650-312 exam Dumps Source : SP Video facet I - Media Satellite and(R) Broadcast
Test Code : 650-312
Test cognomen : SP Video facet I - Media Satellite and(R) Broadcast
Vendor cognomen : Cisco
: 20 true Questions
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plenty has been happening on their 5G RuralFirst co-innovation, country Digitization Acceleration (CDA) venture being rush with the aid of Cisco UK & ireland.
inside Cisco UK & eire, it's the Cisco Innovation team it is main this ambitious 29 confederate consortium. my own a partake of Cisco, the client taste company (formerly called “Cisco functions”), is making a major funding to back their latest and future 5G initiatives by means of this ambitious assignment.
Our focal point in 5G RuralFirst is the challenge of rural connectivity, what they muster “past the city”.
past the metropolis
The purpose of 5G RuralFirst is to exhibit 5G’s video game-altering expertise and useful exhaust instances that back contribute to the company case for improving “beyond the city” connectivity. for many of you reading this, you are going to are vital in areas of pervasive connectivity. That’s now not every the time the case in the event you evaporate back and forth the world over. constructing nations are challenged due to the impregnate of funding required. besides the fact that children, even in developed nations, fancy the united kingdom and even the U.S., want of pervasive immoderate speed web entry and pervasive cell insurance is challenging both trade and government. The matter matter has furthermore develop into a proverbial “scorching potato”, with habitual political escalations, frequently with – candidly – misinformed or delusive assertions being made in the press and tv. and of course, most, if not each person, might breathe common with gaps in cellular insurance – what they cognomen “not spots”, even inside their biggest cities. Even nowadays, achieving pervasive cellular connectivity is an incredible problem.
beyond the metropolis, then, 5G RuralFirst is well on the artery to exhibit the entire capabilities of 5G and exhaust of the internet of issues in a rural surroundings. From self sustaining drones mapping vegetation to enhance yield, to broadcasting to remote locations. Or from far flung monitoring the fitness of salmon, to independent tractors being able to labor across the clock. in fact, their principal companion, the college of Strathclyde in Glasgow, is within the core of integration trying out of the radio network at one among their 5G testbed websites, the palms Free Hectare at Harper-Adams college in Shropshire.
I expend lots of my amusement time beyond the metropolis. cycling in the grotesque Scottish countryside and snowboarding in their extraordinary mountains – I just covet they had greater predictable snow! It’s entertaining to reflect that my obsession with “fixing” internet access at my local Scottish ski centre, lower back in 2016, begun me – and Cisco – on the path to leading 5G RuralFirst. anyhow I managed to amass Cisco UK&I into this, descry perquisite here, and convince Cisco UK&I to fund, winning funding from the united kingdom executive in their 5G Testbed and crucible competition closing March. Cisco is in reality a company where you could configuration issues capture place!
The beyond the metropolis problem: who's Investing in rural 5G ?
there are many 5G trials occurring across the world. however no longer many are rural. by means of the 5G Testbed and crucible programme, the uk govt Have made – wisely for my partake – directed investments in two rural trials which puts the uk at the least in contention, I assert, for management in investigating the challenges of rural 5G connectivity by the exhaust of tremendous scale trials.
Many imply that rural connectivity will best breathe solved by government funding. I disagree. Cisco and their 5G RuralFirst confederate consortium are investing heavily in 5G RuralFirst, along side (half) executive funding. I should say, the consortium approach of 5G RuralFirst is paying large dividends – with 5G talents growing unexpectedly throughout the six partake UK funded 5G testbeds.
might 5G RuralFirst breathe the area’s Most bold 5G Testbed and crucible project?
here's a question, I must say, I’ve been thinking about. There are not any official “measurements” of such a question. A Google Search of “Rural 5G Trial” is extraordinary. the key trials issue to breathe 5G RuralFirst, and shut to the united kingdom, plans for Vodafone rural 5G investment in eire, which I applaud. Their sister assignment, 5GRIT (some of the UK executive 5G Testbed and crucible tasks) is additionally immediate to the exact of the quest outcomes.
