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Test Number : 644-066
Test Name : Routing and Switching Solns for Systems Engineers
Vendor Name : Cisco
: 64 Dumps Questions

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Routing and Switching Solns for Systems Engineers education

chuffed Birthday BGP | 644-066 Dumps and Real exam Questions with VCE Practice Test

Geoff Huston

the primary RFC describing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), RFC 1105, become published in June 1989, thirty years ago. by any metric that makes BGP a venerable protocol within the information superhighway context and due to the fact that it holds the cyber web collectively, or not it's nonetheless a vital piece of the internet's infrastructure. How has this seriously essential routing protocol fared over these thirty years, and what are its possibilities? Is BGP approaching its dotage or will or not it's a feature of the information superhighway for many years to come back?

Routing protocols have always been charming to me. How a collection of mindless automata, pairwise interconnected in random techniques and each running precisely the same guidelines can self-find now not only the topology of interconnection set, however also identify the foremost route across this topology between any two paths, is rather an fulfillment. The web is glued together no longer by deliberate human design however as an influence of the chattering of those senseless routing automata. Work on these routing protocols pre-dates the internet by some decades, with papers posted between 1955 and 1958 that described a process of repeated generation of neighbor-to-neighbor propagation of most suitable paths until no extra refinement of the course selection is viable. If all of the nodes in an inter-connected network are working this algorithm, then the effect is a constant set of local choices that collectively create a set of loop-free premiere paths between any two facets within the network.

The internet Protocol suite did not define any certain routing protocol. This area became intentionally left clean to allow routing protocols to evolve, and thereby avoiding painting IP into an evolutionary dead end by way of deciding on a routing protocol that might also no longer have been able to evolve to match the future wants of the community.

The Bellman-Ford distance vector routing algorithm become an early choice for the rising web. whereas the Routing assistance Protocol (RIP) become documented in an RFC in 1988 (RFC 1058), this doc notes that:

"This algorithm has been used for routing computations in computer networks on the grounds that the early days of the ARPANET. ... It has develop into a de facto common for alternate of routing counsel amongst gateways and hosts."

despite the fact, RIP had its limitations when it comes to the average dimension of the managed community. The 1980's ARPANET routing gadget used a two-stage hierarchy, the place a collection of networks (self sufficient systems) every maintained an inner community topology with the use of indoors routing protocols, corresponding to RIP, and handle prefix reachability for each of those networks was exchanged between networks the usage of an exterior routing protocol. An early exterior routing protocol turned into developed for the ARPANET through BBN in the early Nineteen Eighties, due to this fact documented in RFC 827 as the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). EGP did have a very crucial obstacle:

"It must also be certainly understood that the exterior Gateway Protocol isn't intended to provide information which could be used as enter to a totally widespread enviornment or hierarchical routing algorithm. it is meant for a group of independent methods which can be linked in a tree, without a cycles. It does not enable the passing of sufficient counsel to prevent routing loops if cycles within the topology do exist."


In June 1988 Kirk Lougheed and Yakov Rekhter authored RFC 1105, which was the first edition of a extra well-known exterior routing protocol that overcame these boundaries of EGP. This new protocol, the Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP, created loop-free premier paths across arbitrarily interconnected networks and will accomplish that in spite of the fact that the underlying network interconnection topology might allow routing loops to form. This turned into a routing algorithm that did not outline its own transport mechanism and used a traditional TCP session to aid tips trade between two BGP audio system.

The protocol allowed for express direction enumeration as an attribute of an introduced address prefix, which circumvented the situation of count-to-infinity loop detection that happens in traditional distance vector protocols. each community makes use of a special self reliant device number (ASN) as an identifier, and when a BGP speaker passes a route advertisement to a neighboring community, it attaches its ASN to an AS route attribute of the route. When a BGP speaker receives a route from an adjacent community neighbor, it looks for its own ASN in the attached AS course attribute. If it finds it in the AS path, then it discards the advertisement as a possible routing loop.


