650-316 exam Dumps Source : SP Video angle II - Media Satellite and(R) Broadcast
Test Code : 650-316
Test denomination : SP Video angle II - Media Satellite and(R) Broadcast
Vendor denomination : Cisco
: 39 existent Questions
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Cisco’s lengthy-standing perception has at utter times been that businesses deserve to evolve to power ahead and lead through market transitions. The equal is perquisite for their govt talent. Evolving their faculty requires placing them in original roles, expanding their standpoint and skill sets and bringing immaculate ideas and energy to the business. here's what we’ve recently executed with Edzard Overbeek’s original Move from SVP of their Asia-Pacific-Japan spot to disappear of their world capabilities trade and Bruce Klein’s circulation from SVP of Public Sector sales to the top of their worldwide accomplice corporation.
over the eventual year, we've refocused their engineering organization for agility, greater resolution making, and a renewed focal point on innovation. The market participate numbers talk for themselves and their consumer self assurance has under no circumstances been more advantageous. they occupy a powerful leadership group and the trade community leaders occupy tested unbelievable execution. Now the time is usurp for us to pressure the subsequent section of their organizational evolution.
With that, they are joyful to advertise Padmasree Warrior will extend her function to become Cisco’s Chief technology and approach Officer where she should subsist answerable for selecting consumer and industry transitions and determining Cisco’s system to maneuver them. Padma will labor closely with Cisco’s engineering, box, operations and functions management, and should define strategy, investments, acquisitions and the evolution of Cisco’s expertise accomplice ecosystem. additionally, Padma should subsist accountable for notion leadership round Cisco’s items and architectures, technical talent progress and recruiting, and she or he will boost her time with external stakeholders. The company neighborhood CTO’s will record dotted line to Padma to allow unbelievable alignment between expertise approach, trade strategy and M&A undertaking. during the eventual 4 years, Padma has based an immense song checklist of effects, such as edifice Cisco’s approach and execution around architectures, cloud, habitual know-how system framework, and attracting and setting up industry leading technical skill. They seem to subsist ahead to accelerating their market position beneath Padma’s strategic course.
After 13 years of high-quality service to Cisco, Ned Hooper will subsist leaving the immediate Cisco household to benign an unbiased funding partnership enterprise and to pursue his goal to subsist a primary investor. Ned has been working on his arrangement with us over a number of months, and they seem forward to partnering with him in his original endeavor. Ned has a unique ardour and talent for funding and strategy, and should focus on this within the subsequent portion of his profession. Ned pioneered the model for gigantic-scale M&A at Cisco and drove gigantic transactions for the trade similar to Tandberg, WebEx, Airespace, Starent and NDS. moreover, he has managed their $2B funding portfolio with each strategic and fiscal returns to the business. Ned’s system and enterprise progress crew will now document to Padma. we'd want to thank Ned for his contributions, management, friendship and his persistent drive to utter the time attain the perquisite factor for Cisco.
at last, Pankaj Patel will matter on the management of Cisco’s engineering company. Pankaj will pressure innovation, operational excellence and agile edifice across their items, solutions and architectures, and proceed to increase their relevance with their expanding consumer base. Pankaj’s profound consumer relationships and wide engineering knowledge, combined together with his capacity to mentor and develop suitable engineering talent will serve Cisco neatly as they obligate the next section of engineering leadership for the business. whilst you may well subsist common with Pankaj’s carrier provider journey, he in the past spent sixteen years within the enterprise house. during the eventual 13 years, Pankaj developed and grew Cisco’s provider company enterprise which these days debts for about 35% of Cisco’s direct product income. Pankaj’s management in key provider issuer areas akin to core routing, portion routing, SP mobility and SP video has positioned Cisco extraordinarily neatly for the long run. utter over his tenure Pankaj has delivered a significant number of items to the Cisco portfolio, addressing a wide array of consumer needs. during the eventual year because the co-chief of engineering, Pankaj has extended his involvement in Cisco’s commercial enterprise company, as the intersection facets between service issuer and commercial enterprise approach nearer together.
As they wait concentrated on being the most beneficial Cisco for their purchasers, partners, investors and personnel today, they not ever lose music of the spot they are looking to disappear sooner or later. we're enthusiastic about this evolution in their firm. please associate us in congratulating Padma, Pankaj and Ned on the next portion of their respective journeys.
John Chambers and Gary Moore
through specific information carrier
CHENNAI : Chief Minister Edappadi k Palaniswami inaugurated 13 original parks in quite a lot of constituents of Chennai on Monday, and commissioned the underground sewerage amenities, developed at a expense of 35 crore at Soorpattu in Madhavaram zone besides an identical underground sewerage amenities at Puthagaram and Kathirvedu at a complete cost of Rs.60 crore, throughout the video conferencing facility on the Secretariat. the executive minister commissioned and inaugurated various works completed at a complete saturate of 103.forty crores.
The 13 parks are located at Ramachandra road in Santhosh Nagar (Mugalivakkam), Tsunami Quarters (AIR Nagar) in Ennore, Balakrishna Nagar, Vegetarian Village (Puzhal), Puthagaram, Padmavathi Nagar carrier highway, Padmavathi Nagar in Kathirvedu, Seventh road, Ponniammanmedu and Thanikachalam Nagar, VIP Nagar in Mogappair, Veermamunivar highway, Annai Velankanni Nagar phase-II (Mugalivakkam) and Rajiv Gandhi street (Sollinganallur).
the chief minister additionally inaugurated children’s playgrounds at TVS Colony forty fifth road and Officers Colony in Ambattur zone and workplace structures for Municipal administration department. Municipal Administration Minister SP Velumani, pastoral Industries Minister P Benjamin, Chennai company Commissioner D Karthikeyan and senior officers were current on the event.
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The halt of analog television is at hand. Pundits occupy predicted the death of analog before, but such forecasts were couched in caveats. Now governments are setting difficult dates and planning for life after analog, when vast amounts of bandwidth will become available for original uses and the broadcast TV scene will change.
Around the world, governments occupy begun the analog shutdown, and it will accelerate rapidly during the next five years. In Germany, Berlin killed off analog in 2003, Munich did it this year [see photo, “Getting Ready”], and the repose of the nation is scheduled to result suit by 2010. In the United States, Congress likely will legislate January 2009 as the shutoff date. The end-of-analog date in France is 2010. In Japan, it’s 2011. The United Kingdom, which turned off analog broadcasts in one Welsh community this year as an experiment, is slated to angle out analog completely by the halt of 2012.
After analog television is phased out, digital over-the-air transmission will subsist the only game in town for those receiving free TV signals through antennas.
If television comes to you by cable or satellite, you won’t notice a thing. Satellite television is already digital, and so is much of cable. But eventually you will harvest diverse rewards that you might not even connect to changes in TV broadcasting: better cellphone reception, opportunities to download video to your cellphone [see illustration, “Playing Soon”], and mobile broadband Internet. And, in the United States, you might contemplate a modest douse in the federal budget deficit when the government sells off 108 megahertz of the primitive analog broadcast spectrum for as much as US $50 billion, by some estimates.
If you attain rely on broadcast television, you’ll notice the changes even sooner. The first one might subsist a slight painful: you’ll necessity a original TV set or, at minimum, a original tuner costing at least $100 [see sidebar, “Countdown to the End”]. With a original high-definition set, you’ll contemplate a mammoth improvement in the TV picture. Most digital programming is broadcast in HD, which brings the crisp, particular images so prized by sports fans (who are determined never to lose sight of the ball or puck) and feared by news anchors (who know that viewers can contemplate every bit of makeup they plaster on). Along with those sharp pictures comes digital compass sound—if you add the speakers.
In some countries, mainly in Europe, broadcasters occupy no plans for terrestrial broadcast of high-definition television. Nevertheless, digital broadcasting should bring other potential benefits. Some broadcasters may dispatch out multiple standard-definition channels, perhaps “narrowcasting” shows to niche audiences or providing supplementary material, such as an interactive experience, with regular shows.
In any massive technology change, particularly one with so much money at stake, there are winners and losers. I’ll amass to those. But first, to understand why this enormously valuable portion of the spectrum will soon subsist up for grabs in an unprecedented high-tech rush, they occupy to disappear back to the late 1990s.
The United States was the first country to broadcast digital TV, in 1998, and its mechanism was basically followed by other countries in their own systems. So the U.S. flavor is illustrative.
In the late 1990s, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) loaned each TV broadcaster a second channel in the existing broadcast bands, 54 through 806 MHz. Interspersed among the broadcast channels are some spectrum gaps that minimize interference between them. To further minimize interference, the FCC skipped certain channels in a geographic region; for example, if channel 4 is assigned in one metropolitan area, the nearest channel 3 broadcaster is in a different metropolitan area. The skipped channels are known as taboo channels.
