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310-015 Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II

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310-015 exam Dumps Source : Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II

Test Code : 310-015
Test name : Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II
Vendor name : SUN
: 290 existent Questions

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SUN Solaris 9 Sun Certified

efficiency applied sciences' products licensed via solar Microsystems Solaris(tm) competent software | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

company's PCE335-HSI WAN Communications Adapter has carried out Solaris(tm) in a position Certification from solar Microsystems

ROCHESTER, gargantuan apple – efficiency applied sciences (NASDAQ: PTIX), a leading company of imaginitive network communications options, today announced that the enterprise’s PCE335-HSI WAN Communications Adapter has finished Solaris™ able certification from sun Microsystems. The Solaris able program offers clients of sun utility access to items developed for the solar network computing atmosphere that own met specific standards for dealer aid, ease-of-installing, use, management, and network interoperability.

The PCE335-HSI has been certified to work on SPARC enterprise(R) structures such as the solar SPARC enterprise(R) M4000 and T2000 servers, and own been confirmed with sun Solstice(TM) X.25 utility and PPP protocols with the latest replace to Solaris 10 operating gadget (OS). The adapter can besides breathe effortlessly configured to breathe used in both low profile and entire height servers. This module is the newest in an inventory of efficiency applied sciences’ Solaris competent items that comprises the PCE385, PCI384, and non-HSI version of the PCE335.

"via partnering with us in the solar Solaris competent software, performance applied sciences offers their purchasers with products which are optimized to fulfill sun requirements and standards for product excellence," talked about Cynthia Hardenbrook, director, ISV Engineering at solar Microsystems. "This makes it viable for their global revenue drive in commercial, telecommunications, and federal markets to own a equipped-to-use own to meet their customer’s software necessities."

The PCE335-HSI gives developers of data and communique networks a completely compliant and programmable subsystem it really is supported via performance applied sciences and proven to breathe appropriate with the Solaris operating system.

"Solaris competent certification presents notable opportunities for efficiency applied sciences’ consumers and solar Microsystems companions alike," referred to Steven Wigent, product supervisor at performance applied sciences. "Our participation in the Solaris ready application gives solar resellers and customers delivered assurance within the reliability and character of their items installed in Solaris methods."

performance technologies could breathe showcasing its IPnexus® methods for MicroTCA™ and CompactPCI®, its suite of NexusWare® software (service Grade Linux® OS), and other embedded solutions on the 2009 Embedded techniques conference Silicon Valley, in San Jose, CA from March 31-April 2, 2009 (sales space 1630).

online materials

Embedded engineers wanting more information on efficiency technologies’ Solaris able products and options can reference here online components:

-- PCE335-HSI product web page: go.pt.com/pce335-hsi

-- PCE385 product web page : go.pt.com/pce385

-- PCI384 product web page : go.pt.com/pci384

-- PCI™ and PCI categorical® items: go.pt.com/pci

-- NexusWare WAN protocol application: go.pt.com/nexusware-wan

About performance applied sciences (www.pt.com)

efficiency applied sciences (NASDAQ: PTIX) is a worldwide organization of superior network communications and control solutions to quit clients, software developers, and customary outfit manufacturers that serve mission essential telecommunications in addition to aerospace and defense markets. The enterprise provides remotely manageable, IP-centric community elements certainly engineered for prime availability, scalability, and long being cycle deployments. Its products are built upon its personal U.S. manufactured hardware combined with the enterprise’s NexusWare® provider Grade Linux® operating outfit and software building atmosphere plus a large suite of communications protocols and lofty availability middleware. performance applied sciences’ product portfolio contains the SEGway™ suite of Signaling (SS7/SIP) transfer facets, Signaling Gateways and Bridges, and its IPnexus® household of COTS-based mostly software-ready techniques, WAN gateways, and multi-protocol communications servers.

efficiency technologies maximizes the charge proposition of its products by using leveraging its box confirmed programs, utility, and hardware applied sciences developed over a twenty-eight yr checklist of confirmed innovation. A tightly integrated blend of these applied sciences effects in measurable advantages to its customers through compelling return-on-investment and substantially accelerated time-to-market metrics. The company is headquartered in Rochester, ny and keeps facilities of engineering excellence in San Diego and San Luis Obispo, CA, and Kanata, ON, Canada. It has income and advertising and marketing offices in the U.S. in Raleigh, Chicago, Dallas, and San Jose and foreign workplaces in London, England and Shanghai, China.

forward searching Statements

The deepest Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a "safe harbor" for certain ahead-looking statements. This press liberate incorporates forward-looking statements which replicate the enterprise's current views with appreciate to future routine and economic efficiency, within the import of region 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and region 21E of the Securities exchange Act of 1934 and is province to the secure harbor provisions of these Sections. The business’s future working results are province to a lot of hazards and uncertainties and will vary materially from those mentioned in the forward-searching statements and might breathe affected by a lot of tendencies and factors which are past the enterprise’s manage. These dangers and uncertainties include, among different factors, company and economic circumstances, rapid technological alterations accompanied through frequent modern product introductions, aggressive pressures, dependence on key valued clientele, lack of capacity to gauge order flows from valued clientele, fluctuations in quarterly and annual consequences, the reliance on a restrained variety of third celebration suppliers, obstacles of the company’s manufacturing capacity and preparations, the coverage of the company’s proprietary know-how, the dependence on key personnel, adjustments in censorious accounting estimates, learning impairments concerning goodwill and investments, overseas regulations, and skills fabric weaknesses in internal control over monetary reporting. moreover, any through susceptible or doubtful financial periods, valued clientele’ visibility deteriorates causing delays in the placement of their orders. These components regularly outcomes in a considerable component of the business’s revenue being derived from orders positioned inside 1 / 4 and shipped within the final month of the equal quarter. The enterprise undertakes no responsibility to publicly replace any forward-searching statement or risk ingredient, even if on account of modern guidance, future activities, or otherwise. ahead-looking statements should soundless breathe read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated economic Statements, the Notes thereto, random factors, and management's dialogue and analysis of financial situation and outcomes of Operations of the enterprise as of December 31, 2008, as contained in the enterprise’s Annual report on configuration 10-okay, and different files filed with the Securities and alternate commission.

### NexusWare and IPnexus are registered trademarks of efficiency technologies, Inc.

sun, sun Microsystems, the solar emblem, Solaris, and Solstice are logos or registered logos of sun Microsystems, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the u.s. and other countries. any SPARC logos are used beneath license and are emblems or registered marks of SPARC foreign, Inc. within the U.S. and other international locations. items mien SPARC trademarks are primarily based upon an architecture developed through sun Microsystems, Inc.

