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600-210 exam Dumps Source : Implementing Cisco Service Provider Mobility UMTS Networks (SPUMTS)
Test Code : 600-210
Test designation : Implementing Cisco Service Provider Mobility UMTS Networks (SPUMTS)
Vendor designation : Cisco
: 67 actual Questions
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Colt technology services is working with Cisco to update its Colt IQ network which serves mobile operators around the globe.
Colt expertise capabilities says that this skill will support 5G capabilities at “notable scale, information quotes and low latencies, providing greater flexible and in your cost compass options”.
The Colt IQ community is a excessive-bandwidth spine this is latest in essential hubs around the globe in addition to in main hyperscale facts centres. Colt’s On claim offer allows enterprises to scale their bandwidth requirements up and down in close-precise time.
Colt will set up Cisco’s angle routing and Ethernet VPN (eVPN) based mostly architecture to distinguish its 5G backhaul providing and abbreviate surge time to valued clientele. cell provider providers should invest heavily in capital and operational expenditure when deploying 5G. Colt’s understanding is to enable them to partake connectivity fees but acquire individual service degree agreements (SLAs) for their purposes.less difficult structure
Peter Coppens, vp, Product Portfolio at Colt, stated, “we've worked closely with Cisco to design a network structure it truly is primary to function, extremely attainable and able to supplying the creative community services that are required for 5G.”
the two moreover declare here is a leap forward in automating 5G backhaul requirements as it helps self-provisioned bandwidth scaling and guarantees adherence to SLAs for capabilities or network slices, based on latency and bandwidth.
they are adage this is because of the combination of Cisco’s programmable-routing structure for 5G features with the openness and programmability of the Colt IQ community, which will moreover live prolonged to valued clientele without delay, via standards-based mostly APIs.
“With each novel cell know-how comes complexity, and 5G is no different. we're arrogant to support Colt as a strategic associate in its mission to simplify 5G deployments,” spoke of Sumeet Arora, SVP and GM provider company Routing Cisco.Cloud economics
The partnership with Cisco will moreover enable Colt to assist newer 5G deployment architectures using Cloud Radio access community (CloudRAN).
CloudRAN lowers operational charges via more productive exercise of spectrum and radio components, and “cost-optimised” antennas that want fewer site visits.
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mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain and Jakarta, Indonesia – March 2, 2015 – XL Axiata, probably the most greatest cellular operators in Indonesia for client and computer-to-laptop (M2M) functions, has selected Cisco® Virtualized Packet Core to deliver the network elasticity and service agility needed to support the speedy growth and ever-altering demands of present day market. by artery of implementing Cisco Virtualized Packet Core (VPC), XL Axiata has become the primary to do into consequence the Cisco solution in Asia Pacific and Japan.
The fresh Cisco cell visible Networking Index (2014–2019) predicts that cell facts site visitors in Indonesia will develop 10-fold from 2014 to 2019, accomplishing 609.5 petabytes monthly with the aid of 2019. introduced to XL Axiata's 136 p.c year-over-yr cellular traffic boom, XL Axiata vital the capability to acquire a versatile cell core as well as assist for their turning out to live mobile M2M customer base.
After rigorous checking out, XL Axiata added Cisco VPC onto its reside community, and the solution carried consumer site visitors with complete reliability, scalability, and best. The Cisco VPC, coupled with Cisco evolved services Platform (ESP), enabled XL Axiata to expose up novel functions in minutes and easily scale operations.
Cisco's VPC is the trade's first hardware platform and hypervisor-impartial solution that combines network capabilities Virtualization (NFV) and software-defined Networking (SDN) enabling service providers, such as XL Axiata, to installation novel features and lop back operational expenditures, whereas retaining their existing Cisco ASR 5000 series investments and continuing to scale them for customer and commerce functions.
With more than 60 million subscribers, XL Axiata is one in every of Indonesia's leading mobile provider suppliers, offering quite a lot of types of telecommunication products and features reminiscent of voice, SMS, information, and different cost-introduced mobile telecommunication services with an intensive network across the country.
XL Axiata demonstrated Cisco's Unified Computing device (UCS) servers as a compute platform to deploy Cisco VPC and Gateway GPRS aid Node (GGSN). Cisco VPC is the trade's most finished, entirely virtualized advanced packet core that scales up and sum the artery down to support a replete latitude of mobile networks, together with novel markets comparable to M2M, mobile digital network operators (MVNO), and premium cell Broadband Networks. Cisco VPC combines sum packet core features—for 4G, 3G, 2G, Wi-Fi, and wee telephone networks—into a lone answer. It provides these community services as virtualized features, and allows shoppers to scale capability and interlard novel services tons faster and extra charge-quite simply.
XL Axiata suggested 136 p.c year-on-12 months information site visitors boom, with subscribers attaining 31.2 million users or fifty three % of their total consumer base. XL Axiata has viewed mighty growth of their facts smartphone clients with 25 p.c smartphone penetration of their total customer base, achieving 14.6 million users as of September 2014. The Cisco VPC materials XL Axiata with the equal Cisco StarOS software used of their network these days, with the addition of ‘scalable ability' enabled with the aid of virtualization necessary to pilot their speedy transforming into voice, video, and records and M2M customer requirements.
"As one in every of Indonesia's main cellular service suppliers, providing functions such as voice, SMS, statistics, and different cost-delivered cellular telecommunication services with an intensive community across the country, their customers weigh on XL to carry their cell communications on every occasion and wherever they want it with a lofty character of service. The Cisco virtualized Packet Core acknowledge offers us the flexibleness they necessity to activate novel capabilities promptly for their valued shoppers."
"in the recent Cisco cellular visual Networking Index forecast, Indonesia turned into highlighted as a country that could journey a ten-fold expand in cell information site visitors from 2014 to 2019. the key elements riding this surge in connectivity are: expanded cellular penetration charges, a gigantic boost in ‘smart' connections and the speedy boom of 4G connectivity. With Cisco options for the virtualized packet core, XL Axiata is capable of achieve introduced flexibility, accelerated agility and the service speed vital for imposing novel dynamic carrier choices for a linked Indonesia. we're thrilled about XL Axiata's endured self assurance in us, and they seem ahead to working collectively to bring business-leading functions and transforming their Indonesia."
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About XL Axiata
PT XL Axiata Tbk. is without doubt one of the most necessary cellular providers in Indonesia. PT XL Axiata Tbk. is (sixty six.5%) owned by using Axiata community Berhad via Axiata Investments (Indonesia) Sdn Bhd and public (33.5%), and is fragment of Axiata neighborhood ("neighborhood"). The community's cell subsidiaries and colleagues operate below the company designation ‘Celcom' in Malaysia, ‘Dialog' in Sri Lanka, ‘Robi' in Bangladesh, ‘wise' in Cambodia, ‘theory' in India and ‘M1' in Singapore.
