New Update of 250-722 test Questions PDF file | braindumps | ROMULUS

Download Pass4sure 250-722 examcollection - Prepare exam prep - braindumps - VCE and you will go without a doubt - braindumps - ROMULUS

Pass4sure 250-722 dumps | Killexams.com 250-722 existent questions | http://tractaricurteadearges.ro/

250-722 Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com Symantec Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 250-722 Dumps and existent Questions

100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



250-722 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Test Code : 250-722
Test cognomen : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Vendor cognomen : Symantec
: 114 existent Questions

No time to test books! exigency a few issue hastily getting ready.
surpassed 250-722 examination a few days in the past and got an pattern score. however, I cannot trap complete credit scorefor this as I used killexams.com to prepare for the 250-722 exam. two weeks after kicking off my drill with their checking out engine, I felt relish I knew the solution to any question that might arrive my manner. and i actually did. every question I examine at the 250-722 exam, I had already seen it at the very time as practising. If now not each, then tremendous majority of them. the whole thing that turned into in the practise percent turned out to exist very germane and beneficial, so I cant thank enough to killexams.com for making it manifest for me.


Is there any manner to skip 250-722 examination at the start attempt?
I am joyous to inform that I Have successfully passed the 250-722 Exam. In this context I must admit that your Question Bank did cheer (if not fully) to tied over the exam as the questions asked in the exam were not fully covered by your question bank. HOwever I must congratulate your exertion to construct us technically sound with your s. Thanks to killexams.com for clearing my 250-722 exam in first class.


No source is more powerful than this 250-722 source.
You want to ace your online 250-722 tests I Have a best and effortless way of this and that is killexams.com and its 250-722 test examples papers which are a existent picture of final test of 250-722 exam tests. My percentage in final test is 95%. killexams.com is a product for those who always want to travel on in their life and want to outcome something extra ordinary. 250-722 tribulation test has the skill to enhance your self-confidence level.


Real 250-722 questions and brain dumps! It warrant the price.
Im very joyous to Have observed killexams.com online, and even extra joyous that I bought 250-722 package just days earlier than my examination. It gave the nice coaching I needed, on the grounds that I didnt Have a lot time to spare. The 250-722 testing engine is definitely exact, and the whole lot objectives the regions and questions they trap a recognize at during the 250-722 exam. It can moreover appear deviant to pay for a draindump in recent times, when you could learn almost something at no cost on line, but accept as accurate with me, this one is well worth every penny! I am very pleased - both with the instruction system and even greater so with the result. I handed 250-722 with a completely tenacious score.


Very antiseptic to deserve licensed in 250-722 exam with these .
I soundless trap into account the tough time I had even as mastering for the 250-722 exam. I used to are in search of for cheer from friends, but I felt most of the material Have become indistinct and crushed. Later, i create killexams.Com and its fabric. Thru the treasured material I determined everything from top to backside of the furnished cloth. It arrive to exist so particular. Within the given questions, I replied complete questions with perfect option. Thank you for brining complete the endless happiness in my profession.


No less steeply-priced source than those 250-722 dumps available however.
I passed per week ago my 250-722 affirmation trap a recognize at. killexams.com and examination Simulator are pleasantobject to purchase, it clear my themes effects in an incredibly time, i was stun to understand how brilliant they may exist at their administrations. identity want an immoderate amount of obliged concerning the top notch particular which you virtuallyhave that aided in the arrangement and the usage of the trap a recognize at. this is regularly out and away the gold standardthorough and nicely limited bit of composing. a considerable deal obliged


I located complete my efforts on net and positioned killexams 250-722 actual exam bank.
I would trap a privilege to order Many Many Thanks to complete team members of killexams.com for providing such a wonderful platform made available to us. With the cheer of the online questions and caselets, I Have successfully cleared my 250-722 certification with 81% marks. It was really helpful to understand the character and patterns of questions and explanations provided for answers made my concepts crystal clear. Thanks for complete the uphold and preserve doing it. complete the best killexams.


attempt out those actual 250-722 existent trap a recognize at questions.
I might regularly pass over schooling and that might exist a spacious problem for me if my dad and mom determined out. I needed tocowl my errors and construct positive that they could reliance in me. I knew that one manner to cover my errors become to outcome nicely in my 250-722 test that became very near. If I did nicely in my 250-722 trap a recognize at, my parents would really relish me once more and that they did because of the reality i was capable of clear the test. It changed into this killexams.Com that gave me an confiscate commands. Thank you.


it's miles astonishing perfect to prepare 250-722 examination with dumps.
I might probably advocate it to my partners and accomplices. I were given 360 of imprints. I was enchanted with the effects I had been given with the assist recognize at steer 250-722 exam route cloth. I commonly thought actual and tremendous researchwere the reaction to complete or any exams, until I took the assistance of killexams.Com wit promote off to pass my exam 250-722. Fantastically fulfill.


Get elevated scores in limited time for preparation.
Im able to recommend you to fade back proper privilege here to outcome off complete fears related to 250-722 certification because that is a exceptional platform to tender you with assured objects to your arrangements. I used to exist concerned for 250-722 examination however complete way to killexams.Com who provided me with top notch merchandise for my education. I used to exist definitely concerned about my fulfillment but it emerge as first-class 250-722 examination engine that elevated my success self faith and now im fervor delight in this unconditional help. Hats off to you and your improbable services for complete students and specialists!


Symantec Symantec Implementation of DP

Lazarus 'FASTCash' monetary institution Hackers Wield AIX Trojan | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Anti-Malware , ATM Fraud , Cybercrime as-a-service

Hackers construct the most outdated Unix to deploy cash-Out Malware, Symantec stories Mathew J. Schwartz (euroinfosec) • November 12, 2018     Lazarus 'FASTCash' Bank Hackers Wield AIX Trojan FASTCash assaults in opposition t banks had been tied to tens of tens of millions of greenbacks in losses.

safety researchers order they've identified a vital piece of the ATM cash-out assault confound linked with the so-called FASTCash assaults perpetrated through North Korean hackers.

See also: are living Webinar | Fraud Prevention for Banks: excellent 10 Tech requirements to consider

The U.S. government says the FASTCash assaults are the labor of the Lazarus hacking group, tied to the Pyongyang-primarily based executive of North Korea. Authorities order that due to the fact that 2016, the assaults Have enabled hackers - and their cash mules - to void tens of millions of dollars in cash from ATMs in Africa and Asia.

Now, security researchers at Symantec order they've recovered a on no account-earlier than-seen Trojan used within the assaults, which Lazarus operators drop onto compromised monetary institution networks.

"To construct the fraudulent withdrawals, Lazarus first breaches targeted banks' networks and compromises the switch utility servers managing ATM transactions," the Symantec researchers order in a Thursday blog submit.

"once these servers are compromised, in the past unknown malware - Trojan.Fastcash - is deployed," they are saying. "This malware in flip intercepts fraudulent Lazarus cash withdrawal requests and sends fake approval responses, enabling the attackers to cop cash from ATMs."

FASTCash Alert

In October, the U.S. computing device Emergency Readiness group issued an alert about "malicious cyber pastime by the North Korean govt" - which it refers to as Hidden Cobra - perpetrating an ATM cash-out scheme, which the U.S. executive refers to as "FASTCash."

US-CERT's alert - collectively issued with the arm of indigenous land safety, Treasury arm and FBI - notes that because 2016, the beset crusade has been focused on associations in Asia and Africa with malware designed to "remotely compromise freight swap utility servers inside banks to facilitate fraudulent transactions."

Authorities order the assaults Have ended in tens of millions of bucks in suspected losses. One 2017 assault on my own resulted in attackers concurrently hitting ATMs in additional than 30 countries, while a 2018 assault hit ATMs in 23 nations, the alert stated.

"The initial an infection vector used to compromise victim networks is unknown; despite the fact, analysts surmise Hidden Cobra actors used spear-phishing emails in centered assaults against bank personnel," US-CERT observed in its alert. "Hidden Cobra actors likely used home windows-based malware to learn a monetary institution's community to determine the freight change utility server."

ATM money-Out attacks

Symantec says that or not it's recovered varied models of the Fastcash Trojan, each and every of which looks to Have been customized for diverse transaction processing networks. The samples moreover tie to bona fide fundamental account numbers, or PANs - the 14 or 16-digit numerical strings discovered on monetary institution and credit cards that establish a card issuer and account number.

US-CERT renowned in its alert that after reviewing log data recovered from an establishment that had been attacked with the aid of Hidden Cobra, "analysts reliance that the [hackers'] scripts ... inspected inbound monetary request messages for selected [PANs]. The scripts generated fraudulent monetary response messages simplest for the request messages that matched the expected PANs. Most debts used to initiate the transactions had minimal account undertaking or zero balances."

In different words, malicious code inserted by way of Hidden Cobra attackers watched for references tied to attacker-controlled debts, then returned fraudulent information about these accounts in keeping with queries. as an example, the code may faux that bills with a 0 steadiness as an alternative had cash accessible for withdrawal.

"How the attackers profit control of these bills remains unclear," Symantec says. "it is viable the attackers are opening the accounts themselves and making withdrawal requests with cards issued to those bills. one other possibility is the attackers are the utilize of stolen playing cards to role the attacks."

Hackers exploit old-fashioned AIX

what is now clear, however, is that the attacks Have been completed by means of hackers exploiting outdated types of IBM's AIX - for superior Interactive govt - implementation of the Unix working gadget, Symantec says.

"In complete stated FASTCash assaults so far, the attackers Have compromised banking software servers operating unsupported models of the AIX operating gadget, beyond the conclusion of their service pack aid dates," Symantec says.

One evident defense is for banks to construct positive that they are keeping complete systems and application up so far.

"with a view to allow their fraudulent withdrawals from ATMs, the attackers inject a malicious [AIX] executable privilege into a operating, official process on the change application server of a economic transaction network, in this case a community managing ATM transactions," Symantec says. "The malicious executable consists of logic to construct fraudulent ISO 8583 messages," which is the overseas universal for economic transaction messaging.

"The goal of this executable has now not been up to now documented," Symantec says. "It was up to now believed that the attackers used scripts to govern bona fide application on the server into enabling the fraudulent exercise."

How Fastcash Trojan enables ATM cash-Out assaults source: Symantec

In other words, attackers don't appear to were subverting official monetary institution utility by means of scripts, as eventual month's US-CERT alert counseled. as an alternative, the attackers Have been deploying their personal AIX malware, personalized for the target environment.

"FASTCash illustrates that Lazarus possesses an in-depth potential of banking systems and transaction processing protocols and has the potential to leverage that capabilities as a way to cop gigantic sums from prostrate banks," Symantec says. "Lazarus continues to pose a major threat to the fiscal sector and organizations should trap complete critical steps to construct inevitable that their fee systems are thoroughly up to this point and secured."

North Korea Hacks

safety specialists order the executive of North Korea continues to invest in hacking to cheer it raise cash to offset crippling international sanctions imposed over its weapons construction and checking out classes (see: record: North Korea Seeks Bitcoins to bypass Sanctions).

"Lazarus continues to pose a major hazard to the fiscal sector."

Lazarus has been in the past tied to a brace of cybercrime and cyber espionage assaults, together with the wiper malware assault in opposition t Sony pictures enjoyment in 2014; the tried theft of pretty much $1 billion from the vital bank of Bangladesh's fresh york Federal Reserve account, resulting in $eighty one million being stolen; the WannaCry ransomware outbreak in may additionally 2017, as smartly because the utilize of cryptocurrency mining malware named Adylkuzz to assault the very flaw in home windows server shroud messaging that WannaCry moreover focused.

Lazarus has moreover continued to cop cryptocurrency via phishing assaults as well as without detain hacking cryptocurrency exchanges, according to Moscow-based protection solid group-IB.

Lazarus group features prominently on group-IB's tally of cyberattacks against cryptocurrency exchanges.

however Lazarus is just one of what appear relish a brace of different North Korea-sponsored hacking agencies, complete of which partake malware construction materials (see: Cybercrime agencies and Nation-State Attackers Blur collectively).

ultimate month, cybersecurity enterprise FireEye spoke of that it had tracked a brace of assaults perpetrated via APT38, a North Korean hacking group sever to Lazarus (see: North Korean Hackers Tied to $a hundred Million in SWIFT Fraud).