Each channel occupies 6 MHz, and that hasn’t changed. Rather, because digital transmission is less interfering and besides less topic to interference, and because digital channels operate at lower power levels than their analog counterparts, the FCC assigned second channels into analog taboo channels. The FCC deemed the modest increase in the overall flush of interference acceptable during the transition.
At the time of the bandwidth loan, Congress set year-end 2006 as the date when analog service would officially cease and the extra channels would subsist “returned.” At that point, the digital channels, with their low interference characteristics, could subsist repacked into less bandwidth—a swath between 54 and 698 MHz. The Move would free 108 MHz of spectrum—the upper halt of the UHF band, or TV channels 52 to 69—for other uses. To establish the potential value of that 108 MHz in perspective, note that the entire AM radio spectrum is less than 1.2 MHz. utter local region networks using IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g, the most common forms of Wi-Fi, occupy just 83.5 MHz. Congress looked forward to a lucrative spectrum auction to animate equipoise the federal budget.
The 2006 date, however, came with a caveat: on a market-by-market basis, at least 85 percent of households would occupy to own at least one television that could receive digital signals.
It has been limpid for months that the 85 percent criterion will not subsist met next year, so the U.S. arrangement will subsist delayed [see sidebar, “Countdown to the End”]. But for how long? Now, many of the affected players—consumer electronics and computer manufacturers, along with communications and other companies interested in using the recaptured spectrum—do not want a “soft date.” Instead, they occupy been agitating for a difficult one, with no further desultory of delay.
Although Congress has yet to pass legislation to set such a date, both the House of Representatives and the Senate seemed in late summer 2005 to subsist converging on 1 January 2009.
Shortly before any difficult date, the troop rush will begin. Congress, interested for the money, is pushing the FCC to start the auctions as soon as possible. The Congressional Budget Office is advising that the auctions subsist delayed until after other, unrelated spectrum auctions are completed. Spreading them out will prevent a sudden glut of bandwidth, thus optimizing returns. Auction winners would require a year or two to amass the money they’d necessity to invest in developing their newly acquired spectrum segments. So for them, if bandwidth is to become available at the halt of 2008, auctions in late 2006 or early 2007 would subsist ideal.
“Beachfront Spectrum” is what analysts are calling that soon-to-be-auctioned upper 108 MHz, because it is pattern for cellular services. Signals at those frequencies propagate farther and penetrate buildings better than signals in today’s cellular bands, which disappear up to 1.9 gigahertz. Best of all, cellphone system operators hope infrastructure costs to subsist reduced by 90 percent, because fewer cells will subsist required, given the longer distances signals will travel.
Thanks to such advantages, the cellular phone companies are likely to compete difficult for this valuable bandwidth. Exactly what they would attain with it is a closely guarded secret, at least until winning bidders are selected. Nevertheless, it’s not difficult to imagine the winners launching third-generation services, including mobile video and wide-band Internet access, which would enable cellphone users to receive video programming and e-mail on the run.
The FCC’s huge menu of allowable uses for the original frequencies identifies “[f]lexible fixed, mobile, and broadcast uses, including mobile and other digital original broadcast operations; fixed and mobile wireless commercial services, as well as fixed and mobile wireless uses for private, internal radio needs. Could besides include two-way interactive, cellular, and mobile television broadcasting services.”
Perhaps the best early indicators of what will betide with the freed-up bandwidth are recent events in Berlin—the first city to swirl off analog television—and in the United States, where a yoke of preemptive auctions gave developers access to segments of spectrum on the condition that they not tamper with broadcasters silent using them.
The “Berlin Switch” is an intriguing novelty. It was feasible because the region affected is relatively small, with 1.8 million households in the TV market, and because an overwhelming number of those households—all but 160 000—subscribe to cable or satellite television. Nonsubscribers each coughed up at least $200 to buy a set-top converter, and for less than $1 million, the government subsidized the purchase for families on welfare.
What the switch gave Berliners, mainly, was an increase in the number of broadcast stations—from 12 to 27. Multiplexing allows four digital channels to felicitous in the space previously allotted to a single analog channel. (This excludes HD broadcasts, because they require more bandwidth.) The switch besides gave the government 35 MHz to use—or sell—for original services.
With more channels, viewers of broadcast television in Berlin occupy access to niche programming and channels previously available only to cable or satellite subscribers. Programming now includes Eurosport; Arte, with art movies, documentaries, poetry, and theater; Phoenix, with political news; Viva II, with pop culture for people in their 20s; and several original local channels.
In the United States, in 2001 and 2002, the FCC auctioned off four miniature slices of spectrum totaling 6 MHz in the 746- to 806-MHz range, the upper 700-MHz band, that had been allocated as “guard bands.” Along with the perquisite to utilize the spectrum came taut rules to minimize interference with public-safety services. This RF existent estate is intended for the rental market: the buyers will act as landlords, leasing the spectrum to third parties. The FCC packaged the spectrum in two pieces for 52 market areas, creating 104 licenses, which were auctioned for $540 million. The top three winners were Access Spectrum, Nextel, and Pegasus Communications.
Access Spectrum LLC, in Bethesda, Md., winner of 21 licenses, announced at the time that it had begun negotiating rental agreements. In addition, Access, formed in 2000, is likely to build private wireless networks for businesses in some of its bands.
Plans of the other winners are murkier. Nextel is using its 40 licenses as bargaining chips and recently agreed to revert them to the FCC as portion of a deal involving interference reduction in the 800-MHz band. Pegasus won 34 of the 104 licenses but has been mute about its plans. The largest independent provider of the DirecTV satellite service, Pegasus is having fiscal problems, and some of its subsidiaries filed Chapter 11 bankruptcies in 2004.
Then, in 2002 and 2003, the FCC auctioned off 18 MHz between 698 and 746 MHz, which covers three UHF channels, 54, 55, and 59. Again the spectrum was packaged into geographical pieces, both to subsist attractive to buyers and to maximize returns. Channel 55 was sold in six regional chunks, while 54 and 59 were sold as a pair in 734 markets. Altogether the sales brought the U.S. government $145 million.
Qualcomm Inc., of San Diego, won the auction for the spectrum previously occupied by channel 55 in five of the six auctions. It then bought the rights for the sixth region from Aloha Partners LP, of Providence, R.I. Aloha was formed to provide wireless broadband service and has been a mammoth player in the auctions so far.
Qualcomm intends to utilize its spectrum to dispatch video and audio programming to cellphones, PDAs, and other portable devices nationwide. It hasn’t announced what it intends to broadcast, but the content could include hit TV shows, clips of sporting events, and movie trailers. The company calls its service MediaFLO (“Media” plus “Forward Link Only”). Qualcomm plans to store video in the handsets to supplement video streamed live; that way, it hopes to purge the dropouts endemic to cellphone reception. If a voice signal drops out temporarily, you can just say, “What?” Video signal dropouts, however, cause annoying freezes, jerks, or blanks in the picture, and would dispirit users.
Qualcomm is developing MediaFLO as a passage to promote CDMA cellphone technology, which it pioneered. CDMA is winning out over the TDMA gauge (popular in the United States) and is emerging as a stalwart competitor to GSM (popular in Europe). Today, CDMA is used in 35 countries, including the United States and South Korea. Qualcomm plans to integrate MediaFLO into its chip sets and to present the service through partnerships with cellphone operators. It may eventually spin it off as a sever company.
Technology alternatives to MediaFLO are available and could subsist used for competing services in spectrum bands yet to subsist auctioned. One sample is a variant of the Digital Video Broadcasting gauge widely adopted in Australia, Europe, India, and elsewhere. The variant, called DVB-H, provides TV broadcasts to handheld devices and, dote MediaFLO, is being used in the 700-MHz band. In South Korea, yet another gauge for TV broadcasting to handhelds is being deployed—Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, or T-DMB—and it may emerge as a competitor in the United States.
Have you ever organize yourself on a train, in a park, or at a ball game wishing you could pay a bill you’d forgotten about, or dispatch a quick message, or download a tune stuck in your mind? According to Aloha, there are enough people who want to subsist “always on” to advocate a nationwide mobile broadband Internet service. The company, which resold its channel 55 spectrum to Qualcomm, was the mammoth victor in the 54/59 channel-pair auctions. Aloha won 125 out of the 734 regional auctions and increased its holdings by buying the other two mammoth winners. Aloha claims it now has spectrum in 244 of the 734 licensed markets, covering 175 million potential customers, including 100 percent coverage in the nation’s 10 largest markets and 84 percent coverage in the top 40 markets.