The names of other agencies, products, or functions could breathe the emblems, registered emblems, or carrier marks of their respective homeowners in the u.s. and/or different international locations.


What can the Solaris eight programs Administator certification do? | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

I just executed the Solaris certified techniques Administrator certification with Solaris 8. despite the fact, I don't descry many roles soliciting for that certification. Does this certification carry any weight?

That certification incorporates no weight in any respect, apart from in sun retail outlets. unfortunately, sun's shrinking fortunes and market participate additionally interprets prerogative into a devaluation of its certification credentials, specifically for gadget and community administrators. but as you climb the sun certification ladder (to network administrator, and maybe additionally to protection Administrator) you are going to find that the value continues to breathe tangible and that these accomplish from time to time prove up in job postings. If the thought of "in for a penny, in for a pound" appeals to you, in any probability this is your badge to enhance your certification investment and involvement, and to searching for greater senior credentials that may additionally basically beget a inequity to your job prospects and career evolution alternatives.

--Ed--


solar certified Solaris Administrator: Job info & requirements | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris directors are really profitable programs directors that preserve computing device techniques and networks in response to Solaris know-how. gargantuan corporations, non-profit organizations and governmental businesses, amongst others, are regular employers of licensed Solaris administrators. day-to-day duties encompass offering operational support, conducting preventative renovation, performing server optimization and making scheduled server backups.

schooling Bachelor's diploma in network or methods administration usually required Job potential communication, issue fixing, analysis, work experienceMedian salary (2016)* $eighty two,548 for sun Solaris gadget administrators Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computing device techniques directors

source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor records

Required training

licensed Solaris directors usually own a bachelor's diploma in community or programs administration. Core coursework usually covers topics in networking infrastructure, protocols and security. students additionally find out how to work with UNIX server and windows working programs. Prior event as a community technician or attend desk employee may breathe mainly beneficial. Certification classes and substances are available through the Oracle service provider or permitted practising facilities; candidates acquire their credentials after passing an examination.

talents Required

techniques administrators in usual may soundless own stalwart analytical, verbal exchange and issue-solving skills. a radical realizing of the underlying applied sciences and principles of Solaris operating systems and technology is fundamental, as neatly because the capability to tackle multiplie initiatives and obligations.

Employment and earnings Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor facts (BLS) stated that employment of community and laptop systems administrators, including licensed Solaris directors, will develop by means of an tolerable charge of eight% nationwide between 2014 to 2024. in keeping with the BLS, the median annual earnings for community and laptop techniques directors turned into $77,810 in might besides 2015. according to records from PayScale.com, the median salary for a solar Solaris programs administrator turned into $82,548 in January 2016.


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Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II

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Implementing Security, section II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with section 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise pilot to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the ultimate year or two, whether or not it is prerogative to argue so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the hypothetical safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to breathe dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can teach them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a profitable deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they own lately done. If a lock—let it own been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the deceitful are tolerably certain to breathe the first to apply the learning practically; and the spread of learning is necessary to give just play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot breathe too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with existent facts will, in the end, breathe better for any parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to choose from. The very preference is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems include OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems include HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions utilize the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this carry weight to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more tangled process to portray how to acclimatize a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can breathe applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to living documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and depart into a more minute account of how to acclimatize a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of building a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for utilize as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing viable entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having separate partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create extreme generation of logging data or fill your file system with large files through FTP or mail spool. The best route to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into separate physical partitions.

The root partition / can breathe little because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and symbol data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not hold data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can breathe mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to beget /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a separate partition, or—even better—a separate disk array. If you only create one separate partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you utilize those directories, they too can breathe mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally organize at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost any of them should breathe disabled for building firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND name services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not breathe running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can breathe used to prove user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no intuition to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service display the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service recur the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. accomplish not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not resound (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of any processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might breathe asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will breathe doing the very thing. And that's a sound question. The own is to avoid single points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will breathe standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. preserve in irony that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, happen internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced difficult drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers own two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should breathe taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. any will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that accomplish not own tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can breathe organize at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet name Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the name service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is answerable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its participate of exploits. Only very extinct versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll breathe surprised how many installations soundless own the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The ill-started thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is positive to breathe some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many modern features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, full Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a single server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are censorious to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost any UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions Come with BIND as the name server, it is censorious you beget positive you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, beget positive it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has serious exploits. This warning should not breathe ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves own issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can breathe organize at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to breathe used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting system of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default any defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { sort master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will prevent zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict any zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, utilize predefined match list none. This can breathe accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { sort slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will breathe allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { sort master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise pilot to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits affect millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports modern features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but gratify beget positive that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, utilize the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to amass information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to beget sendmail own a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on certain conditions that might attest mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to transmit email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set any flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to breathe fast, simple to administer, and secure, while at the very time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to breathe modular, thus Postfix is not a single executable fancy sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that achieve specific tasks. any the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) flee as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less random of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who accomplish not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will beget email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not distribute Postfix, despondency not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a evolution workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can breathe organize at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between modern versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not carry weight specifically that you should utilize any one of them because the lofty number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. elevate the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these common distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most name recognition, and is usually the first to gain any sort of corporate back in the route of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, own released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not carry weight that those software releases will not flee on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not back your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by character and pride in their efforts to beget Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to breathe extremely stable and simple to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can breathe upgraded without the need for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian besides is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should choose custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should breathe no need to install evolution packages, any of the modern KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should choose to enable shadow password file support; choose to utilize MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the timehonored crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, utilize the setup utility. In Debian, you can utilize the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you own to edit the appropriate files under /etc/pam.d to include md5 on the password lines.

    You should besides enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely simple to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who choose to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose point is not just to acclimatize your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to acclimatize the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a sequence of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions portray what needs to breathe done, why it should breathe done, and why you might not want to accomplish it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting close with Linux. Bastille Linux can breathe organize at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security pilot online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for building secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of common security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that affect network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner besides has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for building a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The living document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can breathe organize at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more preeminent BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the distinguished strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote hollow in the default install, only one localhost hollow in two years in the default install." Almost any services are disabled until the administrator has enough undergo to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the very file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will breathe doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing back for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will breathe covered briefly later in the chapter.


    President Trump, There’s One Island That Could configuration A Pacific Wall Against Chinese Influence | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Where America’s Day Begins

    Tumon–While the comfort of the country debates President Trump’s Twitter use, health care reform, tax reform, margin security, the war on terrorism, and the 2018 midterms, it’s simple for some stories to Fall by the wayside.

    The 2016 election was dominated by many issues, but trade was a key factor that helped push Donald Trump over the top. The main villain was China. Yet, trade isn’t the only arena where we’re going to accomplish battle with this Asian economic powerhouse.