"seeing that at the least 2014, APT38 has carried out operations in more than sixteen groups in at least eleven international locations, on occasion concurrently, indicating that the community is a huge, prolific operation with extensive elements," FireEye researchers noted.


consumers File category motion Lawsuit towards Symantec for defective AntiVirus software | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Schubert law solid Investigating Claims in opposition t safety software commerce regarding Vulnerabilities in network protection software items

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 8, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- buyers Have filed a class motion lawsuit towards Symantec supplier (SYMC), alleging that from 2005 to 2016, the security utility company bought antivirus items containing serious defects that uncovered total laptop operating techniques to a considerable number of protection vulnerabilities and made them extra prostrate to cyberattacks, in response to Schubert Jonckheer & Kolbe, which represents the buyers.

The lawsuit, filed on April 2, 2018 within the U.S. District courtroom for the Northern District of California, alleges that consumers who purchased Symantec's security products below the Norton company, in addition to organizations that purchased products beneath the Symantec brand, suffered from exposure to reminiscence corruption, faraway assaults, and other with ease exploitable security vulnerabilities. Symantec only released patches for these defects in June 2016, with the assist of venture Zero, a team of knowledgeable cybersecurity analysts who first discovered the famous defects within the core engine that supported Symantec's complete product line.

according to the lawsuit, Symantec had failed to patch third-birthday party supply code in its items over a a number of-12 months duration spanning at least seven years, contrary to cybersecurity most profitable practices, which require well timed implementation of protection updates to utility. in addition, Symantec didn't design its products to confine the Have an impact on of a vulnerability on a pc's working system through violating the primary principle of least privilege, another simple cybersecurity most amenable follow. It changed into now not until 2017 that Symantec up to date its product line to conform to the precept of least privilege through together with a sandbox that directs the core engine to precipitate and analyze unknown files in an isolated, protected atmosphere.

in case you purchased a Norton or Symantec manufacturer security product between 2005 and 2016, you can exist entitled to a reimbursement of the purchase rate. if you believe you had been plagued by these antivirus utility defects, tickle contact us these days to exist trained greater.

About Schubert Jonckheer & KolbeSchubert Jonckheer & Kolbe represents shareholders, employees, and patrons in character movements in opposition t corporate defendants, as well as shareholders in by-product actions in opposition t their officers and directors. The enterprise is primarily based in San Francisco, and with the uphold of co-assistance, litigates circumstances nationwide. barrister promoting. Prior effects don't guarantee similar outcomes.

ContactCassidy KimSchubert Jonckheer & Kolbe LLPckim@sjk.lawTel: 415-788-4220

 

View customary content:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/patrons-file-class-motion-lawsuit-against-symantec-for-defective-antivirus-utility-300746568.html


Symantec (SYMC) q4 2018 consequences - earnings cognomen Transcript | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No influence found, try fresh keyword!Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ:SYMC ... They contrivance to give you compress duration on a quarterly basis going forward. They are expecting that the implementation of the brand fresh income recognition common will strike their metr...

250-722 Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com Symantec Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 250-722 Dumps and existent Questions

100% existent Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



250-722 exam Dumps Source : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Test Code : 250-722
Test cognomen : Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0
Vendor cognomen : Symantec
: 114 existent Questions

No time to test books! exigency a few issue hastily getting ready.
surpassed 250-722 examination a few days in the past and got an pattern score. however, I cannot trap complete credit scorefor this as I used killexams.com to prepare for the 250-722 exam. two weeks after kicking off my drill with their checking out engine, I felt relish I knew the solution to any question that might arrive my manner. and i actually did. every question I examine at the 250-722 exam, I had already seen it at the very time as practising. If now not each, then tremendous majority of them. the whole thing that turned into in the practise percent turned out to exist very germane and beneficial, so I cant thank enough to killexams.com for making it manifest for me.


Is there any manner to skip 250-722 examination at the start attempt?
I am joyous to inform that I Have successfully passed the 250-722 Exam. In this context I must admit that your Question Bank did cheer (if not fully) to tied over the exam as the questions asked in the exam were not fully covered by your question bank. HOwever I must congratulate your exertion to construct us technically sound with your s. Thanks to killexams.com for clearing my 250-722 exam in first class.


No source is more powerful than this 250-722 source.
You want to ace your online 250-722 tests I Have a best and effortless way of this and that is killexams.com and its 250-722 test examples papers which are a existent picture of final test of 250-722 exam tests. My percentage in final test is 95%. killexams.com is a product for those who always want to travel on in their life and want to outcome something extra ordinary. 250-722 tribulation test has the skill to enhance your self-confidence level.


Real 250-722 questions and brain dumps! It warrant the price.
Im very joyous to Have observed killexams.com online, and even extra joyous that I bought 250-722 package just days earlier than my examination. It gave the nice coaching I needed, on the grounds that I didnt Have a lot time to spare. The 250-722 testing engine is definitely exact, and the whole lot objectives the regions and questions they trap a recognize at during the 250-722 exam. It can moreover appear deviant to pay for a draindump in recent times, when you could learn almost something at no cost on line, but accept as accurate with me, this one is well worth every penny! I am very pleased - both with the instruction system and even greater so with the result. I handed 250-722 with a completely tenacious score.


Very antiseptic to deserve licensed in 250-722 exam with these .
I soundless trap into account the tough time I had even as mastering for the 250-722 exam. I used to are in search of for cheer from friends, but I felt most of the material Have become indistinct and crushed. Later, i create killexams.Com and its fabric. Thru the treasured material I determined everything from top to backside of the furnished cloth. It arrive to exist so particular. Within the given questions, I replied complete questions with perfect option. Thank you for brining complete the endless happiness in my profession.


No less steeply-priced source than those 250-722 dumps available however.
I passed per week ago my 250-722 affirmation trap a recognize at. killexams.com and examination Simulator are pleasantobject to purchase, it clear my themes effects in an incredibly time, i was stun to understand how brilliant they may exist at their administrations. identity want an immoderate amount of obliged concerning the top notch particular which you virtuallyhave that aided in the arrangement and the usage of the trap a recognize at. this is regularly out and away the gold standardthorough and nicely limited bit of composing. a considerable deal obliged


I located complete my efforts on net and positioned killexams 250-722 actual exam bank.
I would trap a privilege to order Many Many Thanks to complete team members of killexams.com for providing such a wonderful platform made available to us. With the cheer of the online questions and caselets, I Have successfully cleared my 250-722 certification with 81% marks. It was really helpful to understand the character and patterns of questions and explanations provided for answers made my concepts crystal clear. Thanks for complete the uphold and preserve doing it. complete the best killexams.


attempt out those actual 250-722 existent trap a recognize at questions.
I might regularly pass over schooling and that might exist a spacious problem for me if my dad and mom determined out. I needed tocowl my errors and construct positive that they could reliance in me. I knew that one manner to cover my errors become to outcome nicely in my 250-722 test that became very near. If I did nicely in my 250-722 trap a recognize at, my parents would really relish me once more and that they did because of the reality i was capable of clear the test. It changed into this killexams.Com that gave me an confiscate commands. Thank you.


it's miles astonishing perfect to prepare 250-722 examination with dumps.
I might probably advocate it to my partners and accomplices. I were given 360 of imprints. I was enchanted with the effects I had been given with the assist recognize at steer 250-722 exam route cloth. I commonly thought actual and tremendous researchwere the reaction to complete or any exams, until I took the assistance of killexams.Com wit promote off to pass my exam 250-722. Fantastically fulfill.


Get elevated scores in limited time for preparation.
Im able to recommend you to fade back proper privilege here to outcome off complete fears related to 250-722 certification because that is a exceptional platform to tender you with assured objects to your arrangements. I used to exist concerned for 250-722 examination however complete way to killexams.Com who provided me with top notch merchandise for my education. I used to exist definitely concerned about my fulfillment but it emerge as first-class 250-722 examination engine that elevated my success self faith and now im fervor delight in this unconditional help. Hats off to you and your improbable services for complete students and specialists!


Whilst it is very difficult assignment to elect amenable exam questions / answers resources regarding review, reputation and validity because people deserve ripoff due to choosing incorrect service. Killexams. com construct it inevitable to provide its clients far better to their resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other peoples ripoff report complaint clients arrive to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams enjoyably and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and attribute because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self self-confidence is famous to complete of us. Specially they manage killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. If perhaps you contemplate any bogus report posted by their competitor with the cognomen killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something relish this, just preserve in wit that there are always scandalous people damaging reputation of friendly services due to their benefits. There are a great number of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams drill questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their test questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.


Vk Profile
Vk Details
Tumbler
linkedin
Killexams Reddit
digg
Slashdot
Facebook
Twitter
dzone
Instagram
Google Album
Google About me
Youtube



SC0-501 pdf download | 6002 dumps | HH0-280 drill exam | HP0-D07 braindumps | HPE2-Z40 drill test | C2090-303 existent questions | 000-M20 drill test | 1Z0-881 existent questions | 2B0-012 dump | LOT-829 exam prep | CAT-100 braindumps | 000-M60 drill Test | HP0-S11 questions answers | JN0-561 exam prep | 090-554 free pdf download | 1T6-303 brain dumps | HP3-029 study guide | ECP-102 test questions | 600-210 free pdf | 050-890 braindumps |


250-722 exam questions | 250-722 free pdf | 250-722 pdf download | 250-722 test questions | 250-722 real questions | 250-722 practice questions

Guarantee your prosperity with this 250-722 question bank
We are doing incredible battle to give you actual Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0 exam questions and answers, along clarifications. Each on killexams.com has been appeared by methods for Symantec ensured specialists. They are colossally qualified and affirmed people, who Have quite a long while of expert sustain perceived with the Symantec evaluations. They check the question as per actual test.

If you are searching for Pass4sure Symantec 250-722 Dumps containing existent exams questions and answers for the Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0 Exam preparation, they give most updated and attribute wellspring of 250-722 Dumps that is http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/250-722. They Have aggregated a database of 250-722 Dumps questions from existent exams with a specific desist goal to give you a chance to deserve ready and pass 250-722 exam on the first attempt. killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for complete exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for complete Orders

Quality and Value for the 250-722 Exam: killexams.com drill Exams for Symantec 250-722 are composed to the most astounding benchmarks of specialized precision, utilizing just guaranteed topic specialists and distributed creators for improvement.

100% Guarantee to Pass Your 250-722 Exam: If you don't pass the Symantec 250-722 exam utilizing their killexams.com testing engine, they will give you a full REFUND of your acquiring expense.

Downloadable, Interactive 250-722 Testing engines: Their Symantec 250-722 Preparation Material gives you complete that you should trap Symantec 250-722 exam. Subtle elements are inquired about and created by Symantec Certification Experts continually utilizing industry sustain to deliver actual, and intelligent.

- Comprehensive questions and answers about 250-722 exam - 250-722 exam questions joined by displays - Verified Answers by Experts and very nearly 100% right - 250-722 exam questions updated on universal premise - 250-722 exam planning is in various decision questions (MCQs). - Tested by different circumstances previously distributing - Try free 250-722 exam demo before you elect to deserve it in killexams.com

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017: 60% Discount Coupon for complete exams on website
PROF17: 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17: 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL: 10% Special Discount Coupon for complete Orders


Snap http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/250-722

250-722 Practice Test | 250-722 examcollection | 250-722 VCE | 250-722 study guide | 250-722 practice exam | 250-722 cram


Killexams HPE6-A44 existent questions | Killexams CLEP drill test | Killexams ITIL braindumps | Killexams NS0-130 cheat sheets | Killexams VCP510 study guide | Killexams SDM-2002001040 braindumps | Killexams 050-894 study guide | Killexams 1Z1-450 free pdf | Killexams 000-583 pdf download | Killexams HP0-063 test questions | Killexams HP0-J22 examcollection | Killexams 000-332 test prep | Killexams C2180-374 free pdf | Killexams 70-347 study guide | Killexams HP0-S21 cram | Killexams HP0-620 questions answers | Killexams 9A0-088 brain dumps | Killexams 920-481 drill questions | Killexams 000-M78 brain dumps | Killexams 70-553-VB drill exam |


killexams.com huge List of Exam Braindumps

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams A2040-410 braindumps | Killexams C9020-560 existent questions | Killexams HP0-919 questions and answers | Killexams VCPD610 existent questions | Killexams ICDL-WINDOWS bootcamp | Killexams 9A0-062 pdf download | Killexams 000-M77 free pdf | Killexams 1Z1-507 exam prep | Killexams 1T6-111 braindumps | Killexams 000-240 free pdf | Killexams 000-M91 exam questions | Killexams 9A0-136 drill exam | Killexams COG-385 dumps questions | Killexams TT0-101 drill test | Killexams HP2-E47 test questions | Killexams 000-974 existent questions | Killexams HP3-C35 mock exam | Killexams C2070-580 braindumps | Killexams ISO20KF dumps | Killexams HP0-216 drill questions |


Implementation of DP Solutions for Windows using NBU 5.0

Pass 4 positive 250-722 dumps | Killexams.com 250-722 existent questions | http://tractaricurteadearges.ro/

Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Dutch adolescents often start drinking alcohol at an early age. The life-time prevalence for drinking alcohol is 56% for twelve year olds and 93% for sixteen year olds. Also, 16% of twelve year olds and 78% of sixteen year olds drink alcohol regularly. In comparison with other green people in Europe, Dutch adolescents drink more frequently and are more likely to exist orgy drinkers (episodic immoderate alcohol consumption, defined as drinking 5 glasses or more on a separate occasion in the eventual four weeks) [1].