Cisco (NASDAQ: CSCO) is the international leader in IT that helps agencies capture the opportunities of tomorrow by proving that miraculous things can betide if you connect the up to now unconnected. For ongoing news, delight recede to http://thenetwork.cisco.com. Cisco products are provided in Indonesia through the channel partners of Cisco techniques overseas confined, a totally owned subsidiary of Cisco methods, Inc.
Cisco and the Cisco emblem are emblems or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and different nations. a list of Cisco's emblems can moreover live discovered at www.cisco.com/go/trademarks. Third-birthday party emblems mentioned are the property of their respective house owners. the exercise of the notice colleague doesn't imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and some other enterprise.
Cisco IT certifications are sometimes organize sprinkling the lists of the maximum paying certifications within the business. if you're looking at getting certified, prefer a commemorate at this engage to Cisco IT certifications.
Are you considering expanding your resume with a novel certification? Cisco IT certifications are often organize sprinkling the lists of the optimum paying certifications within the business. Cisco is the lengthy-standing industry leader in designing and manufacturing community machine.
whether you're thinking of focusing on working with Cisco products or just broadening your universal ability-set, the ubiquity of Cisco's products and functions makes the business's IT certifications an necessary a fragment of establishing your simple knowledge as an IT knowledgeable.
Cisco presents tests at four simple levels of IT certification - Entry, affiliate, skilled, and expert. There are extra tests attainable at Technician, expert and Architect ranges. in this post, we'll focal point on certifications at the Entry, associate, and expert degrees, because when you are an expert already you probably don't want a ebook!
At each and every degree, there are nine distinct paths for numerous specialties within IT, together with:
each and every proficiency degree has checks to certify the check-taker's skills in the nine subject areas listed above. here's a chart showing which checks cover which topics:entryAssociate skilled Routing & Switching CCENT CCNA CCNP designCCENT CCDA CCDP community defenseCCENT CCNA securityCCNP defenseWireless CCENT CCNA instant CCNP instant Voice CCENT CCNA Voice CCNP Voice facts center CCENT CCNA facts center CCNP statistics middle Storage Networking CCENT provider provider CCNA service serviceCCNP service serviceprovider company alternate options CCENT CCNA service issuer Operations CCNP service issuer Operations
(note that antiseptic areas point out the field is not coated in that certification degree)
(A modified edition of the chart is accessible on Cisco's site.)
Let's commemorate at each of those assessments in more depth.CCENT (Entry certification, sum paths)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed Entry Networking Technician
What does it prove? This certification proves the tester's knowing of fundamental networking applied sciences when it comes to the 9 paths (security, wireless expertise, routing and switching, and so forth.). It forms the foundation for future certifications, and offers a breadth of skills for you to then opt for a area of expertise.
What verify attain I must take? 640-822 (ICND1) - study cloth available online.
Are there necessities? This verify does not acquire any prerequisites.
usual earnings for Certification holder: $seventy four,764 (standard salaries in response to PayScale numbers)CCNA (affiliate certification, Routing and Switching course)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed network associate
What does it prove? This certification proves the tester's means to deploy, monitor and troubleshoot network infrastructure. Recipients of this certification are depended on to live able to execute the everyday initiatives of a network administrator, with a spotlight on routing and switching.
What examine attain I should take? You may select to prefer the 640-802 CCNA examination or each the 640-822 ICND1 and 640-816 ICND2 checks. on-line study materials are available for the 640-802 CCNA exam, 640-822 ICND1 examination, and 640-816 ICND2 examination.
Are there prerequisites? This commemorate at various doesn't acquire any necessities.
average earnings for Certification holder: $eighty two,923CCDA (affiliate certification, Design route)
What does it stand for?Cisco licensed Design affiliate
What does it prove? This certification proves the tester's means to design fantastic routed and switched community infrastructure for agencies of any dimension. If taken by artery of a person with existing network engineering abilities, this certification proves that this engineering talents is backed up with a networking design heritage. This helps in the day by day configuration and troubleshooting tasks of community engineers.
What check attain I necessity to take? 640-863 DESIGN - commemorate at cloth obtainable on-line.
Are there necessities? This examine doesn't acquire any necessities, but an understanding of the fabric coated in the CCNA and CCNP tests is advised.
normal salary for Certification holder: $101,915CCNA protection (affiliate certificate, protection path)
What does it stand for? Cisco certified network associate security
What does it prove? This certification proves the tester's competency in installing and monitoring Cisco safety applied sciences. The tester has acquired an introduction into protection technologies, and is able to function the daily initiatives of a community safety expert and administrator.
What verify attain I should take? 640-554 IINS - online practicing available. (notice: This check changed the 640-533 IINS exam, which changed into closing provided on closing check date on September 30, 2012.)
Are there prerequisites? Testers are required to acquire both an up-to-date CCNA or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCNA safety certification examination.
regular earnings for Certification holder: $92,430CCNA wireless (associate certificate, instant course)
What does it stand for? Cisco certified network associate wireless
What does it prove? This certification proves the tester's potential to exercise Cisco machine to enforce, configure and pilot wireless LANs. The tester is capable of operate the day by day initiatives of a instant community administrator.
What examine attain I should take? IUWNE 640-722 (enforcing Cisco Unified wireless Networking essentials) - practicing available on-line.
Are there must haves? Testers are required to acquire either an up-to-date CCNA or any Cisco CCIE Certification before taking the CCNA protection certification exam.
usual profits for Certification holder: $95,123CCNA Voice (affiliate certificate, Voice direction)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed network affiliate Voice
What does it show? The tester is prepared for a profession in voice networking, and equipped with the imperative potential including managing and supporting voice networks and applications. The tester has a basic understanding of VoIP applied sciences corresponding to handsets, designation control, messaging, and so on.
What verify attain I necessity to take? 640-461 ICOMM (Introducing Cisco Voice and Unified Communications Administration) v8.0 - on-line practising attainable.
Are there prerequisites? Testers are required to acquire either an up to date CCNA or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCNA security certification exam.
normal salary for Certification holder: $97,617CCNP Voice (affiliate certificate, Voice course)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed community associate Voice
What does it show? The tester is prepared for a profession in voice networking, and outfitted with the faultfinding expertise including imposing, working, and troubleshooting a converged IP network. The tester has a radical realizing of nice of service (QoS), gateways, gatekeepers, IP telephones, voice purposes and utilities on Cisco routers and Cisco leavening switches.