through the Numbers
The 5G RuralFirst testbed spans round 2,000 square km in and across the Orkney Isles (be sensible – this is the enviornment during which they Have positioned over 10 radio sites – they are not claiming to Have pervasive insurance across this enviornment – they now Have concentrated completely on “now not spots”). And they span over 1,000 km from the Orkney Isles north of the Scottish mainland to Somerset in South West England. It’s wonderful to reflect on these numbers when some people state “nevertheless it’s only a trial.”
through the variety of exhaust circumstances
the following chart summarises their exhaust situations and technology. they now Have 15 or so exhaust circumstances. I’ve yet to descry a 5G crucible capture on this kind of complexity, however i'm chuffed to breathe corrected. And they are becoming there, with their expostulate to comprehensive a first set of exhaust instances trying out by discontinue of March 2019 (sure, this 12 months!). i'm of path more than chuffed to breathe corrected, and i could breathe delighted if you accomplish that – any funding in rural connectivity must breathe welcomed!
by artery of the variety of Radios
I count 10 wireless (incl. radio) vendors in their answer. Parallel instant, PureLiFi, Amarisoft/ AW2S SDR and Phazr.Accelleran/fb/OpenCellular/TIP and Cisco LoRaWAN are every being deployed in their testbed websites aligned to selected exhaust instances.
Parallel instant radios are being deployed within the improved mobile Broadband exhaust cases, offering the primary cellular web ever to 7 “not spots” around the Orkney Isles (watch out for the first of these going reside very quickly!). The institution of Strathclyde are pioneering utility described Radio (Amarisoft/AW2S) design and deployment in Orkney and Shropshire. extra and specifically, every are being deployed in the Orkney Islands by artery of CloudNet IT options Ltd, who are doing just a superb job working with the respective instant companions and are a foundation stone of 5G RuralFirst. distinction this to most 5G trials, which settle on one or two radio vendors. Kudos to CloudNet!
via the number of partners
besides the 29 key confederate 5G RuralFirst consortium, proven beneath, we've additionally delivered a brace of “affiliate partners”, as an example Accelleran and Phazr, and principally facebook TIP, who've invested after the project kicked off in June 2018.
here's a huge task. we've made huge progress in structure out their testbed, with integration testing well underway. We’ll start exhaust case trying out in a brace of weeks. Then they are able to – publicly – partake their key learnings and results. It’s a thrilling time to breathe at Cisco, and it’s an colossal honour to breathe a partake of this terrifi crew of extremely dedicated partners who are co-investing alongside Cisco and the united kingdom executive.
For more suggestions on 5G RuralFirst, please examine their transforming into set of blogs. And gratify carry out comply with us on Twitter at the hyperlinks under. As they approach the exhaust case testing phase, and head for the assignment finale event on March twenty eighth in Glasgow, Scotland, there could breathe lots of insight we’ll breathe sharing!
AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS--(Marketwired - Sep 14, 2017) - IBC - Cisco ( NASDAQ : CSCO )
Sky fresh Zealand, a pacesetter in the fresh Zealand payTV market, is transforming its Pay television operations with the Cisco® countless Video Platform. Taking its amusement provider to fresh levels, Sky will interpose multiscreen tv experiences with a view to attain its fresh Zealand subscribers by artery of their telephones, capsules and cyber web related set-properly boxes/receivers.
On the horizon is the introduction of a Hybrid PVR acknowledge with Kaon Hybrid DVR set-suitable boxes and Video-on-Demand over IP, extending to iOS and Android very own client instruments. This might breathe the nascence of a multi-part technology transformation assignment that permits Sky to configuration the most of cloud technologies for the network operations and video delivery facet, as neatly because the client side with fresh functions fancy multiscreen Cloud DVR.
"the brand fresh Zealand Pay tv market is witnessing loads of diverse players introducing multiscreen and OTT services, while a huge inhabitants is quiet gazing television by artery of satellite tv for pc dishes," stated Julian Wheeler, chief items & expertise officer, Sky fresh Zealand. "With their current leadership place, Sky is uniquely located to convey these two segments collectively and offer a seamless adventure that brings the best of the published & IP world, and takes the television event to a entire fresh stage. Cisco's cloud-primarily based SaaS nascence mannequin combining broadcast and IP offered us the pace they mandatory to amass fresh functions to market."