In October 1991 Lougheed and Rekhter authored RFC 1267, which special BGP-3, the third version of the protocol. This was a case of additional refinements and clarifications of the protocol, with none noticeable adjustments to the protocol's capabilities or mode of operation.


at present (1991–1993) the IETF had launched into the road (Routing and Addressing) application. street was the identify of an effort that turned into looking for solutions to the evident scaling issues in each the addressing and routing house (RFC 1380). The nascent cyber web became already set to exhaust the pool of the category B IP handle prefixes within a few years and the exponential growth within the routing space raised issues that the dimension of the routing area would immediately put it beyond the capability of everyday routing hardware. As one commentator observed at the time, the exponential increase trajectory of inter-area routing was implying that community operators might deserve to use supercomputers as core routers within a number of years!

handle architecture and routing designs are inter-twined issues, and throughout the duration from 1991 to 1993 many approaches had been examined. Some were quite radical in approach, some relying on minor alterations to the existing protocols. The outcomes of this exercise was very nearly a conservative one the place, in routing phrases, the impending exhaustion of type B addresses was averted by using the expedient approach of losing the type theory from the IP address architecture, requiring routing protocols to carry a prefix measurement with each prefix. Equally, IPv6 become a comparatively conservative response to tackle exhaustion by using extending the size of the handle fields in the IP header.

BGP-four (RFC1654, then RFC1771) become a minor exchange to BGP-three, in that it introduced a length attribute to the prefix box within the protocol, taking an important step far from the classification-based implicit address prefix size paradigm that the information superhighway had used up to that element. This was the introduction of Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) into the Inter-domain Routing gadget.

The impact of this standard protocol change turned into dramatic. They had been lucky that Erik-Jan Bos, then working with Surfnet in the Netherlands, had began measuring the measurement of the BGP FIB table in SURFNET's BGP routers each hour, starting in January 1994, so they now have a brilliant listing of the affect of the introduction of CIDR on the inter-area routing equipment. The size of the routing desk fell through 10% from 20,000 entries to 18,000 entries inside six weeks. an extra fall was considered following the July 1994 IETF assembly, and an additional following the September 1994 RIPE meeting (determine 1).

determine 1 – BGP FIB dimension in 1994, from bgp.potaroo.web(customary statistics from Erik-Jan Bos)

as an example the influence of this minor protocol alternate, determine 2 indicates the trade within the linear mannequin vogue of routing table boom in the first quarter of 1994 to the vogue of the latter half of 1994.

determine 2 – fashion in BGP FIB size in 1994, from bgp.potaroo.web(fashioned statistics from Erik-Jan Bos)

The longer-term prospects of heading off the worst affects of the so-called "routing desk explosion" were equally dramatic, changing the exponential boom trajectory of the FIB size of the early internet between 1990 to 1994 with a linear increase mannequin that prevailed for a further five years, as much as the primary internet growth and bust in 1999. (determine three)

determine three – BGP FIB dimension in 1994 - 2019, from from Erik-Jan Bos, Geoff Huston and Route Views archive)


The subsequent fundamental trade in BGP was the extension to route IPv6 prefixes distinctly painlessly. BGP does not observe much in the manner of semantics to the address box within the protocol payload. BGP needs to be mindful what a suit is when comparing two prefixes and take into account the concepts of disjoint, greater selected and masking combination as a part of the route option process as a result of BGP by default prefers more selected address prefixes over combination tackle prefixes. With these concepts, described BGP can, in conception, at any cost, route pretty much anything else!