    In the Pacific, China is spreading dollars, subsidizing building projects across Tonga and the Federated States of Micronesia. The latest island project for China was centered on Yap. In these ventures, China provides the dollars and workers for resorts, schools, and other key infrastructure projects. In return, it accelerates their “Going Global” strategy and increases the compass of their intelligence services. Local reports, fancy one from Tim Murphy of modern Zealand’s’ Newsroom, reported that China’s Pacific push was due to its rivalry with neighboring Taiwan, which subsided when a pro-unification government was elected in 2008.

    So, with China exerting soft power any over the Pacific, who can push back? Well, they can of course. America—the back-to-back world war champions of the world. The problem is finding where their bases of influence are located on the map.

    The key brick that could configuration President Trump’s Pacific Wall against China rests in Guam; a U.S. territory that’s 9,000 miles away from Washington, D.C. Most Americans would breathe difficult pressed to know that they besides own some key military bases in the region. Moreover, it could breathe another point at which Trump and China’s Xi Jinping could meet at the negotiating table over trade, intellectual property rights, and North Korea.

    If there’s one thing that’s explicitly transparent in Guam, it’s that there’s besides untapped economic potential that could attend bolster its standing with the political class in D.C. and attend strengthen their vital strategic position in the region amidst a lurking Chinese tiger.

    Townhall took the grueling 26-hour journey to meet with the island’s governor, its traffic leaders, and its locals, some of whom own been there since the 1960s. What’s transparent is that while Guam may look to breathe in the middle of nowhere, it’s prerogative at the heart of the Asian theater.

                                                          [The spot where Magellan landed in Guam]

    ‘When Main Street USA Gets A Cold…We gain Pneumonia’

    Guam is hot; I carry weight really hot. Ethan Epstein of The Weekly touchstone was section of the trip as well. By the time they left the hotel early in the morning, fancy before 9 o’clock, it was already 90 degrees. The humidity was unbelievable, but they had to meet Gov. Eddie Baza Calvo, a Republican.

    It wasn’t fancy visiting a governor stateside. There’s virtually no security. No presentation of photo identification, no status police, and no barriers. You literally just walk prerogative up to the governor’s office. In the lobby/waiting area, the walls were adorned with maybe a dozen black-and-white pictures of the island from before World War II, when much of Guam was leveled during the Japanese occupation and the subsequent American liberation. The splendid pictures were taken by, of any people, a adolescent L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, when his father, a Navy officer, was stationed here in the 1920s.

    Entering the office, Calvo said if there is one section of American sovereign soil that is farthest from Washington, D.C.—you are now in it. That comes with its advantages and disadvantages. He then gave us the 35,000-foot overview of the island, which at times, touched upon the dim days of Japanese occupation. His father was beaten for not removing his shoes before entering a classroom. The Japanese beheaded his uncle, a priest.

    There are two pistons that drive Guamanian economy: the military and tourism. Andersen Air force basis and Naval basis Guam are located at the two contrary ends of the island.

    Calvo has been governor for almost seven years, but has lived through the Asian booms that own benefitted the island. The first facet was Japan’s mount in the 1960s, but now everything is centered on China. Koreans, Taiwanese, and Filipinos are the other major nationalities that visit and accomplish traffic the island. For China, they own to gain a mainland visa to enter Guam, though the U.S. territory of the Northern Marianas has a visa waiver program for Chinese tourists, which 200,000 utilize annually.

    While Guam has seen a 30 percent multiply in Chinese tourists—numbering around 30-40,000 a year—it gets more visitors from Taiwan. If Guam could a visa waiver for the Chinese it would likely carry weight more visits and more money, but that’ll breathe a Department of Homeland Security decision. The relatively modern visa policy for China means one is granted not a one-year, but a 10-year, multi-entry visa into the U.S. That’s helped Guam, contributing to a 100,000-person multiply in tourism per year. After all, Guam is closer than, say, modern York City or Hawaii for some people.

                                                                     [Entrance to Gov. Calvo's Office]

    Concerning military expenditures, the construction of a basis for the Marine Corps for its pending relocation from Okinawa has begun, but it’s soundless in its early stages. Andersen Air force basis houses Raptors, B1 bombers, B-52s, and Global Hawks; the basis was used for bombing runs during the Vietnam War. It’s been robust. Since Calvo has been governor, unemployment has dropped from 13 percent to six percent.

    The strategic importance of Guam was besides heavily stressed. The governor is a self-described “history buff.” He believes in full incorporation into the fabric of the United States, steady citizens in terms of representation and political participation. Yet, he understands the history of the island. During the McKinley administration and the era of Manifest Destiny, the island, as well as the other U.S. territories, including the Virgin Islands and Hawaii (the latter of which became a state) were seen as a route to protest the flanks of Florida and the west coast from European or Asian imperial ambitions.

    Yet, as they rush toward the third decade of the 21st century, the United States doesn’t know how to handle the territories since that defensive strategic position may breathe outmoded.

    Guam falls under the Office of Insular Affairs within the Interior Department, an agency that has a smaller budget than the government of Guam. The island is the closest sovereign soil to the Far East, where the economies of these nations are both partnered and competitive with the U.S.  There are 2 billion people within a three-to-five hour flight of Guam, Calvo said. Oh, and it's besides close to the largest standing armies in the world.

    American Samoa is the only American soil south of the equator, near Australasia and modern Zealand. And those people are worried about foreign encroachment as well, Calvo said. Meanwhile, the governor says Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are on the doorstep of Latin America while Guam is at the foot of the robust and at times—aggressive Asian market.

                                                                          [Gov. Eddie Calvo]

    He said that maybe it’s time to descry Guam and the comfort of the territories not as liabilities, but as assets, along with “how to maximize” their potential, especially in Asia. 

    Calvo was quite direct when he mentioned that the greatest impediments to growth and financial stability to this island own been federal action or inaction, except its impact is much more amplified.

    “When Main Street USA gets a chilly because of an action or missed action, or inaction by Washington, D.C., the territories, because we’re not section of the representative government process, he said. “We gain pneumonia or tuberculosis because these activities that occur in Washington, D.C. are so out of touch with what are the realities of Guam.”

    Calvo, a supporter of Ted Cruz prior to backing President Trump, said the very elements that brought the political earthquake of 2016—the emotion of a disconnect between D.C. and Main Street and the issues of Middle America—are felt here as well.

    The Environmental Protection Agency has besides messed with the island, with then-EPA administrator Gina McCarthy instituting spotless Water and Air edicts that totaled $1.4 billion, which amounts to about a quarter of the entire GDP for the island. Those environmental goals, which were a mixed bag of consent decrees, regulatory edicts, and court actions, were scheduled for completion by 2023-2025.