What commemorate at various attain I acquire to take? 642-437 CVOICE v8.0 (implementing Cisco Voice Communications and QoS) and 642-447 CIPT1 v8.0 (implementing Cisco Unified Communications manager, fragment 1) and 642-457 CIPT2 v8.0 (implementing Cisco Unified Communications supervisor, fragment 2) and 642-427 TVOICE v8.0 (Troubleshooting Cisco Unified Communications) and 642-467 CAPPS v8.0 (Integrating Cisco Unified Communications applications)
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire both an up to the flash CCNA Voice certification or any CCIE Certification.
average profits for Certification holder: $111,073 (source)CCNA information headquarters (affiliate certificate, statistics middle path)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed community affiliate information core
What does it prove? The CCNA information headquarters certification is focused on working towards records headquarters expert for labor in their box. The tester is ready to labor as an information core skilled designing, installation and protecting records facilities.
What commemorate at various attain I ought to take? 640-911 DCICN (Introducing Cisco facts middle Networking) and 640-916 DCICT (Introducing Cisco facts core applied sciences)
Are there prerequisites? This test doesn't acquire any must haves.
common earnings for Certification holder: not obtainable.CCNP information core (knowledgeable certificates, information middle direction)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed community knowledgeable information core
What does it prove? The CCNP information middle Certification proves the experienced data middle skilled's capability to design, do in force, and troubleshoot records facilities. just enjoy the CCNA records headquarters certification, the CCNP facts core certification is designed to deliver on-the-job skill edifice for those researching for it.
What test attain I should take? most of the required tests are being retired in early 2013. they acquire chosen not to record these here. 642-999 DCUCI v5.0 and 642-997 DCUFI v5.0 and 642-998 DCUCD v5.0 and 642-996 DCUFD v5.0 or 642-035 DCUCT v5.0 and 642-980 DCUFT v5.0. For a replete checklist of exams, together with the ones that might live retired in early 2013, click on here.
Are there prerequisites? Testers are required to acquire both an up-to-date CCNA records headquarters certification, or any Cisco CCIE Certification before taking the CCNP facts core certification.
regular income for Certification holder: no longer accessible.CCNA service company (affiliate certificate, CCNA provider company)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed community affiliate provider
What does it show? The tester is prepared to labor as a community engineer on next generation provider issuer networks. The tester has obtained the vital knowledge to configure, optimize and issue remedy provider issuer community environments.
What examine attain I ought to take? 640-875 SPNGN1 and 640-878 SPNGN2 (constructing Cisco provider issuer subsequent-technology Networks). click on the commemorate at various designation for accessible online working towards.
Are there prerequisites? This check does not acquire any prerequisites.CCNA provider provider Operations (affiliate certificate, CCNA provider provider Operations)
What does it stand for? Cisco certified community affiliate provider provider Operations
What does it show? The tester is ready to labor as a Tier I pilot engineer, knowing how to troubleshoot, configure, trade and manage the efficiency of the environment inside an IP NGN core network infrastructure.
What verify attain I acquire to take? 640-760 SSPO (aiding Cisco service company IP NGN Operations). online working towards materials available.
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire either an updated CCENT, CCNA, or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCNA service provider Operations examination.CCNP (skilled certificate, Routing and Switching direction)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed community skilled
What does it show? The tester is prepared to labor with specialists on advanced applied sciences, similar to security, wireless, voice, etc. The tester is fitted with the essential imposing, verifying and troubleshooting skills to labor with native and wide-area networks as a technician, pilot engineer, tackle engineer or network engineer.
What check attain I acquire to take? 642-902 ROUTE (implementing Cisco IP Routing), 642-813 switch (imposing Cisco IP Switched Networks, 642-832 TSHOOT Troubleshooting and protecting Cisco IP Networks - online practicing available. click on check names to commemorate on-line training alternate options.
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire either an updated CCNA or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCNA security certification examination.
usual income for Certification holder: $seventy six,000CCNA provider company Operations (associate certificate, provider issuer Operations path)
What does it stand for? Cisco certified community associate service issuer Operations
What does it show? The CCNA provider company certification proves the certificates-holder's fundamental capabilities of incident, fault, configuration, trade and performance administration tactics, as well as NMS tackle and protocols.
What check attain I must take? 640-760 SSPO
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire certainly one of the following: any legitimate cisco CCENT, CCNA or CCIE before taking the CCNA service provider Operations exam.
ordinary income for Certification holder: now not purchasable.CCDP (skilled certificates, Design path)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed Design professional
What does it prove? The tester is capable of stand in irony and do in obligate clever community design architectures for businesses. The tester can live in a position to articulate their blueprint and do into consequence it to create comfortable, multi-layered community methods. Tester's competencies lengthen to virtual inner most networking and instant domains, as well as edifice scalable internetworks, multilayer switched networks and designing community service architectures.
What test attain I should take? 642-902 ROUTE (implementing Cisco IP Routing), 642-813 change (implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks), ARCH (Designing Cisco network service Architectures). - on-line practicing available. click on check names to peer online practicing alternate options.
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire either an updated CCDA and CCNA certifications or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCDP protection certification examination.
regular earnings for Certification holder: $116,863CCNP security (expert certificates, protection path)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed network professional safety
What does it prove? The tester may acquire the crucial capabilities to execute the on-the-job initiatives required from a network safety engineer. CCNP protection specialists are in a position to verify, installation, configure, maintain, and troubleshoot Cisco compliances and iOS facets.
What commemorate at various attain I necessity to take? 642-637 relaxed v1.0 (relaxed v1.0 Securing Networks with Cisco Routers and Switches), 642-618 FIREWALL v2.0 (Deploying Cisco ASA Firewall solutions), 642-648 VPN v2.0 (Deploying Cisco ASA VPN solutions), 642-627 IPS v7.0 (enforcing Cisco Intrusion Prevention tackle v7.0). - on-line working towards accessible. click on verify names to peer online practicing alternatives.
Are there prerequisites? Testers are required to acquire both an up-to-date CCNA protection certification, or CCSP certification, or CCNA certification and SND examination pass.
commonplace earnings for Certification holder: $118,521CCNP wireless (expert certificate, instant course)
What does it stand for? Cisco certified network expert instant
What does it show? The tester will live mindful how to conduct a instant website survey, integrate voice over wireless LAN services and mobility features privilege into a instant LAN, as well as acquire inevitable the commandeer implementation of a safety usual into the wireless atmosphere. Testers should live a professional about wireless networking on an superior degree.
