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3X0-103 Linux Networking (Level 1)

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3X0-103 exam Dumps Source : Linux Networking (Level 1)

Test Code : 3X0-103
Test denomination : Linux Networking (Level 1)
Vendor denomination : Sair
: 163 true Questions

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Sair Linux Networking (Level 1)

top of the line Networking Tweaks for Linux | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A Linux outfit will besides exist tweaked to a smooth home windows clients may additionally covet (or concern) certainly for networking. Tweaking a Linux box for networking is relatively greater mundane than different platforms: there are certain driver settings feasible work with however its most reliable flexibility comes from a fuse of OS-degree adjustments and adherence to distinctive RFCs.

ifconfig (interface) txqueuelen #

Speedy Linuxapplication buffers for community adapters on Linux birth off at a conservative one thousand packets. community researchers and scientists acquire mucked round with this, and figured out that they should exist the utilize of 10,000 for anything respectable on a LAN; more when you are working GB or 10GE stuff. unhurried interfaces, equivalent to modems and WAN links, can default to 0-100, but don't exist fearful to bump it up in opposition t 1000 and notice if your efficiency improves. Bumping up this environment does utilize memory, so exist observant if you're the usage of an embedded router or anything (I've used 10,000 on 16MB RAM OpenWRT devices, no prob).

which you could edit /and so forth/rc.native, add an "up" command to /and many others/networking/interfaces, or something your distribution suggests and it exist most useful to withhold a command affection this at startup.

/and many others/sysctl.conf

This file governs default habits for a lot of community and file operation settings on Linux and other *nix-based mostly techniques. in case you install Ubuntu or Fedora programs, you will word they're going to add their personal tweaks (continually protection or file-oriented) to the file: conclude not delete these, until you read up on them, or perceive any that are contradicted through the advised additions here...

net.ipv4.tcp_rfc1337=1

web.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling=1

internet.ipv4.tcp_workaround_signed_windows=1

internet.ipv4.tcp_sack=1

web.ipv4.tcp_fack=1

internet.ipv4.tcp_low_latency=1

internet.ipv4.ip_no_pmtu_disc=0

web.ipv4.tcp_mtu_probing=1

internet.ipv4.tcp_frto=2

internet.ipv4.tcp_frto_response=2

net.ipv4.tcp_congestion_control=illinois

1. RFC 1337, TIME-WAIT Assassination dangers in TCP, a repair written in 1992 for some theoretically-feasible failure modes for TCP connections. To this present day this RFC nonetheless has americans puzzled if it negatively affects efficiency or not or is supported by any conducive router. Murphy's legislation is that the only router that it could even acquire drawback with, is surely your personal.

2. TCP window scaling tries to maintain away from getting the community adapter saturated with incoming packets.

3. TCP SACK and FACK parley with alternate options present in RFC 2018 and are besides documented lower back to Linux Kernel 2.6.17 with an experimental "TCP-Peach" set of services. These are supposititious to fetch you your facts without exorbitant losses.

four. The latency atmosphere is 1 if you resolve on more packets vs bandwidth, or 0 in case you pick bandwidth. greater packets are model for things affection far off desktop and VOIP: less for bulk downloading.

5. I discovered RFC 2923, which is a fine evaluation of PMTU. IPv6 uses PMTU with the aid of default to avoid segmenting packets on the router level, however its not obligatory for IPv4. PMTU is meant to notify routers of the best packet sizes to utilize between links, but its a common admin celebrate to shroud ICMP ports that allow pinging, therefore breaking this mechanism. Linux tries to utilize it, and so conclude I: in case you acquire issues, you acquire got a problem router, and can change the "no" surroundings to 1. "MTU probing" is besides portion of this: 1 capability are attempting, and nil means don't.

6. FRTO is a mechanism in more moderen Linux kernels to optimize for instant hosts: utilize it when you acquire them; delete the setting, or set to 0, in case you don't.

For additional study, there is an outstanding IBM article involving community optimizations: it turned into my supply for some of these settings, as well as following a lot of articles on tweaking Linux networking over the years (SpeedGuide has one from 2003).

TCP Congestion Controls

home windows Vista and more recent received Compound TCP as an alternative preference to accustomed TCP Reno. Linux Kernel 2.6 has had numerous mechanisms accessible to it for a while: 2.6.19 defaulted to CUBIC which become presupposed to work well over "long hyperlinks."  My two personal favorites: TCP Westwood + and TCP Illinois. however that you could dig in, ogle at distinctive research papers on-line, and spot what works most excellent for your ambiance.

1. exist confident your kernel has the proper module: in my illustration, i Take advantage of TCP Illinois, which has been compiled with any typical Ubuntu kernel considering the fact that 2008, and is organize as tcp_illinois.

2. Add talked about kernel module to /etc/modules

3. change /and many others/sysctl.conf to utilize the non "tcp_" a portion of your choice.

There you acquire got it -- some of my favorite Linux tweaks for networking. i'm drawn to listening to how these worked for you. you probably acquire a few of your own, delight publish a observation and partake them with other readers.

be portion of the community World communities on fb and LinkedIn to feel upon subject matters that are conducive of mind.

Linux community Programming, portion 1 | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Like most other Unix-based operating techniques, Linux supports TCP/IP as its aboriginal community transport. during this collection, they are able to assume you're pretty accustomed with C programming on Linux and with Linux themes akin to indicators, forking, and so on.

this article is a simple introduction to using the BSD socket interface for developing networked applications. within the subsequent article, they can cope with considerations concerned in developing (community) daemon methods. Future articles will cowl using faraway process calls and establishing with CORBA/disbursed objects.

short Introduction to TCP/IP

The TCP/IP suite of protocols allows two applications, operating on both the very or sunder computers related with the aid of a network, to talk. It was peculiarly designed to tolerate an unreliable network. TCP/IP enables two primary modes of operation—connection-oriented, legit transmission and connectionless, unreliable transmission (TCP and UDP respectively). figure 1 illustrates the different protocol layers in the TCP/IP suite stack.

determine 1. TCP/IP Protocol Layers

TCP provides sequenced, authentic, bi-directional, connection-based mostly bytestreams with transparent retransmission. In English, TCP breaks your messages up into chunks (not more advantageous in dimension than 64KB) and ensures that everything of the chunks fetch to the vacation spot without mistake and within the remedy order. Being connection-based, a digital connection needs to exist installation between one community entity and the different earlier than they can talk. UDP gives (very quick) connectionless, unreliable switch of messages (of a hard and fleet maximum length).

