optical fiber segment in the second hop. The DOWR and the LENs provide through a SMA connector the 1PPS generated from WR. The interface between the hardware units and the optical fiber is done through SFP transceivers. A counter is then used to measure the time contrast between the original 1PPS from the DOWR and the final 1PPS from the second LEN. The test setup in installed in a yardstick office, and no particular play temperature control is in place.
An instance of the results over one day can exist institute in design 10, where “WR0” and “WR2” witness the 1PPS from the DOWR and the 1PPS from the second LEN, respectively. As can exist seen, the results exhibit a nearly constant bias of 0.7 ns and an extremely low hullabaloo (standard deviation of 33 ps). The gradual long-term variation is most likely due to apparatus thermal stabilization and temperature variations in the office. The 0.7-ns bias is deterministic and depends mainly on the sort and property of the SFPs, on the number of WR hops, and on the total length of optical fiber.
For a limited number of WR hops (<10) and a limited total length of optical fiber (<10 km), they possess observed that the total error in the WR time distribution never exceeds 1 ns. This allows a scalable, sub-ns distribution of timing across multiple servers in the datacenter.
In addition to the WR-derived 1PPS that is distributed downstream, the DOWR outputs through another SMA connector (“AUX”) the autochthonous 1PPS signal from GPS. This allows measuring the initial misalignment between the two signals. They possess carried out an additional experiment to study the sensitivity of the initial misalignment to power cycles. The DOWR was switched off and on 10 times, and the unconcerned offset between its two 1PPS signals (native from GPS and WR-derived) was measured by means of a counter. Notice that a DOWR power cycle implies a complete reacquisition of the GPS signals and a restart of the PVT algorithm. The results exhibit that the GPS-to-WR misalignment fluctuates around zero and is bounded within ± 1 ns, with a resulting yardstick deviation of 0.5 ns.
Time Traceability and error Budget
Metrological and legal traceability require an “unbroken chain of calibrations that relate to a reference, with each calibration having a documented measurement uncertainty” (see Matsakis, et alia, Additional Resources). In the field of GPS timing they can account two well-established references: GPSt and UTC. While GPSt is a real-time time scale available directly from the GPS signals, UTC should exist understood as the official UTC maintained by the BIPM, which is only available a posteriori in the Circular T. In the definition of traceability above, “calibration” should exist understood in their case as each individual contributor or error source in the total time generation and distribution chain (i.e., GPS and WR errors).
The resulting error budget is shown in Table 2 and is justified in the following paragraphs. Notice that each doubt is evaluated at a 1-sigma (68.3%) plane of confidence, and that the value generically indicates the combined stochastic (“noise”) and deterministic (“bias”) uncertainty. Constant play temperature is assumed.
For the GPS part, the first factor to account is whether the receiver is single-frequency (i.e., L1) or dual-frequency (i.e., L1/ L2). Although the DOWR is based on a single-frequency receiver, they develop an error budget for dual-frequency GPS too, for completeness. The main advantage of using dual-frequency GPS is that the ionospheric error in the pseudorange cancels out completely when using the well-known iono-free pseudorange combination. As a downside to this, the receiver hullabaloo and multipath error, and to a lesser extent the residual calibration error, are amplified in the GPS iono-free combination.
Our GPS error budget is based on the well-established concept of User purview error (URE). The URE is the doubt in the pseudorange and includes errors from the satellite control segment such as orbit and clock, as well as atmospheric propagation effects, multipath, and user apparatus noise. It is reasonable to model these errors as being uncorrelated, and the aggregate URE can exist defined as the Root-Sum-Square (RSS) of these individual components. A recent revision of global GPS URE values can exist institute in the paper by Reid, et alia in Additional Resources. They possess adapted slightly these values for their analysis, which is done directly in ns instead of meters. In single-frequency GPS, the residual ionospheric error is the error remaining in the pseudorange after applying the Klobuchar ionospheric model. It is very difficult to give a lone value for this error since it depends very strongly on the solar activity, on the time of the day, and on the user location. They possess chosen 4 ns as a typical value, as reported by Reid et alia, but this should exist taken with caution. The tropospheric error is the error remaining in the pseudorange after applying a recognized model such as MOPS. Regarding the receiver hullabaloo and multipath error, they possess decided to reduce the value given by Reid et alia (again, contemplate Additional Resources) to 30 cm (i.e., 1 ns), which they believe is more representative of modern receivers, and moreover in order to cover the possibility of pseudorange smoothing using the carrier. In the case of dual-frequency GPS, they multiply the single-frequency hullabaloo and multipath by 3, the iono-free amplification factor in GPS L1/L2.