    “Do you want to attach us in the Stone Age?” Calvo says he told McCarty at one point.

    Then there’s the issue of federal reimbursement to the territories through their gregarious welfare programs. Washington made a stipulation to Guam that they would reimburse territories and states that absorbed immigrants from nearby independent Pacific islands that are geopolitically aligned with America. These immigrants utilize up $140 million in Guamanian services, $1 billion cumulatively, but the U.S. only reimburses the island $14.5 million a year.

    Concerning gregarious programs, there’s housing, Medicaid (many Come here to give birth as the baby gets access to this care and, more importantly, U.S. citizenship), and medically indigent care (MIP), which is a local program. Calvo said that anyone who’s been here six months or longer as a resident gets health care access. Eighty percent of enrollees are immigrants—they’re overwhelming the system with the lack of reimbursement from Washington.

    With no job prospects, many immigrants are getting a tutorial from the island’s criminal justicesystem. Thirty percent beget up the prison population; usually for drug or alcohol offenses. It costs $110 per day to house these inmates, who were hypothetical to breathe deported by Uncle Sam.

    At one point, Calvo issued a unilateral order to his customs officers—the territory falls outside federal customs jurisdiction—to deport non-citizen immigrants after they own served 70 percent of their sentence, which would occur through a commutation of sentences. The island would then offer them a one-way ticket back home. Calvo’s actions briefly attach him in contest with the DHS, but now working with Guam’s customs agents. 

    In the past, guest workers on a H-2b visa had a job waiting for them here, as there simply aren’t enough locals or workers from the mainland to fill any the jobs. The Obama administration changed any of that.

    The island wasn’t subject to the H-2b visa cap, which meant that there was always an accessible source of labor. In the latter half of 2016, the Obama White House changed this policy with almost 100 percent of visa applicants rejected. This has resulted in a censorious shortage of workers, particularly in construction but besides in nurses. 

    Circling back to the economic woes facing the island, the governor discussed his undergo in traffic bottling Pepsi.

    On the mainland, transportation costs are around 2 percent of the total costs concerning raw materials and shipping finished goods. In Guam, it’s near 30 percent. Calvo said it’s not the vice of the grocers; they’re working on about the very margins.

    Transportation besides includes energy costs, which brings us to the Jones Act. The Jones Act was discussed pervasively with those I met, as it makes the island an extremely expensive Place to live and accomplish business. In short, it’s a vestige of the politics of empire and Calvo hopes President Trump and the Republican Congress can eliminate or reduce it.

    Related to the Jones Act is aviation cabotage. Calvo minute how 1.6 million tourists depart through Guam’s airport, with 200 flights through Guam each day. The territory is a nexus point—equidistant to Australia and Japan—but a lot of airlines and ships can’t stop here due to cabotage, which prevents a foreign-flagged airline from flying between two airports in the United States. If Guam was exempted, it could serve as a nice pit stop for travelers in the Far East and the South Pacific, to recount nothing of another source of tourist income.

    Yet, even with the endless economic grievances—and there are many—every Guamanian I met besides beget one thing clear: they’re patriotic Americans.

    One of the hardest things Calvo has done as governor, he said, was to greet the bodies of the first two Guam National Guardsmen killed in the war against terrorism. (Since then, over 40 own died fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan.) What’s besides striking is that these two inanimate Americans served in the armed forces, but, along with the comfort of the island’s population, couldn’t vote for president.

    While they just celebrated the Fourth of July, America's birthday, Guam besides celebrates Liberation Day on July 21, the day in 1944 when U.S. Marines freed Guam from the grips of Japanese occupation. Unlike Americans on the mainland, they know what happens when license is stripped. 

    While The Guardian reported that the aforementioned military projects for the transfer of Marines are angering locals, who equate it to colonization, the governor said that 70-80 percent back the military buildup, though Calvo withdrew his back over the labor issue with H-2b visas. He besides said that back for statehood would breathe greater. 

    “We paid their dues in being a section of America,” he said. “Unshackle these handcuffs that allow us to compass their full potential economically.”

    Epstein preeminent this “craving” for statehood in his piece for The Weekly Standard. That’s a debate for another time, but the island’s strategic importance cannot breathe overlooked.

    Calvo says that the territories shouldn’t breathe viewed solely through a military lens, but that could breathe where he gets the most traction with D.C. elites to beget the point that there are Americans on the island and it could breathe the region where Chinese influence is curtailed.

    To maintain that strategic position, he could argue, and I’m positive he has, for the loosening and reevaluation of extinct policies, fancy the Jones Act. The problem is that there is no senator or representative demanding these changes. The island has a delegate on the Hill, but doesn’t own the power to impact policy, nor accomplish they own a full vote on the House floor.

                                                                      [Guam's Pacific War Museum]

    Three sage Men And A Lurking Chinese Tiger

    Concerning national security, locals John T. Brown and Lee Webber recount it means something different here.

    Brown is an attorney, while Webber is the former publisher of the local Pacific Daily News. Both men are members of the Guam Chamber of Commerce and own a abysmal grasp of the socioeconomic and political ties on the island. Webber explained how this is the only piece of U.S. soil that has been occupied by a foreign power since 1812; the Japanese occupied it from 1941-44.

    Yet, to drive home the island’s strategic importance, you own to gain over what many called Washington’s “benign neglect.” Brown went into an anecdote to elucidate this, noting that when he visited the DHS—the front desk gave them the papers to fill out for vetting purposes that were meant for foreigners even though Guamanians are American citizens through the 1950 Guam Organic Act.

    “The DHS should know where the homeland is,” chuckled Brown.

    Webber added that every island in the Pacific has China stepping in, funding schools and other projects—while supplying the workforce to complete any of these ventures. Does this carry weight more Americans troops, ships, and jets to curb this expansion? Yes and no. A stronger military presence would help, but there was common agreement that a more prevalent FBI, CIA, and U.S. attorney presence would deter Chinese encroachment.

    It’s a cause for concern because America had to pay for this island in blood. During the three-year occupation, the Japanese, knowing the Guamanians were pro-American, subjected them to rapes, beatings, and executions. Around 10 percent of the entire population was killed, along with nearly 2,000 Marines when it was finally recaptured in 1944. The point is it would breathe Awful if history repeats itself.

    Brown besides added that it’s a profitable thing that the Department of Defense is here, but they’re not a profitable source of financial back for other projects. Instead of using it for military assets, he said beget Guam one that is earmarked for common expenditure in the Pacific.

    An American rebuilding and refurbishing project would submit more economic dividends than just a military buildup. prerogative now, there’s a massive undertaking to rush close to 2,500 Marines from Okinawa to Guam by 2021.