To enable functions to speak with every different, either on the identical desktop (using loopback) or throughout distinct hosts, each and every application ought to exist for my portion addressable.

TCP/IP addresses consist of two elements—an IP address to determine the computer and a port number to establish certain applications working on that computer.

The addresses are invariably given in both the “dotted-quad” notation (i.e., 127.0.0.1) or as a bunch identify (foobar.bundy.org). The device can utilize either the /and so on/hosts file or the locality denomination service (DNS) (if available) to translate host names to host addresses.

Port numbers scope from 1 upwards. Ports between 1 and IPPORT_RESERVED (described in /usr/encompass/netinet/in.h—customarily 1024) are reserved for device utilize (i.e., you acquire to exist root to create a server to bind to these ports).

The simplest network purposes comply with the customer-server mannequin. A server course waits for a shopper course to connect to it. When the connection is dependent, the server performs some project on behalf of the customer after which constantly the connection is damaged.

the usage of the BSD Socket Interface

probably the most commonplace formula of TCP/IP programming is to construct utilize of the BSD socket interface. With this, network endpoints (IP tackle and port number) are represented as sockets.

The socket interprocess verbal exchange (IPC) amenities (delivered with four.2BSD) acquire been designed to enable community-primarily based purposes to exist developed independently of the underlying communique amenities.

creating a Server application

To create a server software the utilize of the BSD interface, you acquire to celebrate these steps:

  • Create a new socket by typing: socket().

  • bind an address (IP wield and port number) to the socket via typing: bind. This step identifies the server in order that the customer knows the spot to go.

  • listen for brand spanking new connection requests on the socket with the aid of typing: pay attention().

  • settle for new connections by using typing: settle for().

  • commonly, the servicing of a request on behalf of a consumer might besides Take a substantial size of time. it might exist greater productive in one of these case to settle for and Take custody of new connections while a request is being processed. the most common approach of doing here is for the server to fork a brand new reproduction of itself after accepting the new connection.

    figure 2. representation of customer/Server Code

    The code illustration in list 1 indicates how servers are implemented in C. The application expects to exist known as with only one command-line argument: the port quantity to bind to. It then creates a new socket to hear on using the socket() device name. This denomination takes three parameters: the domain wherein to Take heed to, the socket class and the network protocol.

    The domain may besides exist both the PF_UNIX domain (i.e., internal to the local laptop only) or the PF_INET (i.e., everything requests from the web). The socket class specifies the conversation semantics of the connection. whereas a number of styles of sockets acquire been specific, in practice, SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM are the most common implementations. SOCK_STREAM gives for TCP reliable connection-oriented communications, SOCK_DGRAM for UDP connectionless conversation.

    The protocol parameter identfies the selected protocol to exist used with the socket. while distinctive protocols may besides exist within a given protocol family unit (or domain), there's commonly only 1. For TCP here is IPPROTO_TCP, for UDP it is IPPROTO_UDP. You conclude not acquire to explicitly specify this parameter when making the characteristic call. as a substitute, the usage of a value of 0 will pick the default protocol.

    as soon as the socket is created, its operation will besides exist tweaked by potential of socket alternatives. in the above instance, the socket is determined to reuse historical addresses (i.e., IP tackle + port numbers) without looking forward to the required connection shut timeout. If this were now not set, you possibly can should wait 4 minutes in the TIME_WAIT condition before using the address again. The 4 minutes comes from 2 * MSL. The recommended value for MSL, from RFC 1337, is 120 seconds. Linux uses 60 seconds, BSD implementations continuously utilize around 30 seconds.

    The socket can linger to construct confident that everything facts is examine, as soon as one conclusion closes. This option is grew to become on in the code. The constitution of linger is defined in /usr/include/linux/socket.h. It feels affection this:

    struct linger int l_onoff; /* Linger lively */ int l_linger; /* How lengthy to linger */ ;

    If l_onoff is zero, lingering is disabled. whether it is non-zero, lingering is enabled for the socket. The l_linger container specifies the linger time in seconds.

    The server then tries to ascertain its own host identify. I might acquire used the gethostname() call, but the utilize of this feature is deprecated in SVR4 Unix (i.e., solar's Solaris, SCO Unixware and pals), so the aboriginal role _GetHostName() provides a more moveable solution.

    once the host identify is centered, the server constructs an address for the socket by means of making an attempt to fetch to the bottom of the host denomination to an online locality address, using the gethostbyname() name. The server's IP wield could as an alternative exist set to INADDR_ANY to allow a consumer to contact the server on any of its IP addresses—used, for example, with a desktop with assorted network cards or diverse addresses per community card.

    After an tackle is created, it is confident to the socket. The socket can now exist used to hear for brand spanking new connections. The BACK_LOG specifies the highest dimension of the pay attention queue for pending connections. If a connection request arrives when the pay attention queue is full, it will fail with a connection refused error. [This forms the basis for one sort of denial of service assault —Ed.] perceive sidebar on TCP listen() Backlog.

    Having indicated a willingness to listen to new connection requests, the socket then prepares to settle for the requests and repair them. The illustration code achieves this the utilize of an unlimited for() loop. as soon as a connection has been permitted, the server can verify the address of the client for logging or other functions. It then forks a toddler reproduction of itself to tackle the request while it (the guardian) continues listening for and accepting new requests.

    The child system can utilize the read() and write() system calls on this connection to talk with the customer. it is additionally viable to utilize the buffered I/O on these connections (e.g., fprint()) as long as you exist awake to fflush() the output when essential. alternatively, that you may disable buffering altogether for the process (see the setvbuf() (3) man page).