"while the majority of the premium video nowadays is over broadcast networks, the realm is hastily relocating toward a fresh ordinary, where the future of video may breathe the IP community," said Conrad Clemson, senior vice president and customary supervisor, provider provider systems and applications, Cisco. "With the limitless Video Platform, their vision is to configuration IP video suit and exceed broadcast exceptional and reliability. Sky joins a becoming international group of shoppers who're touching along with this vision."
Cisco is constructing the simplified, automatic, and virtualized network platform of the long rush based on business-main application, methods, silicon, and services. This allows for provider suppliers and media and net groups worldwide to in the reduction of charges, velocity time to market, aid restful their networks, and preserve ecocnomic increase.
RSS feed for Cisco: http://newsroom.cisco.com/rss-feeds
About Sky fresh Zealand Sky network television restrained (branded as SKY) is the biggest satellite tv for pc Pay television company in fresh Zealand. The industry main provider is capable of achieving television Viewers across fresh Zealand from Cape Reinga to the Bluff. learn more at www.sky.co.nz
About Cisco Cisco ( NASDAQ : CSCO ) is the global technology leader that has been making the internet labor on the grounds that 1984. Their americans, products, and companions assist society securely connect and seize tomorrow's digital probability nowadays. find extra at newsroom.cisco.com and keep us on Twitter at @Cisco.
Cisco and the Cisco logo are emblems or registered emblems of Cisco and/or its affiliates within the U.S. and different nations. a listing of Cisco's logos can breathe discovered at www.cisco.com/go/emblems. Third-party logos mentioned are the property of their respective homeowners. using the keep accomplice does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and every other business.
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Allow me to amass straight to the point: You’re reading this because you’re either at or interested in the goings-on of what they used to muster “the broadcast industry,” and is now broadened to “content,” “media,” “video,” and so on.
It is an industry that dates back 70+ years, depending on when you start the clock.
And, it’s an industry clearly in transition. (Again.) “Clearly,” because we’ve seen the same transition happen, at least twice (in media): First to the music industry, then to what they used to muster the cable industry. It started with “going digital.” Now, it’s about “going IP.”
The (Non-Linear) Phases of IP Transition
For broadcasters and media providers, “going IP” is a matter of phasing, and the phases aren’t necessarily sequential. One phase: The shift from SDI (Serial Digital Interface) to IP (Internet Protocol.)
Another phase: To terrestrial, IP/CDN-based distribution, from satellite delivery.
Through it all: Professional-grade, and dare I say, “broadcast-quality” product. After all, broadcast-quality has long been a gold standard, when it comes to sterling looking “reliable” video/audio.
Let’s start with the transition from SDI to IP. This is happening, by the way, because in the fresh world — the IP world — it’s no longer about frames of video. It’s about packets, and how best to assemble lots of IP packets into a video frame, as it’s done with SMPTE 2022-6.
Perhaps not surprisingly, they at Cisco know an terrible lot about packets. Packets are life! Which brings me to the sturdy pile of updates we’ve made to their Virtual DCM.
For starters, the Virtual DCM update began with a covet for a single-server/ “one box” approach. As a result, it’s a software-based machine that accepts SDI as well as IP inputs, then outputs multiple “flavors” of packet-based media. Output flavors comprehend 10-bit HEVC encoding, to back elevated Dynamic sweep (HDR) at 60 frames-per-second (HDR10, Hybrid Log-Gamma, Technicolor and Dolby formats). Or, you can transcode that same SDI input as a MPEG-2, AVC, and/or “stat-muxable” format. In other words, output both linear Transport Stream (TS) and OTT from the same platform.
The point of the expansion was to extend the software-based functionality of the (x86-based) Virtual DCM to optimize bandwidth — because 4K/UHD is huge, relative even to “just” HD. They furthermore expanded what was already a rigorous attention to overall video quality (more on that in a bit.)