To assist IPv6, BGP was augmented in RFC 2283 in 1996 to guide multi-protocol extensions. This extension brought the theory of the handle household Identifier and the subsequent address family Identifier to BGP (AFI/SAFI). AFIs are used to identify IPv4 and Ipv6, while the SAFI is used to distinguish between unicast and multicast. as an instance, AFI 1 with SAFI 2 capacity BGP is carrying IPv4 multicast routing suggestions, and AFI 2 with SAFI 1 specifies a payload of IPv6 unicast routing information. (The AFI/SAFI thought turned into further generalized to assist quite a lot of styles of logical network segmentation, as is prevalent to host VPN-based functions.) An MP-BGP speaker will tell its MP-BGP neighbor which AFI/SAFI combos it intends to make use of within the OPEN message initially of a BGP session, and the session will proceed if the neighbor shows that it can also tackle this AFI/SAFI aggregate.

as well as incorporating the potential to assorted protocols in the payload of BGP exchanges, there are two other areas the place this multi-protocol subject matter intrudes in BGP. the primary is using next-hop addresses. In BGP this subsequent-hop handle is the identification of the exit factor of the route from this community, and the belief is that as the site visitors traverses the interior of the community, the next-hop is the interior routing target of this traffic. In concept, it isn't strictly vital to use the equal AFI for both the route objects and the next-hop ambitions, despite the fact operationally it has been considered prudent to keep away from mixing of protocols during this approach. The 2nd is the protocol used to support the TCP session. In theory, it's perfectly feasible to make use of an IPv6 TCP session to elevate an IPv4 BGP session and equally viable to do the reverse and configure the EBGP session to make use of an explicitly configured BGP subsequent-hop address. again, operational prudence suggests that here is an needless complication and IPv4 routing information should be exchanged over an IPv4 connection, and the same for IPv6.

BGP Evolution

This picture of an unchanging BGP protocol isn't completely accurate, and the protocol it's used today has had some enormous changes to the protocol that became utilized in 1994, despite the regular use of edition quantity four within the protocol. BGP-four has proven a satisfactory level of flexibility in a couple of its elements that enables such incremental alterations:

  • The preliminary session negotiation comprises the use of incorporating new capabilities.
  • The potential to outline new update attributes and circulate them through BGP audio system that don't be mindful their which means as opaque attributes has been essential.
  • the use of TCP as BGP's transport protocol has supposed that BGP may also be flexible with BGP message sizes.
  • using TCP allows BGP to assume a legit hop-by-hop suggestions propagation model and never implement a protocol-selected advice reliability mechanism.
  • TCP additionally provides a circulation manage mechanism, preventing a BGP speaker from overwhelming its neighbor with updates. The receiver can close its TCP acquire window when its input buffers were stuffed, pushing lower back on the sender to throttle the message move expense.
  • There is no specific dependency on selected timer values for interoperation.
  • The hop-through-hop protocol mannequin coupled with opaque attribute coping with permits for quite a lot of sorts of piecemeal deployment of new extensions to BGP inside necessitating a flag day or any kind of enormous scale coordinated motion by means of all BGP speakers.
  • a significant illustration here of BGP's flexibility is the response to the exhaustion of the sixteen-bit AS number pool some ten years in the past. This turned into as important to BGP because the forecast exhaustion of IPv4 addresses in the IP area. Use of the hop-by means of-hop guidance propagation mannequin, skill signaling within the session negotiation and the use of opaque transitive neighborhood attributes allowed a backward-appropriate transition of deployed BGP speakers from 2-byte to four-byte AS numbers on a piecemeal basis, averting the need for flag days or different styles of coordinated orchestration within the operational community.

    other adjustments, such as Add course and quickly Reroute have additionally been facilitated by the equal underlying flexibility in BGP's protocol design, and there are even efforts to elevate link state attributes in BGP as an effective form of link state flooding.

    the key aspect here is the capacity negotiation that occurs when a BGP session is fired up. This permits a BGP speaker to present a collection of supported capabilities and enable the neighbor to point out their stage of guide for the same ability.