    As you could perceive from the code, it's reasonably regular (and first rate practice) for the newborn procedures to immediate the inherited mum or dad-socket file descriptor, and for the dad or mum to immediate the child-socket descriptor when the usage of this elementary forking model.

    developing the Corresponding customer

    The client code, shown in record 2, is a bit less demanding than the corresponding server code. To delivery the client, you acquire to deliver two command-line arguments: the host identify or tackle of the desktop the server is running on and the port quantity the server is confident to. obviously, the server should exist running before any customer can connect to it.

    within the customer specimen (list 2), a socket is created affection earlier than. the first command-line controversy is first assumed to exist a number denomination for the applications of finding the server's handle. If this fails, it is then assumed to exist a dotted-quad IP handle. If this besides fails, the client cannot resolve the server's wield and will not exist in a position to contact it.

    Having located the server, an tackle constitution is created for the client socket. No categorical denomination to bind() is required perquisite here, as the connect() denomination handles everything of this.

    as soon as the connect() returns successfully, a duplex connection has been dependent. just affection the server, the customer can now utilize examine() and write() calls to obtain data on the connection.

    Be awake of perquisite here facets when sending information over a socket connection:

  • Sending text is constantly satisfactory. bethink that diverse systems can acquire distinctive conventions for the halt of line (i.e., Unix is \012, whereas Microsoft makes utilize of \015\012).

  • distinct architectures might besides utilize different byte-ordering for integers etc. happily, the BSD guys notion of this problem already. There are routines (htons and nstoh for short integers, htonl and ntohl for long integers) which role host-to-network order and community-to-host order conversions. whether the network order is little-endian or huge-endian doesn't in fact matter. It has been standardized across everything TCP/IP community stack implementations. unless you persistently flow simplest characters throughout sockets, you're going to rush into byte-order complications in case you don't utilize these routines. reckoning on the computing device structure, these routines can exist null macros or may additionally in fact exist purposeful. curiously, a benchmark source of bugs in socket programming is to forget to utilize these byte-ordering routines for filling the wield container within the sock_addr structures. possibly it isn't intuitively evident, but this ought to even exist achieved when the usage of INADDR_ANY (i.e., htonl(INADDR_ANY)).

  • A key point of community programming is to construct confident methods conclude not obtrude with each different in sudden methods. In certain, servers must utilize applicable mechanisms to serialize entry through essential sections of code, evade impasse and give protection to information validity.

  • You cannot (commonly) scuttle a pointer to reminiscence from one machine to one other and are expecting to utilize it. it is not going you're going to want to try this.

  • similarly, you cannot (generally) flow a file descriptor from one process to a different (non-child) technique via a socket and utilize it straightaway. each BSD and SVR4 deliver alternative ways of passing file descriptors between unrelated processes; although, the easiest course to conclude that in Linux is to utilize the /proc file gadget.

  • moreover, you need to construct confident that you address brief writes appropriately. short writes occur when the write() muster best partly writes a buffer to a file descriptor. They ensue due to buffering in the working system and to stream control within the underlying transport protocol. certain gadget calls, termed gradual outfit calls, may well exist interrupted. Some might besides or may additionally not exist instantly restarted, so construct confident to explicitly tackle this when community programming. The code excerpt in listing three handles brief writes.

    the usage of distinctive threads instead of diverse techniques may lighten the weight on the server host, thereby expanding efficiency. Context-switching between threads (in the very course tackle house) often has tons much less linked overhead than switching between distinct methods. however, considering most of the slave threads during this case are doing network I/O, they need to exist kernel-stage threads. if they had been person-stage threads, the first thread to dam on I/O would understanding the entire course to dam. this would outcome in starving everything other threads of any CPU attention until the I/O had achieved.

    it's ordinary to immediate pointless socket file descriptors in newborn and dad or mum strategies when using the benchmark forking model. This prevents the newborn or mum or dad from skills faulty reads or writes and additionally frees up descriptors, which might exist a limited aid. however conclude not try this when the utilize of threads. multiple threads inside a technique partake the equal recollection locality and set of file descriptors. if you shut the server socket in a slave thread, it closes for everything other threads in that process.

    Connectionless statistics—UDP

    listing 4 suggests a connectionless server the utilize of UDP. while UDP applications are comparable to their TCP cousins, they acquire some censorious changes. optimum, UDP doesn't guarantee legit beginning—in case you require reliability and are the usage of UDP, you both acquire to enforce it yourself for your software common sense or switch to TCP.

    Like TCP applications, with UDP you create a socket and bind an wield to it. (Some UDP servers conclude not deserve to denomination bind(), but it surely does no damage and may rescue you from making a mistake.) UDP servers conclude not hear or accept incoming connections, and customers conclude not explicitly connect to servers. really, there is terribly itsy-bitsy disagreement between UDP valued clientele and servers. The server ought to exist bound to a primary port and tackle most effective in order that the client knows where to dispatch messages. additionally, the order of expected facts transmissions is reversed, i.e., for those who dispatch records the utilize of send() in the server, your client may still are expecting to acquire records the utilize of recv().

    it is commonplace for UDP clients to fill within the sockaddr_in constitution with a sin_port expense of 0. (notice that 0 in both byte-order is 0.) The gadget then automatically assigns an unused port number (between 1024 and 5000) to the customer. i'm leaving it as an pastime to the reader to transfigure the server in listing four into a UDP customer.

    /etc/features

    in order to connect with a server, you ought to first know each the wield and port number on which it is listening. Many benchmark services (FTP, TELNET, and so forth.) are listed in a textual content database file referred to as /and many others/features. An interface exists to request a service by means of denomination and to obtain the port number (accurately formatted in community byte-order) for that carrier. The feature is getservbyname(), and its prototype is in the header file /usr/encompass/netdb.h. This instance takes a carrier denomination and protocol classification and returns a pointer to struct servent.

    struct servent char *s_name; /* respectable carrier denomination */ char **s_aliases; /* alias list */ int s_port; /* port number, network<\n> * byte-order--so conclude not * utilize host-to-community macros */ char *s_proto; /* protocol to construct utilize of */ ;

    Conclusions

    this article has added network programming in Linux, the utilize of C and the BSD Socket API. In general, coding with this API tends to exist rather laborious, certainly when compared to one of the most different suggestions available. In future articles, i will exist able to examine two options to the BSD Socket API for Linux: the utilize of far off technique Calls (RPCs) and the regular kick Request broker structure (CORBA). RPCs acquire been added in Ed Petron's article “remote technique Calls” in Linux Journal problem #forty two (October, 1997).

    elements

    TCP hear() Backlog

    fundamental gadget Calls The subsequent article in this collection will cowl the issues worried in establishing lengthy-lived community functions (daemons) in Linux.