    Joe Arnett, a certified public accountant, said that he would fancy Americans from the mainland to find Guam on a map, recognize that Americans live here, and further recognize the strategic importance the island serves to America’s interests. 

    Brown added that if D.C. folks want to beget America distinguished again, it cannot breathe accomplished by just seeing the Atlantic, or having an Atlantic-based view on foreign policy. He said we’re facing a Micronesia problem; the Chinese are buying the neighborhood from under us. There’s besides righteous imperative, he says. This island was paid for in blood; whole villages were wiped out. There’s an responsibility here. Webber directed us to a column he wrote, which can be found here. 

    It’s Not A Question Of Growth; It’s A Question Of Labor

    At 6 a.m. the sun was shining over Tumon, the Waikiki-like bare where most of the hotels are located. It was going to breathe a distinguished day and one where traffic leaders David John and Jonathan Kriegel would give us a more in-depth overview of the economics of the island.

    John is the president of the ASC confidence Corporation, while Kriegel is the president and CEO of DoCoMo Pacific, a subsidiary of a Japanese telecommunications company. John reiterated some facts I had already heard in various meetings about the island—that Guam is a $5.5 billion economy, grounded in tourism (55 percent) and government spending (45 percent).

    Concerning tourism, the island was, up until recently, totally beholden to Japanese tourists. The Calvo administration diversified the tourism industry to where Japan represents 50 percent of tourists, but Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and some mainland Chinese beget up the rest. Guam was able to tread water when Japanese tourism levels dropped, but the overall numbers are up 54 percent since 2009.

    Kriegel added that there are plans to invest in modern lodging properties. Also, owners of the Hilton and Hyatt hotels want to expand. A reported 30-story hotel tower is going to happen, but there is serious question who’s going to build it due to the worker shortage caused by the Obama administration.

    John said that it’s any in anticipation of an multiply in tourism, as the Calvo administration wants to greet 2 million tourists a year by 2020. While that will require more hotel rooms, the issue is finding workers, he said. Three other hotel projects are besides in the pipeline. 

    I was told the labor shortage is so injurious that it could breathe a fight to just build a house. The two men agreed that a family pool could breathe in evolution hell for months. 

    Computer sciences are one of the most promising and sustaining fields of employment, Kriegel and John said. DoCoMo Pacific wants to capitalize on that, creating a tier three data seat on the island, Kriegel said.

    Kriegel added that the final bidding process for the modern data seat led to prices going up, as the modern facilities needed to beget this project happen would cost more to build due to the worker shortages. (When visas for guest workers went from nearly 100 percent issuance to 1 percent in second half of 2016, Guam lost around 2,000 workers in a private sector labor force of 60,000.)

    Well, what about American workers? Can’t they accomplish any of this construction? Yes, they can, but Guam takes at least a day to gain there and airfare is anywhere from $1,800 to over $2,000—and that’s just for a seat in economy-class. Uprooting families for a 9-month job isn’t economical, nor is flying back and forth dropping $2k in ticket costs.

    We’re the “tip quit of the tail of the dog out here,” said John. And the worker shortage shows that. It besides shows how policies, fancy the H-2b visa changes, might attend stateside issues, fancy helping gain a hold of their margin and immigration issues, but distress the Americans trying to beget a living elsewhere.

    Returning to DoCoMo Pacific’s telecommunications and IT projects, there’s another region that places Guam in a unique position strategically: submarine cables.

    The southern route in the Pacific runs near Guam. The island is a celebrated Place for these cables to land, Kriegel explained. He added that this could breathe the third leg of Guam’s economic stool, as these projects elevate years to complete, maybe decades. To establish a foundation for this information hub, you need IT workers. The closest region to recruit these workers is the Philippines, but the visa issues own made this difficult.

    The discussions of guest worker shortages besides drew us into the Jones Act, which cuts off trade with the emerging markets in Asia, who could deliver fresh bear and other goods. The U.S. Department of Agriculture is besides an snag on this front. John added that so-called fresh food from the U.S. mainland after a month on a container ship isn’t fresh. 

    Guam’s Deplorables: The Island’s Strategic Shipyard And How The Workforce Might breathe Natural Trump Supporters

    Over the course of the five-day trip to the island, the one and only shipyard was the topic of discussion. It was besides the main selling point for Guam’s strategic importance.

    The shipyard, formerly a Navy repair facility, had a desiccate dock capability, something that’s crucial to maintenance of their naval vessels.

    Right now, the Navy primarily uses Singapore and the Philippines (Subic Bay) for dry-docking its ships instead of Guam’s shipyard, where 300 to 500 U.S. workers were employed in good-paying jobs.

    Calvo said that the Philippines are a profitable ally and traffic partner, but it’s not American soil and changes in political leadership always places its long-term utilize in question.

    In 2005, the USS San Francisco hit a seamount doing max quicken (30 knots) around 360 miles southeast of Guam. The hull was severely damaged. They were able to blow their ballast tanks and surface and beget it to Guam for repairs. Hawaii was too far away, as was the Philippines. The result could own been a three-to-four billion-dollar loss for the Navy since without repairs the vessel would own to breathe scuttled at sea.

    While it occurred off the coast of Japan, the recent impact between the destroyer USS Fitzgerald and ACX Crystal, a container ship, could happen anywhere, though some of the circumstances surrounding the crash are suspect; it seems the Crystal turned around and charted a course directly into the destroyer. Still, ships in a similar and horrific maritime impact in the waters in and around Guam could own a shot of saving their vessels and their crews.

    I ate dinner with Mathews Pothen and his son, Ajay Pothen. Pothen senior is the owner of the Guam Shipyard, which owns the desiccate dock. They told me the military’s presence doesn’t carry weight the Department of Defense or, for that matter, anyone else in Washington thinks the island is censorious beyond its strategic location for the Air force and Navy.

    He said that the military buildup in Guam started under the Bush administration, but in the ensuing years the Pentagon has made decisions based on dollars and cents, rather than the national interest.

    If you inquire of the military why there’s no desiccate dock in Guam prerogative now, they’ll mention what I’ve reported already: the costs, which are admittedly higher here in ports elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

    For Pothen, it’s the tentacle creature called bureaucracy that’s keeping his desiccate dock from being operational and revigorating Guam’s economy.

    Ajay says the bean counters at the Pentagon are wrong, noting that a desiccate dock would actually rescue the government $750 million over the next five decades. To beget things more maddening, federal law under Title 10 prohibits Navy vessels from being “repaired, overhauled, or maintained in a shipyard outside of the U.S. or Guam,” unless a sudden emergency occurs.

    To circumvent this, the Navy has designated ships in the Pacific as forward-deployed vessels to avoid the statute, which not only protects national security, but besides promotes the national interest by using American companies and American workers.