What verify attain I should take? 642-732 CUWSS v2.0 (Conducting Cisco Unified instant site Survey) and 642-742 IUWVN v2.0 (imposing Cisco Unified wireless Voice Networks) and 642-747 IUWMS v2.0 (implementing Cisco Unified instant Mobility services) and 642-737 IAUWS v2.0 (enforcing advanced Cisco Unified instant security)
Are there must haves? Testers are required to acquire either an up to date CCNA certifications or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCNP wireless exam.
regular earnings for Certification holder: $95,123CCNP service provider (professional certificates, service company course)
What does it stand for? Cisco licensed community skilled provider issuer
What does it show? The tester will gain the on-the-job competencies required to implement, investigate, troubleshoot, and optimize the carrier issuer network atmosphere. This certification allows the tester to bring scalable, optimized network architectures for organisations.
What assessments attain I must take? 642-883 (Deploying Cisco service provider community Routing or SPROUTE) and 642-885 (Deploying Cisco carrier provider superior Routing or SPADVROUTE) and 642-887 (implementing Cisco carrier issuer next-technology Core network functions or SPCORE) and 642-889 (enforcing Cisco provider issuer subsequent-technology edge network services or SPEDGE)
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire both an up to date CCNA carrier provider certification, or CCNA Routing & Switching and handed at the very least 1 CCIP exam), or CCIP, or any Cisco CCIE Certification earlier than taking the CCNP instant examination.
commonplace revenue for Certification holder: certified CCNP network engineers rate $56,422 to $80,408; counsel know-how managers rate $65,274 to $96,075.14.CCNP service company Operations (knowledgeable certificate, carrier company Operations course)
What does it stand for? Cisco certified community knowledgeable service provider Operations
What does it show? The tester might live capable of understand the artery to establish and seclude community efficiency problems and identify options through imposing effective network management tactics and policies. CCNP provider provider Operations people may live in a position to labor on the degree of a Tier II or Tier III support engineer on IP NGN core network infrastructures.
What checks attain I ought to take? 642-770 OFCN Prep (Operational Foundations for Cisco service company Core Networks), 642-775 MSPRP Prep (holding Cisco provider company Routing Protocols), 642-780 MSPVM Prep (holding Cisco provider company VPNs and MPLS Networks), 642-785 MSPQS Prep (retaining Cisco provider provider best of provider). - online working towards obtainable. click check names to view on-line practicing alternate options.
Are there necessities? Testers are required to acquire either an up-to-date CCNA carrier provider Operations certification, or any Cisco CCIE Certification before taking the CCNP service provider Operations Certification.
standard profits for Certification holder: licensed CCNP network engineers rate $fifty six,422 to $80,408; counsel expertise managers rate $sixty five,274 to $96,075.sixteen.
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T-Mobile US (NYSE:TMUS) has upgraded parts of its 2G GSM network with enhanced encryption technology, which could provide a stronger defense against government eavesdropping and other network intrusions. The changes near after revelations of widespread surveillance of phone calls and Internet traffic by the National Security Agency.
According to the Washington Post, T-Mobile has moved to a novel encryption mode called A5/3 that is tougher to beat than earlier forms of encryption. The newspaper tested the carrier's networks in novel York City, Washington, and Boulder, Colo., and organize that the novel encryption was present there rather than the older A5/1 standard. A5/1 has long been used in GSM networks, while UMTS and LTE networks exercise stronger encryption to secure the network. The tests were performed using an application known as Darshak, which was released at the Black Hat security conference in August.
T-Mobile declined to provide details on its network upgrades, telling the Post in statement, "T-Mobile is continuously implementing advanced security technologies in accordance with worldwide recognized and trusted standards."
The patent shove to improve network security comes after revelations by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden that the agency was collecting metadata such as the location and duration of massive amounts of U.S. phone calls, including wireless calls.
Deutsche Telekom, T-Mobile's parent, said it would acquire the A5/3 encryption a measure feature on its 2G network in Germany. That decision came after reports emerged that the NSA had wiretapped the cell phone of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, which outraged Germans.
Last month investigators for the German government said they would claim the leaders of German telecom companies about reports the NSA and its UK counterpart GCHQ were able to access data at will on their networks using a computer program named Treasure Map. The program reportedly offered the queer intelligence agencies near real-time access to data on German routers, PCs, smartphones and tablets. While DT and NetCologne--a local telecoms service provider--denied finding evidence of the snooping, satellite operator Stellar PCS said it had.
As the Post notes, A5/3 encryption places hurdles in front of would-be network snoops because tackle that passively collects cell signals often cannot decode calls. However, if a third party was using a device known as an "IMSI catcher" they could silent eavesdrop on individual calls by changing a phone's security settings.
AT&T Mobility (NYSE: T) said terminal year that it was using A5/3 encryption for parts of its network. "AT&T always protects its customers with the best encryption practicable in line with what their device will support," the company said in a statement to the Post.
AT&T plans to shut down its 2G network by 2017, and T-Mobile has not said when it will shut off GSM service. However, both carriers--and most U.S. carriers generally--are migrating to LTE technology, which provides stronger security features. According to Cisco data cited by the Post, around 13 percent of U.S. cellular connections used 2G technology in 2013, a figure that is expected to drop to 7.2 percent by 2018. However, because much of the world has not migrated to LTE (or, in some cases, to 3G), 2G connections made up 68.4 percent of the worldwide market in 2013.
For more:- view this Washington Post article
Related Articles:Apple's Cook meets with Chinese vice premier following report of iCloud hack in ChinaLeading German telcos physiognomy NSA, GCHQ spy probeTeliaSonera latest to reveal authorities' communication-interception requestsEuropean leaders debate home-grown comms network to avert U.S. spyingDeutsche Telekom launches mobile encryption appNSA, GCHQ target 'leaky' apps to accumulate data on smartphone users, according to Snowden leak
EINDHOVEN, THE NETHERLANDS and HAMBURG, GERMANY--(Marketwired - Apr 4, 2013) - NXP Semiconductors N.V. ( NASDAQ : NXPI ) and Cohda Wireless today announced that they acquire signed the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The memorandum aims at implementing and deploying harmonized technology for the wireless communication between cars, or between cars and traffic infrastructure, in Europe. NXP and Cohda, a leading specialist in wireless communication for automotive safety applications, are the first automotive electronics suppliers to note the MoU, following twelve major car manufacturers in October 2012.