Though not revealing which technologies it will deploy, Aloha did advertise eventual year that it would launch a 2005 market tribulation of mobile broadband Internet access using Flash-OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing). Developed by Flarion Technologies Inc., in Bedminster, N.J., Flash-OFDM is a spread-spectrum technology that uses the Internet Protocol. Signals jump quickly from frequency to frequency within a given channel in a seemingly random pattern generated by an algorithm. The resulting signal causes minimal interference with those in the selfsame and neighboring channels and is itself not easily interfered with. Different basis stations utilize different hopping patterns, further reducing interference and allowing the bandwidth to subsist used efficiently. The FCC recently granted Aloha consent to Run a market test in Tucson, Ariz., presumably of Flash-OFDM.
Two auctions held so far accounted for just 24 MHz of the 108 MHz that will eventually subsist sold. Of the 84 MHz remaining, in 1997 the FCC reserved 24 MHz for public-safety communications, such as police and fire services—those located at four of today’s UHF TV channels, 63, 64, 68, and 69. Since the 9/11 attacks on the United States, Congress has been paying a lot of attention to the public-safety communications plan, originally with slight fanfare. In fact, congressional eagerness to reallocate the swath of spectrum is the main impetus behind a drive to set a difficult date for the transition to digital television. The redeem Lives Act of 2005, introduced in the Senate in June, calls for expediting the reassignment of the spectrum for public-safety purposes and requires spectrum to subsist taken back from broadcasters by 1 January 2009.
Although Congress is driving the agenda to free portions of spectrum for public-safety use, local governments will elect how they will subsist used. Metropolitan-area governments, for example, would dote to alleviate the congestion that plagues existing emergency services. They are concerned with voice and text transmission, already in use, and are looking to add wideband transmission of images. On-the-scene images can animate emergency responders and their dispatchers. With broadband access to stored records, fire or police teams could review edifice plans and blueprints.
After the auctions held so far and the allocation for emergency services, 60 MHz of the bandwidth to subsist vacated by analog television remains to subsist sold [see illustration, “The FCC Auction Plan”]. This section, consisting of channels 52, 53, 56 to 58, 60 to 62, and 65 to 67, is slated to subsist divided into five blocks. Four of the five will subsist channel pairs: 52 and 57, 53 and 58, a pair of 5-MHz channels in 60 and 65, and a pair of 10-MHz channels in 61 to 62 and 66 to 67. Channel pairs can best subsist used for services that require the selfsame capacity in each direction, dote today’s cellphone services.
The fifth conceal will consist of today’s channel 56, which is better suited for one-way transmission, such as broadcasting to cellphones. It could besides subsist used for services that can utilize an existing cellphone channel as the revert path—for example, video on demand, in which your request is phoned in and then the material is sent to your cellphone over the broadband channel. The FCC plans to present the blocks in six regional areas, making it simpler for well-funded companies planning to roll out national services to assemble bandwidth.
Illustration: Bryan Christie
The sale of the five blocks will complete the reallocation. The oft-quoted $50 billion valuation for the 108 MHz may subsist too high, given that the first 24 MHz sold netted $685 million and that the 24-MHz public-safety spectrum won’t subsist sold at all. The $50 billion number comes from a May 2004 rate by the original America Foundation, a Washington, D.C.based public policy institute, citing FCC and other data. On the other hand, it is feasible that the chunks of spectrum auctioned in the first two rounds went cheap because buyers didn’t know when they would actually amass them.
If a difficult date is set and the auctions for the remaining spectrum sections are held not too far ahead of that date, the auctions of the remaining 60 MHz could bring the total raised up to $30 billion. Congress is expected to require that a portion of those proceeds, probably less than $5 billion, subsist used to fund subsidies to animate low-income families transfigure their analog TV sets to digital.
Whenever so much money and infrastructure are at stake, there are inevitably winners and losers. The companies bringing in the bids at the auctions loom initially to subsist winners, but some of their ventures are bound to fail.
Manufacturers will subsist huge winners. original services and technologies necessitate original equipment. Sales of televisions, studio gear, and other consumer and professional tackle are already growing. silent to approach are trade opportunities opened by original mobile services.
Broadcasters should subsist winners. By upgrading their technological backbones, they occupy improved their character of service and now occupy the flexibility to pursue original opportunities such as narrowcasting to niche markets. However, while broadcasters occupy invested heavily in the digital transition, they occupy not yet fully exploited digital’s advantages of higher-definition pictures and original services.
Broadcasters occupy two strategic advantages over cable and satellite providers. For one, local broadcast stations know their markets in a passage no national programmer can. For another, broadcast television is wireless and eminently portable; viewers don’t occupy to plug into the cable network or to a carefully aligned satellite dish. They don’t even occupy to find miniature erotic spots, since receivers pick up broadcast signals almost anywhere. But broadcasters are only now starting to utilize HDTV in their local programming, primarily for news. And U.S. digital service does not advocate mobile service to vehicles and pedestrians with handheld devices. It is telling that reassigned broadcast spectrum is being used to present mobile video services that broadcasters themselves are unable to support. Nor is this now a priority for them.
Political leaders might subsist losers, if they are perceived as forcing unwanted change and expense on the public. And if the transition is disruptive, they will subsist blamed. But overall, governments should subsist mammoth winners. When the transition is completed, governments will occupy served their constituencies well by shifting broadcast television to a superior, more springy service and by reallocating vacated broadcast spectrum to other useful services.
In the short term, some consumers, particularly the least well-off, will subsist losers. They will contemplate blank, snowy screens on their antenna-fed analog TVs when analog service is terminated. To continue receiving programming, they will necessity to buy and install digital conversion set-top boxes or switch to cable or satellite service. Either way, it’s going to cost them.
In the end, though, consumers will subsist winners, with original and improved services available. They will occupy access to HDTV’s mighty pictures, accompanied by surround-sound audio. They will occupy uniformly high-quality reception anywhere in a broadcast area, and additional services will include some within traditional broadcast channels but even more coming in the auctioned broadcast spectrum.
Robert M. Rast (IEEE Senior Member) is industry liaison for Micronas Semiconductors Holding AG and chairman of the board of the Advanced Television Systems Committee, an international standards-setting body. In the 1990s, he was common Instrument Corp.’s digital HDTV advocate, and in 1993 he became one of the leaders of the newly formed Digital HDTV grand Alliance.
Narrator: Baghdad... January 16th, 1991.
Reporter: .... fire coming up there in the air, flashes going off.
CNN Headquarters Manager: Don't you hear air down there? Don't you hear what's on the air, folks?
Narrator: This was the flash that CNN founder Ted Turner had been waiting for.
Ted Turner: I've been an innovative thinker, okay, I mean, I thought of CNN.
Bernard Shaw, CNN Anchor: The skies over Baghdad occupy been illuminated.
Narrator: His rivals had once called his brainchild "Chicken Noodle News"; but at the start of the Gulf War, the entire world was watching CNN, the first 24-hour TV news network.
CNN Headquarters Manager: I know, but this is where it's happening!
Porter Bibb, Biographer: Ted Turner and CNN establish the viewer in the middle of history, as it was unfolding, and that was revolutionary.
Ken Auletta, Turner Biographer: You admiration the CIA had more information than CNN did? Of course not.
Reporter in Baghdad: That came down fairly near their hotel...
Robert Goldberg, Turner Biographer: [When] Ted Turner [started] CNN ... it frightened the crap out of the people who were working with him.
CNN Headquarters Manager: amass the French on the air!
Ted Turner: If you've got an innovative idea, and the majority does not pooh-pooh your idea, then you must not occupy a very beneficial idea.
Russell Simmons: Now to the press conference.
Narrator: No one had believed in Russell Simmons's view either. But he ended up with a multi-million empire in hip hop fashion, comedy and poetry...He even produced an acclaimed prove on Broadway....
Def Poetry Jam, Opening Night on Broadway, November 2002
Def Poetry Jam Poet: ...it was poetry, but now they convoke it rap.
Narrator: And it utter started when he unleashed a controversial original benign of music in America, rap.
DMX: Bring it. What? They perquisite here...
Russell Simmons: Sometimes they talk about rap and how people don't dote to hear what the rappers are saying. That's God's soundtrack.
Alex Ogg: If you're wondering why so many white kids are impersonating black culture ... it's utter to attain with the passage that Russell Simmons has marketed the phenomenon which is hip hop.
DMX: Here they disappear again...
Sir Harold Evans, Author, "They Made America": Russell Simmons produced the browning of America, in the sense that a culture which was born in the ghetto became universal.