Which reminds me: expansive thanks and a high-five to HorizonSat, a leading satellite provider covering the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Europe, which announced (here at NAB!) how they are augmenting their existing DCM platform with the Virtual DCM. It’s a august artery for them to implement HEVC Statmux in software and exhaust less bandwidth to dispense more media, faster, for both direct-to-home (DTH) and over-the-top (OTT) streaming video delivery. Bravo!
Satellite to IP Distribution
The shift by large broadcasters and content owners to walkaway as many of their programs/channels away from satellite has started a fresh IP migration approach. Today broadcasters are actively looking for cost-effective approaches to walkaway regional content and or long tail content off satellite.
Why? Because IP CDN delivery offers advantages in agility and cost savings unavailable with satellite. And CDN delivery for live content offers broadcasters and content owners options beyond costly direct fiber and proprietary direct connect over the Internet.
New is the skill to utilize Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) technology to gain the advantages of ubiquitous IP with the cost-effectiveness of ABR. furthermore fresh is the addition of intelligence to configuration the shift to consolidate on IP/ABR distribution.
That intelligence comes from another batch of improvements they built into their Virtual DCM and the D9800 Network Transport Receiver for ABR video distribution:
What’s that, you say? They can sever bandwidth usage by 40%, while improving video quality?
You did indeed read that correctly. partake of their streaming strategy is to leverage intelligence and machine learning, end-to-end (as in from client to cloud, including encode and network elements).
Our fresh Smart Rate Control technology works by improving the output of the encoder, while optimizing bandwidth for ABR delivery. In other words, the encoder can deliver variable, bit-rate-base outputs, adjusted to the quality of the content — and can set optimal limits to optimize bandwidth, without impacting perceived video quality. Bottom line: It improves the OTT experience, for sure.
And, lastly — they wouldn’t breathe Cisco if they didn’t talk about cloud. Everything I wrote about here, every of it, is cloud-based. The Cisco D9800, as partake of their Virtualized Video Processing portfolio, enables broadcasters and content providers to walkaway content to the cloud while enjoying a simple and manageable IP-based connection to affiliate clouds/headends. Plus, that conversion from ABR to TS? It’s deployable as partake of their distributed micro-services approach to extending processing functionality intelligently to where it makes sense in the network: both in the D9800 or on a server. Not to mention that the microservices of their Virtual DCM platform are implementing Docker-based containers, reaping those associated benefits and efficiency gains.
This is pretty long, for a blog, I’m told, but HEY, I wanted to status it down every in one place. So I did. gratify carry out arrive by to check it every out. They are in SU8502CM and will happily talk your ear off!
The discontinue of analog television is at hand. Pundits Have predicted the death of analog before, but such forecasts were couched in caveats. Now governments are setting firm dates and planning for life after analog, when vast amounts of bandwidth will become available for fresh uses and the broadcast TV scene will change.
Around the world, governments Have begun the analog shutdown, and it will accelerate rapidly during the next five years. In Germany, Berlin killed off analog in 2003, Munich did it this year [see photo, “Getting Ready”], and the leisure of the nation is scheduled to supervene suit by 2010. In the United States, Congress likely will legislate January 2009 as the shutoff date. The end-of-analog date in France is 2010. In Japan, it’s 2011. The United Kingdom, which turned off analog broadcasts in one Welsh community this year as an experiment, is slated to facet out analog completely by the discontinue of 2012.
After analog television is phased out, digital over-the-air transmission will breathe the only game in town for those receiving free TV signals through antennas.
If television comes to you by cable or satellite, you won’t notice a thing. Satellite television is already digital, and so is much of cable. But eventually you will harvest diverse rewards that you might not even connect to changes in TV broadcasting: better cellphone reception, opportunities to download video to your cellphone [see illustration, “Playing Soon”], and mobile broadband Internet. And, in the United States, you might descry a modest douse in the federal budget deficit when the government sells off 108 megahertz of the veteran analog broadcast spectrum for as much as US $50 billion, by some estimates.
If you carry out depend on broadcast television, you’ll notice the changes even sooner. The first one might breathe a slight painful: you’ll requisite a fresh TV set or, at minimum, a fresh tuner costing at least $100 [see sidebar, “Countdown to the End”]. With a fresh high-definition set, you’ll descry a expansive improvement in the TV picture. Most digital programming is broadcast in HD, which brings the crisp, particular images so prized by sports fans (who are determined never to lose sight of the ball or puck) and feared by word anchors (who know that viewers can descry every bit of makeup they plaster on). Along with those acute pictures comes digital gird sound—if you add the speakers.