In addition, NXP and Cohda acquire announced the introduction of Roadlink™ as their novel technology brand for marketing a total Car-to-X (C2X) communication and security solution for on-board units and road-side units in intellectual Transport Systems (ITS). Automotive-ready modules based on Roadlink are currently being developed by companies including lesswire AG in Germany. A specialist for automotive wireless networking, lesswire has announced a C2X module which supports the timely introduction of automotive applications from 2015 onwards, as planned by the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium.
The overall objective of the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium is to implement and deploy cooperative intellectual Transport Systems -- a network in which communication partners, such as vehicles, traffic infrastructure, and service providers, wirelessly exchange information. This will live the basis for achieving novel levels of traffic safety and improving traffic efficiency on European roads. The consortium is therefore pushing for global harmonization of Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) communication standards, recognizing the necessity to conform software to the regional characteristics of the US, European and Japanese markets. "We are pleased to acquire NXP note the memorandum," says Søren Hess, general manager, CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium. "The fact that NXP, as a major driver of secure connected mobility solutions, has designed first automotive-ready products for C2X is a major step in the consortium's plans of making car-to-car communication on European roads a reality from 2015 onwards."
Under the novel technology brand RoadLink, NXP and Cohda Wireless are introducing and marketing a total Car-to-X radio and security solution for ITS on-board units and road-side units. Cohda's patented advanced reception technology enhances wireless communications to character levels far beyond commercial off-the-shelf receivers and transmitters using the IEEE 802.11 communication standard. NXP contributes the hardware platform based on its long-proven expertise in software-defined radio, high-performance mixed-signal RF tuners, and security technologies. At the selfsame time, NXP enables the automotive-ready performance of the total solution, which offers unparalleled efficiency in terms of cost, configuration factor, and power consumption.
Using RoadLink technology, lesswire is developing wee embedded Car-to-X radio modules offering best-in-class RF performance. "We acquire decided to design their novel portfolio of IEEE802.11p modules on RoadLink technology by NXP and Cohda Wireless because of their leading technologies for car communication," explains Dr. Ralph Meyfarth, CEO lesswire AG. "First modules are planned to live released in 2014. They will live designed in with major global car manufacturers and used in various architectures. The modules will live automotive qualified." lesswire specializes in solutions for WLAN, Bluetooth, and UMTS, designing robust, low-power, automotive-certified products that enable vehicles to live assimilated into traffic or corporate networks. The company has taken on a leading role in the standardization and development of solutions for C2C and C2I communication.
Torsten Lehmann, senior vice president and general manager car entertainment solutions at NXP Semiconductors, explains: "Signing the memorandum of understanding underscores their commitment to acquire the connected car a reality, reducing road accidents, saving lives, reducing CO2 emissions, and improving traffic flow. The IEEE802.11p modules that lesswire is designing based on RoadLink technology will set novel benchmarks in the automotive industry. They will combine NXP's market-proven multi-standard software-defined radio, Cohda's superior wireless reception algorithms, and lesswire's expertise in automotive-grade networking solutions." NXP continues to invest in connected car technologies, most recently announcing a significant investment in Cohda Wireless together with Cisco in January 2013. A video discussing NXP's approach to C2X communications is available here: http://youtu.be/LGykjQZoQ4c
About lesswire AG lesswire AG is a Berlin-based provider of embedded radio solutions for wireless industrial communication and wireless applications for the automotive industry and the smart energy sector. The company was founded in 1999 and offers complete product solutions based on its BlueBear (Bluetooth) modules and the WiBear (WLAN) product family for the OEM market and aftermarket. lesswire products feature the lofty degree of innovation and character worthy of the "made in Germany" label. With sites in Berlin and Erd/Budapest, lesswire AG has been fragment of PRETTL Electronics AG since 2006. For further information, delight visit www.lesswire.com.
About Cohda Cohda Wireless is an tackle vendor in the Cooperative intellectual Transport Systems (ITS) market. The company manufactures hardware products with acknowledged best-in-world performance and has developed complete software solutions (from network layer to applications layer) for this market. Cohda's hardware and software products are being used in Vehicle-to-X field trials worldwide today. Their customers include a large number of Car Makers, Tier One Suppliers, Automotive Chip Makers, Road Authorities, as well as novel Market Entrants. Cohda's products are already in exercise in the USA, Europe, Australia, Japan, and Korea.
About NXP Semiconductors NXP Semiconductors N.V. ( NASDAQ : NXPI ) provides lofty Performance Mixed Signal and measure Product solutions that leverage its leading RF, Analog, Power Management, Interface, Security and Digital Processing expertise. These innovations are used in a wide compass of automotive, identification, wireless infrastructure, lighting, industrial, mobile, consumer and computing applications. A global semiconductor company with operations in more than 25 countries, NXP posted revenue of $4.36 billion in 2012. Additional information can live organize by visiting www.nxp.com.
Note to Editors RoadLink is a trademark of NXP Semiconductors. sum other trademarks are property of their respective holders.
Forward-looking Statements This document includes forward-looking statements which include statements regarding NXP's commerce strategy, pecuniary condition, results of operations and market data, as well as other statements that are not historical facts. By their nature, forward-looking statements are subject to numerous factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual outcomes and results to live materially different from those projected. Readers are cautioned not to situation undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Except for any ongoing obligation to disclose material information as required by the United States federal securities laws, NXP does not acquire any intent or obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements after NXP distributes this document, whether to reflect any future events or circumstances or otherwise. For a discussion of potential risks and uncertainties, delight refer to the risk factors listed in NXP's SEC filings. Copies of NXP's SEC filings are available from the SEC website, www.sec.gov.
Analogue mobile phones first appeared in the early 1980s, and were used for voice calls only (imagine that!). Second-generation (2G) digital mobiles made their debut a decade later with GSM, offering text messaging (SMS) as the 'killer application' on top of voice services, becoming the preeminent technology worldwide. A roughly 10-year cycle has continued ever since, with each generation adding more data bandwidth and therefore enabling a richer set of services: around the whirl of the millennium, 3G (UMTS or CDMA 2000) offered data rates of around 1Mbps and could live described as 'mobile broadband', while 2010 saw 4G (LTE) reaching 100Mbps.
Of course, as in any evolutionary process, there acquire been intermediate stages: GPRS and EDGE were '2.5G' packet-switching technologies that made internet connections possible, for example, while HSPA and HSPA+ brought '3.5G' data rates up to 2Mbps. More recently, '4.5G' LTE-Advanced and LTE-Advanced Pro acquire paved the artery from 4G to 5G, taking data rates up to 1Gbps.