Despite a acute decline in the immoderate consumption of alcohol (6 or more glasses at least once a week for the eventual 6 months) among adolescents in the Netherlands, the alcohol consumption is soundless elevated [2]. Data from the Regional Health Services (RHS) in the province of North Brabant [3] moreover note this. Although the number of green people who regularly consume alcohol (at least once in the past 4 weeks) declined from 54% in 2003 to 44% in 2007, 28% of the 12 to 17 year olds in the area of the RHS “Hart voor Brabant” can exist identified as orgy drinkers. Moreover, 25% of the under 16s are regular drinkers, and 13% are even orgy drinkers.

Alcohol consumption by adolescents under 16 causes strict health risks. Firstly, green people's brains are particularly vulnerable because the brain is soundless developing during their teenage years. Alcohol can damage parts of the brain, affecting deportment and the skill to learn and remember [4]. Secondly, there is a link between alcohol consumption and violent and aggressive deportment [5–7] and violence-related injuries. Thirdly, green people precipitate a greater risk of alcohol poisoning when they drink a great amount of alcohol in a short term of time [8]. Finally, the earlier the onset of drinking, the greater is the chance of immoderate consumption and addiction in later life [9–11].

The policy of the Dutch Ministry of Health is aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among adolescents younger than 16, and at reducing harmful and immoderate drinking among 16–24 years outmoded green adults [12]. Local Authorities are amenable for the implementation of national alcohol policy at a local level. RHSs and regional organizations for the freight and treatment of addicts carry out prevention activities at a regional and local level, often commissioned by Local Authorities.

Current policies and interventions are mainly directed at settings such as schools and sports clubs. However, it is unlikely that this approach will Have adequate impact on adolescents, because the groups in these settings are heterogeneous. Adolescents vary in their drinking habits and Have different attitudes towards alcohol. This means that one intervention reaches only a fragment of complete adolescents, and doesn’t achieve other adolescents, with a different drinking drill or a different attitude.

Market research has revealed the import and effectiveness of tailoring messages and incentives to meet the needs of different population segments. Not every individual is a potential consumer of a given product, idea, or service; so tailoring messages to specific groups will exist more efficient than broadcasting the very message to everyone [13, 14].

Audience segmentation is a system for dividing a great and heterogeneous population into separate, relatively homogeneous segments on the basis of shared characteristics known or presumed to exist associated with a given outcome of interest [15].

Audience segmentation is fairly common in the province of public health. However, such segmentation is usually based on socioeconomic and demographic variables, such as age, ethnicity, gender, education and income. Unfortunately, demographic segmentation lonely may exist of limited utilize for constructing meaningful messages [16]. While psychographic and lifestyle analyses Have long been benchmark drill in commerce marketing, their utilize in public health communication efforts is soundless much less common [16]. Since health messages can exist fine-tuned to the differences in lifestyle such as attitudes and values, segments based on aspects of lifestyle are expected to exist more useful for health communication strategies [14, 16]. They assume that attitudes, values, and motives in relation to alcohol consumption among adolescents will vary, and may therefore tender a better starting point for segmentation than socio-demographic characteristics alone. For example, previous research has shown that motives for drinking give mount to a substantial fragment of the variance in alcohol consumption [17, 18]. Moreover, personality traits, such as sensation seeking, are associated with quantity and frequency of alcohol utilize [19].

Despite the promising characteristics of audience segmentation based on lifestyle aspects, it has never been used in the Netherlands in relation to the prevention of alcohol consumption. That is why the RHS “Hart voor Brabant”, in cooperation with market research office Motivaction®, conducted a study to find out whether it is feasible to identify different segments on the basis of the motives, attitudes, and values of adolescents towards alcohol. The first results of this study were already published in a Dutch article [20].


CURL Comes to N1QL: Querying External JSON Data | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

N1QL has many functions that allow you to perform a specific operation. One such role that has been added into the fresh Couchbase 5.0 DP is CURL.

CURL allows you to utilize N1QL to interact with external JSON endpoints; namely, rest API’s that return results and data in JSON format. This role will allow N1QL to Have a conservative set of curl functionality built into the language. Interaction primarily consists of data transfer to and from a server using the http and https protocols. In short, the CURL role in N1QL provides you, the user, a subset of benchmark curl functionality (https://curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html) within a query language.

In order to retrieve data from different servers (such as Google Maps, Yahoo Finance etc), they can issue either deserve or HTTP POST requests using the CURL function. This is seen in the diagram below.

Function Definition

CURL (URL, [options])

The first controversy is the URL, which represents any URL that points to a JSON endpoint. Only URLs with the http:// or the https:// protocol are supported. Redirection is disabled. The input arguments to the CURL() role can exist both static values and N1QL expressions that can exist evaluated. 

Later in the article they shall contemplate examples that query from the Google Geocode API, the Yahoo Finance API, Couchbase full text search and the Github API. The second controversy is a list of options. This is a JSON demur that contains a list of curl options and their corresponding values.

We uphold a variety of options that allow you to interact with any endpoint effectively. In universal these can exist categorized into security related options and universal options. A table of the supported options is given at the desist of the article.

Security features/enhancements for CURL

With the addition of the CURL function, to avoid security vulnerabilities and control and minimize the risks associated with it, multiple security measures Have been implemented.

Using CA certificates with N1QL's CURL function

Certificates used by the N1QL CURL role should exist stored on every query node within the cluster in the n1qlcerts directory. The location where this directory needs to exist created by the user depends upon the location of the couchbase installation. (It is OS specific). The following assume default installation location and note where the n1qlcerts directory has been created. 

Linux                       

 /opt/couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts                                                         

Mac OSX

/Users/couchbase/Library/Application\ Support/Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts

Windows

C:\Program Files\Couchbase\Server\var\lib\couchbase\n1qlcerts

For non-default installation locations, the relative path - "../var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts directory" from the bin directory where cbq-engine is precipitate from needs to exist created.

This directory must exist created for every query node.

Once this directory has been created, add the certificate for CURL to utilize in here. In order to utilize this certificate, they utilize the option cacert and pass in the cognomen of the certificate. 

For case if n1qlcerts/user1.pem is the cognomen of the certificate, utilize the cacert option -

"cacert":"user1.pem"

Only names are valid, paths are invalid and passing one will occasions an error. CURL() throws an mistake in the case of invalid and expired certificates.

NOTE : The n1qlcerts directory and its contents exigency to exist replicated for each query node within the cluster.

Custom headers and user-agent

CURL() runs on the query node within a cluster. This enables the role to gain access to complete rest endpoints that are accessible through the Query service (since that is where the role is executed). In order to avoid access to such insecure endpoints, a custom header, that cannot exist changed by the user, is added to complete requests sent using the N1QL curl function. This is of the format "X-N1QL-User-Agent: couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL". 

A user-agent is moreover always set by default. This can exist reset using the -user-agent option. The value set by default is "couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL".

Both these values are designed to allow both internal and external endpoints to check for the header/user-agent and disallow access in their code and contravene access to the function. The one caveat when using this however, is that they soundless cannot protect against any software that doesnt check for this header and the existing versions of locally installed software (both Couchbase and non-Couchbase software). For such cases, the curl whitelist feature has been added (see below).

Creating a Whitelist to restrict CURL access.

A whitelist is a JSON document, that lists out the permitted rest endpoints and URLs for the CURL() role to access. The URL's themselves, exigency to be a prefix match. The whitelist document is created within the n1qlcerts directory (for the location contemplate above), and is named curl_whitelist.json (this cognomen is fixed and cannot exist changed by the user). The file (curl_whitelist.json) needs to exist created by the administrator (or a user with access to the machine where couchbase is installed). 

If the whitelist is not setup (..../n1qlcerts/curl_whitelist.json doesnt exist) or if it exists but is void then the CURL role cannot exist used. 

Any whitelist needs to Have the following fields - 

Field

Type

Description

Default value

all_access

boolean

This will elect whether the user has access to complete urls or only the urls specified in the allowed_urls array.

false

allowed_urls

array

List of prefixes for urls that they wish to allow.

empty

disallowed_urls

array

List of prefixes for urls that will exist restricted no matter what

empty

If the all_access province is false, then the usage for the CURL role has been fully restricted. In order to exist able to utilize CURL() with any endpoint in N1QL, the administrator needs to set allowed_urls and disallowed_urls accordingly. In order to allow access to complete urls, they can set all_access to true. This essentially gives us full CURL access.

Curl_whitelist.json { "all_access":false, "allowed_urls":["https://maps.googleapis.com"] }

Any url in CURL() prefixed by https://maps.googleapis.com/ will exist allowed. 

NOTE : The whitelist needs to exist replicated for each query node within the cluster.

Role based access to the CURL function

An famous thing worth mentioning here is that CURL is designed so that it cannot exist arbitrarily invoked. In order to avoid injection of data from an external source using the UPDATE statement, a fresh role QUERY_EXTERNAL_ACCESS has been added. Only a user assigned this role has access to the CURL function. By default this role membership is empty. The CURL role can only exist accessed by a FULL_ADMIN or any user that has been granted the QUERY_EXTERNAL_ACCESS role by the FULL_ADMIN. For previous versions of couchbase that dont uphold role-based access control, a password protected bucket can exist used. moreover for the CURL() functionality, internally a specific set of SSL ciphers (MEDIUM or HIGH) are supported. This is relative on the COUCHBASE_SSL_CIPHER_LIST.

Restricting the result size for CURL()

An famous concern with using the CURL() role is when a user crafts a really long file -  greater than 64 MB, and tries to read from it. Since the data is loaded into memory, if the result size is not capped the query service could crash. Due to this possibility, the maximum result size for data that can exist returned by CURL() is 64MB (67 108 864 bytes). The user can restrict the amount of memory for CURL results by using the result-cap option.The minimum (default)value for the result-cap option is 20MB ( 20 971 520 bytes).

Interaction With Different Endpoints

Let us contemplate how to query different endpoints using the CURL role in N1QL.

Google Maps Geocoding API

The Geocoding API from Google Maps allows you to transform static addresses into coordinates and vice versa using HTTP request. (For more information mention to https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/geocoding/intro )

Say you want to search for Santa Cruz in Spain using your Google Dev API key. In order to outcome this, you can utilize the following query:

Curl Request curl https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=santa+cruz&components=country:ES&key=<Your Developer API key> Corresponding Query SELECT CURL("https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json", {"get":true,"data":"address=santa+cruz&components=country:ES&key=<Your Developer API key>"}) GEO; "results": [ { "GEO": { "results": [ { "address_components": [ { "long_name": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife", "short_name": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife", "short_name": "TF", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_2", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "Canary Islands", "short_name": "CN", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_1", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "Spain", "short_name": "ES", "types": [ "country", "political" ] } ], "formatted_address": "Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain", "geometry": { "bounds": { "northeast": { "lat": 28.487616, "lng": -16.2356646 }, "southwest": { "lat": 28.4280248, "lng": -16.3370045 } }, "location": { "lat": 28.4636296, "lng": -16.2518467 }, "location_type": "APPROXIMATE", "viewport": { "northeast": { "lat": 28.487616, "lng": -16.2356646 }, "southwest": { "lat": 28.4280248, "lng": -16.3370045 } } }, "place_id": "ChIJcUElzOzMQQwRLuV30nMUEUM", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] } ], "status": "OK" } } ]

This query retrieves the address and geographic location bounds of the address, Santa Cruz, ES. They utilize the address, components and key parameters from the Google Maps Geocoding rest API. The "data" option represents the curl data option that represents HTTP POST data.  However, because this is a deserve request they set the "get" option to true. You can provide values to complete the rest parameters within the data option. 