    Interestingly enough, the Pentagon’s disregard of the national interest ties into the notion of American workers being screwed over for cheaper labor—a major element in the 2016 presidential election. 

    In the case of Guam’s shipyard, the American workers employed by the Pothens own been replaced by workers in the Philippines and Singapore being paid no more than $10 a day. Moreover, 25 percent of workers at Singapore’s ports are communist Chinese nationals.

    As Trump said about free trade, it only works when everyone plays by the rules. The folks who live here know one thing: In Asia, these rules are not being followed.

    Pothen senior talked about how Japan and South Korea protect their industries. In Korea, the government recently spent $9 billion to subsidize their shipping industry to ensure their workers preserve building ships, where he said one dock solitary employs 35,000 people. 

    On an island fancy Guam even one desiccate dock is critical, as Pothen’s Guam Shipyard was section of an apprenticeship program aimed at educating local lofty school graduates in the skilled trades, which as they any know are generally undervalued and underappreciated.

    In some odd way, these displaced workers are the Pacific’s “deplorables,” something that Epstein observed as they traversed the island. 

    Their livelihoods are being threatened by cheap foreign labor, the political elites don’t look to understand the importance of their work, and they’re ignored due to their geographic location. Does this sound familiar? As Webber said, Guam is the rust belt in the rice belt. It’s a sound point. 

    Another thing that flies in the visage of logic is the fact that five U.S. submarines are homeported in Guam, but there isn’t the capability to repair these multi-billion-dollar vessels. In the meantime, stable and high-wage employment hangs in the balance.

    Guam is an American tiger with stripes. It’s a fusion of American and Asian cultures.

    Shipyard workers here accomplish own a lot in common, at least in terms of their sociopolitical situation, with some of the voters who flocked to Trump. And Guam is an island that deserves more than just acknowledgement of its importance from military brass.

    More importantly, those who know of Guam’s strategic location for the Pentagon need to accomplish more than just know that it exists, or that they own two bases on it. For Congress, this could breathe a massive economic and diplomatic hub that could serve as a rampart against Chinese incursion throughout the Pacific. 

    As The tradition Foundation said on the issues facing the U.S. with China lurching further into the region [emphasis mine]:

    For the U.S., the presence of the PRC in the South Pacific does not pose immediate military threats; rather, it promises longer-term influence for Beijing, which is likely to erode regional back for the U.S. This longer-term erosion does own potential military implications. Not only accomplish key sea lanes of communications (SLOCs) transit the waters encompassed by these island nations, but they besides offer potential sites for various bases, as was the case in World War II.

    Anchorages and airfields in these islands would offer alternative sites for Guam—which is already densely covered with various American military bases and facilities—making it a lucrative target for Chinese missiles and other standoff weapons. Dispersal to additional sites would complicate Chinese targeting, by both proliferating the number of sites that might own to breathe attacked and broadening the number of sovereign states that it would breathe attacking.

    By contrast, if Beijing established a political foothold in these islands, it could convince these states not to extend access to the U.S., as well as disarrange for Chinese access. These need not breathe military bases; the capacity to build space surveillance facilities and communications nodes, for example, would beget these islands potential reconnaissance and surveillance sites for eavesdropping on Guam and the U.S. missile test facilities at Kwajalein in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Another issue that is turning this section of the Pacific into a hotspot is China’s construction of artificial islands, which are being used as military bases in the South China Sea. If hostilities were to ever shiver out, the Navy would need simple access to a safe port to repair its vessels. Hawaii is too far. Only Guam can accomplish it.

    Concerning labor, there may breathe some profitable intelligence on that front as the DHS announced that more H-2b work visas would breathe granted in the coming months. Whether Guam will capitalize from that remains to breathe seen, however. 

    It’s a hub of untapped economic potential. A slice of America at the doorstep of fledgling Asian markets, with scores of their citizens willing to flit and disburse their money on the island.

    When Washington, D.C., figures out where Guam is on the map, they can hope that more attention is paid to the island’s 170,000-plus residents. And how they will breathe the frontlines in stopping China.

    Webber likened the island to “an uncut diamond,” and one that’s waiting for the U.S. to cash it in for increased geopolitical capital. It’s a crossroads into Asia that’s worth protecting and worth their attention.

    I’m besides tickled to besides report that the island didn’t tip over.

    Edited by: Cortney O'Brien, Lauretta Brown, and Dennis Lennox

                                                                     [Sunset in Tumon]

    What’s new, different and Hot in military and aviation biofuels | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    An F/A-18 Super Hornet from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 23

    An F/A-18 Super Hornet from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 23

    It’s been a year of deployment and globalization. Here are the most censorious items to know.

    Back in 1927, 100,000 people flooded Le Bourget Airport in Paris to greet Charles Lindbergh as he completed the first solo, non-stop, transatlantic crossing by plane. Now, it’s done by dozens of pilots every day, who own no one to meet them except the driver for their offsite, low-cost motel. Sigh, it’s the nature of news.

    In the world of aviation biofuels, the bands and the bunting are rolling out less frequently. But mostly, because the sector has moved out of a noise-filled early R&D facet and is heading towards deployment. Someday, aviation biofuels will breathe as routine as topping off a fuel farm, and the world will own changed so completely that no will contemplate about it any more than they contemplate about the miracle of the wheel.

    For a few years, readers became accustomed to a flurry of R&D partnerships, market studies, financing announcements, technical milestone reveations and sexy certification efforts where airlines look to flit any over the Place for a handful of flights demonstrating that planes won’t Fall out of the sky with aviation biofuels.

    Now, the radio silence descends as the process of minute engineering of plants begins, construction gets underway, followed by the inevitable yet interminable commissioning epoch where a plant may disburse up to 3 years reaching nameplate capacity and steady-state operations for a novel processing technology using novel feedstocks.

    We’re some distance from aviation biofuels as “business as usual” but they accomplish descry quite a bit more “in business” activity.

    With that in mind, and with The Digest releasing the complete agenda for the 6th annual Military & Aviation Biofuels Summit, section of ABLC week , it’s a profitable time to review the sector’s progress over the past year. Here are the most significant developments in military and aviation biofuels for 2014-15.

    Deployment

    In December, Boeing and South African Airlines announced that South African farmers will soon harvest their first crop of energy-rich tobacco plants, an censorious step towards using the plants to beget sustainable aviation biofuel.

    Boeing and SAA, along with partners SkyNRG and Sunchem SA, besides officially launched Project Solaris, their collaborative effort to develop an aviation biofuel supply chain with a nicotine-free tobacco plant called Solaris. In Limpopo province, company representatives and industry stakeholders visited commercial and community farms where 123 acres (50 hectares) of Solaris own been planted. Oil from the plant’s seeds may breathe converted into bio-jet fuel as early as next year, with a test flight by SAA as soon as practicable.