Narrator: Russell Simmons and Ted Turner brought the world closer together.
Russell Simmons: Give me a minute, alright?
Narrator: You may not know their stories, but they made America.
Ted Turner: For awhile, it's gonna subsist out of control.
Russell Simmons: Thank you, uh, thank you utter for being here.
Control margin Director: utter right, stand by twenty-three, xxx on three...Ted Turner (arriving at Atlanta Press Club): beneficial evening.Control Room: Dissolve, utter right...
CNN Announcer: CNN's complete coverage of today's...
Control margin Director: 40 seconds...Houston, you're clear.
Ted Turner (Atlanta Press Club speech): I couldn't occupy done any of this without a lot of help....
Control Room: Roll C...
Ted Turner: They utter did it together.
Control Room: 30 seconds...
Robert Goldberg: Ted Turner's innovation was 24-hour news...(and) what that means is that...you can watch history live.
Control margin Director: We're coming back.
CNN Announcer: We're live in Baghdad...
Robert Goldberg: You can watch history as it's happening. ... So they watch to ogle back, and they say, 'Well, obviously, CNN was going to subsist a mammoth success.' But in fact, when it was started, there was no indication at utter that it was going to subsist a success, and in fact, they were teetering on the edge.
Ted Turner: I lived for ten years, during that time, I lived in my office on a foldout bed.
Harold Evans: One of Ted Turner's mighty qualities: He makes us excited about everything he does. He's not a man in a grey flannel suit.
Ken Auletta, Turner Biographer: When he was working his 24-hour days, I mean, he was driven by a desire to amass it right. And portion of his drive in life is to prove to his father that he's worthy.
Robert Goldberg: Ted's father was a billboard magnate. He had a billboard company...He was expanding and doing better and better and he did this one mammoth deal where he bought out common Outdoor Advertising. And this was his mammoth break. Ted was incredibly excited. His father originally was very excited but soon started to amass scared. He was worried that he was overextended. He was worried that this entire empire would approach crashing down. [So]...It was the morning of March 5, 1963, and Ted Turner's father went downstairs, and he had a mammoth replete breakfast. Then he went upstairs, took out his revolver, the selfsame revolver he had taught Ted to shoot with, and he killed himself.
Porter Bibb: When Ted's father killed himself that was the ultimate blow to Ted Turner who could never, ever amass his father's approval that he had spent his life, up to that point, seeking.
Robert Goldberg: Ted's father did it in a passage to leave his family -- each of them as millionaires. Ted wasn't interested in being a millionaire. He could occupy taken the money, he could occupy gone off to subsist a millionaire on the Riviera, but instead he says, 'No, I want to hold this company. I want to prove my father, I want to prove everybody I can attain this.'
Ken Auletta: portion of his mission in his life is to prove to his father that his father was wrong. And in fact, once he looked up at the heavens, and said, 'Dad, are you satisfied now?'
Ted Turner: I used to divulge people, when I was in my 20s, that I wanted to amass to the top, and I wanted to amass there in a hurry, not even knowing where the top was.
Go ahead and eat your cereal.
Narrator: Everyone thought Ted Turner was too inexperienced to hold over his dad's billboard company.
Ted Turner: Well, hustle it up, Chago.
Narrator: But he made money. And in 1970, he splurged on a rundown, money-losing UHF station in Atlanta.
Ted Turner: They changed the convoke letters to WTCG, and then later to WTBS, for Turner Broadcasting System. But WTCG was 'Watch This Channel Grow."
Robert Goldberg: When Ted buys WTCG, it's a TV station that's....hemorrhaging hundreds of thousands of dollars a month.
Bill Tush: beneficial morning. Hope you're doing OK this morning. Morning, Tina.
Robert Goldberg: There was a FCC requirement to establish news on. Instead of putting existent news on [Turner] had establish on quip news.
Bill Tush: Ronald Reagan hopes to beat... [laughs]
Narrator: To animate fill his programming schedule, Turner bought his hometown losing baseball team -- the Atlanta Braves -- and broadcast their "away" games. Many saw the Move as a foolhardy gamble, but Turner loved cheering the underdog players.
Ted Turner: Wayne. what attain you admiration of this team.
Wayne: I dote every one of them.
Ted Turner: approach contemplate the big-league team with little-league spirit. And hey, we're in Atlanta.
Barney: positive hope the bug don't amass down in my larynx.
Robert Goldberg: While everybody else might occupy been doing grave shows or news shows, Ted Turner was rerunning, because it was cheap, 'Gilligan's Island' and 'Leave it to Beaver'
Gilligan: Oh, I gotta go.
Porter Bibb: Ted sold advertisers on the view that your commercials in color will stand out on their station because everybody else is running color programs and color commercials. But we're running black and white programs. [laughs] And your color commercials will jump out of the set.
Ted Turner: Well, when are they ready?
Narrator: Turner's strategies worked. But soon after his station was in the black, he went into debt again, in a bet-the-company move: Before it was a positive thing, Turner bet on cable.
Music video singer: He was cable, when cable wasn't cool.
Narrator: Turner wanted his local UHF station to subsist one of the first national stations offered by the fledging cable industry, which was wiring the country to provide better reception than shows broadcast through the air.
Ted Turner: Heck, utter I did was jump the gun.
Music video singer: Cable wasn't cool.
Narrator: But Turner needed an efficient passage to dispatch his signal to cable companies sprinkled throughout the United States.
Ken Auletta: And he said...you know, this bird just went up in 1976, and that's a satellite. And that satellite, what if they hooked up to that satellite?...Bingo -- innovation.
Music video singer: How can anybody start a network, down were the cotton grows?
Narrator: Turner borrowed money to buy a dish that would beam his Atlanta TV signal 22,000 miles above the earth, bounce it off a rented transponder on a satellite over North America, and beam the signal back down to receiving dishes owned by the country's cable operators.
Ted Turner: By being a Superstation, I can subsist super.
Narrator: The networks tried to amass Congress to stop him. But Turner went on a rampage about the network monopoly and beat them.
Music video singer: It really is unbelievable how he second-guessed those jerks.
Ted Turner: The only disagreement between us and WCBS is that their antenna is 22,000 miles up in the sky instead of 2,000 feet.
Music video singer: He sends out programs day and night, bouncing off his satellite.
Ted Turner: I must subsist doing something right.
Music video singer: Cable now is cool.
Narrator: In the summer of 1977, Turner was taking on the established networks. And with a second-hand boat and a youthful crew, he was taking on the refined yachting establishment in the prestigious America's Cup race.
Porter Bibb: [Ted Turner] was definitely not crop of the selfsame cloth of the other members of the original York Yacht Club. He was a loud, obnoxious... and profane in his language.
Narrator: Turner cherished the role of outsider; he thrived on being the underdog.
Ted Turner: Don't over trim it dote that. You gotta ease out.
Narrator: By now, it was a close role to him.
Harold Evans: When he first began to pick up his father's billboard business, the counsel was, 'Don't attain it, you'll disappear broke. You can't attain it, you don't occupy enough experience.' When he buys UHF, they said, 'Don't go, it will cost you utter this money.'...'Don't attain the Superstation, they can't afford a -- '
Ted Turner: It's utter over, baby. They won!
Harold Evans: Every single time he went out on a limb....it was actually dote a springboard and diving for Ted Turner, and he came down and made a impeccable dive.
Narrator: Turner was on a winning vein -- defective news for his employees. It usually was a sign that he was growing antsy and about to bet the company on a original venture.
Robert Goldberg: Ted Turner loves to occupy his back against the wall. ...And if his back isn't against the wall, he'll disappear out of his passage to find a wall to establish his back up against.
Narrator: In 1979, Turner backed himself against a wall that would obtain or atomize him.
Ted Turner: This industry is out of control. It's dote a train...
Narrator: At an annual cable meeting, he announced that he would amass an entirely original satellite channel up and running in just one year. It would Run only news, 24 hours a day, and it would subsist called Cable news Network, or CNN.
Reese Schonfeld, Founding President, CNN: He said, 'There are only four things that television can do. They can attain this regular entertainment programming, and the networks occupy got that. They can attain sports, and ESPN's got that. They can attain movies, HBO has that. utter we've got left is news, so what the hell, I'll attain news.'
Ted Turner: The industry ought to say, "Stop."
NARRATOR: Twenty-four-hour news was Turner's craziest view yet. The established networks lost money producing just one news prove a day.
Reese Schonfeld: In the days when the networks were everything, you had to watch your news between 7 and 7:30...22 minutes of news...a entire network psychology, philosophy, which said, 'Look, news is a public service. They don't attain this to obtain money. ...'