    All listings talked about listed here are available by nameless download in the file ftp://ftp.linuxjournal.com/lj/listings/issue46/2333.tgz.


    the course to generate SSH keys in OpenSSH for windows 10 | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    further prolong Microsoft's implementation of OpenSSH in windows 10 by using producing your personal secure keys.

    istock-859761306.jpg

    picture: Jakarin2521, Getty images/iStockphoto

    the utilize of OpenSSH is ubiquitous with secured access to customer gadgets over a network. The point of SSH is straight-forward: to securely encapsulate the administration site visitors between two conclusion-elements, during this case using the server-client model for authentication.

    while SSH may exist enabled to work over customers, which might exist joined to the equal area, philosophize using energetic listing credentials, here's not feasible when attempting to speak to contraptions reminiscent of community switches or routers, which are not natively portion of any locality infrastructure. instead, these contraptions and Linux-primarily based purchasers utilize a public/deepest key pair to investigate the person trying to connect with the client and operate authentication before featuring remote entry.

    SEE: assistance security coverage (Tech seasoned research)

    listed here, they can utilize this utilize case as it is often considered to exist a extra relaxed formula of obtaining access, which lends itself seamlessly to windows and non-windows devices alike. by means of generating and managing SSH key pairs, IT could exist capable of remotely connect with shoppers in a relaxed course while ensuring confidentiality and non-repudiation for each user, using a special key pair tied to the individual's windows login account for restful storage.

    install the OpenSSH module for PowerShell

    1. Log in to the home windows laptop with an admin-stage account and launch PowerShell with admin privileges.

    2. Enter here cmdlet to installation the OpenSSH module. If this is the first time the module has been withhold in on the gadget, you may exist prompted to down load and deploy some additional tools. class "Y" to allow the outfit to exist withhold in.

    install-Module -drive OpenSSHUtils

    3. subsequent, enter the cmdlet to delivery the ssh-agent service for securely storing privately generated SSH keys.

    beginning-provider ssh-agent

    four. last, enter the cmdlet to genesis the sshd provider, for you to generate the primary pair of host keys automatically.

    birth-provider sshd

    note: by default, the OpenSSH Server app in not installed, so it must first exist installed. also, the ssh-agent carrier is set to Disabled and should exist modified before the cmdlets above will work. Host keys are saved at the %HOMEDRIVE%\ProgramData\ssh listing.

    SEE: PowerShell scripting: Seven tips to in the reduction of mistake (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

    Generate consumer key pair

    1. In PowerShell, exchange directories to the route above the spot the SSH keys are stored, then enter the cmdlet beneath to being generating the key pair.

    ssh-keygen

    2. to exist able to generate a distinct set of key pairs and shop them, you may exist caused to supply a listing where the censorious thing pair can exist saved, or you might besides press enter to pick the default spot provided.

    3. subsequent, you are going to exist prompted to select a passphrase to encrypt the key pair with. while providing a passphrase is not obligatory, it's incredibly counseled to enter one because it serves the secondary goal of appearing as a variety of two-component authentication when employing the key pair to set up remote connections.

    4. once the course is achieved, two files will exist generated alongside the SHA256 fingerprint, and the key is random paintings image might exist displayed on-reveal and will ogle affection this (figure A):

    201916-figure-a.jpg

    201916-figure-a.jpg

    Copying the generic public key securely

    The OpenSSH outfit comprehend the SCP and SFTP utilities to construct transferring keys absolutely secure. with a purpose to accurately configure a windows customer for authenticating by the utilize of SSH keys, the generic public key (.PUB) file acquire to exist transferred to the client equipment's .ssh directory and saved within the authorized_keys textual content file.

    1. inaugurate the manner via executing here command in PowerShell to create the .ssh directory within the consumer's profile folder.

    ssh username@area.com mkdir C:\clients\username\.ssh

    2. the utilize of the SCP utility, enter here command to soundly reproduction the public key from the server to the client device.

    scp C:\clients\username\.ssh\id_rsa.pub username@area.com:C:\users\username\.ssh\authorized_keys

    three. ultimately, adjust the ACL on the authorized_keys file on the server by using entering here command.

    ssh —% username@domain.com powershell -c $ConfirmPreference = 'None'; restoration-AuthorizedKeyPermission C:\users\username\.ssh\authorized_keys

    Microsoft Weekly e-newsletter

    Be your enterprise's Microsoft insider with the aid of those windows and office tutorials and their specialists' analyses of Microsoft's commercial enterprise products. Delivered Mondays and Wednesdays

    check in these days check in nowadays additionally see

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    Linux Networking (Level 1)

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    Network Engineer with Linux Skills Salary | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The unconcerned pay for a Network Engineer with Linux skills is $28.66 per hour.

    The unconcerned pay for a Network Engineer with Linux skills is $71,727 per year.

    Salary $48,003 - $102,315 Bonus $235 - $10,750 Profit Sharing $974 - $10,166 Total Pay (? XTotal Pay combines base annual salary or hourly wage, bonuses, profit sharing, tips, commissions, overtime pay and other forms of cash earnings, as applicable for this job. It does not comprehend equity (stock) compensation, cash value of retirement benefits, or the value of other non-cash benefits (e.g. healthcare). ) $44,877 - $107,919 Hourly Rate $16.22 - $51.79 Overtime $22.04 - $77.28 Bonus $235 - $10,750 Profit Sharing $974 - $10,166 Total Pay (? XTotal Pay combines base annual salary or hourly wage, bonuses, profit sharing, tips, commissions, overtime pay and other forms of cash earnings, as applicable for this job. It does not comprehend equity (stock) compensation, cash value of retirement benefits, or the value of other non-cash benefits (e.g. healthcare). ) $44,877 - $107,919 Job Description for Network Engineer

    The work of network engineers revolves around their employers' computer network designs and implementations, and they are salaried instead of paid on an hourly basis. They generally work in offices to troubleshoot problems related to their company’s enterprise-wide network, and they must ensure that their systems' security and firewall software is up-to-date.