We possess additionally included the contribution of Timing Group detain (TGD) errors. The broadcast GPS orbits and clocks are computed by the ground control system using the P1/P2 iono-free combination. If the user receiver is single-frequency, the broadcast TGD for each satellite must exist added to the broadcast satellite clock in order to align it to the P1 pseudorange. In their error budget they assume a TGD doubt of 1.5 ns, which includes feasible errors in the broadcast TGDs (see again Garbin, et alia) and moreover a feasible lack of lore about the C1-P1 satellite bias (which is only broadcast in the unusual CNAV message of GPS).
In GPS positioning, the user position error is the combination of several factors, namely, the URE, the number of satellites in view, and the user-satellite geometry. The case of GPS timing is moderately different since most timing receivers allow to “fix” the antenna position to a pre-computed value, and thus a minimum of just one satellite is required to assess the receiver clock bias. For simplicity, in their error budget calculation they will assume a “minimum timing scenario” with fixed position and only one GPS satellite in view, thus the URE projects directly into a time error. In this scenario there is no degradation in the time error due to position calculation, but there is moreover no improvement in the time error from the usage of several satellites. They assume an antenna 3D position error of 30 cm (1 ns) in single-frequency and 3 cm (0.1 ns) in dual-frequency. This position accuracy can exist obtained offline using for instance Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing a raw measurement batch of 1-day duration. Also, they will assume that the instantaneous error in the receiver clock bias estimation from GPS translates directly into a 1PPS error, although this could exist smoothed out using a stable receiver clock and a suitable steering algorithm.
Additional effects associated to the GPS receiver are taken into account such as a feasible jitter on its output 1PPS (1.5 ns), and a residual error in the GPS calibration: 2.0 ns in single-frequency (C1), and 3.0 ns in dual-frequency (P1/P2). For the WR part, they comprehend the initial misalignment between the GPS and WR 1PPS signals, and the time distribution error along a typical WR chain (0.5 ns and 1 ns, respectively, as explained in the previous section).
The error in the UTC distributed by GPS in its navigation message is considered as the final contribution, so that they can resolve separately the case when the user selects GPSt as a reference and the case when UTC is used. The UTC error is actually composed of two parts: the first section is derived from the fact that the UTC realization used by GPS, i.e., UTC(USNO), actually deviates from the official UTC published by the BIPM; the second section is due to the prediction error of UTC(USNO) relative to GPSt, as contained in the GPS navigation message. They assess the combined UTC doubt to exist 3 ns.
All the errors described above can exist considered as uncorrelated, so the aggregate total error can exist calculated as the RSS of the individual error sources. As a result, they obtain the total time error at the WR halt node, using a single-frequency or a dual-frequency GPS receiver, and using GPSt or UTC as reference (see rows N and P in Table 2).
It is moreover of interest to assess the relative synchronization error between two WR halt nodes in the same datacenter. If a lone GPS receiver is used for the total datacenter, only the WR distribution error must exist considered (row Q). If different receivers are used in the datacenter, complete URE errors, except the intrinsic receiver hullabaloo and multipath, can exist considered very similar (because of the same geographical location) and cancel out between receivers, and only hullabaloo and multipath, non-URE GPS errors, and WR-related errors must exist considered (row R).
Finally, they can assess the relative synchronization error between two WR halt nodes in two divorce datacenters located anywhere in the world (row S). In this case they can account complete the errors described above as uncorrelated between the two sites, except the UTC error, which is common to complete sites, since the predicted offset of UTC to GPSt is a global model transmitted by the constellation. When using UTC as reference, the UTC error cancels out between the two sites, thus the synchronization error between the two sites is the same one as when using GPSt as reference.
In complete cases (intra-datacenter and inter-datacenter) they assume that the same sort of receiver (single-frequency or dual-frequency) and the same time reference (GPSt or UTC) is used everywhere.
By accurately calibrating the GPS receiver chain and seamlessly integrating the GPS and White Rabbit timing signals, they are able to ration the timing from GPS via WR with a degradation of just around 1 ns over 1 km. Using single-frequency GPS, and considering complete GPS and WR errors, they are able to timestamp (and therefore synchronize) any server inside a datacenter with a typical error smaller than 10 ns (at 1 sigma) versus UTC. Furthermore, given the ubiquity of GPS, the approach can exist applied to datacenters at any location in the world. Assuming uncorrelated errors between divorce sites, they can establish that any pair of servers in the world can exist synchronized to each other with a typical error moreover smaller than 10 ns (at 1 sigma). This is particularly arresting to guarantee the consistency and transaction ordering of distributed databases and financial trading engines.