    In November, SAS along with the Lufthansa Group, and KLM, signed an agreement with Statoil Aviation for a regular supply of bio-fuel at Oslo Airport. SAS was first off the ground in Norway and from Stockholm Arlanda in Sweden with a bio-fuel fuse around a week ago and this agreement shows the airline takes its corporate gregarious responsibility seriously in reducing its green house gas emissions.

    Via an agreement signed with Avinor and the above named airlines, Statoil Aviation is to supply 2.5 million liters of bio-fuel to the refueling facility at Oslo Airport. With a 50% bio-fuel mix, this will fuel around 3,000 flights between Oslo and Bergen and beget OSL the first major airport in the world to offer a regular supply of bio-fuel as section of daily operations from March 2015.

    Also in November, SAS Airlines and Norwegian Air flew their first flights on biofuels  with a 48% blend with 52% fossil aviation fuel. The companies’ purpose is to promote exact so fuel will breathe produced from Norwegian forests, rather than the used cooking oil feedstock used in Tuesday’s launch. Norwegian flew from Trondheim to Oslo while SAS flew from Bergen to Oslo.

    In September, Southwest Airlines signed an agreement with Red Rock Biofuels to purchase low carbon renewable jet fuel, made using forest residues that will attend reduce the risk of destructive wildfires in the Western United States. The airline’s agreement with RRB covers the purchase of approximately three million gallons per year. The blended product will breathe used at Southwest’s Bay region operations with first delivery expected in 2016.

    In August, Garuda said that it expects to breathe using an aviation biofuel blend by 2016 comprised of biofuel and avtur (aviation turbine fuel). The aircraft are already equipped to utilize biofuel and the carrier aims to flee a tribulation flight soon. However, the state-owned carrier’s commitment to supporting the utilize of spotless energy will breathe highly dependent on the availability of the raw palm oil (CPO)-based biofuel that is currently being tested at state-owned oil and gas company PT Pertamina’s laboratory.

    In July, UOP announced that its green fuels process technology wasselected by Petrixo Oil & Gas to bear renewable jet fuel and renewable diesel at a modern refinery to breathe built in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Petrixo will utilize UOP Renewable Jet Fuel process technology to process approximately 500,000 metric tons per year of renewable feedstocks into renewable jet fuel and renewable diesel, besides known as Honeywell Green Jet Fuel and Honeywell Green Diesel. The process technology is capable of processing a variety of renewable feedstocks.

    In June, Gol Airlines confirmed that they would power 200 flights on a 4% biofuel blend during the World Cup. The company had completed its first tribulation flight between Sao Paolo and Brasilia in 2013, using Amyris jet fuel.

    In April, British Airways and Solena Fuels chose Thurrock, Essex for its MSW-to-aviation biofuels project that will bear 120,000 metric tons of fuel annually from 2017. BA has commited to buy 50,000 tons of the fuel that will breathe made from 575,000 tons of post-recycled waste.

    R&D

    In January, Boeing and Embraer opened a joint sustainable aviation biofuel research seat in a collaborative effort to further establish the aviation biofuel industry in Brazil.

    At the Boeing-Embraer Joint Research seat in the São José dos Campos Technology Park, the companies will coordinate and co-fund research with Brazilian universities and other institutions. The research will focus on technologies that address gaps in creating a sustainable aviation biofuel industry in Brazil, such as feedstock production, techno-economic analysis, economic viability studies and processing technologies.

    In December, Airbus signed an MOU with Emerging Fuels for US sustainable aviation fuels production. EFT has developed an Advanced Fixed Bed F-T reactor and leaven system that can convert synthesis gas from, it claims, virtually any carbonaceous feedstock into transportation fuels such as renewable diesel and sustainable jet fuel. The company recently signed a cooperation agreement with global energy infrastructure engineering, procurement and construction company Black & Veatch (B&V) that grants B&V exclusivity in representing EFT technologies in select markets and applications.

    Also in December, Vertimass announced it has received a vouchsafe of up to $2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy. The vouchsafe was awarded to aid the organization in its mission to commercialize “green” leaven technology that converts ethanol into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel blend stocks, while retaining compatibility with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. With an exclusive world-wide license with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an innovative developer of patented leaven technology, Vertimass seeks to expand the ethanol gas market, while creating an outlet for the utilize of ethanol as a precursor to the diesel and jet fuel markets. The blend-stocks produced with this leaven technology are anticipated to Fall under the Renewable Fuel touchstone at the very flat as the ethanol used as feedstock.

    In November, Total confirmed that it was experimenting with methods to bear sugar from cellulosic materials to eventually bear aviation fuels. The company’s raw material supply senior manager told the International Sugar Organization’s conference that as the oil and gas industry is accustomed to decades of development, there’s no problem in waiting for the evolution of their modern solution.

    In October, Boeing and Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China opened a demonstration facility that will eddy waste cooking oil, commonly referred to as “gutter oil” in China, into sustainable aviation biofuel. The two companies rate that 500 million gallons (1.8 billion liters) of biofuel could breathe made annually in China from used cooking oil. Boeing and COMAC are sponsoring the facility, which is called the China-U.S. Aviation Biofuel Pilot Project. It will utilize a technology developed by Hangzhou Energy & Engineering Technology Co., Ltd. (HEET) to spotless contaminants from waste oils and convert it into jet fuel at a rate of 160 gallons (650 liters) per day. The project’s goal is to assess the technical feasibility and cost of producing higher volumes of biofuel.

    Also in October, Japan’s Initiatives for Next Generation Aviation Fuels launched with the point to bear and supply aviation biofuels in time for the Tokyo Olympics in 2020. Partners in the initiative include the University of Tokyo, Boeing Co., Japan Airlines Co., Nippon Cargo Airlines Co., any Nippon Airways Co., Narita International Airport Corp. and Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. along with government agencies and observers.

    In June, intelligence arrived from Byogy Renewables that it had invested in a strategic partnership with AusAgave Australia, aimed at developing multiple feedstocks to develop low cost sugars for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Structured initially as a strategic partnership, Don Chambers, CEO of AusAgave, will unite the Byogy team to drive overall global feedstock operations — and, if any goes well, they may find that a merger of the companies may emerge down the line. Kudos for the partnership arrived from as far away as Brazil, where Byogy established a subsidiary in 2011 and recently partnered with Avianca Brasil Airlines to back global approvals of higher blends of Byogy’s premium fuel. So, not surprising to hear that Avianca Flight Operations Director Norberto Raniero stated: “Our team now includes more elements to bear a competitive, alternative aviation biofuel.” http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/06/15/tequila-sunrise-byogy-ausagave-sign-pact-to-advance-agave-as-a-sustainable-aviation-biofuels-feedstock/

    In April, as a section of the European Union funded EuroBioRef1 project, together with several partners, Process Design seat developed a modern class of bio aviation turbine fuel (ATF) components consisting of massive branched alcohols. The project demonstrated the possibility to bear these alcohols in two ways from lignocellulosic biomass: Black liquor from a kraft pulp mill or biomass is gasified and the resulting syngas, after cleaning, is fed to a mixed higher alcohols synthesis unit. Two processes, one operating in the gas facet and one operating in the liquid phase, are then applied to multiply the carbon number of the alcohols.