    BGP's Weaknesses

    A successor routing protocol has no longer replaced BGP-4 during the past 25 years, and there is no prospect of this kind of alternative in the foreseeable future. That is not to claim that BGP-four is free from many issues. The opposite is the case, and the perceived operational complications of the protocol have included:

  • Insecurity of both the payload and the sessions.
  • Dynamic instability and the ensuing inability of the protocol to show quick convergence.
  • Lack of signaling ability inside a BGP session.
  • constrained ability to get well from loss of synchronized routing state.
  • Lack of potential to separate the ideas of topology upkeep, policy negotiation and ample aid for mobility.
  • restricted scaling capabilities.
  • At a considerable number of instances the IETF has supported work to agree with a brand new inter-domain routing protocol, such as the Locator/id separator work in 2006 (following an IAB workshop on Routing and Addressing). once in a while, they see proposals to make use of geo-primarily based addressing schemes and gain aggregation efficiencies through routing these geo-summaries instead of excellent-grained prefixes. besides the fact that children, despite this and many different efforts over time, no novel inter-area routing protocol or even a novel addressing and routing structure has emerged in the past 25 years that has been a plausible replacement for BGP-four. during this equal time, the dimension of the set of BGP-routed objects in the inter-area house has risen from 20,000 objects to a complete of some 880,000 objects within the default-free zone of the IPv4 web, and the similar dimension of the IPv6 routing table is currently at 70,000 entries. The number of diverse independent device numbers during this routing equipment has risen from 1,000 to 65,000 ASNs. regardless of these metrics of enormous boom within the set of objects managed with the aid of the inter-domain routing system, the BGP-four protocol itself is basically unaltered. Even efforts to 'clear up' a large volume of interestingly useless routes (the place more certain route advertisements raise precisely the same attributes as a covering mixture) lapse into inattention and disuse. The marginal charge of including routes to BGP seems to be sufficiently small that there is not any pushback. whereas the routing desk carries some 880,000 entries, the counsel content of that assortment of routes may be rephrased effectively with less than 300,000 entries. however, the good points from such an effort look like outweighed with the aid of inertial barriers and additional inflating the dimension of the BGP tables appears to be the course that has the less usual friction.

    One explanation of this apparent stasis is that incumbency generates its own inertial resistance, and the bigger the device, the improved the level of this inertial resistance. This view leads to a conclusion that the cyber web is now too large to take into account a transformation to its inter-area routing protocol, and that BGP will stay the information superhighway's inter-area routing protocol for the foreseeable future.

    besides the fact that children, the inexorable growth within the dimension of the routed house leads to some unrealistic projections. The subject right here is that adopting CIDR because the answer to the routing explosion difficulty became not, definitely, a solution in any respect. In BGP-4 the semantics of addresses and the related routing gadget became unaltered, and for routing the same risks of the routing desk expanding beyond the factor of viability is still as huge a chance today because it turned into lower back in 1993. The IPv6 tackle plan used by using the Regional handle Registries appear to set the minimum allocation prefix size at a /32 for each and every registry, and there are four.3 billion such prefixes in IPv6. It isn't feasible to conceive that BGP as they realize it may cope if it needed to control four.3 billion prefixes. handle exhaustion in IPv4 is creating equivalent route fragmentation pressures, and the measurement of the IPv4 routing desk continues to grow despite the hiatus in the supply of 'new' addresses. The growth is as a result of the ever-decreasing dimension of routing ads in IPv4, and right here the possibility of attaining a routing table of a billion or more small prefix entries may still now not be discounted totally. These huge numbers look, in some intuitive experience, to be neatly beyond the capabilities of the protocol. could they ever take into account a session restart if that implied reloading billions of route entries? How would a high-velocity router be designed if the per-packet choice house is encompassed by using a choice tree containing greater than a billion entries? here's no longer simply an IPv4 situation. it is also accompanied that one half of the IPv6 routing table uses /forty eight more selected announcements. There are some 281 trillion (1012) such /48 prefixes in IPv6, and again this is a host that is much outdoor their imaginings of BGP's capabilities, and method outdoor their present ideas of router design.

    although, the boom of the BGP area is relatively slow and up to now they now have been in a position to set up equipment that can with no trouble deal with the burden that's associated with some million or so routing entries, and it isn't inconceivable these days to conceive of routing device that could manipulate some ten million such entries with out resorting to a wholly new method to routing and packet switching. At this element in time, the chance of a BGP soften-area appears to be a theoretic one, and operational fact features to BGP being used to route the web for decades to come back.