Now lets search for Half Moon Bay in CA.

Query with curl request SELECT CURL("https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json", {"data":"address=Half+Moon+Bay", "get":true}) GEO; "results": [ { "GEO": { "results": [ { "address_components": [ { "long_name": "Half Moon Bay", "short_name": "Half Moon Bay", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "San Mateo County", "short_name": "San Mateo County", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_2", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "California", "short_name": "CA", "types": [ "administrative_area_level_1", "political" ] }, { "long_name": "United States", "short_name": "US", "types": [ "country", "political" ] } ], "formatted_address": "Half Moon Bay, CA, USA", "geometry": { "bounds": { "northeast": { "lat": 37.5226389, "lng": -122.4165183 }, "southwest": { "lat": 37.4249286, "lng": -122.4778879 } }, "location": { "lat": 37.4635519, "lng": -122.4285862 }, "location_type": "APPROXIMATE", "viewport": { "northeast": { "lat": 37.5226389, "lng": -122.4165183 }, "southwest": { "lat": 37.4249286, "lng": -122.4778879 } } }, "place_id": "ChIJC8sZCqULj4ARVJvnNcic_V4", "types": [ "locality", "political" ] } ], "status": "OK" } } ] Yahoo Finance API

The Yahoo Finance API allows you to utilize the Yahoo Query Language (YQL) to fetch stock quotes (as seen in http://meumobi.github.io/stocks%20apis/2016/03/13/get-realtime-stock-quotes-yahoo-finance-api.html ). Below is the YQL SELECT statement to access the stock of Hortonworks Inc (HDP).

select * from yahoo.finance.quotes where symbol in ("HDP")

In order to deserve the results in JSON you can utilize the following URL:

https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql?q=select%20*%20from%20yahoo.finance.quotes%20where%20symbol%20in%20(%22HDP%22)&format=json&diagnostics=true&env=store%3A%2F%2Fdatatables.org%2Falltableswithkeys&callback=

Curl Request curl https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql --data 'q=select%20*%20from%20yahoo.finance.quotes%20where%20symbol%20in%20(%22HDP%22)&format=json&diagnostics=true&env=store%3A%2F%2Fdatatables.org%2Falltableswithkeys&callback=' Corresponding Query SELECT temp.query.results from CURL("https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql", {"data":"q=select%20*%20from%20yahoo.finance.quotes%20where%20symbol%20in%20(%22HDP%22)&format=json&diagnostics=true&env=store%3A%2F%2Fdatatables.org%2Falltableswithkeys&callback="})temp; "results": [ { "results": { "quote": { "AfterHoursChangeRealtime": null, "AnnualizedGain": null, "Ask": "16.950", "AskRealtime": null, "AverageDailyVolume": "952135", "Bid": "16.940", "BidRealtime": null, "BookValue": "-0.654", "Change": "+0.075", "ChangeFromFiftydayMovingAverage": "0.377", "ChangeFromTwoHundreddayMovingAverage": "3.625", "ChangeFromYearHigh": "-0.755", "ChangeFromYearLow": "10.525", "ChangePercentRealtime": null, "ChangeRealtime": null, "Change_PercentChange": "+0.075 - +0.445%", "ChangeinPercent": "+0.445%", "Commission": null, "Currency": "USD", "DaysHigh": "17.010", "DaysLow": "16.780", "DaysRange": "16.780 - 17.010", "DaysRangeRealtime": null, "DaysValueChange": null, "DaysValueChangeRealtime": null, "DividendPayDate": null, "DividendShare": null, "DividendYield": null, "EBITDA": "-223.00M", "EPSEstimateCurrentYear": "-1.720", "EPSEstimateNextQuarter": "-0.380", "EPSEstimateNextYear": "-1.190", "EarningsShare": "-3.737", "ErrorIndicationreturnedforsymbolchangedinvalid": null, "ExDividendDate": null, "FiftydayMovingAverage": "16.568", "HighLimit": null, "HoldingsGain": null, "HoldingsGainPercent": null, "HoldingsGainPercentRealtime": null, "HoldingsGainRealtime": null, "HoldingsValue": null, "HoldingsValueRealtime": null, "LastTradeDate": "10/5/2017", "LastTradePriceOnly": "16.945", "LastTradeRealtimeWithTime": null, "LastTradeTime": "12:50pm", "LastTradeWithTime": "12:50pm - <b>16.945</b>", "LowLimit": null, "MarketCapRealtime": null, "MarketCapitalization": "700.96M", "MoreInfo": null, "Name": "Hortonworks, Inc.", "Notes": null, "OneyrTargetPrice": "18.930", "Open": "17.010", "OrderBookRealtime": null, "PEGRatio": "-0.400", "PERatio": null, "PERatioRealtime": null, "PercebtChangeFromYearHigh": "-4.266%", "PercentChange": "+0.445%", "PercentChangeFromFiftydayMovingAverage": "+2.275%", "PercentChangeFromTwoHundreddayMovingAverage": "+27.214%", "PercentChangeFromYearLow": "+163.941%", "PreviousClose": "16.870", "PriceBook": null, "PriceEPSEstimateCurrentYear": null, "PriceEPSEstimateNextYear": null, "PricePaid": null, "PriceSales": "3.212", "SharesOwned": null, "ShortRatio": "3.640", "StockExchange": "NMS", "Symbol": "HDP", "TickerTrend": null, "TradeDate": null, "TwoHundreddayMovingAverage": "13.320", "Volume": "217430", "YearHigh": "17.700", "YearLow": "6.420", "YearRange": "6.420 - 17.700", "symbol": "HDP" } } } ]

For this query, the value of the data option contains the Yahoo rest parameters, q (for the YQL query), format (to return data in JSON) and some other parameters.

Couchbase full Text Search

Couchbase’s full Text Search allows you to apply fuzzy search to data stored in Couchbase. For more information contemplate https://blog.couchbase.com/2016/february/couchbase-4.5-developer-preview-couchbase-fts .

Suppose you create a FTS index called beers on the beer-sample bucket in Couchbase. You can now search for beer character pale ale using this index, using the CURL role in N1QL. It is famous to note that FTS currently accepts HTTP POST instead of GET. To explicitely specify the POST request method, utilize the request option. 

Curl Request curl –u beer-sample:pass -XPOST -H "Content-Type: application/json" http://127.0.0.1:8094/api/index/beers/query -d '{ "explain": true, "fields": ["*"],"highlight": {},"query": {"query": "pale ale"}}' Corresponding Query SELECT result.total_hits, array_length(result.hits) hits_per_page FROM CURL("http://localhost:8094/api/index/beers/query", {"request":"POST","header":"Content-Type: application/json", "data":'{"explain":false,"fields": ["*"],"highlight": {},"query": {"query": "pale ale"}}', "user":"Administrator:password"}) result; "results": [ { "hits_per_page": 10, "total_hits": 3815 } ]

We give multiple options in this query. The header option allows you to pass a custom header to server. Content-Type : application/json tells the server that the data is provided in JSON format. If they Have a password protected bucket in Couchbase, then they exigency to pass its credentials with the query. The user option can exist used to pass in a colon-separated username and password. The request option specifies that POST request system is used.

If you want to retrieve only those documents from beer-sample that are returned by the search above, you can write a N1QL associate query as follows.

SELECT ARRAY x.id for x in b1.result.hits desist as hits, b1.result.total_hits as total, array_length(b1.result.hits), b FROM (SELECT CURL("http://localhost:8094/api/index/beers/query", {"request":"POST","header":"Content-Type: application/json", "data":'{"explain":false,"fields": ["*"],"highlight": {},"query": {"query": "pale ale"}}', "user":"Administrator:password"}) result) b1 INNER associate `beer-sample` b ON KEYS b1.result.hits[*].id confine 1; "results": [ { "$1": 10, "b": { "abv": 5.4, "brewery_id": "stone_brewing_co", "category": "North American Ale", "description": "Our flagship ale, Stone Pale Ale is their Southern California interpretation of the classic British pale ale style. deep amber in color, Stone Pale Ale is robust and full flavored. A delicate hop aroma is complemented by a loaded maltiness. This is an ale for those who Have learned to esteem distinctive flavor. Stone Pale Ale is considerable by itself, or with food that requires a beer of character.", "ibu": 0, "name": "Stone Pale Ale", "srm": 0, "style": "American-Style Pale Ale", "type": "beer", "upc": 0, "updated": "2010-07-22 20:00:20" }, "hits": [ "stone_brewing_co-stone_pale_ale", "flying_dog_brewery-classic_pale_ale", "yards_brewing-yards_philadelphia_pale_ale", "bell_s_brewery_inc-pale_ale", "sierra_nevada_brewing_co-sierra_nevada_pale_ale", "cooper_s_cave_ale_company-cooper_s_cave_pale_ale", "appalachian_brewing_company-hoppy_trails_india_pale_ale", "cooperstown_brewing_company-backyard_india_pale_ale", "mogollon_brewing_company-superstition_pale_ale", "troegs_brewing-troegs_pale_ale" ], "total": 3815 } ]

This will retrieve the ids of the documents returned by the FTS query that searches for pale ale, along with the total hits and complete the details from the corresponding document in beer-sample.

Github API 

Github’s API is a bit different from the previous API’s, in that it returns multiple results in the figure of a JSON array of result values. This can exist treated as multiple documents.Refer to the Github API docs in https://developer.github.com/v3/ for more details on what can exist queried.

Say you want to find out complete the repositories linked to a Github account. The following query does this

Curl request curl -H "User-Agent: ikandaswamy" https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos Corresponding query SELECT RAW list FROM CURL("https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos")list confine 1; "results": [ { "archive_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/{archive_format}{/ref}", "assignees_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/assignees{/user}", "blobs_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/blobs{/sha}", "branches_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/branches{/branch}", "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git", "collaborators_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/collaborators{/collaborator}", "comments_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/comments{/number}", "commits_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/commits{/sha}", "compare_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/compare/{base}...{head}", "contents_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/contents/{+path}", "contributors_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/contributors", "created_at": "2017-09-07T22:42:03Z", "default_branch": "master", "deployments_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/deployments", "description": "Use this to implement various fun problems while relearning Data Structures and Algorithms", "downloads_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/downloads", "events_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/events", "fork": false, "forks": 0, "forks_count": 0, "forks_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/forks", "full_name": "ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "git_commits_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/commits{/sha}", "git_refs_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/refs{/sha}", "git_tags_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/tags{/sha}", "git_url": "git://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git", "has_downloads": true, "has_issues": true, "has_pages": false, "has_projects": true, "has_wiki": true, "homepage": null, "hooks_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/hooks", "html_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "id": 102792479, "issue_comment_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/issues/comments{/number}", "issue_events_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/issues/events{/number}", "issues_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/issues{/number}", "keys_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/keys{/key_id}", "labels_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/labels{/name}", "language": null, "languages_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/languages", "merges_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/merges", "milestones_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/milestones{/number}", "mirror_url": null, "name": "ds-algo", "notifications_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/notifications{?since,all,participating}", "open_issues": 0, "open_issues_count": 0, "owner": { "avatar_url": "https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/9203396?v=4", "events_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/events{/privacy}", "followers_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/followers", "following_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/following{/other_user}", "gists_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/gists{/gist_id}", "gravatar_id": "", "html_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy", "id": 9203396, "login": "ikandaswamy", "organizations_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/orgs", "received_events_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/received_events", "repos_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos", "site_admin": false, "starred_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/starred{/owner}{/repo}", "subscriptions_url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/subscriptions", "type": "User", "url": "https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy" }, "private": false, "pulls_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/pulls{/number}", "pushed_at": "2017-09-07T22:42:04Z", "releases_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/releases{/id}", "size": 0, "ssh_url": "git@github.com:ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git", "stargazers_count": 0, "stargazers_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/stargazers", "statuses_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/statuses/{sha}", "subscribers_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/subscribers", "subscription_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/subscription", "svn_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "tags_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/tags", "teams_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/teams", "trees_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo/git/trees{/sha}", "updated_at": "2017-09-07T22:42:03Z", "url": "https://api.github.com/repos/ikandaswamy/ds-algo", "watchers": 0, "watchers_count": 0 } ]

If the account has three repositories, the query gives three results (here I Have added confine 1). The RAW keyword is used  to return the array of documents that the query returns, without a wrapper object. One point you will notice is that the header option contains the User-Agent with a github username. This is now mandatory for complete Github API requests.