    Read More...

    Network engineers must exist knowledgeable of a variety of networking technologies, such as routing, cryptographic tunneling, firewalls, and others. A bachelor's degree in information technology, computer science, or a related territory is generally required for this position; however, some companies may accept candidates with significant prior undergo instead of a degree. Network engineers should besides exist skilled in Microsoft Office programs (Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook) and exist able to troubleshoot various network and computer system problems. They must besides ensure that their employers' computer networks, perhaps including their corporate office, regional office, and other sites, are optimal and efficient.

    Strong verbal and written communication skills and the capacity to work well in a team environment are censorious in this position, and they must exist able to speak clearly, by phone or in-person, with various network users regarding their companies' computer network issues. They besides maintain records of system problems and resolutions using databases or similar software and generate reports to exist presented to managers or executives. They must always tarry up-to-date with ever-changing technology in the marketplace and continuously learn new skills by attending college classes, workshops, conferences, etc. They are besides encouraged to read professional journals apposite to their field, and some may exist required to train and coach new or junior network engineers. They may besides occasionally need to travel to vendors' or clients' offices. (Copyright 2019 PayScale.com)

    Network Engineer Tasks

  • Plan, design, and troubleshoot local and wide locality network infrastructure, including routers, firewalls, switches, gateways, DNS servers, DHCP servers, clustering solutions, and related hardware, software, and services.
  • Test and document system behavior, performance, and security.
  • Providing tier 4 champion and network catastrophe recovery expertise.
  • Pay by undergo smooth for Network Engineer

    Pay by undergo for a Network Engineer has a positive trend. An entry-level Network Engineer with less than 5 years of undergo can anticipate to win an unconcerned total compensation of $63,000 based on 191 salaries provided by anonymous users. unconcerned total compensation includes tips, bonus, and overtime pay. A Network Engineer with mid-career undergo which includes employees with 5 to 10 years of undergo can anticipate to win an unconcerned total compensation of $75,000 based on 162 salaries. An experienced Network Engineer which includes employees with 10 to 20 years of undergo can anticipate to win an unconcerned total compensation of $80,000 based on 125 salaries. A Network Engineer with late-career undergo which includes employees with greater than 20 years of undergo can anticipate to win an unconcerned total compensation of $81,000 based on 33 salaries.


    Installing Ubuntu in smooth 1 of the Stairway to SQL Server on Linux | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    SQL Server 2017 is the first SQL Server version that can exist installed on Windows, Linux and a Docker container. This stairway sequence serves as a lead for the experienced SQL Server DBA to acquire skills and scholarship on this platform.

    This is the first article in a new stairway sequence that will explore SQL Server on Linux using the most common best practices and comparing both the versions for Windows and Linux.

    This sequence will cover the following topics:

  • Linux installation
  • Linux commands for DBA
  • SQL Server installation
  • Using the new SQL Server instance
  • Installing and using SQL Server Agent on Linux
  • HA/DR basics: Log Shipping
  • Monitoring SQL Server on Linux
  • Troubleshooting
  • Advanced HA/DR: AlwaysOn Availability Groups
  • For the first installment of this stairway series, let’s travel through the first step: the Linux server installation.

    Which Linux distribution to choose?

    SQL Server 2017 is currently supported only on these Linux distributions:

  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 7.3 o 7.4
  • Ubuntu 16.04
  • Suse Linux Enterprise Server v12 SP2
  • SQL Server 2017 is besides supported as a Docker image, which can rush on Docker Engine on Linux or Docker for Windows/Mac. The docker image is based on Ubuntu 16.04.

    But, which is the best Linux distribution among those supported by SQL Server 2017 ? Well, it depends on what your company needs and the aplomb smooth you already acquire with the supported Linux distros.

    Today, Linux is not only a free OS, but a platform to rush traffic applications. When comparing the best Linux distros, corporate Linux users usually Take custody not only about the feature matrix supported by that distro, but besides about champion and lifetime of the product.

    Red Hat is one of the market leaders of Linux distributions. Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or RHEL, entered many data centers via champion deals with hardware and software vendors. Today is a stable, proven foundation that’s many-sided enough for rolling out new applications, virtualizing environments, and creating a secure hybrid cloud. RHEL 7.x deliver 10 years of support, with 5 and a half years of full support, 1 year of so-called Maintenance champion 1 and further 3 years and half for the Maintenance champion 2.

    Ubuntu is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian. Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu, has a mission to construct open source available to people everywhere, generates revenue from the sale of professional services around the distribution. New releases of Ubuntu occur every six months, while long-term support (LTS) releases occur every two years.

    Suse Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE. Major versions are released at an interval of 3–4 years, while minor versions (called “Service Packs”) are released about every 18 months. From a technical perspective, SUSE Linux is more accessible than the other supported Linux distributions. SUSE is besides the most administrator-friendly, thanks to its integrated YaST platform. SUSE is one of the main developers for Pacemaker high Availability, the benchmark utensil for high-availability clusters in everything current Linux distributions, used besides by SQL Server 2017 to implement AlwaysOn or Failover clustering. Long term champion for the supported version (v12 with SP2) is 31 March 2021.

    From the SQL Server DBA point of view, there are no significant differences among the three operating systems and choosing one of them could exist based on your internal knowledge, if the company already acquire a Linux-based machine, or the list of the features you want to implement together with your SQL Server.

    For this sequence I chose to install an Ubuntu server 16.04. Generally speaking, this distribution is well-know for some of the included services affection OpenStack cloud services, Ceph scalable distributed file system or the Metal-as-a-Service (MAAS) tool, which can exist used to easily deploy OpenStack or other server types on bare-metal, everything programmatically. They don’t need everything these services for their purposes, but they can utilize Ubuntu Server just because it’s smooth to setup, well-documented and supported among the Linux communities.

    Installing Ubuntu

    To install Ubuntu on your own machine, either physical or virtual, you acquire to utilize to the past releases download page: http://releases.ubuntu.com/16.04.4/ due to the fact that the current release is the 18.04 LTS, which is not supported by Microsoft.

    I want to point out that is very censorious for a server to pick the long-term champion (LTS) release of the Linux distribution, because it’s more stable and supported for the years to arrive by its vendor, with further security or feature updates.