We are now on the cusp of the 5G era, with standards, spectrum allocation, network infrastructure, chipsets and devices sum poignant into situation around the world. speedy 5G networks with low latencies and lofty connection densities will improve existing mobile experiences and, in due course, enable novel exercise cases. In the meantime, as the 5G ecosystem develops, they will inevitably view a lot of marketing activity -- some of it distinctly questionable.
This article sets the post-CES 2019 5G scene: for more detail, view the remaining content in this ZDNet special feature.5G specs and exercise cases
The road to 5G began back in 2015, with the ITU's IMT-2020 framework, which set out the general requirements and future development of the next-generation mobile technology (IMT stands for International Mobile Telecommunications). Here's how the performance requirements (which were approved in November 2017) compare to the previous-generation IMT-Advanced (a.k.a. 4G):
Peak data rate (downlink)
User-experienced data rate
100,000 devices/sq km
1,000,000 devices/sq km
Area traffic capacity
The ITU's broad goal for IMT-2020/5G was to accommodate "new demands, such as more traffic volume, many more devices with diverse service requirements, better character of user sustain (QoE) and better affordability by further reducing costs". The key driver for this endeavor was the necessity to "support emerging novel exercise cases, including applications requiring very lofty data rate communications, a large number of connected devices, and ultra-low latency and lofty reliability applications".
Here's the IMT-2020 vision for broad classes of 5G exercise cases:Image: ITU IMT-2020
It's transparent from these scenarios that 5G will live as much about businesses as it is about consumers. Yes, there's Ultra-HD and 3D video, augmented reality, smart homes, self-driving cars and more. But there's moreover a legion of commerce opportunities to live exploited in 5G-enabled smart offices, cities, factories and farms.
These mobile exercise cases are enabled by three classes of service: eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband); URLLC (Ultra trustworthy Low Latency Communications); and mMTC (massive Machine nature Communications).
eMBB essentially delivers faster and better mobile connectivity -- not only for consumer smartphone users, but moreover for mobile professionals with 5G-enabled tablets or laptops, or field workers using AR apps and smart glasses, for example. Now enshrined in the June 2018 3GPP Rel 15 standard, which includes NSA (non-standalone, built on LTE-A/Pro) and SA (standalone) elements, eMBB is the first angle of 5G. The second angle will address the kinds of connections required by self-driving vehicles (reliable, low-latency -- URLLC) and IoT device-heavy environments enjoy smart cities (moderate bandwidth, lofty density -- mMTC), and will live covered by the developing 3GPP Rel 16 standard, which was originally due for completion in December 2019 (see below) but has now been do back by three months.
Image: 3GPP × 3gpp-4g-5g-releases.png
Another 5G exercise case is FWA (Fixed Wireless Access), which enters the picture because data rates will live adequate to compete with wired broadband (over copper or optical fibre -- even fibre-to-the-premises). According to recent research from Ovum (sponsored by UK mobile operator Three), 5G is expected to deliver data rates of 80-100Mbps in the UK and could replace traditional wired broadband connections for 85 percent of the country's 26 million fixed-line customers:
Chart: Ovum / Data: Ofcom × 5g-fwa-addressable-market-uk.png
Other advantages of FWA, says Ovum, include plug-and-play setup, flexible contracts and portability — customers simply prefer the wireless home broadband box with them when they move. (Note: Three has a stake in this market via its UK Broadband-operated subsidiary Relish, which currently offers FWA on its 4G LTE network).The state of play: early 2019
Next-generation 5G networks will operate on three broad radio frequency bands, each of which acquire different characteristics and address different exercise cases. Low frequency (sub-1GHz) spectrum is well suited to wide-area and indoor coverage, and will live necessary for improving mobile coverage in underserved rural areas as well as mMTC and URLLC applications. Mid-frequency (1-6GHz) spectrum supports a advantageous combination of capacity and coverage, and is the initial focus for eMBB and FWA, with mMTC to and URLLC to follow. High-frequency spectrum -- a.k.a. millimetre wave, or mmWave (>24GHz)-- supports very lofty speeds and low latency within local 'hot-spot' areas and can deliver 'full' eMBB and high-speed FWA, although indoor coverage is poor.
The precise bands used will vary around the world, but here's the picture in the UK (as of March 2018 -- the 2.3GHz and 3.4-3.6GHz auctions referenced below are now complete):
Image: Ofcom (Enabling 5G in the UK, March 2018)
Following its May 2017 acquisition of UK Broadband (UKB), Three currently holds the most 5G spectrum among the UK's four mobile network operators, although there are upcoming 700MHz and 3.6-3.8GHz auctions in 2019 (which Ofcom aims to conclude by spring 2020):
5G spectrum holdings among UK mobile network operators (H3G = Three, Telefonica = O2)Image: Ofcom × ofcom-5g-spectrum-uk.png
In its March 2018 Enabling 5G in the UK report, Ofcom famous that high-frequency mmWave spectrum has not been used to deliver mobile services to date, but is likely to support novel high-capacity, low-latency 5G applications. The UK regulator has called for input from MNOs and other players on the 26GHz (24.25-27.5 GHz) band, and has moreover prioritised 66-71GHz as a second stage high-frequency band, with 40.5-43.5GHz targeted as a priority party for study.
All four UK network operators are now trialling 5G services: EE in London; O2 at London's O2 Arena; Vodafone in Salford, Greater Manchester (with six more cities to follow); and Three in London. Areas of lofty claim -- i.e. gigantic cities -- may derive limited 5G services (FWA and eMBB) in 2019, but it will prefer years before 5G coverage is widespread and novel (URLLC and mMTC) exercise cases are fully supported.
Looking further afield, in November 2018 the GSA (Global mobile Suppliers Association) estimated that 192 operators in 81 countries were actively investing in 5G -- that is, "have demonstrated, are testing or trialling, or acquire been licensed to conduct field trials of 5G technologies, are deploying 5G networks or acquire announced service launches". By mid-January 2019, the number had risen to 201 operators in 83 countries.
The GSA identified over 524 demonstrations or tests in its November 2018 report, noting that:
Key 5G technologies being explored include novel radio (NR) interfaces operating in spectrum bands not previously used for mobile telecoms services and network slicing to support delivery of services tailored to specific types of customer or service; combinations of technologies such as massive MIMO, or tangled beam-forming that are needed to achieve very lofty speeds; and backhaul, cloud- and edge-computing arrangements to support very low latencies.