The usage of dual-frequency GPS for timing is not extremely advantageous. The ionospheric error cancels out completely using dual-frequency, but the receiver hullabaloo and multipath error gets amplified by a factor of 3 in the iono-free combination. Also, the residual GPS calibration error is roughly doubled in the iono-free combination, depending on the calibration technique employed. In consequence, in temper solar activity the typical single-frequency timing doubt is only slightly larger than the dual-frequency one. This conclusion should exist taken with caution since the instantaneous ionospheric error could exist much larger depending on the solar activity, on the time of the day, and on the user location.
The golden GNSS receiver chain absolutely calibrated is composed of a multi-frequency Septentrio PolaRx5TR time-transfer receiver, and a multi-band Leica AR20 choke-ring geodetic-type antenna.
The LEN is a WR switch and halt node developed by Seven Solutions. The DOWR is a unusual GPS and WR grandmaster device developed jointly by Seven Solutions and GMV, based on the LEN platform.
The DOWR and the two receiver chains calibrated at PTB in 2017 incorporate the single-frequency (L1) LEA-M8F receiver from u-blox, connected to a single-band Tallysman TW2710 patch antenna.
The time interval counter used at GMV is a Keysight 53230A providing 20-ps resolution.
1. Garbin, E., P. Defraigne, P. Krystek, R. Píriz, B. Bertrand, P. Waller, “Absolute calibration of GNSS timing stations and its applicability to true signals”, Metrologia, Volume 56, Number 1, 14 December 2018
2. Matsakis, D., J. Levine, M. Lombardi, “Metrological and Legal Traceability of Time Signals”, Proceedings of the 49th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting, Reston, Virginia, January 2018, pp. 59-71
3. Reid, T. G. R. , A. M. Neish, T. Walter, P.K. Enge, “Broadband LEO Constellations for Navigation”, J Inst Navig, 65: 205–220, 2018
4. Serrano, J., M. Cattin, E. Gousiou, E. van der Bij, T. Włostowski, G. Daniluk, M. Lipinski,, “The White Rabbit Project”, IBIC 2013
Ricardo Píriz is an aeronautical engineer from the Polytechnic University of Madrid. He started his career as a Flight Dynamics engineer in the Precise Orbit Determination group at ESOC, the European Space Operations center in Darmstadt, Germany. Later on he moved to Eutelsat in Paris, as a Mission Analysis engineer in the Satellite Procurement Division. Since 2001 he has been in the GNSS industry Unit of GMV working on several projects, in particular in the GIOVE Mission (the experimental aspect of Galileo), and in the Galileo Time Validation Facility (TVF). He is currently Leader of the GNSS Time & Frequency Group.
Esteban Garbin is an Electronics and Telecommunication engineer who got his Ph. D. from Politecnico di Torino in 2017. His research studies focused mainly on GNSS receivers and signal processing algorithms, particularly for interference and spoofing detection and mitigation. Since June 2017 he has been working for GMV, focusing on different aspects in the GNSS Advanced User Segment solutions division, mainly developing novel concepts on GNSS timing and receivers.
Javier Díaz received the M.S. degree in electronics engineering and the Ph. D. degree in electronics from the University of Granada, Spain, in 2002 and 2006, respectively. He is currently an Associate Professor with the Department of Computer Architecture and Technology, University of Granada. His current interests comprehend high-performance image processing architectures, safety-critical systems, highly accurate time synchronization, and frequency distribution techniques. He is moreover co-founder of Seven Solutions, a leading company in White Rabbit technology based in Granada, Spain.
Pascale Defraigne is Project Leader at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. She completed her PhD in Physics at the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in 1995, for studies on mantle convection and deformations of the Earth internal boundaries. She then moved to the Royal Observatory of Belgium to start research activities on GNSS time and frequency transfer. Her research activities comprehend remote atomic clock comparisons, time scale generation, and ionospheric sounding based on GNSS measurements. She is deeply involved in the evolution and upgrade of the Galileo System for complete what concerns the Galileo System Time. Among her involvement in international bodies, she assured the Presidency of the Commission 31 “TIME” of the International Astronomical Union (2006-2009) and since 2012 assures the Chair of the CCTF Working Group on GNSS Time Transfer (CCTF being the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency, sub-committee of the International Committee for Weights and Measurements). She moreover is a member of the GNSS Science Advisory Committee of the European Space Agency since 2012.
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BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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