    Before starting the installation, let’s Take a ogle at the prerequisites: Ubuntu requires a minimum of 512MB of RAM and 5GB of disk space, while SQL Server itself requires at least 3.25GB of RAM and additional 3GB of disk for the binaries. Considering that they should acquire at least space to rescue OS and SQL Server logs, system databases and a few other things, I would not create a server with less than 4GB of RAM and 20GB of disk space.

    In a later smooth of this sequence we’ll perceive which best practices they should apply to their new SQL Server on Linux, including a multiple disk configuration to spread their data files, transaction logs and TempDB files. For now, they are assuming this is a very basic server configuration.

    Let’s start with the installation: boot the system from the media containing the ISO file (for specimen an USB key if you are using a physical server) or connect the ISO to the virtual machine if you are creating a virtual server.

    At the boot prompt you will exist asked to select a language for the setup.

    From the main boot menu you can pick further options to install Ubuntu on your system, conclude some check or rescue a broken system. We’ll cover only the basic installation of a fresh Ubuntu server.

    The installer asks which language is should utilize and the keyboard layout (by auto-detecting the layout or by entering manually).

    The installer then discovers the hardware configuration and configures the network settings using a DHCP server or gives you the option to configure it manually by going back and selecting the option “Configure the network manually”.

    Next, the installer asks for the system’s denomination and sets up a new user that will acquire root access through the sudo utility. You are required to pick and authenticate username and password.

    For Windows users: let me define some concepts before going further. In a Linux operating system root is the user denomination that by default has access to everything commands and files, affection the Administrator user in a Windows operating system.

    At this point of the installation, they are providing the system the denomination of a new unprivileged user that can exist used for everyday tasks. When they need superpowers, they can still rush a command with the sudo utility, which elevates the privileges to the root user smooth and runs the specific command. This is just affection the “RunAs Administrator” command in Windows.

    You will exist asked then if you want to encrypt your home directory, so that your stored files are not readable if the computer is stolen.

    After being asked to pick the timezone, you are entered into the disk layout configuration. They acquire four choices, with a guided partitioning course or a manual one.  I chose to utilize the entire disk and set up a rational Volume Manager (LVM). rational Volume Management is a storage device management technology that gives users the power to pool and abstract the physical layout of component storage devices for easier and resilient administration. This is affection gathering existing storage devices into groups and earmark rational units from the combined space as needed.

    Logical volumes can acquire meaningful names affection “databases” or “backups”. Volumes can exist resized dynamically as space requirements change and migrated between physical devices within the pool on a running system or exported easily. LVM besides offers advanced features affection snapshotting, striping, and mirroring.

    You can learn more about LVM here: http://tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/index.html.

    The Ubuntu base system installation then starts. During this facet of the installation process, you may exist given the opportunity to select additional software to install, by selecting predefined collections of software (for specimen DNS server or OpenSSH server) to quickly set up your computer to accomplish various tasks. They can simply “continue” and skip this task, as they only need a base system.

    A last step requires us to install the GRUB loader, and then they are ready to start with their new server.

    GRUB or august Unified Bootloader, is a multiboot boot loader. A boot loader is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software (such as Windows or Linux). This can add the flexibility, for example,  to rush different operating systems from the very physical (or virtual) disk or to rush specialized Linux distributions (for specimen to troubleshoot a failed system or to rush diagnostic tools).

    At the halt of the installation process, you will exist asked to reboot the system to start from your new Ubuntu server.

    As you can see, this process is really straightforward and doesn’t require particular skills. There are a number of options that you can change by choosing the advanced installation, and we’ll learn about some of them when we’ll exist talking about the best practices and the perfomance tuning.

    Now, let’s log in and Take a ogle at their new Linux machine.

    After rebooting the server, when prompted sort sqladmin as the username they are using to enter the system and the password you provided during the setup to enter the machine.

    One of the most evident differences poignant from Windows to Linux is case sensitivity, especially when creating or navigating a folder structure. The directory “Data” is not the very as “data” !

    Once logged in, they can utilize a lot of commands, provided by the command-line interpreter, known as shell), they are using. The Bash shell is one of the most commonly used (but you can obviously change it whenever you want).

    Let’s perceive some example. With the command pwd, short for print working directory, they can indicate where they are located in the directory tree and then moving, for example, to another directory by using the cd command (change directory), affection they conclude in a Windows command prompt.

    We can create or edit a file from the command shell by using the program vi (visual editor), which is included in Linux/UNIX operating system since its early days, or switch to a “modern” editor affection nano or vim.

    We’ll talk about Linux commands in a future article: this brief introduction was intended only to indicate you how to log into your newly installed system and check if it works.

    If you want to know more about the Ubuntu Server Linux and how to conclude a particular task, you can utilize the official documentation site at help.ubuntu.com and click on 16.04 LTS version, which is the supported edition at the time they are writing this article.

    Update

    With the release of the Cumulative Update 10 for SQL Server 2017 (build 14.0.3037.1) in late August, Microsoft has updated the package dependecies that prevented the installation of SQL Server 2017 on servers with Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. There may exist additional actions required on some systems: if the library libcurl4 is installed, you need to remove it and install libcurl3, using the following commands:

    $ sudo apt-get remove libcurl4

    $ sudo apt-get install libcurl3

    Microsoft recommends to install SQL Server 2017 on Ubuntu 18.04 for non-production purpose only, until thorough testing has been completed and full champion has been documented.

    You can find additional info on the original blog page: https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/sql_server_team/installing-sql-server-2017-for-linux-on-ubuntu-18-04-lts/

    Summary

    We erudite how to setup a fresh Linux machine with Ubuntu Server 16.04, bearing in intellect which prerequisites they conclude need to scuttle to the next step: the SQL Server 2017 installation.

    Related links


    Linux Network Programming, portion 1 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Like most other Unix-based operating systems, Linux supports TCP/IP as its aboriginal network transport. In this series, they will assume you are fairly intimate with C programming on Linux and with Linux topics such as signals, forking, etc.

    This article is a basic introduction to using the BSD socket interface for creating networked applications. In the next article, they will deal with issues involved in creating (network) daemon processes. Future articles will cover using remote procedure calls and developing with CORBA/distributed objects.