Ted Turner: I occupy the advertising companies coming to me and asking me, "Whose gonna obtain it?'
Ken Auletta: So what does Ted Turner do... 'wait a second, he decides, these networks, they occupy a half-hour, an appointment at night for a newscast. What if I had 24 hours of news?' Bingo. CNN. Innovation.
Narrator: Turner went to the original York Times to pitch his original idea.
Robert Goldberg: They were asking them, 'So what's going to subsist so mighty about this CNN?' And Ted said, 'Look, it's going to subsist live. It's going to subsist live utter the time.
Reese Schonfeld: One of the deputy editors turned to me...and said, 'Aren't you with live utter the time...gonna wind up covering a lot of one-alarm fires?' And I said, 'Until it's over, you never know whether it was a one-alarm fire or the fire that burned down Chicago.
Narrator: Turner needed $30 million dollars for start-up costs, and another 2 million per month in operating expenses. He started selling assets -- and he was counting on cable fees and advertising to generate income for CNN...that is, if the industry ever shared his faith in the zany idea.
Harold Evans: It was a universal reaction that Ted Turner would disappear bust, he was wasting his time, people didn't want 24-hour news, what were they playing at.
Robert Goldberg: Ted Turner starts CNN without -- with very few commitments from the cable industry and really not much in the passage of financing. He doesn't really occupy banks behind him, he doesn't occupy money behind him. So it's utter benign of a wing and a prayer, and frankly, it frightened the crap out of the people who were working with him.
Ted Turner: If you've got an innovative idea, and the majority does not pooh-pooh your idea, then you must not occupy a very beneficial idea. It's not enough of a breakthrough to obtain that benign of a difference. It didn't bother me at all. It did not bother me at all. In fact, I considered it -- I said, I must really subsist on to something.
Narrator: Now, with weeks to disappear before launch, the staff was assembling for rehearsals. There were interested newcomers -- and TV veterans looking for one eventual romance, one eventual disappear around in difficult news.
Bernard Shaw: Roone Arledge and I had negotiated a original shrink at ABC News, the country was in double-digit inflation, their children were about this high, and here I was thinking about going to labor for a network that didn't exist.
Narrator: In the desiccate runs, just days before the launch date, the CNN staff silent couldn't bear news for two hours in a row, much less 24.
Ted Kavanau, CNN: The rehearsals were a nightmare...people would convoke for things that weren't ready, the tapes weren't there, the scripts were not completed.
Reese Schonfeld: They started giving me a valium in my orange juice in the morning. But I didn't know anything about it. After a week she stopped, because it wasn't making any difference.
Bernard Shaw: Those demands, says Reagan, are rejected are totally unacceptable.
Bernard Shaw: I wanted to twit the traditional networks. Those people at ABC, CBS, and NBC who said, this will not work, they are inept.... I wanted to associate Ted, along with the other men and women at CNN, to prove those bastards wrong.
Narrator: On June 1, 1980, ready or not, CNN was scheduled to commence broadcast. Turner threw an opening day party.
Robert Goldberg: I admiration what I loved about that opening day is that it was so grand and so rinky dink at the selfsame time.
Speaker: ...and only cable television could give the consumer the choice.
Robert Goldberg: It was a network that was benign of dote its owner, Ted Turner. It was a slight ragged around the edges, but with grand, global ambition.
Ted Turner: You'll notice out in front of me that we've raised three flags -- one, the flag of the United Nations -- because they hope that the Cable news Network will bring a better understanding of how people from different nations live and labor together.
Ken Auletta: Turner wanted to shrink the world. He wanted Americans to understand the world, and not subsist isolationist, not subsist snug in their slight cocoons.
Ted Turner [opening day speech continues...]: I dedicate the news channel for America: The Cable news Network.
Ted Turner: You know, it was a existent beneficial plan. It was arrangement to conquer the world, but with ideas, not with weapons.
David Walker: beneficial evening, I'm David Walker.
Lois Hart: And I'm Lois Hart. Now here's the news. President Carter has arrived...
Narrator: Inside, CNN started its very first broadcast with slight fanfare. If Turner had it his way, it would continue from this flash until the halt of time -- that is, if his staff could survive the first few months.
Narrator: Turner had launched CNN during a presidential election year, just six weeks before the Republican Convention. The major networks, which would try to bar CNN from the White House press pool, utter laughed at Turner's unprepared reporters.
Bernard Shaw: Can you button your jacket? There's a lot of white there.
Sandy Kenyon: I'm Sandy Kenyon and I'm the writer-producer here in the booth with Bernie Shaw. These are their convention facilities. Over here...
Sandy Kenyon: The booth that CNN had rented for this convention was about the size of a great bathroom. And it was totally open, and it was above the band. So that when the troop played, they had to crop to a commercial.
Reese Schonfeld At the time their greatest critic was Roone Arledge, who ran ABC News. ABC called us "chicken noodle news," and they used to say, 'Cockle doodle do," when the crew would appear.
Narrator: For his part, Turner was doing everything he could financially to hold his original network afloat.
Reese Schonfeld: They attain every stunt they can. The cable systems that carry us, they give them a discount, a great discount if they'll pay in advance. Ted's got erotic dog money coming in from the concessions at the Braves stadium. He makes the selfsame deal with the concessionaire.
Daniel Schorr: Can you just pull back a second.
Elizabeth Dole: Okay, sure.
Bernard Shaw: [Ted Turner] knew they were working slavish hours. He knew they were underpaid.
Daniel Schorr: Okay, pull the plug out there.
Bernard Shaw: And it was his trying to maintain the team spirit and say, 'Hang in there. I'm losing millions of dollars. I'm depending on you,' and that was one of the attractions.
Cameraperson: Are they gonna attain an interview?
Jim Miklaszewski: Yeah, we're gonna attain an interview?
Narrator: With its on-air glitches, it was light for the experts to discharge the all-news network. But CNN was just getting started.
Jim Miklaszewski: attain you want me to Move anywhere?
Narrator: And only three months after launch, Ted's Chicken Noodle Network had something to crow about -- when Turner's gamble to cover live stories paid off in a miniature town in Arkansas.
Jim Miklaszewski: This is as immediate as the military will allow us to amass to this Titan II missile silo sight installation just outside of Damascus, Arkansas. A Titan II missile had exploded in its silo and spit its warhead several hundred yards out onto the ground. And the Air obligate officials had told the mayor of Damascus there was no warhead on the premises. Is there a warhead on the sight?
Air obligate official: I cannot verify or contradict it.
Jim Miklaszewski: They establish the camera in the cherry picker bucket. And as the cherry picker rose up, you could contemplate now over the trucks. And you could contemplate this focus of activity around what they later organize out was the actual warhead. ogle at that, ogle at that tank...that's what I asked you...in the crane. Can you contemplate that picture? They gotta disappear live, NOW. This is it, baby.
Robert Goldberg: That's a flash where utter of a sudden news is no longer something that's reported at the halt of the day. news is something that's happening perquisite now.
Jim Miklaszewski: They're going to veil it. They are going to veil it in just a second.
SOT: They gotta disappear now.
Reese Schonfeld : By the end, the L.A. Times correspondent said he erudite more about the yarn sitting in his hotel margin and watching CNN, then he erudite from being on the scene.
Ted Turner: amass a picture with him -- that would be...
Narrator: CNN's exploits with the Titan II missile had another keen observer -- Cuba's Communist leader Fidel Castro, who was reviled by the U.S. government. In a Move that drew criticism, Turner accepted an invitation to disappear to Cuba.
Ted Turner: So he was watching CNN. He had heard about it, and quasi obtained a satellite dish, and the signal, the United States signal spilled into Cuba, so he was able to pick it up. And he thought it was just terrific, well, for the tremendous hospitality you occupy shown us and the wonderful time.
Ken Auletta: Ted Turner was a very conservative guy. So, the thought that he would one day consort with Fidel was just totally alien.
Fidel Castro (through interpreter): Though they receive the news, they don't pay for it. I myself don't know how much money they owe the CNN.
Ted Turner: I admiration he was the first Communist I ever met, and, but grave one, anyway. And he certainly was the first dictator I ever met. I didn't know any dictators.
Narrator: Turner's trip was a revelation to him. When he saw the repercussion that CNN had on Castro, Turner was interested to expand more quickly the coverage and availability of CNN utter around the globe. But he'd necessity the cooperation of exotic governments suspicious of the American press.
Ted Turner: When I came up with the view of going international, there was tremendous resistance utter over the world by broadcasters and governments to having an American news organization just approach into their country, that they had no control over, and they were really concerned that we'd quasi approach up with a pro-American agenda, anti-whatever...