    BGP Design Expectations vs Deployment reality

    As a part of this assessment of thirty years of BGP, i would want to look at a comparison of their assumptions and expectations returned in the early '90s with the learning experience gathered over the ensuing 30 years. There are some features of BGP the place the initial design assumptions of BGP seem like at some change with deployment requirements. here are some examples of this variance.

  • Session LongevityDesign: The BGP TCP classes had been under no circumstances meant to be long-lived. The expectation in the design was that classes can be restarted in an necessary of days or even weeks.

    Deployment: BGP periods are stored up provided that possible. Session lifetimes are measured in months or years. The very high cost of session restart potential that community operators attempt to hold session integrity. The outcome is that there is an unknown variety of 'ghost' routes in the routing system the place the withdrawal of routes has now not propagated across the entirety of the routing house. Ghost Routes were identified within the early days of the IPv6 routing desk when the table turned into sufficiently small to enable precise examination of the background of all routing entries. commonplace route flushing would handle this habits, however the original design parameters covered an implicit assumption of regular session restart.

  • Session SecurityDesign: The protocol is intended to circulate public routing guidance, so there's little to be gained by using attempting to comfortable the BGP session.Deployment: BGP sessions can be with ease disrupted via RST injection into the TCP move and even session hijacking. Low influence options (similar to TTL hacking) and extra complex options (TCP MD5) are both used in the community to offer protection to the session, but the basic operational method is to stay away from multi-hop eBGP periods anyplace feasible, and limit BGP periods to direct interconnection anyplace possible.
  • Payload SecurityDesign: BGP become conceived as a hop-by means of-hop protocol and no type of content material safety was included into the design.Deployment: BGP suggests a relentless stream of routing mishaps. Some of these are the outcome of deliberate efforts to inject false information into the routing area, and BGP remains liable to such efforts to distort the routing area. other sorts of artificial counsel injected into the routing equipment (similar to AS course poisoning) are used via operators to put into effect their site visitors engineering or coverage requirements, and the difference between opposed injection of routing suggestions and the intentional manipulation of routed objects is now and then difficult to define.
  • Convergence BehaviourDesign: The protocol become designed to minimize the number of updates generated as the gadget hunted for a solid converged state.Deployment: Convergence speed is considered to be more vital than update message volumes in certain contexts, and seller implementations vary. The influence is a bit chaotic in terms of protocol convergence performance.
  • Error HandlingDesign: The protocol had no error managing ability. situations that generated error states, equivalent to unknown messages or inconsistent state transitions within the BGP Finite State computing device trigger the BGP speaker to drop the session.Deployment: Operational issues require that session shutdown be prevented anyplace feasible, and that the impacts of session restart be mitigated anywhere viable.
  • site visitors EngineeringDesign: The protocol has very rudimentary capabilities to manage the dispensed route alternative algorithm.Deployment: Some 50% of the objects in the BGP routing desk do not add to the basic reachability of advertised handle space, however in its place, try to qualify that reachability by way of expressing a alternative for definite forwarding paths.
  • reasons for BGP's longevity

    the key question here is perhaps less about these areas the place the protocol design isn't neatly aligned to operational requirements, but more what elements or facets of the design have allowed a 30 year historic protocol designed to manipulate a topology of some 500 networks and 10,000 address prefixes scale up to manage a topology of 70,000 networks and all of a sudden coming near 1 million address prefixes.

    Three technical elements of BGP seem like important for BGP in featuring flexibility to adapt the protocol to fulfill new requirements.

    initially, BGP is a distance vector protocol which forces it to be a hop-by-hop protocol. Hop-by using-hop protocols are sometimes greater flexible in supporting the partial deployment of means, in so far as a new behavior wants handiest to define how to tunnel through sequences of "historical conduct" in a transparent manner. This enables improvements to be deployed in a piecemeal and loosely coordinated manner, which fits the traits of the inter-area operational neighborhood. In other words, BGP can evolve to swimsuit altering necessities, and do so in a manner that doesn't require widespread adoption, flag days, or some other variety of cyber web-wide coordinated moves.