    Brief Introduction to TCP/IP

    The TCP/IP suite of protocols allows two applications, running on either the very or sunder computers connected by a network, to communicate. It was specifically designed to tolerate an unreliable network. TCP/IP allows two basic modes of operation—connection-oriented, reliable transmission and connectionless, unreliable transmission (TCP and UDP respectively). figure 1 illustrates the distinct protocol layers in the TCP/IP suite stack.

    Figure 1. TCP/IP Protocol Layers

    TCP provides sequenced, reliable, bi-directional, connection-based bytestreams with transparent retransmission. In English, TCP breaks your messages up into chunks (not greater in size than 64KB) and ensures that everything the chunks fetch to the destination without mistake and in the remedy order. Being connection-based, a virtual connection has to exist set up between one network entity and the other before they can communicate. UDP provides (very fast) connectionless, unreliable transfer of messages (of a fixed maximum length).

    To allow applications to communicate with each other, either on the very machine (using loopback) or across different hosts, each application must exist individually addressable.

    TCP/IP addresses consist of two parts—an IP address to identify the machine and a port number to identify particular applications running on that machine.

    The addresses are normally given in either the “dotted-quad” notation (i.e., 127.0.0.1) or as a host denomination (foobar.bundy.org). The system can utilize either the /etc/hosts file or the Domain denomination Service (DNS) (if available) to translate host names to host addresses.

    Port numbers scope from 1 upwards. Ports between 1 and IPPORT_RESERVED (defined in /usr/include/netinet/in.h—typically 1024) are reserved for system utilize (i.e., you must exist root to create a server to bind to these ports).

    The simplest network applications supervene the client-server model. A server process waits for a client process to connect to it. When the connection is established, the server performs some job on behalf of the client and then usually the connection is broken.

    Using the BSD Socket Interface

    The most common course of TCP/IP programming is to utilize the BSD socket interface. With this, network endpoints (IP address and port number) are represented as sockets.

    The socket interprocess communication (IPC) facilities (introduced with 4.2BSD) were designed to allow network-based applications to exist constructed independently of the underlying communication facilities.

    Creating a Server Application

    To create a server application using the BSD interface, you must supervene these steps:

  • Create a new socket by typing: socket().

  • bind an address (IP address and port number) to the socket by typing: bind. This step identifies the server so that the client knows where to go.

  • listen for new connection requests on the socket by typing: listen().

  • accept new connections by typing: accept().

  • Often, the servicing of a request on behalf of a client may Take a considerable length of time. It would exist more efficient in such a case to accept and deal with new connections while a request is being processed. The most common course of doing this is for the server to fork a new copy of itself after accepting the new connection.

    Figure 2. Representation of Client/Server Code

    The code specimen in Listing 1 shows how servers are implemented in C. The program expects to exist called with only one command-line argument: the port number to bind to. It then creates a new socket to listen on using the socket() system call. This muster takes three parameters: the domain in which to listen to, the socket sort and the network protocol.

    The domain can exist either the PF_UNIX domain (i.e., internal to the local machine only) or the PF_INET (i.e., everything requests from the Internet). The socket sort specifies the communication semantics of the connection. While a few types of sockets acquire been specified, in practice, SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM are the most common implementations. SOCK_STREAM provides for TCP reliable connection-oriented communications, SOCK_DGRAM for UDP connectionless communication.

    The protocol parameter identfies the particular protocol to exist used with the socket. While multiple protocols may exist within a given protocol family (or domain), there is generally only one. For TCP this is IPPROTO_TCP, for UDP it is IPPROTO_UDP. You conclude not acquire to explicitly specify this parameter when making the role call. Instead, using a value of 0 will select the default protocol.

    Once the socket is created, its operation can exist tweaked by means of socket options. In the above example, the socket is set to reuse veteran addresses (i.e., IP address + port numbers) without waiting for the required connection immediate timeout. If this were not set, you would acquire to wait four minutes in the TIME_WAIT condition before using the address again. The four minutes comes from 2 * MSL. The recommended value for MSL, from RFC 1337, is 120 seconds. Linux uses 60 seconds, BSD implementations normally utilize around 30 seconds.

    The socket can linger to ensure that everything data is read, once one halt closes. This option is turned on in the code. The structure of linger is defined in /usr/include/linux/socket.h. It looks affection this:

    struct linger { int l_onoff; /* Linger dynamic */ int l_linger; /* How long to linger */ };

    If l_onoff is zero, lingering is disabled. If it is non-zero, lingering is enabled for the socket. The l_linger territory specifies the linger time in seconds.

    The server then tries to ascertain its own host name. I could acquire used the gethostname() call, but the utilize of this role is deprecated in SVR4 Unix (i.e., Sun's Solaris, SCO Unixware and buddies), so the local role _GetHostName() provides a more portable solution.

    Once the host denomination is established, the server constructs an address for the socket by trying to resolve the host denomination to an Internet domain address, using the gethostbyname() call. The server's IP address could instead exist set to INADDR_ANY to allow a client to contact the server on any of its IP addresses—used, for example, with a machine with multiple network cards or multiple addresses per network card.

    After an address is created, it is bound to the socket. The socket can now exist used to listen for new connections. The BACK_LOG specifies the maximum size of the listen queue for pending connections. If a connection request arrives when the listen queue is full, it will fail with a connection refused error. [This forms the basis for one sort of denial of service assault —Ed.] perceive sidebar on TCP listen() Backlog.

    Having indicated a willingness to listen to new connection requests, the socket then prepares to accept the requests and service them. The specimen code achieves this using an sempiternal for() loop. Once a connection has been accepted, the server can ascertain the address of the client for logging or other purposes. It then forks a child copy of itself to wield the request while it (the parent) continues listening for and accepting new requests.

    The child process can utilize the read() and write() system calls on this connection to communicate with the client. It is besides feasible to utilize the buffered I/O on these connections (e.g., fprint()) as long as you bethink to fflush() the output when necessary. Alternatively, you can disable buffering altogether for the process (see the setvbuf() (3) man page).