Now from this list, order you would relish to know, what is the clone url for each of these repos. The following query accomplishes this

SELECT clone_url FROM (SELECT RAW list FROM CURL("https://api.github.com/users/ikandaswamy/repos", {"header":"User-Agent: ikandaswamy"}) list) s; "results": [ { "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/ds-algo.git" }, { "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/github-cheat-sheet.git" }, { "clone_url": "https://github.com/ikandaswamy/jsapp.git" } ] Summary

As you can contemplate with the above examples, using the CURL function, N1QL users can now interact with any external API’s that return results in JSON format. This opens up many possibilities. For example, if Couchbase contains data corresponding to different hotels, then you can utilize the Google Maps API to find nearby locations to each of the corresponding hotels.

In order to Have a secure environment with the addition of CURL() multiple security enhancements Have been added. The following is a short list

  • CURL runs on the query node within a cluster.
  • CURL role is disabled by default.

  • CURL supports HTTP and HTTPS only. complete other protocols are disabled.

  • Redirection of URLs is not allowed. 

  • Custom header for N1QL CURL is "X-N1QL-User-Agent: couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL".

  • User-Agent is  "couchbase/n1ql/1.7.0-N1QL".

  • Restrict amount of memory for CURL results using result-cap. Min result cap will exist 20MB, max result-cap is 64MB.

  • FULL_ADMIN role will allow access to CURL. QUERY_EXTERNAL_ACCESS role can exist assigned to a user by the full ADMIN. This will enable the user to utilize the CURL functionality. 

  • Certificates should exist stored on the local machine - each query node within a cluster. utilize …./Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts to store certificates.Use cacert to pass in the “name” of the certificate to use. Only names are valid, paths are invalid. (passing in a path will occasions an error.)

  • CURL throws an mistake in case of invalid/expired certificates.

  • User has the skill to “Whitelist” endpoints.

  • The N1QL implementation of CURL uses the golang libcurl API  - https://github.com/andelf/go-curl

    List of Available Options Security Options

    Option

    Description

    value

    user

    Server user and password

    When password is void it is treated as an void password string.

    USERNAME[:PASSWORD]

    basic

    Use HTTP Basic Authentication

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    insecure  

    Allow connections to SSL sites without certs (H)

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    anyauth

    curl to pattern out authentication system by itself, and utilize the most secure one

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    cacert

    Specify CA signed certificate filename

    Certificates should exist stored on the local machine - each query node within a cluster.

    /Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/n1qlcerts to store certificates. This is not visible to the user.

    The Filename cannot contain a path. If it is not a match to the existing contents of n1qlcerts directory, the role throws an error.

    For expired and invalid certificates sling an error.

    FILENAME (This is the certificate, pem file for aws for example)

    result-cap

    Set capacity for buffer that stores result of CURL operation

    Number of MB. (Minimum is 20MB)

    Other Transfer-Related Options

    Option

    Description

    Value

    get, G

    Get request for CURL

    BOOLEAN (true/false)

    X, request

    Set the request method. This only accepts deserve or POST and is case sensitive.

    For complete other cases it errors out.

    {“request”:”POST”}

    connect-timeout

    Maximum time allowed for connection. It should contain the maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection side to the server to take. This only limits the connection phase, it has no impact once it has connected. Set to zero to switch to the default built-in connection timeout - 300 seconds.

    If float value, they truncate it to the integer value.

    For complete other types (not a number) sling error.

    SECONDS

    max-time

    Maximum time allowed for the transfer operation.

    Default timeout is 0 (zero) which means it never times out during transfer.

    If float value, they truncate it to the integer value.

    For complete other types (not a number) sling error.

    SECONDS

    data     

    HTTP POST data (H)

    Allows us to set complete the rest api parameters for the given endpoint.

    STRING

    OR

    [...string,string….]

    header   

    Pass custom header string to server (H)

    STRING

    OR

    [...string,string….]

    show-error

    Show error.

    When accurate note errors when they occur.

    When counterfeit stifle the errors

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    silent

    Silent mode (don't output anything)

    BOOLEAN (TRUE/ FALSE)

    keepalive-time

    Wait SECONDS between keepalive probes for low flush TCP connectivity. (Does not strike HTTP flush keep-alive)

    SECONDS

    user-agent

    Value for the User-Agent to transmit to the server.

    STRING

    data-urlencode

    Encode the data, and transmit to server.

    This is a test => this%20is%20a%20test  

    STRING

    OR

    [...string,string….]


    Chapter 20 - Extension's role in sustainable agricultural evolution | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Chapter 20 - Extension's role in sustainable agricultural development

    Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

    Niels Röling and Jules N. Pretty

    Niels Röling is Extra-ordinary Professor of agricultural scholarship systems, Department of Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. Jules N. Pretty is the Director of Sustainable Agriculture Programmes, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

    Emerging challenges for sustainable agricultureSustainability and levels of actionResource-conserving technology evolution and transferIncorporating farmer experimentationFrom teaching to learning and a whole fresh professionalismFrom directive to participatory extensionChallenges for supportive policy processesReferences

    During the past fifty years, agricultural evolution policies Have been remarkably successful at emphasizing external inputs as the means to expand food production. This has led to growth in global consumption of pesticides, inorganic fertilizer, animal feed-stuffs, and tractors and other machinery.

    These external inputs have, however, substituted for natural processes and resources, rendering them less powerful. Pesticides Have replaced biological, cultural, and mechanical methods for controlling pests, weeds, and diseases; inorganic fertilizers Have substituted for livestock manures, composts, and nitrogen-fixing crops; information for management decisions comes from input suppliers, researchers, and extensionists rather than from local sources; and fossil fuels Have substituted for locally generated energy sources. The basic challenge for sustainable agriculture is to construct better utilize of these internal resources. This can exist done by minimizing the external inputs used, by regenerating internal resources more effectively, or by combinations of both.

    Evidence is now emerging that regenerative and resource-conserving technologies and practices can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities, and nations. The best evidence comes from countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the concern is to expand food production in the areas where fanning has been largely untouched by the modem packages of externally supplied technologies. In these involved and remote lands, some farmers and communities adopting regenerative technologies Have substantially improved agricultural yields, often using only few or no external inputs (Bunch, 1991; GTZ, 1992; UNDP, 1992; Lobo & Kochendörfer-Lucius, 1992; Krishna, 1993; Shah, 1994; SWCB, 1994; Pretty, 1995).

    But these are not the only sites for successful sustainable agriculture. In the high-input and generally irrigated lands, farmers adopting regenerative technologies Have maintained yields whilst substantially reducing their utilize of inputs (Kamp, Gregory, & Chowhan, 1993; UNDP, 1992; Kenmore, 1991; van der Werf & de Jager, 1992; Bagadion & Korten, 1991). And in the very high-input lands of the industrialized countries, farmers Have been able to maintain profitability even though input utilize has been Cut dramatically, such as in Europe (Vereijken, 1992; Vereijken, Wijnands, Stol, & Visser, 1994; Van Weeperen, Röling, Van Bon, & Mur, 1995; Pretty & Howes, 1993; Jordan, Hutcheon, & Glen, 1993; El Titi & Landes, 1990) and in the United States (Liebhart et al., 1989; NRC, 1989; Hanson, Johnson, Peters, & Janke, 1990; Dobbs, Becker, & Taylor, 1991; Faeth, 1993).

    All of these successes Have three elements in common. They Have made utilize of resource-conserving technologies such as integrated pest management, soil and water conservation, nutrient recycling, multiple cropping, water harvesting, and consume recycling. In all, there has been action by groups and communities at the local level, with farmers becoming experts at managing farms as ecosystems and at collectively managing the watersheds or other resource units of which their farms figure a part. And there Have moreover been supportive and enabling external government and nongovernment institutions, which Have reoriented their activities to focus on local needs and capabilities.

    Most successes, though, are soundless localized. They are simply islands of success. This is because an overarching element, a favourable policy environment, is missing. Most policies soundless actively cheer fanning that is relative on external inputs and technologies. It is these policy frameworks that are one of the principal barriers to a more sustainable agriculture (Pretty, 1994a). pattern 1 illustrates this chapter's area of discourse and its focus on the interfaces between natural resources, local stakeholders, supportive institutions, and the policy context.

    A necessary condition for sustainable agriculture is that great numbers of farming households must exist motivated to utilize coordinated resource management. This could exist for pest and predator management, nutrient management, controlling the contamination of aquifers and surface water courses, coordinated livestock management, conserving soil and water resources, and seed stock management. The problem is that, in most places, platforms for collective decision making Have not been established to manage such resources (Röling, 1994a, 1994b). The success of sustainable agriculture therefore depends not just on the motivations, skills, and scholarship of individual farmers, but on action taken by groups or communities as a whole. This makes the assignment more challenging. Simple extension of the message that sustainable agriculture can match conventional agriculture for profits, as well as bow extra benefits for society as a whole, will not suffice.

    Sustainability is commonly seen as a property of an ecosystem. But Sustainability can exist seen from other perspectives, which are more germane for extension. Environmental issues emerge from the human utilize of natural resources. Sustainability can therefore exist defined in terms of human reasons, activities, and agreements. The definition of Sustainability then becomes fragment of the problem because people exigency to agree on how they define Sustainability and what priority they will give it (Pretty, 1994b).

    In this approach, Sustainability is not a scientific, "hard" property which can exist measured according to some objective scale, or a set of practices to exist fixed in time and space. Rather, Sustainability is a attribute that emerges when people individually or collectively apply their intelligence to maintain the long-term productivity of the natural resources on which they depend (Sriskandarajah, Bawden, & Packham, 1989). In other words, Sustainability emerges out of shared human experiences, objectives, knowledge, decisions, technology, and organization. Agriculture becomes sustainable only when people Have intuition to construct it so. They can learn and negotiate their way towards Sustainability. In any discussions of Sustainability, it is famous to clarify what is being sustained, for how long, for whose capitalize and at whose cost, over what area, and measured by what criteria. Answering these questions is difficult, because it means assessing and trading off values and beliefs. Campbell (1994) has outcome it this way: "[Attempts to define Sustainability miss the point that, relish beauty, sustain skill is in the eye of the beholder.... It is inevitable that assessments of relative Sustainability are socially constructed, which is why there are so many definitions."

    It is therefore crucial to focus on more than one system flush (Fresco, Stroosnijder, Bouma, & van Keulen, 1994). At the farm level, there is the farm household. At the above-farm level, there are the collective stakeholders, who might or might not exist organized for sustainable utilize of the whole resource unit. In an irrigation scheme, it is common for an irrigators' association collectively to manage water utilize at the scheme level. But when it comes to watersheds or other vulnerable resource units, it is usually impossible to identify an confiscate "platform" for decision making (Röling, 1994a, 1994b).

    A key case is the Indonesian programme for integrated pest management (IPM) in irrigated rice (FAO, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Röling & Van de Fliert, 1994; Kenmore, 1991). At the farm level, this programme involves farmer province schools teaching individual farmers to manage their rice plots as ecosystems, carefully maintaining the balance between pests and their natural predators and only reverting to pesticides when observation shows that the situation is running out of hand. But IPM moreover needs collective management of resources comprising several farms. Thus nematodes can effectively exist controlled by interrupting the cultivation of wet rice by a dryland crop such as soybeans. This requires decision making at the irrigation shroud level. The population dynamics of rats, the most famous pest in irrigated rice, cannot exist controlled at the farm level. Integrated rat management requires collective action at the village flush (Van de Fliert, van Elsen, & Nangsir Soenanto, 1993).

    Although many resource-conserving technologies and practices Have been widely proven on research stations to exist both productive and sustainable, the total number of farmers using them is soundless small. This is because these technologies involve the substitution of management skills, knowledge, and labour for external inputs. The modern approach to agricultural research and extension, however, has been to emphasize comprehensive packages of technologies. Few farmers are able to adopt the whole modem packages of production or conservation technologies without considerable adjustments. fragment of the problem is that most agricultural research soundless occurs on the research station, where scientists sustain conditions quite different from those experienced by farmers.