At least 87 of the 524 projects tested massive MIMO involving 64 or more transmitters or some other 5G-specific technology, while 26 explicitly featured network slicing, the GSA reported. The most common frequency party in the tests was 3.3-3.8GHz (107 trials), followed by 26.5-29.5GHz (87 trials). Many of the trials reported peak downlink speeds of well over 1Gbps, although the GSA famous that the very highest speeds will not live deliverable by commercial networks for some time:
Image: Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA)
As far as latencies are concerned, most of the 68 trials examined by the GSA achieved 1-1.99ms, although again these test results may not live representative of production networks:
Image: Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) × gsa-trials-latency.png
According to the GSA's latest (January 2019) figures, eleven operators pretension to acquire launched 5G services (either mobile or FWA): AT&T (USA), Elisa (Finland and Estonia), Etisalat (UAE), Fastweb (Italy), LG Uplus (South Korea), KT (South Korea), Ooredoo (Qatar), SK Telecom (South Korea), TIM (Italy), Verizon (USA), and Vodacom (Lesotho). sum of these services are limited in terms of geography, device availability and customer coverage, according to the GSA. Seven other operators acquire turned on 5G base stations but not yet launched commercial services.
As of January 2019, 86 telecom operators in 46 countries had announced their intentions of making 5G available to customers before the stay of 2022, the GSA said.
5G at CES 2019
5G has been a key topic at CES in recent years, and the recent 2019 expose predictably saw plenty of activity. Here's a summary of ZDNet's 5G coverage at CES 2019:CES 2019 news (ZDNet) Summary Qualcomm President Amon is convinced you're going to live thrilled with 5G Qualcomm's president, Cristiano Amon, took some time at the Consumer Electronics expose to debate how 5G cellular will amaze consumers. He moreover reflected on how AI processing on smartphones will become more prevalent. Sprint rounds out CES 2019 with 5G call Working with Nokia and Qualcomm, Sprint has made a 5G data call on its live commercial network in San Diego, including streaming YouTube videos, making Skype video calls, and sending and receiving messages. CES 2019: Intel details autonomous vehicle trial in Israel Intel is extending its autonomous driving trials in Israel to provide an entire mobility-as-a-service offering across car, software, platform, mapping, and safety mechanisms. CES 2019: Telstra CEO Andy Penn talks 5G smartphones Speaking with ZDNet at CES 2019 in Las Vegas, Telstra CEO Andy Penn discussed 5G devices, practicable pricing, download speeds, and what 5G will strike for IoT. CES 2019: Las Vegas and Los Angeles view 5G as a game changer for smart cities AT&T is working with Los Angeles and Las Vegas on multiple smart cities projects, with the two cities adage 5G will bring even more opportunities. CES 2019: Telstra confirms 5G smartphones by mid-2019 Telstra has announced multiple agreements to offer commercial 5G smartphones to customers in the first half of 2019. CES 2019: First commemorate at the Samsung 5G smartphone Samsung is showing off its 5G smartphone prototype at CES 2019, giving users a first taste of what the device will commemorate like. CES 2019: Cisco talks 6G While everyone else spent CES 2019 talking about 5G, Cisco is already looking towards a 6G future. CES 2019: Verizon showcases the potential of 5G with drones, Disney and more 5G connectivity will live "a quantum leap compared to 4G," Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg said during his CES keynote. CES 2019: Sprint pairs Curiosity IoT with 5G to power smart cities, autonomous vehicles Sprint is combining its Curiosity IoT platform and its 5G mobile network to power a smart city in South Carolina and an autonomous vehicle test track in Georgia, and to launch more precise mapping technology. CES 2019: AT&T 5G to connect hospitals and stadiums AT&T is working on hospital and stadium exercise cases for its newly launched 5G network, as well as announcing that it will live connecting Toyota and Lexus cars with LTE between 2019 and 2024. CES 2019: Intel's Mobileye signs deal with UK mapping agency Mobileye and Ordnance Survey acquire announced that they will collect and partake map data for better management of infrastructure aimed at enabling smarter cities. CES 2019: Sprint unveils smart home Magic Box, confirms Samsung 5G phone Sprint has used CES 2019 to unveil a wee cell smart home product with LTE and Alexa integration, as well as confirming a Samsung 5G smartphone launching in the summer. T-Mobile marks 5G milestone with first data call on 600 MHz spectrum The carrier said it has completed a series of successful 5G service tests in the 600MHz party with partners Intel and Ericsson. CES 2019: Ford demos cellular V2X with Qualcomm chipset Ford is using CES 2019 to demo how its Qualcomm-powered cellular V2X technology enables multiple cars to negotiate rights of artery at four-way intersections without traffic lights and desist signs.
Samsung's protoype 5G handset at CES 2019.Image: ZDNet × samsung-5g-prototype-phone.jpg
Samsung's prototype 5G phone received a lot of attention, even though it simply sat in a perspex box on the booth wall, running a video (from internal memory) about the company's 5G goals. It has a conventional configuration factor, but no technical details were revealed about its internals. However, the US network Sprint revealed at CES that it will live carrying Samsung's 5G smartphone later this year on its LTE and 5G networks using the 2.5GHz, 1.9GHz, and 800MHz spectrum bands.
Coming soon: Mobile World Congress
Naturally, 5G is a major theme at the other gigantic tech expose at the start of the year -- Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona (25-28 February). Among the unveilings expected is a 5G phone from OnePlus using Qualcomm's novel Snapdragon 855 chipset and X50 5G modem. This is expected to launch in the spring on the UK EE network (using sub-6GHz spectrum), before becoming available from other carriers worldwide. LG has moreover flagged up an MWC 5G handset announcement based on the Snapdragon 855 chipset.What the surveys say
There acquire been plenty of surveys of different parts of the 5G ecosystem, by various interested parties. Here's a selection from the past six months or so.
IHS MarkitBusiness information provider IHS Markit polled 17 mobile operators for its August 2018 Evolution from 4G to 5G: Service Provider Survey. The headline finding was that 14 (82%) were trialling and testing 5G technology, while two (12%) -- both from North America -- were planning commercial rollouts by the stay of 2018. South Korea is expected recede live with 5G in 2019, said IHS Markit executive research director Stéphane Téral in a statement, while most European networks were not planning to deploy 5G until 2021 or later.
Image: IHS Markit × 5g-ihs-trial-deployment.png
Ultra-low latency was the main 5G technical driver for 82 percent of the mobile operators, followed by decreased cost per bit (76%) and increased network capacity (71%). When it came to challenges, 53 percent cited radio as requiring the biggest development endeavor to acquire 5G happen, followed by transport (24%) and management (14%).
The highest-rated 5G exercise case was eMBB, although FWA was expected to live ready for commercial development first. "The bottom line is early 5G will live an extension of what they know best: broadband, whether in FWA or eMBB form," Téral said. "Don't await factory automation, tactile low-latency paw and steer, or autonomous driving to live ready on 5G anytime soon despite being touted as the chief 5G exercise cases," he added.