Correspondent 1: ...being abducted and establish on that aircraft. But he said, 'At the halt of the day, Haiti is the first ever black independent state'...
Ted Turner : So I said, "I'm going to create a two-hour program every Sunday afternoon that will hold news stories unedited from any broadcaster in the world that wants to dispatch them in, I will Run them unedited."
Correspondent 1: Around 500 demonstrators marched towards the gates of....
Correspondent 3: ... the most tense situation in Columbia for the eventual 10 years...
Ted Turner: I had a meeting of my top executives. ...And they said, "Oh, there's no passage you can attain that." I said, "Why not?" They said, "We'll amass -- Khadafi will dispatch in a yarn about Libya's perquisite and we're wrong. And Castro will subsist sending in stories from Cuba that say, "Down with the United States."
Correspondent 1: ...Geneva has lost one hundred and fifty-five men with six hundred...
Ken Auletta: It was controversial because you are not supposed to swirl 'space' over to the people you're reporting on. Turner basically is turning over a half hour of a time to a government.
Ted Turner: Every year they had a World Report conference where they brought them utter into Atlanta, establish them up in the hotel for a week. And they had Russians, they had -- that's how they met the Iraqis. The Iraqis came to the World Report Conference. And when, later they let us wait in Baghdad when everybody else had to leave, because they knew us, they were friends. They were friends with everybody.
Correspondent: OK, now they are seeing more anti-aircraft fire ...
Robert Goldberg: There's this flash when CNN comes of age, and, and it's actually a very precise moment. It's on January 16, 1991, at about 6:35. It's the beginning of the Gulf War, the first Gulf War.
Bernard Shaw: utter hell broke loose. Sirens started wailing, search lights searching the dim sky....
Atlanta Headquarters: John Holliman, Bernard; John Holliman, Bernard.
Narrator: Back at Atlanta Headquarters, CNN producers turned the cameras on themselves to document their news gathering of the first war covered live on TV.
Bernard Shaw: ...and that's when I yelled through the four-wire, 'Atlanta, approach to us, approach to us.' The skies over Baghdad occupy been illuminated. We're seeing radiant flashes...
Narrator: The CNN crew, holed up in a hotel in Baghdad, had direct communication with Atlanta, using a special phone line called a four-wire.
Atlanta Headquarters: Yes they can, they can hear you.
Narrator: When the bombs started dropping, and Baghdad's electricity and phones went out, only CNN was reporting live.
Atlanta Headquarters: Baghdad. Baghdad is back. hold Baghdad perquisite now, Dave.
Peter Arnett: Now the sirens are sounding for the first time. The Iraqis occupy informed us.
Atlanta Headquarters: They just crop the line. amass the French on the air! We're coming back to French. hold it prefaded.
Anchor, French: Well, they heard Peter Arnett adage the Iraqis occupy informed us, and then they didn't hear anymore. This is probably just a technical glitch.
Ken Auletta Tom Johnson, who is chairman of CNN, wanted to pull Bernard Shaw and Peter Arnett and the team out of Baghdad...
Atlanta Headquarters: prove me 17! establish 17 on the air!
Ken Auletta: ...and Ted Turner interrupted and said, "Tom, establish it on my back...they're grownups....if they want to subsist there as journalists and cover this war for the American people, by God, I want them to.
Anchor, French: Wolf. Let me interrupt. I'm sorry to interrupt, but we're going back to Baghdad, because they can, and they occupy Peter Arnett.
Atlanta Headquarters: Shut up, Blitzer. Let me see, let me contemplate French. Don't you hear air down there? Don't you hear what's on the air, folks?
Narrator: Turner's gamble to create a network for live news had paid off. The networks that had laughed at him now had to rely on his reports at the start of the Gulf War.
Atlanta Headquarters: I know, but this is where it's happening. utter right?
Robert Goldberg: And the world tunes in to CNN. There are people in the White House watching CNN, there are people in the bunkers of Iraq watching CNN, at the Vatican..
Ken Auletta: Everyone was watching CNN. It was, you know, you admiration the CIA had more information than CNN did? Of course not.
Bernard Shaw: We're going back over the window now...
Ted Turner: [CNN] was a democratization of information. For the first time in the history of the world, every world leader, and everybody in the world, had access to the selfsame information at the selfsame time.
Narrator: The selfsame year that Ted Turner scored his greatest journalistic coup at the start of the Gulf War, he married actress Jane Fonda.
Minister: Will you occupy this woman...
Harold Evans: [Ted Turner] becomes a man of peace for the United Nations, a man who stresses international relations, a man who wants to amass rid of nuclear weapons, a man who sees the destruction of the environment from global warming.
Ted Turner: I give thee..
Minister: In the denomination of the Father...
Ted Turner: In the denomination of the Father...
Narrator: In the years to come, Ted would sell Turner Broadcasting to Time Warner, and he would cease to play a prominent role in CNN.
Ken Auletta: He'd become convinced that the media were always becoming more and more concentrated with these giant companies, and you needed a tremendous amount of energy and resources. He felt he didn't occupy the resources to compete, and he was losing his energy.
Narrator: But in 1991, Ted Turner was on top of the world. Only one thing was missing: If I had one wish, Turner said, it would subsist to occupy my father approach back...I'd dote to prove him the entire shootin' match...I admiration he'd really indulge in it.
Russell Simmons: utter right, they can attain it.
Employee: Russ, this is the factory. What they --
Russell Simmons: What -- is it too expensive, you say?
Employee: It's just that there are a lot of unknown variables.
Russell Simmons: No, we're making sneakers in [expletive] Hong Kong just dote everybody else, although I know some of the other competitor, competing companies...
Bill Stephney, Def Jam, 1984-1989: Russell Simmons is a fearless, driven, trade person, thinker.
Russell Simmons: I want to subsist in their factory, in China, to show...
Bill Stephney: Russell created this model of the multi-tasking, African American, confidant icon.
Russell Simmons: I want that entire London, Paris, Berlin, utter that stuff tied together.
DMX: Bring it! What?
Alex Ogg: If you're wondering why kids are wearing baseball caps backwards. ... If you're wondering, you're wondering, why so many white kids are impersonating black culture and taking their role models as...rappers, it's utter to attain with the passage that Russell Simmons has marketed the artistic phenomenon which is hip hop.
DMX: approach on. Is you cats doin' comin' around dote this?
Narrator: Russell Simmons sits on top of a multi-million dollar hip hop empire. But he didn't limit his trade to music. He created a cultural movement in hip hop fashion, comedy -- and even poetry, giving voice to a locked out segment of society.
DMX: That's my word.
Narrator: Hip hop became known as "the CNN for black America."
Alan Light, Editor, "Tracks Magazine": In a renowned swirl of phrase, [rappers] referred to hip hop as 'black America's CNN'...
DMX: Y'all go'n' contemplate that the hottest [expletive] out there was, is, and will subsist me.
Alan Light: Before the Rodney King verdict in Los Angeles and the riots that followed, there was nowhere in the American media that you were hearing about...how defective the state of relations between the police and youthful black men in this country had gotten. You didn't hear about these things from Dan Rather, you didn't hear about them in the original York Times. These were things that were being discussed for years in rap records.
DMX: They don't care...
Russell Simmons: Sometimes they talk about rap and how people don't dote to hear what the rappers are saying. That's God's soundtrack. You occupy to listen to it.
DMX: Bring the noise...
Bill Adler, Def Jam, 1984-1990: Russell Simmons is the Moses of hip hop. He's the person who led the hip hop nation to the promised land of American success and prosperity...
DMX: We're not going anywhere. We're perquisite here.
Bill Adler: In 1964, Russ' family was among the leading edge of Black folks who integrated Hollis, Queens, so they had achieved the American dream in that way...But there was always action on the corner and Russ...always wanted it both ways, I think. If he stayed home, he had two parents, and he was going to amass a beneficial education...and if he went to the corner...He could amass into utter the difficulty that he wanted.
Nelson George, Author, "Hip Hop America": Russell was a low-level drug dealer...
DMX: Oh my god...
Nelson George: [and] there was a guy named Red who...was preying on and robbing the drug dealers of the money they would make. So he came on the block...and a group of guys out there, including Russell, gave chase. ... And someone handed Russell a gun.
DMX: Crossed the line
Nelson George: The passage he recounts it, it's dote one of those moments of verisimilitude about whether or not, "If I shoot this guy, this is a defective thing. But if I don't shoot this guy, if I don't shoot at this guy, I'll ogle dote a punk.'