    Also in April, Gevo announced that it had inked an agreement with Lufthansa to evaluate Gevo’s renewable jet fuel with the goal of approving Gevo’s alcohol-to-jet fuel (ATJ) for commercial aviation use. Lufthansa’s testing is being supported through work with the European Commission.

    In March, Blue Sun Energy, ARA, and Chevron Lummus Global achieved a key evolution milestone with their 100 barrel/day (4,200 gallon/per day) demonstration-scale Biofuels ISOCONVERSION facility in St. Joseph, Mo. Less than a year after beginning engineering to scale the technology, the team has completed plant commissioning and has begun 24/7 system operation. “We are a step closer to their goal of commercial scale production of 100% drop-in diesel and jet fuel from industrial and waste oils at prices competitive with their petroleum counterparts,” said Chuck Red, Vice President of Fuels evolution at ARA.

    Also in March, Neste Oil joined forces with DONG Energy to develop an integrated process to bear renewable diesel and aviation fuel based on agricultural residues. DONG Energy’s Inbicon technology will breathe used in the first section of the process to pre-treat biomass and bear cellulosic sugars that can breathe converted into microbial oil with Neste Oil’s technology. Microbial oil can breathe used as a feedstock for premium-quality renewable fuels such as renewable diesel and renewable aviation fuel.

    In January 2014, Boeing, Etihad Airways, Takreer, Total, and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology announced a collaboration for sustainable aviation biofuels in the UAE.

    The collaboration, BIOjet Abu Dhabi: Flight Path to Sustainability, will develop a comprehensive framework for a UAE biofuel supply chain, which is already in motion. Etihad Airways recently completed a 45-minute demonstration flight in a Boeing 777 powered partially by biofuel converted from plants by Total, and refined into jet fuel by Takreer, together representing UAE-produced sustainable aviation biofuel.

    Markets & market impact

    In December, Sustainable Aviation, a coalition of the UK’s airlines, airports, manufacturers and air navigation service provider NATS, launched its latest Road-Map, which considers the opportunities for sustainable aviation fuels. The Road-Map identifies the potential for a 24 per cent reduction in aviation carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 and the generation of GBP265 million in economic value plus the creation of 4400 jobs in the UK over the next 15 years.

    In October, NASA researchers took to the skies for the second year in a row with a DC-8 and other aircraft to study the effects on emissions and contrail formation of burning alternative fuels in jet engines. This follow-up set of Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight tests, known as ACCESS II, repeated a similar sequence of tests flown during 2013, while besides adding a few modern wrinkles to the investigations to capture more and better data. A quick discover at the ACCESS II data confirmed with lofty certainty the results from ACCESS I, which showed at least a 50 percent reduction in soot emissions from the DC-8 when it burns the blended fuel as opposed to the jet fuel alone.

    In March, Ecofys advised the Dutch government on how they can stimulate the uptake of bio jet fuels in the Netherlands. According to the assessment, the combination of progressive Dutch public and private stakeholders, the censorious position of the Netherlands in fossil jet fuel trade, stalwart logistics and infrastructure and the foresight of a growing international market reaching full commercialization after 2020 altogether offer unique strategic opportunities for the Dutch economy and stakeholders to maintain and strengthen its international position in this evolving business.

    Military biofuels

    For their overview of the sector, descry their September report “Inside the US Navy’s new, cost-competitive military biofuels program”, which includes comments to the Digest from Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, Navy DIrector for Operational Energy Chris Tindal, and several CEOs of companies making military aviaiton fuel.

    Also, descry their report on the Italian Fleet’s first certification run, “Flotta Verde! The Italian Navy’s Green Fleet underway, the fable in Pictures.”

    In December, the US Navy’s Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) announced its first successful alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) supersonic flight, fueled by Gevo’s renewable isobutanol. his is the first aviation test program to comprehensively test and evaluate the performance of a 50/50 ATJ blend in supersonic (above Mach 1) afterburner operations – a censorious test to successfully transparent the F/A-18 for ATJ operations through its entire flight envelope. This military specification would allow for commercial supply of ATJ fuel to the Navy and Marines Corps. Gevo’s ATJ is produced at its demo biorefinery in Silsbee, TX, using isobutanol produced at its Luverne, MN, fermentation facility.

    In September, the Department of Defense awarded $210 million under the Defense Production Act to Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum BioEnergy and Red Rock Bio towards the construction of biorefineries that bear cost-competitive, drop-in military biofuels. Under the grants, the companies will build biorefineries to bear military spec fuel that is expected to cost the US military, on a weighted average, less than $3.50 per gallon — or cost competitive with petroleum-based fuels, with availability expected as soon as 2016, and own a 50 percent of greater reduction of emissions compared to conventional fuels. The biorefineries, once complete, will own a combined capacity for producing 100 million gallons of military-spec jet fuel and marine diesel

    In August, the US Navy and the Chilean Navy extended their four-year collaboration for mutual research on advanced alternative fuels. The latest agreement enables both nations to boost energy security and deliver an increased certainty of energy supply and cost; the US Navy aims to own 50% of overall organizational utilize powered by alternative energy resources by 2020, while Chile plans to own 45% of its newly deployed capacity for 2014-2025 derived from non-conventional, renewable energy sources.

    In June, the Department of the Navy announced that at least 37 million gallons of drop-in biofuels are being sought as section of its F-76 marine diesel and JP-5 shipboard jet fuel supply in the upcoming Inland/East/Gulf Coast bulk fuels solicitation released by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Energy on June 9. Bids were due by July 9, and deliveries of fuel will start April 1, 2015. The Inland/East/Gulf Coast is the single largest bulk fuels acquisition program, and is valued in excess of $3.5 billion.

    In May, the Royal Australian Navy announced plans to flee up to 50 vessels in its fleet on 50/50 biofuels by 2020 to remain compatible with the US Navy for joint training exercises, despite the government recently pulling back on excise tax rebates for road transport biofuels. In 2016, the RAN will transmit a biofuel-powered helicopter and frigate to participate in the US’s “Great Green Fleet” demonstration.



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