    Secondly, BGP's option to use TCP as its transport protocol offered each legitimate information switch and elasticity in the definition of protocol objects. This design alternative implied that BGP could safely count on that all suggestions sent to the faraway BGP neighbour was got and processed by using that neighbour. This tremendously simplified the protocol and had a huge referring to the scalability of the protocol as neatly.

    Thirdly, and perhaps a little extra controversially, I accept as true with that using the minimal Route commercial Interval (MRAI) timer has been an important aspect in BGP's persevered means to route an ever-greater web. A denser mesh of interconnectivity would continually power a distance vector protocol into a huge volume of incremental updates as up to date reachability information travels at subtly diverse speeds throughout the larger-interconnected community. The MRAI interval damps that high frequency instability trading a longer time to converge in opposition t a highly damped protocol replace load.

    The different factor of BGP's durability within the field is that BGP is extremely wonderful to the company atmosphere of inter-issuer interaction. A community takes in reachability, makes a set of internal selections about which prefixes and paths to use in keeping with local coverage and propagates the outcome. A community doesn't should expose its policies to any exterior party. BGP in this role is a negotiation protocol, the place route advertisements reflect a community's import preferences and the preference between otherwise equal route ads reflect a network's export preferences.

    BGP has also benefitted from the company ambiance. It appears that many networks choose to prevent long chains of connection and like to obtain carrier either directly from a so-known as Tier-1 issuer, or as shut as possible to a Tier-1 provider. the ensuing network is not "lengthy and stringy" however instead its "brief and dense". short dense networks behave very efficiently in terms of convergence performance. because the time for a routing uptake to converge to a sturdy state is based on the usual AS route length as opposed to the variety of interconnected networks, then this connection pattern allows for the network to grow via expanding density, and thereby retain some consistency with convergence efficiency.

    The outcomes of this "short and dense" interconnection choice is proven in determine four.

    figure 4 – BGP table measurement and replace and withdrawal day by day undertaking

    whereas the number of FIB entries has practically tripled during the past decade, the number of updates has grown at a far slower rate, and the variety of withdrawals is comparatively constant. The capped replace expense is partly as a result of a community whose commonplace AS path length has remained steady. This figure additionally suggests a comparatively regular cost of withdrawals over time. The explanations for this capped behaviour is not certainly understood.

    figure 5 – usual BGP convergence times

    The "brief and dense" community produces the performance outcome shown in figure 5. The general time to converge in BGP has remained consistent for the previous decade. once again, this is involving the stability of the common AS route size in BGP additional time, which itself is involving the enterprise model of connecting into the network as shut as possible to the so-known as Tier One 'core' of the community.

    BGP searching ahead

    BGP might not be the absolutely best interdomain routing protocol for the cyber web, however its sturdiness is a testomony to the remark that the trouble required to address its shortcomings through incremental alterations to the protocol is far much less effort than could be required to outline and deploy a wholly novel inter-domain routing protocol.

    Will BGP be around for a different 30 years?

    this is a tricky question, however the odds are in BGP's choose. The charge of change to some thing as basic as the information superhighway's routing protocol is extraordinarily excessive, so any new protocol will should generate large improvements in can charge and performance to beat the stasis of BGP's entrenched incumbency.

    it's additionally the case that the enterprise fashions of interconnection and BGP are actually carefully intertwined. Any replacement interdomain rioting protocol will need to guide the identical interconnection attributes, together with selective obscurity of local policy settings, and the negotiation of tensions between the import and export preferences of every network. In different phrases, any successor protocol to BGP seems like it had better behave in the same means as BGP behaves, at least whereas the present company models of internet carrier provision still grasp sway!

    it could well be that BGP will now last for provided that the cyber web will final.

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    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [71 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [106 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [44 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [321 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [79 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [23 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [753 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [31 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1535 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [387 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [299 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [136 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

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