DMX: Click, click boom
Russell Simmons: I shot over his head. I told everybody I tried to cancel him. ...He escaped. I didn't disappear to jail. I didn't cancel anybody...I'm very, very lucky, and a lot of kids I grew up with weren't so lucky.
Eddie Cheba: establish your hands up, let's reach, let's reach, let's reach, until you reach...
Nelson George Charles Gallery was a spot on 125th Street...about a block... from the Apollo Theater...
Eddie Cheba: Somebody say, 'Oh yeah!
Audience: Oh, yeah!
Nelson George: So Russell goes in, he's at City College. ...And he sees Eddie Cheba.
Eddie Cheba: approach on. Clap your hands and stomp your feet and say, 'Oo wee.'
Russell Simmons When I saw Eddie Cheba spitting them flames on the mic...that first flavor blew my mind.
Eddie Cheba: Somebody say, 'Oh yeah."
Narrator: Until Eddie Cheba, Russell Simmons had never seen a rapper, someone who chants rhymed lyrics over music.
Eddie Cheba: They don't necessity no music, a slight louder...
Audience: They don't necessity no music
Narrator: Cheba's chanting wasn't as sophisticated as later rap music, but when Simmons heard it, he felt as if he'd witnessed the invention of the wheel.
Eddie Cheba: Uh huh.
Russell Simmons: I knew then that I wanted to participate that, promote that.
Nelson George: And that led...Russell...to evolve out of being sort of a scrambling, college student-slash-drug dealer into a promoter, entrepreneur.
Russell Simmons: This is the color, perquisite here. Alright, let's just labor on that a little, develop it a slight further. I dote it. They haven't had a decent casual shoe in a long time.
Nelson George: Russell Wendell Simmons is a mighty American innovator, because he took something that no one wanted, which was hip hop music, that most people disdained,
Nelson George: and helped pushed it outside the doors to a spot that no one could occupy imagined.
DMX: Just dote that.
Harold Evans: Russell Simmons produced the browning of America, in the sense that a culture that was born in the ghetto became universal. Seventy percent of the kids buying rap records are white.
Russell Simmons: ...the original and improved Phat Classic...
Nelson George: There will subsist people studying Russell's career at Harvard trade School, if they are not already, trying to device out how this happened.
DMX: We're perquisite here.
Holly Taylor: Russell's gotta go, guys. I'm sorry.
Narrator: It's opening night on Broadway for a daring original prove that Russell Simmons has produced. The entire prove will feature poets reciting their hip hop poetry -- urban, sometimes offensive, in-your-face poetry.
SOT: As the founder of Def Jam Records, he has helped bring rap music to the mainstream.
Narrator: Russell's hustle is in tall gear on this day to promote the original show.
Russell Simmons: beneficial morning.
SOT: beneficial morning.
Russell Simmons: If you disappear to a tall school, maybe 80 percent of the kids raise their hands and screech they're writing poetry. It's an obvious step, I believe, for hip hop.
Narrator: Simmons knows that hip hop offends many people. "To those of you who feel that way," Simmons says, "I just inquire of you to subsist open to hearing my story," the yarn of how a low-level drug dealer became a Broadway producer.
Russell Simmons: Now, we're utter down to the press conference. How are ya doing?
Narrator: Around the time Russell Simmons headed to City College in Harlem, the ghettos of both Harlem and the South Bronx were undergoing a sea change. Coming from the parks of these written-off neighborhoods was a song unlike anything heard before.
Bill Stephney: There were problems in the 70s. They had inflation. In original York, they had a terrible fiscal crisis. Cuts to arts programs and school programs basically knocked out. youthful people say, 'Well, you know, if you can't give me that symbolic spot to party, I'm going to disappear into the park, and hold my parents' turntable, and I am literally going to create my own renegade party outside, outdoors, big, gigantic speakers. It's out of that necessity-being-the-mother-of-invention mindset that hip hop develops. And that's where Russell comes from, his entrepreneurship, his incredible faculty to create opportunity.
Russell Simmons: I'm gonna subsist brief, 'cause I'm not a public speaker or a mighty orator, or nothing.
Narrator: Where others saw a passing fad, Russell Simmons saw in hip hop a cultural revolution. And he wanted to lead the charge, by promoting Run-DMC -- a group that included his own brother -- with their plain-talking song, "It's dote That."
Run-DMC: Unemployment at a record high, huh! People coming, people going, people born to die
Alan Light: What Russell did beginning with the first Run-DMC record, was say, 'It's just going to subsist guys rhyming on the microphone.
Bill Adler: They don't necessity background singers, they don't necessity any horns. We're going to obtain music dote they obtain it in the park.
RUN-DMC: People in the world trying to obtain ends meet. You travel by car...
Narrator: Simmons took a demo of "It's dote That" to utter the major record labels and organize no takers. White executives said 'no,' but so too did black executives.
Russell Simmons: You know, blacks are very conservative. And to sign up these niggers out the street, to portray the images of black America, or to -- you know, that was a difficult one for them. The record executives were, you know -- polished, you know. They were lawyers. They weren't from the street. And if they were, they escaped.
Narrator: Russell Simmons was determined to promote hip hop in a radically different passage from a 60s predecessor, Berry Gordy of Motown Records.
Swingin' Time Host: There he is, the youthful man. Berry, it's a delectation having you with us.
Bill Adler: Berry Gordy was the president of Motown Records. He says, 'The only passage I can amass my black artists to Las Vegas is to whiten them up.
Narrator: Gordy made his approach known on TV when asked about the first day the three radiant members of the Supremes walked into his office.
Berry Gordy: Well, first of all, they weren't beautiful.
Bill Adler: He was going to establish the Supremes in satin ball gowns, and he was going to give them elocution lessons, straighten their hair. He's going to try and instruct them white manners, is really what it comes down to.
Bill Adler: But Russell's view was, 'I'm not going to obtain any concessions to white manners and to white styles.... I don't occupy to cross over. I'm going to pull the mainstream in my direction.'
Run-DMC: ...It's dote that, and that's the passage it is...huh!
Narration: Frustrated by the closed doors at the major record companies for his artists, Simmons sought out a Long Island punk rocker who had been making rap records in his scruffy dorm room. Rick Rubin and Russell Simmons got together in the plunge of '84 and formed their own record company: Def Jam.
SOT: It's Def!
Nelson George: So if it was 'def,' it was great, it was hot, it was exciting.
SOT: It's Jam.
Nelson George: 'Jam' is dote a record, so 'jam,' so it was a 'Def Jam.' So that just meant that this is a erotic record.
Alan Light: The unifier was Def Jam. Under that umbrella, there could subsist something as you know silly and goofy and accessible as the Beastie Boys.
Beastie Boys: You gotta fight for your perquisite to parrrrty!
Alan Light: Something as political and edgy as Public Enemy.
Public Enemy: We've gotta fight the power.
Alan Light: Putting a record on Def Jam, it meant you were the best of the best that was out there. Every one of them sold. Every one of them was great.
Run-DMC: My Adidas!
Narrator: But Simmons wanted to sell more than music. He wanted to sell a lifestyle. And his desultory came when he directed his brother's group to sing about their favorite footwear.
Run-DMC: ...on stage front page every prove I go,it's Adidas on my feet tall top or low. My Adidas.
Russell Simmons Anybody coming up in the hood, today or when I was young, knows that you can't wear filthy sneakers. You're coming out of struggle. If you really admiration of yourself a certain way, sneakers had to subsist clean.
Run-DMC: Yo, my Adidas!
Bill Adler: Russell arranged to occupy executives from Adidas flee in from Germany to contemplate Run-DMC effect at Madison Square Garden. And there's a flash when Run's on stage, and he says, 'All ya'll wearing Adidas, let me contemplate you Adidas. Wave 'em in the air, right?' And so, "whoo", you know, there's 10,000 pairs of Adidas going in the air, and the guys from, you know Adidas from Germany are going, 'BOING.' You know, what? Here, hold a mammoth check now. They want you on their side.
Run-DMC: My Adidas
Narrator: Run-DMC went on promotional tours for Adidas, and their song headed for the top of the pop charts. Hip hop was clearly more than just music, and Russell Simmons was becoming its marketing maestro.
Alan Light: You read statistics dote a quarter of utter spending is quasi impacted by hip hop. People are talking to Russell Simmons about automobile lines now. There's not an halt to how mammoth this stuff grows, partly because hip hop has this sort of consumerist thing built into its DNA.