In some countries, mainly in Europe, broadcasters Have no plans for terrestrial broadcast of high-definition television. Nevertheless, digital broadcasting should bring other potential benefits. Some broadcasters may forward out multiple standard-definition channels, perhaps “narrowcasting” shows to niche audiences or providing supplementary material, such as an interactive experience, with regular shows.
In any massive technology change, particularly one with so much money at stake, there are winners and losers. I’ll amass to those. But first, to understand why this enormously valuable partake of the spectrum will soon breathe up for grabs in an unprecedented high-tech rush, they Have to evaporate back to the late 1990s.
The United States was the first country to broadcast digital TV, in 1998, and its mechanism was basically followed by other countries in their own systems. So the U.S. taste is illustrative.
In the late 1990s, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) loaned each TV broadcaster a second channel in the existing broadcast bands, 54 through 806 MHz. Interspersed among the broadcast channels are some spectrum gaps that minimize interference between them. To further minimize interference, the FCC skipped sure channels in a geographic region; for example, if channel 4 is assigned in one metropolitan area, the nearest channel 3 broadcaster is in a different metropolitan area. The skipped channels are known as taboo channels.
Each channel occupies 6 MHz, and that hasn’t changed. Rather, because digital transmission is less interfering and furthermore less matter to interference, and because digital channels operate at lower power levels than their analog counterparts, the FCC assigned second channels into analog taboo channels. The FCC deemed the modest multiply in the overall flush of interference acceptable during the transition.
At the time of the bandwidth loan, Congress set year-end 2006 as the date when analog service would officially cease and the extra channels would breathe “returned.” At that point, the digital channels, with their low interference characteristics, could breathe repacked into less bandwidth—a swath between 54 and 698 MHz. The walkaway would free 108 MHz of spectrum—the upper discontinue of the UHF band, or TV channels 52 to 69—for other uses. To status the potential value of that 108 MHz in perspective, note that the entire AM radio spectrum is less than 1.2 MHz. every local region networks using IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g, the most common forms of Wi-Fi, occupy just 83.5 MHz. Congress looked forward to a lucrative spectrum auction to back balance the federal budget.
The 2006 date, however, came with a caveat: on a market-by-market basis, at least 85 percent of households would Have to own at least one television that could receive digital signals.
It has been limpid for months that the 85 percent criterion will not breathe met next year, so the U.S. plan will breathe delayed [see sidebar, “Countdown to the End”]. But for how long? Now, many of the affected players—consumer electronics and computer manufacturers, along with communications and other companies interested in using the recaptured spectrum—do not want a “soft date.” Instead, they Have been agitating for a difficult one, with no further haphazard of delay.
Although Congress has yet to pass legislation to set such a date, both the House of Representatives and the Senate seemed in late summer 2005 to breathe converging on 1 January 2009.
Shortly before any difficult date, the corps rush will begin. Congress, enthusiastic for the money, is pushing the FCC to start the auctions as soon as possible. The Congressional Budget Office is advising that the auctions breathe delayed until after other, unrelated spectrum auctions are completed. Spreading them out will obviate a sudden glut of bandwidth, thus optimizing returns. Auction winners would require a year or two to amass the money they’d requisite to invest in developing their newly acquired spectrum segments. So for them, if bandwidth is to become available at the discontinue of 2008, auctions in late 2006 or early 2007 would breathe ideal.
“Beachfront Spectrum” is what analysts are calling that soon-to-be-auctioned upper 108 MHz, because it is ideal for cellular services. Signals at those frequencies propagate farther and penetrate buildings better than signals in today’s cellular bands, which evaporate up to 1.9 gigahertz. Best of all, cellphone system operators await infrastructure costs to breathe reduced by 90 percent, because fewer cells will breathe required, given the longer distances signals will travel.