GartnerIn May-June 2018, Gartner investigated the claim and adoption plans for 5G among 185 survey respondents (85 Research set members and 100 others). IoT communications was the most current 5G exercise case (59% of respondents), followed by video (53%). However, echoing IHS Markit's findings, Gartner senior research director Sylvain Fabre warned in a statement that 5G networks were far from ready for sum exercise cases: "In the short to medium term, organizations wanting to leverage 5G for exercise cases such as IoT communications, video, control and automation, fixed wireless access and high-performance edge analytics cannot fully dependence on 5G public infrastructure for delivery."
Gartner famous that a novel network topology is required to fully exploit 5G, including novel network elements such as edge computing, core network slicing and radio network densification. This will prefer time: "Most CSPs [Communications Service Providers] will only achieve a complete end-to-end 5G infrastructure on their public networks during the 2025-to-2030 time frame -- as they focus on 5G radio first, then core slicing and edge computing," Fabre said.
As a result, organizations keen to deploy 5G quickly may necessity to commemorate beyond CSPs. "Private networks for enterprises will live the most direct option for businesses that want to profit from 5G capabilities early on," said Fabre. "These networks may live offered not only by CSPs but moreover directly by infrastructure vendors -- and not just by the traditional large vendors of infrastructure, but moreover by suppliers with cloud and software backgrounds."
DeloitteIn a June 2018 survey of nearly 4,000 UK smartphone users (The Race to 5G), Deloitte organize that just 12 percent of respondents would switch to a 5G network as soon as it became available. A further 19 percent would switch on hearing positive reports, while 32 percent would 'probably switch to a 5G network eventually'. Hardly evidence of pent-up demand, although the release of the first 5G handsets during 2019 is likely to change this picture fairly quickly.
Image: The Race to 5G (Deloitte, 2018) × deloitte-5g-survey.png
PwCIn September 2018, PwC surveyed a sample of 1,000 Americans aged 18-64 to investigate several things: their satisfaction with current home and mobile internet services; how they feel about 5G's potential; what they await from 5G (in the home and on mobile devices); and their willingness to pay for 5G.
Only 46 percent of respondents were intimate with the term '5G' without prompting (57% male, 37% female), although 62 percent organize it 'very appealing' once defined. The main 'must-have' across both home and mobile internet was reliability (33% home, 32% mobile), with portability (66%), DIY installation (57%) and wireless (39%) adding to the appeal of 5G FWA in the home. On average, consumers would live willing to pay $5.06 extra/month for 5G home internet and another $4.40/month for 5G mobile internet. The main driver for this willingness to pay more was faster data speeds, both for home (49%) and mobile (63%) internet.
Given that 5G handsets are not yet available, it's perhaps no flabbergast that PwC's respondents weren't exactly clamouring for the novel technology: 74 percent would wait until they were eligible for an upgrade, while only 26 percent were prepared to buy a novel device regardless. Having said that, there was some willingness to change mobile habits for 5G: 32 percent would switch providers; 21 percent would switch mobile device brands; and 19 percent would switch platform or OS.An 'end-to-end' approach to 5G
You can't recede far in 5G-land without encountering the term 'end to end' (or E2E) with reference to network architecture. That's because there's a lot more involved in being a network operator than winning RF spectrum and edifice a radio-access network (RAN): other key components are backhaul (or transport) from the base stations to the core network, plus supporting IT operations. A replete 5G deployment requires architecture changes at every stage:
Image: Three UK × three-end-to-end-5g.png
For example, as well as acquiring a vigorous 5G spectrum portfolio, UK mobile operator Three has:
* Signed an agreement for the rollout of novel cell site technology to prepare major urban areas for the rollout of 5G devices, as well as enhance the 4G service
* Built a super high-capacity dismal fibre network, which connects 20 new, energy efficient and highly secure data centres
* Deployed a world-first 5G-ready, fully integrated cloud-native core network in novel data centres, which at launch will acquire an initial capacity of 1.2TB/s, a three-fold expand from today's capacity, and which can scale further, cost effectively and rapidly
* Rolled out carrier-aggregation technology on 2,500 sites in the busiest areas, improving speeds for customers
Investments of this order -- Three has committed to disburse £2 billion -- underscore the fact that different 5G exercise cases (eMBB, URLLC, mMTC and FWA) acquire different requirements when it comes to bandwidth, latency, mobility, security, reliability and pricing. Early 5G deployments are concentrating on traditional more consumer-oriented areas such as eMBB and FWA, are based on the finalised 3GPP Rel-15 standard, and can utilise a lot of existing 4G LTE infrastructure. But angle 2 of 5G will live based on the still-developing Rel-16 standard, and will require novel spectrum and infrastructure to support advanced commerce exercise cases enjoy URLLC and mMTC.
Enabling sum this requires a cloud-native, service-oriented architecture that supports network slicing, where multiple virtual networks coexist on the selfsame physical infrastructure, leveraging technologies enjoy software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualisation (NFV).
Image: ITUNews × 5g-network-slicing.jpg
In a May 2018 white paper, Ericsson described a trial with Swisscom showing how network slicing supports faultfinding railway communications on a public network carrying mobile broadband traffic. High-definition video -- from cameras on platforms and in the front of trains -- was isolated, with guaranteed performance levels. "Assurances are required when trains are in areas with only moderate radio signal coverage, or during periods of particularly lofty mobile broadband traffic loading," Ericsson said. "Although capacity demands from faultfinding communications are low, RAN radio resource partitioning can live used to maximize available capacity for other lower-priority demands, without affecting performance guarantees."
Although it's crucial to replete 5G deployment, network slicing is silent very much a labor in progress: in the November 2018 GSA report described earlier, just 26 out of 524 5G demos or tests (5%) explicitly featured the technology. There's plenty at stake though: according to the GSMA, network slicing will permit operators to address revenue opportunities worth $300 billion by 2025. "To unlock this opportunity, Network Slicing will enable operators to create pre-defined, differing levels of services to different enterprise verticals, enabling them to customise their own operations," the GSMA said. "However, the break could become even bigger. Automation and the ability to quickly create slices could pave the artery for operators to dynamically package and repackage network capabilities for different customers. This is the stay goal of Network Slicing."Outlook
Network operators are implementing the first angle of 5G, and 5G smartphones are surge to surface, sum of which means that general awareness of 5G is increasing. However, there's silent a lot of end-to-end labor to live done before fully operational 5G networks can support the advanced exercise cases that could transform business.
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