Bill Adler: Russ started to contemplate the vogue potential of hip hop very early on. Advertisers were going to approach to him to say, 'Listen, can they -- can they utilize Run-DMC in a commercial, and will they wear these clothes for, for us?' And, you know, by that time, Russell is dating models, and he's going to runway shows. And you know, if Tommy Hilfiger is going to design something that's hip hop influenced and obtain a zillion dollars out of it, and Russ is sitting there, watching it happen, he's thinking: "Well, wait a minute. Why should he obtain utter the money? These are my people.' So that benign of thinking led pretty quickly to the formation of Phat Farm.
Narrator: In the early years, it was a struggle to obtain Phat Farm profitable. Simmons refused to sell to mammoth city department stores that intended to relegate Phat Farm fashions to their "ethnic" or "urban" sections. He wanted hip hop to subsist a youth culture, not just a black one.
Alan Light: Russell gets a convoke from Madonna's camp, saying, 'We want some hip hop for this tour...We want to amass Run-DMC on this tour. And Russell says, 'Well, you know, you can't afford Run-DMC. Run-DMC is too expensive, you can't occupy them. But I got this other act, I got this group, the Beastie Boys.'
Beastie Boys: (yelling)
Nelson George: The Beasties you know, um, well, the Beasties were white, and one of the things Russell had always preached in that time was that hip hop wasn't black music. It was teenage music. And that view that hip hop was about an attitude toward life, as opposed to about color was very important.
Steven Tyler: 1,2,3,4!
Narrator: Simmons was now hustling hip hop to white America. He even managed to amass hip hop noticed on MTV after "Walk This Way," a breakthrough music video featuring Run-DMC and the already well-known rock group Aerosmith.
Run-DMC: There's a backseat lover that's always under cover and I talk to my daddy, say...
Narrator: At the time, MTV featured few black artists. And its suburban audience was isolated from the original urban hip hop movement.
Run-DMC: ... cause the best things of lovin' was her sister and her cousin. And it started with a slight kiss, dote this!
Narrator: "Walk This Way" brought urban to suburban, white to black and rap to rock and roll.
Alan Light: It would subsist difficult to spell out any more obviously what they were trying to attain with this song and with this video, breaking down the physical wall between rock and hip hop and bringing these artists together.
Run-DMC/Aerosmith: She told me to: Walk this way! Talk this way!
Narrator: 1986 was a heady year for Simmons. The album including "Walk This Way" went triple-platinum, selling mostly to white males. Simmons was the godfather of a entire original hip hop empire.
LL frosty J: What's going on?
Narrator: But in the early 90s, Simmons entered what he later described as the single most difficult angle of his life
Russell Simmons: These kids who are not necessarily -- uh, don't occupy the selfsame opportunities.
Narrator: With his attention focused on other aspects of his hip hop empire, the innovative Simmons had stopped innovating, and his erotic record label went cold. The focus of the rap world quickly moved from Def Jam on the East Coast ...
N.W.A.: divulge us where you're from; straight out of Compton.
Narrator: ... to a original shape of rap from the West Coast: 'gangsta rap.'
Alan Light: Whether he wasn't listening enough to his talent scouts, his A&R people on the street, this entire movement sort of came up and caught him looking the other way. And Def Jam went through a slump in the first half of the 90s that was the most difficult time he's faced
Harold Evans: One of the lessons in innovation is the flash you succeed is the flash you occupy to start innovating utter over again. Because at the flash of success, you, benign of, the air goes out of you. You relax, you hold doing the selfsame primitive thing. That's what happens with Russell Simmons with Def Jam records.
Narrator: Simmons owed his record distributor $17 million, and he was floating payments for his artists on credit cards. If his hip hop empire crumbled, Simmons as an unprecedented role model would never approach to pass.
Bill Stephney: His repercussion is when you disappear into a classroom of youthful black kids, that you'll inquire of them, 'Well what attain you want to be? Nine times out of ten, they say, 'Well, I want to Run my own business.' [And] that notion of controlling your destiny as much as you possibly can, did not exist within the community until Russell Simmons.
Russell Simmons: So there's a verisimilitude you learn on the street.
Narrator: During the bleak time for Def Jam, Simmons sought counsel from the man he calls his mentor:
Russell Simmons: Yeah, hello? Yes. Hey Donald.
Narrator: nothing other than Donald Trump, the existent estate mogul.
Russell Simmons: I hope so, he's a nice guy, I've been on his prove dote four times so I...Donald Trump influenced me in a number of ways, but the thing that impresses me is what he said about himself having been out of trade two or three times, but at least he had his name. Donald Trump's father told him, when he was going to denomination [a] edifice Tiffany's, because he owned the rights to the Tiffany name, he said, "When you change your denomination to Tiffany, then convoke it the Tiffany building. But for now, convoke it Trump."
Nelson George: Trump puts his denomination mammoth as life on every thing he does. Trump this, Trump that. And so Russell knew and erudite from Trump that if Trump means buildings, then Def Jam means -- needs to subsist captious -- cool. Def Jam needs to subsist captious urban. Def Jam means attitude.
Narrator: Simmons needed to bolster his Def Jam brand. And around this selfsame time, he noticed the emergence of black comedy nights, at clubs around the city, with in-your-face humor, just dote hip hop music.
Aries Spears: Picture Mr. Magoo having sex. Wouldn't that subsist cool. 'Cause Mr. Magoo would subsist like: Oh, Ah, Uh....
Bill Adler: Russ says, 'I'm going to hold it to television now, and I'm going to birth a entire generation of hip hop comedians.
Nelson George: But instead of calling it, you know, the Black Comedy Jam, he called it the Def Comedy Jam
Announcer: It's the Russell Simmons Def Comedy Jam!
Nelson George By emphasizing the benign of outrageous, edgy, raunchy flush of that comedy, he was able to find a kinship between that and the rap music.
George Wilborn: But I occupy -- I'm having this reoccurring dream that I wake up and one day there's nothing but rap music left. Can you imagine a world with nothing but rap? Can you imagine candid Sinatra singing rap? Pork. Pork, pork that cuchi. Pork, pork that cuchi, pork that cuchi, yeah. That bitch! Ha! That bitch better occupy money.
Russell Simmons: I had discussions with Bill Cosby. He was offended by the language. I'm more concerned with cursed ideas than I am curse words. That's my opinion, of course, right. And I'm besides very excited to hear those people who are locked out, with their poetry, or their comedy, you know, talk about their experiences
Eddie Griffin: '91 was a trip. '91 was a year everybody went crazy. Police lost their mother f---ing minds. I know you utter seen the Rodney King beating, came on every night, turned into a TV series.
Russell Simmons: Def Comedy Jam became very popular.
Nelson George: Def Comedy makes Def Jam seem even cooler.
Russell Simmons: And if not for Def Comedy Jam, I don't admiration Def Jam Records would occupy survived.
Martin Lawrence: Russell screech a slight something to the people and how you feel.
Russell Simmons: Thank y'all for the conceal party. I'll contemplate y'all next week. Peace.
Bill Stephney: Russell presents that wonderful model of diversification -- that you occupy a number of eggs in different baskets, so that if one basket indeed does fall, that you know, you're not broken.
Narrator: And that is how Russell Simmons ended up, in November 2002, with an opening night on Broadway. With the Def Jam denomination fortified, Simmons had geared up to attain for poets what he had done for rap artists and comedians, in a prove called Def Poetry Jam.
Poet: The streets ain't got nothing for you, shorty. Nothing but a history of misery and I'm spittin' realness hoping your ardor me...
Russell Simmons: There's some blacks today, still, you know, they can't believe that those images are images of mainstream black America. Well, they're not. They're images of black America, the portion that's been left behind.
Def Poetry Ensemble: I write America. I write America. I write America. I write America. I write America. .... I write America. I write America. I write America -- a Dear John Letter.
Alan Light: Russell Simmons took the perspective and the sensibility of an entire segment of American society that did not occupy access to the mass media. And not only got them in front of the repose of the world, but got them in front of the repose of the world in such a passage that it changed the repose of the world.
Poet: It's dote this. It's dote that. It was poetry, but now they convoke it rap.
Harold Evans: America before hip hop and Russell Simmons was a very different country. It was a country identified basically by exclusion. For utter the tall ideals in the Constitution, for utter the progress made over many years, it was silent exclusion.
Poets: Hip hop, uh huh, yeah, what?, uh huh....
Danny Glover: And the winner of the American Theater Tony Award for Best Special Theatrical Event goes to Russell Simmons' Def Poetry Jam on Broadway.
Announcer: Accepting the award, producer Russell Simmons.
Bill Adler : Russell Simmons, through his stewardship of hip hop, has made the world a browner place, a louder place, a more colorful place, a funnier place. He's managed to bring the races together. People are less fearful of each other, and that's -- that's a radiant thing.
Russell Simmons: I don't believe this.
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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