Thanks to such advantages, the cellular phone companies are likely to compete difficult for this valuable bandwidth. Exactly what they would carry out with it is a closely guarded secret, at least until winning bidders are selected. Nevertheless, it’s not difficult to imagine the winners launching third-generation services, including mobile video and wide-band Internet access, which would enable cellphone users to receive video programming and e-mail on the run.
The FCC’s huge menu of allowable uses for the fresh frequencies identifies “[f]lexible fixed, mobile, and broadcast uses, including mobile and other digital fresh broadcast operations; fixed and mobile wireless commercial services, as well as fixed and mobile wireless uses for private, internal radio needs. Could furthermore comprehend two-way interactive, cellular, and mobile television broadcasting services.”
Perhaps the best early indicators of what will occur with the freed-up bandwidth are recent events in Berlin—the first city to spin off analog television—and in the United States, where a brace of preemptive auctions gave developers access to segments of spectrum on the condition that they not tamper with broadcasters quiet using them.
The “Berlin Switch” is an intriguing novelty. It was practicable because the region affected is relatively small, with 1.8 million households in the TV market, and because an overwhelming number of those households—all but 160 000—subscribe to cable or satellite television. Nonsubscribers each coughed up at least $200 to buy a set-top converter, and for less than $1 million, the government subsidized the purchase for families on welfare.
What the switch gave Berliners, mainly, was an multiply in the number of broadcast stations—from 12 to 27. Multiplexing allows four digital channels to appropriate in the space previously allotted to a unique analog channel. (This excludes HD broadcasts, because they require more bandwidth.) The switch furthermore gave the government 35 MHz to use—or sell—for fresh services.
With more channels, viewers of broadcast television in Berlin Have access to niche programming and channels previously available only to cable or satellite subscribers. Programming now includes Eurosport; Arte, with art movies, documentaries, poetry, and theater; Phoenix, with political news; Viva II, with pop culture for people in their 20s; and several fresh local channels.
In the United States, in 2001 and 2002, the FCC auctioned off four petite slices of spectrum totaling 6 MHz in the 746- to 806-MHz range, the upper 700-MHz band, that had been allocated as “guard bands.” Along with the perquisite to exhaust the spectrum came tense rules to minimize interference with public-safety services. This RF true estate is intended for the rental market: the buyers will act as landlords, leasing the spectrum to third parties. The FCC packaged the spectrum in two pieces for 52 market areas, creating 104 licenses, which were auctioned for $540 million. The top three winners were Access Spectrum, Nextel, and Pegasus Communications.
Access Spectrum LLC, in Bethesda, Md., winner of 21 licenses, announced at the time that it had begun negotiating rental agreements. In addition, Access, formed in 2000, is likely to build private wireless networks for businesses in some of its bands.
Plans of the other winners are murkier. Nextel is using its 40 licenses as bargaining chips and recently agreed to recrudesce them to the FCC as partake of a deal involving interference reduction in the 800-MHz band. Pegasus won 34 of the 104 licenses but has been restful about its plans. The largest independent provider of the DirecTV satellite service, Pegasus is having pecuniary problems, and some of its subsidiaries filed Chapter 11 bankruptcies in 2004.
Then, in 2002 and 2003, the FCC auctioned off 18 MHz between 698 and 746 MHz, which covers three UHF channels, 54, 55, and 59. Again the spectrum was packaged into geographical pieces, both to breathe attractive to buyers and to maximize returns. Channel 55 was sold in six regional chunks, while 54 and 59 were sold as a pair in 734 markets. Altogether the sales brought the U.S. government $145 million.
Qualcomm Inc., of San Diego, won the auction for the spectrum previously occupied by channel 55 in five of the six auctions. It then bought the rights for the sixth region from Aloha Partners LP, of Providence, R.I. Aloha was formed to provide wireless broadband service and has been a expansive player in the auctions so far.
Qualcomm intends to exhaust its spectrum to forward video and audio programming to cellphones, PDAs, and other portable devices nationwide. It hasn’t announced what it intends to broadcast, but the content could comprehend hit TV shows, clips of sporting events, and movie trailers. The company calls its service MediaFLO (“Media” plus “Forward Link Only”). Qualcomm plans to store video in the handsets to supplement video streamed live; that way, it hopes to eradicate the dropouts endemic to cellphone reception. If a voice signal drops out temporarily, you can just say, “What?” Video signal dropouts, however, occasions annoying freezes, jerks, or blanks in the picture, and would dispirit users.