    This is accurate of many sustainability-enhancing innovations. Even though resource-conserving technologies are productive and sustainable, if they are imposed on farmers, then they will not exist adopted widely. Alley cropping, an agroforestry system comprising rows of nitrogen-fixing trees or bushes separated by rows of cereals, has long been the focus of research (Kang, Wilson, & Lawson, 1984; Attah-Krah & Francis, 1987; Young, 1989; Lal, 1989). Many productive and sustainable systems, needing few or no external inputs, Have been developed. They desist erosion, bow food and wood, and can exist cropped over long periods. But the problem is that very few, if any, farmers Have adopted these alley cropping systems as designed. Despite millions of dollars of research expenditure over many years, systems that Have been produced are suitable only for research stations.

    Where these systems Have had some success, however, farmers Have taken one or two components of alley cropping and adapted them to their own farms. In Kenya, for example, farmers planted rows of leguminous trees next to province boundaries, or separate rows through their fields; and in Rwanda, alleys planted by extension workers soon became dispersed through fields (Kerkhof, 1990). But the current view tends to exist that farmers should meet to the technology. Of the Agroforestry Outreach Project in Haiti, it was said:

    Farmer management of hedgerows does not conform to the extension program.... Some farmers prune the hedgerows too early, others too late. Some hedges are not yet pruned by two years of age, when they Have already reached heights of 4-5 metres. Other hedges are pruned too early, mainly because animals are let in or the tops are Cut and carried to animals.... Finally, it is very common for farmers to allow some of the trees in the hedgerow to grow to pole size. These trees are not pruned but are harvested when needed for house construction or other activities requiring poles. (Bannister & Nair, 1990)

    Farmers were clearly making their own adaptations according to their own needs.

    Just occasionally, however, an environmentally profitable technology is developed that appears to require no scholarship of farmers' conditions. The IPM programme to control cassava mealybug (CMB) (Phenacoccus manihoti) in west and central Africa is one example. CMB was first recorded in Africa in 1973, and an efficient natural enemy, the wasp Epidinocarsis lopezi, was create in 1981. Since releases began, it has become established in twenty-five countries, providing friendly control of CMB. It is to some extent a "perfect technology" for scientists, because it is released from the air without the scholarship of farmers. It is, however, not necessarily a perfect technology for farmers. The contrast with another IPM programme in Togo is significant when it comes to issues of sustainability (Box 1).

    The problem with agricultural science and extension is that it has poorly understood the nature of "indigenous" and pastoral people's knowledge. For many, what pastoral people know is assumed to exist "primitive," "unscientific," or overtaken by development, and so formal research and extension must "transform" what they know so as to "develop" them. An alternative view is that local scholarship is a valuable and underused resource, which can exist studied, collected, and incorporated into evolution activities. Neither of these views, though, is entirely satisfactory because of the static view of scholarship implied (Chambers, Pacey, & Thrupp, 1989; Röling & Engel, 1989; Warren, 1991; Long & Long, 1992; Scoones & Thompson, 1994). It is more famous to recognize that local people are always involved in vigorous learning, in (re)inventing technologies, in adapting their farming systems and living strategies. Understanding and supporting these processes of agricultural innovation and experimentation Have become an famous focus in facilitating more sustainable agriculture with its tenacious locality-specific nature.

    The problem with modem agricultural science is that technologies are finalized before farmers deserve to contemplate them. If fresh technologies are confiscate and meet a particular farmer's conditions or needs, then they stand a friendly chance of being adopted. But if they outcome not meet and if farmers are unable to construct changes, then they Have only the one choice. They Have to meet to the technology, or reject it entirely.

    Box 1. Comparison of Farmers' Involvement in Two IPM Programmes.

    A: Cassava mealybug (CMB) control with Epidinocarsis lopezi

    The programme has involved close collaboration between IITA and NARSs, involving training of local technicians to participate in releases. Now mass rearing of the wasp E. lopezi is done in Benin; from there they are transported by air for air release. According to IITA, an famous component of success has been that farmers and extension agents Have not had to exist involved. Farmers outcome not, therefore, know anything about the releases. One survey of farmers in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire create that they recognized CMB and how it was a devastating pest. complete those where E. lopezi had been introduced at least six months before had observed a significant decline in CMB. But because nonexistent of them knew about the programme, they attributed the decline to recent hefty rains and other climatic factors.

    B: Mango mealybug control in Togo

    The CMB programme is in contrast to the successful introduction of the parasitoid Gyranusoides tebyii to Togo in 1987 to control the mango mealybug (Rastrococcus invadens). The parasitoid was create in India, and following testing, rearing, and release, it rapidly spread over the whole of Togo. By 1989, no mango trees could exist create on which mango mealybug was present without being parasitized. But success would exist threatened without public interest, as any utilize of chemical control methods would destroy the parasites. A considerable deal of publicity was given through radio, TV, and advisory leaflets. Considerable economic losses are now being prevented by the biological control system.

    Source: Kiss and Meerman (1991).

    The alternative is to search and cheer the involvement of farmers in adapting technologies to their conditions. This constitutes a radical reversal of the benchmark modes of research and technology generation, because it requires interactive participation between professionals and farmers. Participatory technology evolution (PTD) is the process in which the scholarship and research capacities of farmers are joined with those of scientific institutions, whilst at the very time strengthening local capacities to experiment and innovate (Jiggins & De Zeeuw, 1992; Reijntjes, Haverkort, & Waters-Bayer, 1992; Haverkort, van der Kamp, & Waters-Bayer, 1991). Farmers are encouraged to generate and evaluate indigenous technologies and to elect and meet external ones on the basis of their own scholarship and value systems.

    But, of course, researchers and farmers participate in different ways, depending on the degree of control each actor has over the research process. The most common figure of "participatory" research is researcher designed and implemented, even though it might exist conducted on farmers' fields. Many on-farm trials and demonstration plots picture nothing better than passive participation (Pretty, 1994b). Less commonly, farmers may implement trials designed by researchers. But greater roles for farmers are even rarer. Fujisaka (1991) describes researcher-designed experiments on fresh cropping patterns in the Philippines. Even though farmers "participated" in implementing the trials, there was widespread uncertainty about what researchers were actually trying to achieve. Farmers misunderstood experiments and rejected the fresh technologies. The reason, as Fujisaka explains, was that "cooperation between farmers and researchers implies two groups continually listening carefully to one another. Claveria farmers are avid listeners to... researchers. The challenge is for complete on-farm researchers to complete the circle."

    Although this means that technology evolution must involve farmers, it does not denote that scientific research has no place. Research will Have to contribute on many fronts, such as in the evolution of resistant cultivars, scholarship about the life cycles of pests, biological control methods, suitable crops for erosion control, and processes in nitrogen fixation. Such research moreover gives insight into involved processes such as the movement of nutrients in the soil and their accessibility for plants. But complete these contributions must exist seen as providing choices for farmers as they construct farm-specific decisions and travel the whole farm towards greater sustainability.

    The central principle of sustainable agriculture is that it must enshrine fresh ways of learning about the world. But learning should not exist confused with teaching.

    Teaching implies the transfer of scholarship from someone who knows to someone who does not know. Teaching is the benchmark mode of educational curricula and is moreover central to many organizational structures (Ison, 1990; Argyris, Putnam, & Smith, 1985; Russell & Ison, 1991; Bawden, 1992, 1994; Pretty & Chambers, 1993). Universities and other professional institutions reinforce the teaching paradigm by giving the print that they are custodians of scholarship which can exist dispensed or given (usually by lecture) to a recipient (a student). Where these institutions outcome not include a focus on self-development and on enhancing the skill to learn, they outcome not allow students to grasp an essential skill in the sustainable management of a involved agroecosystem. In that case, "teaching threatens sustainable agriculture" (Ison, 1990).

    The problem for farmers is that they cannot rely on routine, calendar-based activities if they engage in sustainable farming. Their interventions must exist based on observation and anticipation. They require instruments and indicators which construct more visible the ecological relationships on and among farms. Technology for sustainable farming must emphasize measurement and observation materiel or services that cheer individual farmers assess their situations, such as soil analysis, manure analysis, and pest identification (Röling, 1993). It moreover has to focus on higher system levels. Predators and parasitoids to control pests often require a larger biotope than that of a little farm. Erosion control, water harvesting, biodiversity, access to biomass, recycling consume between town and countryside and between animal and crop production, complete require local cooperation and coordination.

    What becomes famous is the sociable transition, or fresh learning path, that farmers and communities must trap to uphold sustainable agriculture. This is much less obvious and often remains unrecognized by extensionists. Learning for sustainable agriculture involves a transformation in the fundamental objectives, strategies, theories, risk perceptions, skills, labour organization, and professionalism of farming. This learning path has four key elements:

    1. The information system. Sustainable agriculture must exist responsive to changing circumstances, so farmers exigency to invest in observation, observation equipment, record keeping, and monitoring procedures.

    2. Conceptual framework. Sustainable agriculture is scholarship intensive, and so farmers must know about life cycles of pests and disease organisms and their recognition, biological controls, ecological principles, soil life processes, nutrient cycles.

    3. Skills. Sustainable farming requires a whole set of fresh skills, including observation and monitoring, compost making, mechanical weed control, spot application of pesticides, and risk assessment.

    4. Higher system-level management. Generally, sustainable management of the farm is not enough, and it is necessary to reflect at system levels higher than the farm and trap fragment in the collective management of natural resources at those levels.

    In educational systems, therefore, the fundamental requirement for sustainable agriculture is for universities to evolve into communities of participatory learners. Such changes are very rare, an exception being Hawkesbury College, which is now fragment of the University of Western Sydney, Australia (Bawden, 1992, 1994). However, a regional consortium of NGOs in Latin America concerned with agroecology and low-input agriculture recently signed an agreement with eleven colleges of agriculture from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay to cheer in the joint reorientation of curriculum and research agendas towards sustainability and poverty concerns (Altieri & Yuryevic, 1992; Yuryevic, 1994). The agreement defines collaboration to develop more systemic and integrated curricula, professional training and internship programmes, collaborative research efforts, and the evolution of training materials.

    Box 2. The Key Principles of Farmer province Schools.

    1. What is germane and meaningful is decided by the learner and must exist discovered by the learner. Learning flourishes in a situation where teaching is seen as a facilitating process that assists people to explore and learn the personal meaning of events for themselves.

    2. Learning is a consequence of experience. People become amenable when they Have assumed responsibility and experienced success.

    3. Cooperative approaches are enabling. As people invest in collaborative group approaches, they develop a better sense of their own worth.

    4. Learning is an evolutionary process, and is characterized by free and open communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect, and the privilege to construct mistakes.

    5. Each person's sustain of reality is unique. As people become more aware of how they learn and resolve problems, they can refine and modify their own styles of learning and action.

    Sources: Adapted from Kingsley and Musante, 1994; Van de Fliert, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; Stock, 1994.

    A travel from a teaching to a learning style has profound implications for agricultural evolution institutions. The focus is less on what they learn, and more on how they learn and with whom (see Box 2 for principles of farmer province schools used in the FAO IPM programme in Southeast Asia). This implies fresh roles for evolution professionals, leading to a whole fresh professionalism with fresh concepts, values, methods, and behaviour. Typically, benchmark professionals are single-disciplinary, labor largely or only in agencies remote from people, are insensitive to diversity of context, and are concerned with themselves generating and transferring technologies. Their beliefs about people's conditions and priorities often vary from people's own views. The fresh professionals, by contrast, are either multidisciplinary or labor in close connection with other disciplines, are not intimidated by the complexities of close dialogue with pastoral and urban people, and are continually aware of the context of interaction and development.

    Extension has long been grounded in the diffusion model of agricultural development, in which technologies are passed from research scientists via extensionists to farmers (Rogers, 1962, 1983). This approach is exemplified by the training and visit (T&V) system. It was first implemented in Turkey in 1967 and later widely adopted by governments (Benor, 1987; Roberts, 1989). It was designed to exist a management system for energizing extension staff, turning desk-bound, poorly motivated province staff into efficient extension agents. Extension agents receive regular training to enhance their technical skills, which they then hope will pass to complete farmers through regular communication with little numbers of selected contact farmers.

    But the contact farmers are usually selected on the basis of literacy, wealth, readiness to change, and "progressiveness," and so this sets them apart from the rest of the community. The secondary transfer of the technical messages, from contact farmers to community, has been much less successful than predicted, and adoption rates are commonly very low among noncontact farmers. Without a doubt, T&V is now widely considered as ineffective (Axinn, 1988; Howell, 1988; Moris, 1990; Antholt, 1992, 1994; Hussain, Byerlee, & Heisey, 1994).