    As you can perceive from the code, it is quite common (and conducive practice) for the child processes to immediate the inherited parent-socket file descriptor, and for the parent to immediate the child-socket descriptor when using this simple forking model.

    Creating the Corresponding Client

    The client code, shown in Listing 2, is a itsy-bitsy simpler than the corresponding server code. To start the client, you must provide two command-line arguments: the host denomination or address of the machine the server is running on and the port number the server is bound to. Obviously, the server must exist running before any client can connect to it.

    In the client specimen (Listing 2), a socket is created affection before. The first command-line controversy is first assumed to exist a host denomination for the purposes of finding the server's address. If this fails, it is then assumed to exist a dotted-quad IP address. If this besides fails, the client cannot resolve the server's address and will not exist able to contact it.

    Having located the server, an address structure is created for the client socket. No categorical muster to bind() is needed here, as the connect() muster handles everything of this.

    Once the connect() returns successfully, a duplex connection has been established. affection the server, the client can now utilize read() and write() calls to receive data on the connection.

    Be awake of the following points when sending data over a socket connection:

  • Sending text is usually fine. bethink that different systems can acquire different conventions for the halt of line (i.e., Unix is \012, whereas Microsoft uses \015\012).

  • Different architectures may utilize different byte-ordering for integers etc. Thankfully, the BSD guys thought of this problem already. There are routines (htons and nstoh for short integers, htonl and ntohl for long integers) which accomplish host-to-network order and network-to-host order conversions. Whether the network order is little-endian or big-endian doesn't really matter. It has been standardized across everything TCP/IP network stack implementations. Unless you persistently pass only characters across sockets, you will rush into byte-order problems if you conclude not utilize these routines. Depending on the machine architecture, these routines may exist null macros or may actually exist functional. Interestingly, a common source of bugs in socket programming is to forget to utilize these byte-ordering routines for filling the address territory in the sock_addr structures. Perhaps it is not intuitively obvious, but this must besides exist done when using INADDR_ANY (i.e., htonl(INADDR_ANY)).

  • A key goal of network programming is to ensure processes conclude not interfere with each other in unexpected ways. In particular, servers must utilize usurp mechanisms to serialize entry through censorious sections of code, avoid deadlock and protect data validity.

  • You cannot (generally) pass a pointer to recollection from one machine to another and anticipate to utilize it. It is unlikely you will want to conclude this.

  • Similarly, you cannot (generally) pass a file descriptor from one process to another (non-child) process via a socket and utilize it straightaway. Both BSD and SVR4 provide different ways of passing file descriptors between unrelated processes; however, the easiest course to conclude this in Linux is to utilize the /proc file system.

  • Additionally, you must ensure that you wield short writes correctly. Short writes happen when the write() muster only partially writes a buffer to a file descriptor. They occur due to buffering in the operating system and to flow control in the underlying transport protocol. certain system calls, termed unhurried system calls, may exist interrupted. Some may or may not exist automatically restarted, so you should explicitly wield this when network programming. The code excerpt in Listing 3 handles short writes.

    Using multiple threads instead of multiple processes may lighten the load on the server host, thereby increasing efficiency. Context-switching between threads (in the very process address space) generally has much less associated overhead than switching between different processes. However, since most of the slave threads in this case are doing network I/O, they must exist kernel-level threads. If they were user-level threads, the first thread to shroud on I/O would understanding the all process to block. This would result in starving everything other threads of any CPU attention until the I/O had completed.

    It is common to immediate unnecessary socket file descriptors in child and parent processes when using the simple forking model. This prevents the child or parent from potential erroneous reads or writes and besides frees up descriptors, which are a limited resource. But conclude not try this when using threads. Multiple threads within a process partake the very recollection space and set of file descriptors. If you immediate the server socket in a slave thread, it closes for everything other threads in that process.

    Connectionless Data—UDP

    Listing 4 shows a connectionless server using UDP. While UDP applications are similar to their TCP cousins, they acquire some censorious differences. Foremost, UDP does not guarantee reliable delivery—if you require reliability and are using UDP, you either acquire to implement it yourself in your application logic or switch to TCP.

    Like TCP applications, with UDP you create a socket and bind an address to it. (Some UDP servers conclude not need to muster bind(), but it does no harm and will rescue you from making a mistake.) UDP servers conclude not listen or accept incoming connections, and clients conclude not explicitly connect to servers. In fact, there is very itsy-bitsy disagreement between UDP clients and servers. The server must exist bound to a known port and address only so that the client knows where to dispatch messages. Additionally, the order of expected data transmissions is reversed, i.e., when you dispatch data using send() in the server, your client should anticipate to receive data using recv().

    It is common for UDP clients to fill in the sockaddr_in structure with a sin_port value of 0. (Note that 0 in either byte-order is 0.) The system then automatically assigns an unused port number (between 1024 and 5000) to the client. I'm leaving it as an exercise to the reader to transfigure the server in Listing 4 into a UDP client.

    /etc/services

    In order to connect to a server, you must first know both the address and port number on which it is listening. Many common services (FTP, TELNET, etc.) are listed in a text database file called /etc/services. An interface exists to request a service by denomination and to receive the port number (correctly formatted in network byte-order) for that service. The role is getservbyname(), and its prototype is in the header file /usr/include/netdb.h. This specimen takes a service denomination and protocol sort and returns a pointer to struct servent.

    struct servent { char *s_name; /* official service denomination */ char **s_aliases; /* alias list */ int s_port; /* port number, network<\n> * byte-order--so conclude not * utilize host-to-network macros */ char *s_proto; /* protocol to utilize */ };

    Conclusions

    This article has introduced network programming in Linux, using C and the BSD Socket API. In general, coding with this API tends to exist quite laborious, especially when compared to some of the other techniques available. In future articles, I will compare two alternatives to the BSD Socket API for Linux: the utilize of Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) and the Common kick Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). RPCs were introduced in Ed Petron's article “Remote Procedure Calls” in Linux Journal Issue #42 (October, 1997).

    Resources

    TCP listen() Backlog

    Major System Calls The next article in this sequence will cover the issues involved in developing long-lived network services (daemons) in Linux.

    All listings referred to in this article are available by anonymous download in the file ftp://ftp.linuxjournal.com/lj/listings/issue46/2333.tgz.



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