Qualcomm is developing MediaFLO as a artery to promote CDMA cellphone technology, which it pioneered. CDMA is winning out over the TDMA standard (popular in the United States) and is emerging as a tough competitor to GSM (popular in Europe). Today, CDMA is used in 35 countries, including the United States and South Korea. Qualcomm plans to integrate MediaFLO into its chip sets and to offer the service through partnerships with cellphone operators. It may eventually spin it off as a sunder company.
Technology alternatives to MediaFLO are available and could breathe used for competing services in spectrum bands yet to breathe auctioned. One example is a variant of the Digital Video Broadcasting standard widely adopted in Australia, Europe, India, and elsewhere. The variant, called DVB-H, provides TV broadcasts to handheld devices and, fancy MediaFLO, is being used in the 700-MHz band. In South Korea, yet another standard for TV broadcasting to handhelds is being deployed—Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, or T-DMB—and it may emerge as a competitor in the United States.
Have you ever organize yourself on a train, in a park, or at a ball game wishing you could pay a bill you’d forgotten about, or forward a quick message, or download a tune stuck in your mind? According to Aloha, there are enough people who want to breathe “always on” to back a nationwide mobile broadband Internet service. The company, which resold its channel 55 spectrum to Qualcomm, was the expansive victor in the 54/59 channel-pair auctions. Aloha won 125 out of the 734 regional auctions and increased its holdings by buying the other two expansive winners. Aloha claims it now has spectrum in 244 of the 734 licensed markets, covering 175 million potential customers, including 100 percent coverage in the nation’s 10 largest markets and 84 percent coverage in the top 40 markets.
Though not revealing which technologies it will deploy, Aloha did advertise ultimate year that it would launch a 2005 market crucible of mobile broadband Internet access using Flash-OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing). Developed by Flarion Technologies Inc., in Bedminster, N.J., Flash-OFDM is a spread-spectrum technology that uses the Internet Protocol. Signals jump quickly from frequency to frequency within a given channel in a seemingly random pattern generated by an algorithm. The resulting signal causes minimal interference with those in the same and neighboring channels and is itself not easily interfered with. Different ground stations exhaust different hopping patterns, further reducing interference and allowing the bandwidth to breathe used efficiently. The FCC recently granted Aloha permission to rush a market test in Tucson, Ariz., presumably of Flash-OFDM.
Two auctions held so far accounted for just 24 MHz of the 108 MHz that will eventually breathe sold. Of the 84 MHz remaining, in 1997 the FCC reserved 24 MHz for public-safety communications, such as police and fire services—those located at four of today’s UHF TV channels, 63, 64, 68, and 69. Since the 9/11 attacks on the United States, Congress has been paying a lot of attention to the public-safety communications plan, originally with slight fanfare. In fact, congressional eagerness to reallocate the swath of spectrum is the main impetus behind a drive to set a firm date for the transition to digital television. The deliver Lives Act of 2005, introduced in the Senate in June, calls for expediting the reassignment of the spectrum for public-safety purposes and requires spectrum to breathe taken back from broadcasters by 1 January 2009.
Although Congress is driving the agenda to free portions of spectrum for public-safety use, local governments will determine how they will breathe used. Metropolitan-area governments, for example, would fancy to alleviate the congestion that plagues existing emergency services. They are concerned with voice and text transmission, already in use, and are looking to add wideband transmission of images. On-the-scene images can back emergency responders and their dispatchers. With broadband access to stored records, fire or police teams could review structure plans and blueprints.
After the auctions held so far and the allocation for emergency services, 60 MHz of the bandwidth to breathe vacated by analog television remains to breathe sold [see illustration, “The FCC Auction Plan”]. This section, consisting of channels 52, 53, 56 to 58, 60 to 62, and 65 to 67, is slated to breathe divided into five blocks. Four of the five will breathe channel pairs: 52 and 57, 53 and 58, a pair of 5-MHz channels in 60 and 65, and a pair of 10-MHz channels in 61 to 62 and 66 to 67. Channel pairs can best breathe used for services that require the same capacity in each direction, fancy today’s cellphone services.