    Important lessons Have been learned from the problems associated with T&V, and there is clearly a exigency to address the systemic issues facing extension (Zijp, 1993; Antholt, 1994). Extension will exigency to build on traditional communication systems and involve farmers themselves in the process of extension. Incentive systems will Have to exist developed to reward staff for being in the province and working closely with farmers. There must exist a "well-defined link between the well-being of province officers and the extension system, based on the clients' view of the value of extension's and province workers' performance" (Antholt, 1992, P.). Participation, if it is to become fragment of extension, must clearly exist interactive and empowering. Any pretence to participation will result in limited change. Allowing farmers just to arrive to meetings or letting a few representatives sit on committees will exist insufficient.

    There Have been some recent innovations in introducing elements of farmer participation and group approaches into extension. Differences in impact between individual and group approaches Have been well documented in both Nepal and Kenya. In western Nepal, Sen (1993) compared the rate of adoption of fresh technologies when extension worked with individuals or with groups. With groups, better communication between farmers and extensionists led to more adoption. When the individual approach was resumed after the experiment, adoption rates fell rapidly in succeeding years.

    In Kenya, the Ministry of Agriculture is increasingly adopting a community-oriented approach to soil and water conservation. This is steadily replacing the former individual approach of the T&V system. Where extension staff interact closely with communities in developing joint action plans, and local people freely elect members to a local catchment committee, then the impact on agricultural growth is immediate and sustained. tenacious local groups mobilize the interest of the wider community and sustain action well beyond the term of direct contact with external agents. Recent studies comparing the impact of the catchment approach with the individual T&V approach Have shown that, for a wide purview of indicators, farmers' livelihoods were more improved where the community approach was implemented (SWCB, 1994; Pretty, Thompson, & Kiara, 1994; MALDM, 1988-1994; Eckbom, 1992).

    There Have been similar successes in IPM, which requires a flush of analytical skill and inevitable basic training in crop monitoring and ecological principles. Where farmers Have been trained as experts, such as in Honduras (Bentley, Rodriguez, & Gonzalez, 1993) and in the rice-IPM programmes of Southeast Asia (Kenmore, 1991), then the impacts are substantial. Ordinary farmers are capable of rapidly acquiring and applying the principles and approaches. Fewer programmes are now teaching farmers fresh technologies and knowledge; rather, they are concerned with developing farmers' own capacity to reflect for themselves and develop their own solutions. These are producing substantial reductions in insecticide use, whilst maintaining yields and increasing profits (Table 1). But where extension continues to utilize the conventional top-down approach, then few farmers adopt, let lonely learn, the principles. As Matteson (1992) outcome it: "[F]ew IPM programmes Have made a lasting impact on farmer knowledge, attitudes or practice."

    There are three major lessons for extension. First, it is famous to construct fresh things visible. An famous role of extension is to construct visible the situation of the environment and the extent to which present farming practices are untenable. In addition, extension can demonstrate the feasibility of sustainable practices. Even more famous is to give farmers the tools for observation and to train them to monitor the situation on their own farms.

    The second lesson is the utilize of farmers' knowledge. The location-specific nature of sustainable agriculture implies that extension must construct utilize of farmers' scholarship and labor together with farmers. Often, indigenous practices which Have been ignored under the impact of chemical farming can exist fruitfully revived. Indigenous technology evolution practices and farmer experimentation can exist an famous "entry point" for introducing sustainable farming practices (Brouwers & Röling, in press).

    The third lesson is an emphasis on facilitating learning. Instead of "transferring" technology, extension workers must cheer farming "walk the learning path" (Box 3). Extension workers should search to understand the learning process, provide expert recommendation where required, convene and create learning groups, and cheer farmers overcome major hurdles in adapting their farms.

    Policy making is commonly considered the prerogative of some central authority that formulates a policy, which is then decreed, imposed, and implemented regardless of conflicting scholarship and concerns. But policy is, in practice, often the net result of the actions of different interest groups pulling in complementary and opposing directions. This is particularly accurate with environmental problems because they are marked by uncertainty, complexity, and elevated stakes complexity, and elevated stakes (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). There is therefore a growing tendency to contemplate policy as a negotiated agreement resulting from interaction among citizens, in which central authorities play a facilitating role (Van der Poel & Van Woerkum, 1994). Policy is only efficient if it is based on a widely shared consensus. From this perspective, it is effortless to contemplate why so many environmental policies which rely on coercion, control, and transfer Have failed (Pretty & Shah, 1994; Pimbert & Pretty, 1994).

    Box 3. The First Steps on the Learning Path in the Netherlands.

    Predator mites were introduced into Dutch fruit orchards to control the red spider mite, which had become resistant to chemical controls. The utilize of this biological control meant that growers had to learn how to manage their orchards as biotopes for the predator mite. Soon they were carrying magnifying glasses to study the progress of their limited helpers. This made them much more observant and accustomed to investing in regular observation. Furthermore, the health of the predator mites precluded utilize of broad-spectrum pesticides against other pests. As a result, growers moreover had to learn alternative controls for those pests.

    Table 1. impact of IPM Programmes Involving fresh Participatory Approaches to Farmer Learning on Pesticide utilize and Crop Yields

    Country and crop

    Average changes in pesticide utilize (as % of conventional treatments)

    Changes in yields (as % of conventional treatments)

    Togo, cotton1

    50%

    90-108%

    Burkina Faso, rice1

    50%

    103%

    Thailand, rice2

    50%

    no data

    Philippines, rice2

    62%

    110%

    Indonesia, rice2

    34-42%

    105%

    Nicaragua, maize3

    25%

    93%'1

    USA, nine commodities4

    no. of applications up volume applied down

    110-130%

    Bangladesh, rice5

    0-25%

    113-124%

    India, groundnuts6

    0%

    100%

    China, rice2

    46-80%

    110%

    Vietnam, rice2

    57%

    107%

    India,rice2

    33%

    108%

    Sri Lanka, rice2

    26%

    135%

    a Even though yields are lower, net returns are much higher.

    Sources: (1) Kiss and Meerman, 1991; (2) Kenmore, 1991: Winarto, 1993; van der Fliert, 1993; Matteson et at, 1992; FAO, 1994; (3) Hruska, 1993; (4) NRC, 1989; (5) Kamp et al, 1993; Kenmore, 1991; (6) ICRISAT, 1993

    For sustainable agriculture to succeed, policy formulation must arise in a fresh way. Policy processes must exist enabling and participatory, creating the conditions for sustainable evolution based more on locally available resources and on local skills and knowledge. efficient policy processes will Have to bring together a purview of actors and institutions for creative interaction and address multiple realities and unpredictability. What is required is the evolution of approaches that outcome participation, negotiation, and mediation at the centre of policy formulation so as to create a much wider common ownership in the practices. This is a central challenge for sustainable agriculture. The management of higher flush systems, whether common grazing lands, coastal fisheries resources, communal forests, national parks, polders, or watersheds, requires sociable organization comprising the key stakeholders. complete successful moves to more sustainable agriculture Have in common coordinated action by groups or communities at the local flush (Pretty, 1995). But the problem is that platforms for resource utilize negotiation generally outcome not exist, and so exigency to exist created and facilitated (Brinkman, 1994; Röling, 1994a, 1994b).

    Different methodologies are emerging to cheer stake-holders achieve collective resource management capacity. Well known are participatory rapid appraisal (PRA) and related methodologies (see chapter 6). In addition, the soft system methodology (SSM) developed for corporate environments is highly promising for resource utilize negotiation (Checkland, 1981; Checkland & Scholes, 1990). For stakeholders who Have arrive to esteem the fact that they partake a problem, SSM takes them through a number of steps which allows them to create a "rich picture" on the basis of their multiple perspectives, achieve some accommodation with respect to major causes of the problem, and hence elect on collective action. "Rapid appraisal of agricultural scholarship systems" (RAAKS) (Engel, 1995) is a related methodology for facilitating innovation as an emergent property of a scholarship network, comprising such actors as farmers, extension workers, researchers, NGO workers, and policy makers. This system provides stakeholders with different "windows" (such as mission, assignment differentiation, integration, articulation, coordination, performance) on their own collective practices which allow them to capture the potential synergy of their contributions to innovative performance.

    A fundamental requirement if such approaches are to labor is that stakeholders in a particular natural resource learn to esteem that they Have a common problem (Box 4). Extension has an famous role to play here by making visible the interdependence between stakeholders and the extent to which the resource unit on which they depend has been destroyed by their uncoordinated action and the collective impact of their individual activities. It is within policy contexts thus made conducive for sustainable agriculture that technology evolution and extension can exist especially effective.

    Box 4. Resource Mapping by Farmers in Landcare Programme, Australia.

    Landcare in Australia provides examples of learning to freight for natural resources at higher system levels. deem resource mapping. Farmers from a subcatchment (usually a subgroup of a Lancare group) are convened by the facilitator of the group to discuss the soils and their susceptibility to erosion. First, a soil typology is established by the farmers through province visits, digging soil pits, and so forth. After a suitable classification (which might deviate considerably from the official scientific one) has been agreed upon, farmers receive an air photo mosaic of the entire subcatchment with their property drawn in. They are moreover provided with a transparent overlay on which to map the soils and main features of their own properties.

    These farmer maps are digitized and fed into GIS software, which allows the property resource maps to exist combined into one consolidated subcatchment map. Following meetings to discuss the results, farmers agree on the resource map of the subcatchment and now Have a solid grasp of the interaction between their property and the subcatchment. They moreover realize that vulnerable soils span several properties and that measures to preclude further soil erosion and solination require alignment of fences, roads, vegetation belts, and other features.

    Altieri, M. A., & Yurjevic, A. (1992). Changing the agenda of the universities. ILEIA Newsletter, 2, 39.

    Antholt, C. H. (1992). Relevancy, responsiveness and cost-effectiveness: Issues/or agricultural extension in the 21st century. Washington, DC: Asia Region, Technical Department, World Bank.

    Antholt, C. H. (1994). Getting ready for the twenty-first century: Technical change and institutional modernisation in agriculture. World Bank Technical Paper 217. Asia Technical Department Series. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Argyris, C., Putoam, R., & Smith, D. M. (1985). Action science. San Francisco and London: Jossey-Bass.

    Attah-Krah, A. N., & Francis, P. A. (1987). The role of on-farm trials in the evaluation of composite technologies: The case of alley farming in southern Nigeria. Agricultural Systems, 23, 133-152.

    Axinn, G. H. (1988). T & V (tragic and vain) extension. INTERPAKS, INTERCHANGE, International Agriculture, 5 (3). Urbana: College of Agriculture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    Bagadion, B. U., & Korten, F. F. (1991). Developing irrigators' organizations: A learning process approach. In M. M. Cernea (Ed.), Putting people first (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bannister, M. E., & Nair, P. K. R. (1990). Alley cropping as a sustainable agricultural technology for the hillsides of Haiti: sustain of an agroforestry outreach project. American Alternative Agriculture, 5 (2), 51-59.

    Bawden, R. (1992, October). Creating learning systems: A metaphor for institutional reform for development. Paper presented at the joint conference of IIED/IDS. IDS, University of Sussex: IIED, London.

    Bawden, R. (1994). A learning approach to sustainable agriculture and pastoral development: Reflections from Hawkesbury (mimeo). Australia: Hawkesbury College.

    Benor, D. (1987). Training and visit extension: Back to basics. In Rivera and Schram, Agricultural Extension Worldwide (p. 137-149). fresh York: Croom Helm.

    Bentley, I. W., Rodriguez, G., & Gonzalez, A. (1993). Science and the people: Honduran compressions and natural pest control inventions. In D. Buckles (Ed.), Gorras y sombreros: Caminos hacia la colaboración entre técnicos y campesinos. El Zamarano, Honduras: Department of Crop Protection.

    Brinkman, R. (1994). Recent developments in land utilize planning. Keynote address at the 75-year Anniversary Conference of the Wageningen Agricultural University. In L. 0. Fresco et al. (Eds.), Future of the land: Mobilising and integrating scholarship for land utilize options. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

    Brouwers, J., & Röling, N. (in press). living local scholarship for sustainable development. Accepted for publication in D. M. Warren, S. Fujisaka, & G. Prain (Eds.), Biological and cultural diversity: The role of indigenous experimentation in development. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

    Bunch, R. (1991). Low input soil restoration in Honduras: The Cantarranas farmer-to-farmer extension programme. Sustainable Agriculture Programme Gatekeeper train SA23. London: IIED.