The fifth screen will consist of today’s channel 56, which is better suited for one-way transmission, such as broadcasting to cellphones. It could furthermore breathe used for services that can utilize an existing cellphone channel as the recrudesce path—for example, video on demand, in which your request is phoned in and then the material is sent to your cellphone over the broadband channel. The FCC plans to offer the blocks in six regional areas, making it simpler for well-funded companies planning to roll out national services to assemble bandwidth.
Illustration: Bryan Christie
The sale of the five blocks will complete the reallocation. The oft-quoted $50 billion valuation for the 108 MHz may breathe too high, given that the first 24 MHz sold netted $685 million and that the 24-MHz public-safety spectrum won’t breathe sold at all. The $50 billion number comes from a May 2004 evaluate by the fresh America Foundation, a Washington, D.C.based public policy institute, citing FCC and other data. On the other hand, it is practicable that the chunks of spectrum auctioned in the first two rounds went cheap because buyers didn’t know when they would actually amass them.
If a firm date is set and the auctions for the remaining spectrum sections are held not too far ahead of that date, the auctions of the remaining 60 MHz could bring the total raised up to $30 billion. Congress is expected to require that a portion of those proceeds, probably less than $5 billion, breathe used to fund subsidies to back low-income families transfigure their analog TV sets to digital.
Whenever so much money and infrastructure are at stake, there are inevitably winners and losers. The companies bringing in the bids at the auctions issue initially to breathe winners, but some of their ventures are bound to fail.
Manufacturers will breathe huge winners. fresh services and technologies necessitate fresh equipment. Sales of televisions, studio gear, and other consumer and professional tackle are already growing. quiet to arrive are industry opportunities opened by fresh mobile services.
Broadcasters should breathe winners. By upgrading their technological backbones, they Have improved their quality of service and now Have the flexibility to pursue fresh opportunities such as narrowcasting to niche markets. However, while broadcasters Have invested heavily in the digital transition, they Have not yet fully exploited digital’s advantages of higher-definition pictures and fresh services.
Broadcasters Have two strategic advantages over cable and satellite providers. For one, local broadcast stations know their markets in a artery no national programmer can. For another, broadcast television is wireless and eminently portable; viewers don’t Have to plug into the cable network or to a carefully aligned satellite dish. They don’t even Have to find petite seared spots, since receivers pick up broadcast signals almost anywhere. But broadcasters are only now starting to exhaust HDTV in their local programming, primarily for news. And U.S. digital service does not back mobile service to vehicles and pedestrians with handheld devices. It is telling that reassigned broadcast spectrum is being used to offer mobile video services that broadcasters themselves are unable to support. Nor is this now a priority for them.
Political leaders might breathe losers, if they are perceived as forcing unwanted change and expense on the public. And if the transition is disruptive, they will breathe blamed. But overall, governments should breathe expansive winners. When the transition is completed, governments will Have served their constituencies well by shifting broadcast television to a superior, more elastic service and by reallocating vacated broadcast spectrum to other useful services.
In the short term, some consumers, particularly the least well-off, will breathe losers. They will descry blank, snowy screens on their antenna-fed analog TVs when analog service is terminated. To continue receiving programming, they will requisite to buy and install digital conversion set-top boxes or switch to cable or satellite service. Either way, it’s going to cost them.
In the end, though, consumers will breathe winners, with fresh and improved services available. They will Have access to HDTV’s august pictures, accompanied by surround-sound audio. They will Have uniformly high-quality reception anywhere in a broadcast area, and additional services will comprehend some within traditional broadcast channels but even more coming in the auctioned broadcast spectrum.
Robert M. Rast (IEEE Senior Member) is industry liaison for Micronas Semiconductors Holding AG and chairman of the board of the Advanced Television Systems Committee, an international standards-setting body. In the 1990s, he was common Instrument Corp.’s digital HDTV advocate, and in 1993 he became one of the leaders of the newly formed Digital HDTV august Alliance.
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