    Campbell, A. (1994). Landcare: Communities shaping the land and the future. Sydney: Alien and Unwin.

    Chambers, R., Pacey, A., & Thrupp, L-A. (Eds.). (1989). Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

    Checkland, P. B. (1981). Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester: John Wiley.

    Checkland, P., & Scholes, J. (1990). Soft systems methodology in action. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

    Dobbs, T. L., Becker, D. L., & Taylor. (1991). Sustainable agriculture policy analyses: South Dakota on-farm case studies. Journal of Farming Systems Research-Extension, 2(2), 109-124.

    Eckbom, A. (1992). Economic impact assessment of implementation strategies for soil conservation: A comparative analysis of the on-farm and catchment approach in Trans Nwia, Kenya. Sweden: Unit for Environmental Economics, Department of Economics, Gothenburg University.

    El Titi, A., & Landes, H. (1990). Integrated farming system of Lautenbach: A practical contribution toward sustainable agriculture. In C. A. Edwards, R. Lal, P. Madden, R. H. Miller, & G. House (Eds.), Sustainable agricultural systems. Ankeny: Soil and Water Conservation Society.

    Engel, P. (1995). Facilitating innovation: An action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative sociable drill in agriculture. Published doctoral dissertation. Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    Faeth, P. (Ed.). (1993). Agricultural policy and sustainability: Case studies from India, Chile, the Philippines and the United States. Washington, DC: WRI.

    Fresco, L. O., Stroosnijder, L., Bouma, J., & van Keulen, H. (Eds.). (1994). The future of the land. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

    Fujisaka, S. (1991). Thirteen reasons why farmers outcome not adopt innovations intended to improve the sustainability of agriculture. In Evaluation for sustainable land management in the developing world: Volume 2. Technical Papers. IBSRAM Proceedings, 72(2), 509-522. Thailand: IBSRAM.

    Funtowicz, S. O., & Ravetz, J. R. (1993). Science for the post-normal age. Futures, 25(7, September), 739-755.

    GTZ (1992). The spark has jumped the gap. Eschborn: Deutsche Gessellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).

    Hanson, J. C., Johnson, D. M., Peters, S. E., & Janke, R. R. (1990). The profitability of sustainable agriculture on a representative grain farm in the mid-Atlantic region, 1981-1989. Northeastern Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics, 19 (2), 90-98.

    Haverkort, B., van der Kamp, & Waters-Bayer, A. (Eds.). (1991). Joining farmers' experiments: Experiences in participatory development. London: IT Publications.

    Howell, J. (Ed.). (1988). Training and visit extension in practice. London: Overseas evolution Institute.

    Hruska, A. J. (1993). freight policy promotes IPM. International Ag-Sieve, 5(6), 4-5.

    Hussain, S. S., Byerlee, D., & Heisey, P. W. (1994). Impacts of the training and visit extension system on farmers' scholarship and adoption of technology: Evidence from Pakistan. Agricultural Economics, 10, 39-47.

    ICRISAT. (1993). Will the pod-borer become the farmer's pall bearer? SAT News, p. 7-10.

    Ison, R. (1990). Teaching threatens sustainable agriculture. Gatekeeper train SA21. London: IIED.

    Jiggins, J., & de Zeeuw, H. (1992). Participatory technology evolution in practice: Process and methods. In C. Reijntjes, B. Haverkort, & A. Waters-Bayer (Eds.), Farming for the Future. Netherlands: Macmillan and ILEIA.

    Jordan, V. W. L., Hutcheon, J. A., & Glen, D. M. (1993). Studies in technology transfer of integrated farming systems: Considerations and principles for development. Bristol: AFRC Institute of Arable Crops Research, Long Ashton Research Station.

    Kamp, K., Gregory, R., & Chowhan, G. (1993). Fish cutting pesticide use. ILEIA Newsletter, 2, 22-23.

    Kang, B. T., Wilson, G. F., & Lawson, T. L. (1984). Alley cropping: A stable alternative to shifting agriculture. Ibadan: IITA.

    Kenmore, P. (1991). How rice farmers antiseptic up the environment, conserve biodiversity, raise more food, construct higher profits: Indonesia's IPM - A model for Asia. Manila, Philippines: FAO.

    Kerkhof, P. (1990). Agroforestry in Africa: A survey of project experience. London: Panos Institute.

    Kingsley, M. A., & Musante, P. (1994, July). Activities for developing linkages and cooperative exchange among farmers' organisations, NGOs, GOs and researchers: Case study of IPM in Indonesia. Paper presented at IIED symposium, Brighton.

    Kiss, A., & Meerman, F. (1991). Integrated pest management in African agriculture. World Bank Technical Paper 142. African Technical Department Series. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Krishna, A. (1993). Watershed evolution in Rajasthan: The fresh approach. Jaipur: Watershed Development, Government of Rajasthan.

    Lal, R. (1989). Agroforestry systems and soil surface management of a tropical alfisol. I: Soil moisture and crop yields. Agroforestry Systems, 8, 7-29.

    Liebhardt, W, Andrews, R. W, Culik, M. N., Harwood, R. R., Janke, R. R., Radke, J. K., & Rieger-Schwartz, S. L. (1989). Crop production during conversion from conventional to low-input methods. Agronomy Journal, 81 (2), 150-159.

    Lobo, C., & Kochendorfer-Lucius, G. (1992). The rain decided to cheer us: An sustain in participatory watershed evolution in Maharashtra State, India. Ahmednagar: sociable Centre.

    Long, N., & Long, A. (Eds.). (1992). Battlefields of knowledge: The interlocking of theory and drill in sociable research and development. London: Routledge.

    MALDM (1988-1994). Reports of catchment approach planning and rapid catchment analyses. Nairobi: Soil and Water Conservation Branch, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock evolution and Marketing.

    Moris, J. (1990). Extension alternatives in Africa. London: ODI.

    Matteson, P. C. (1992). "Farmer First" for establishing IPM. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82, 293-296.

    Matteson, P. C., Gallagher, K. D., & Kenmore, P. E. (1992). Extension of integrated pest management for planthoppers in Asian irrigated rice: Empowering the user. In R. F. Denno & T. J. perfect (Eds.), Ecology and Management of Planthoppers. London: Chapman and Hall.

    NRC (1989). Alternative agriculture. Washington, DC: National Research Council; National Academy Press.

    Ornes, F. (1988). Community training centres for organic agriculture and confiscate technology. Dominion Republic. In C. Conroy & M. Litvinoff (Eds.), The greening of aid. London: Earthscan Publications.

    Pimbert, M., & Pretty, J. N. (1994). Parks, people, and professionals: Putting "participation" into protected areas management. Geneva: UNRISD and WWF; London: IIED.

    Pretty, J. N. (1994a). Policies that labor for a more sustainable agriculture. London: IIED.

    Pretty, J. N. (1994b). Alternative systems of inquisition for sustainable agriculture. IDS Bulletin, 25(2), 37-48. University of Sussex: IDS.

    Pretty, J. N. (1995). Regenerating agriculture: Policies and drill for sustainability and self-reliance. London: Earthscan Publications.

    Pretty, J. N., & Chambers, R. (1993). Towards a learning paradigm: fresh professionalism and institutions for sustainable agriculture. IDS Discussion Paper DP 334. Brighton: IDS.

    Pretty, J. N., & Howes, R. (1993). Sustainable agriculture in Britain: Recent achievements and fresh policy challenges. London: IIED.

    Pretty, J. N., & Shah, P. (1994). Soil and water conservation in the 20th century: A history of coercion and control. pastoral History Centre Research train No. 1. Reading: University of Reading.

    Pretty, J. N., Thompson, J., & Kiara, J. K. (1994). Agricultural regeneration in Kenya: The catchment approach to soil and water conservation. Ambio.

    Reijntjes, C., Haverkort, B., & Waters-Bayer, A. (1992). Farming for the future: An introduction to low-external-input and sustainable agriculture. The Information Centre for Low-External-Input and Sustainable Agriculture (ILEIA). London: Macmillan.

    Roberts, N. (Ed.). (1989). Agricultural extension in Africa. World Bank Symposium. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Roche, C. (1992). Operationality in turbulence: The exigency for change. London: ACORD.

    Rogers, E. M. (1962 and 1983). Diffusion of innovations. fresh York: Free Press.

    Röling, N. (1992, October). Facilitating sustainable agriculture: Turning policy models upside down. Paper presented at IIED/IDS Conference, Brighton.

    Röling, N. (1993). Agricultural scholarship and environmental regulation: The crop protection contrivance and the Koekoekspolder. Sociologia Ruralis, 33 (2), 212-231.

    Röling, N. (1994a). Platforms for decision making about ecosystems. In L. Fresco (Ed.), The future of the land. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

    Röling, N. (1994b). Creating human platforms to manage natural resources: First results of a research programme. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Systems Oriented Research in Agriculture and pastoral evolution (p. 391-395). Montpellier, France, November21.25.1994.

    Röling, N., & Engel, P. (1989). IKS and scholarship management: Utilizing indigenous scholarship in institutional scholarship systems. In D. Warren et al. (Eds.), Indigenous scholarship systems: Implications for agriculture and international development. Studies in Technology and sociable Change, 11. Ames: Technology and sociable Change Program, Iowa situation University.

    Röling, N., & Jiggins, J. (1993). Policy paradigm for sustainable farming. European Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 7(1), 23-44.

    Röling, N., & Van de Fliert, E. (1994). Transforming extension for sustainable agriculture: The case of integrated pest management in rice in Indonesia. Agriculture and Human Values, 11 (2, 3), 96-108.

    Russell, D. B., & Ison, R. L. (1991, April). The research-development relationship in rangelands: An opportunity for contextual science. Plenary paper presented at the 4th International Rangelands Congress, Montpellier, France.

    Scoones, I., & Thompson, J. (Eds.). (1994). Beyond Farmer First. London: IT Publications.

    Sen, C. K. (1993). Nepal: Group extension. pastoral Extension Bulletin, 3, 17-23. University of Reading, UK.

    Shah, P. (1994). Participatory watershed management in India: The sustain of the Aga Khan pastoral uphold Programme. In I. Scoones & J. Thompson (Eds.), Beyond Farmer First. London: IT Publications.

    Sriskandarajah, N., Bawden, R. J., & Packham, R. G. (1991). Systems agriculture: A paradigm for sustainability. Association for Farming Systems Research-Extension Newsletter, 2(2), 1-5.

    Stock, T. (1994). The impact of integrated pest management farmer province schools in the Cordillera region of the Philippines. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Reading.

    SWCB (1994). The impact of the catchment approach to soil and water conservation: A study of six catchments in Western, Rift Valley and Central provinces of Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock evolution and Marketing.

    UNDP (1992). The benefits of diversity: An incentive towards sustainable agriculture. fresh York: UNDP.

    Van de Fliert, E. (1993). Integrated pest management: Farmer province schools generate sustainable practices: A case study in central Java evaluating IPM training. WU Papers 93-3. Published doctoral dissertation. Wageningen: Agricultural University.

    Van de Fliert, E., van Elsen, K., & Nangsir Soenanto, F. (1993). Integrated rat management: A community activity. Results of a pilot programme in Indonesia. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 41 (3).

    Van der Poel, M. M., & Van Woerkum, C. J. M. (1994). De positionering van communicatie in Beleid. Deelrapport 1 (literatuuronderzoek) en Deel 2 (Weergave van bijeenkomsten, conclusies van het onderzoek en aan-bevelingen voor vervolgonderzoek). Wageningen: Agricultural University, Department of Communication and Innovation Studies, carried under a compress from the Government Information Office.

    van der Werf, E., & de Jager, A. (1992). Ecological agriculture in South India: An agro-economic comparison and study of transition. Den Haag: LEI and ETC Foundation, Leusden.

    Van Weeperen, W., Röling, N., Van Bon, K., & Mur, P. (1995). Introductie geïhtegreerde akkerbouw: Het veranderingsproces. Ervaringen van akkerbouwers bij het omschakelen naar een geintegreerde bedrijfsvoering. Leiystad: Informatie en Kenniscentrum Landbouw, afdeling AGV.

    Vereijken, P. (1992). A methodic way to more sustainable farming systems. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 40, 209-223.

    Vereijken, P., Wijnands, F., Stol, W., & Visser, R. (1994). Progress reports of research network on integrated and ecological arable farming systems for EU and associated countries. Wageningen: DLO Institute for Agrobiology and Soil Fertility.

    Warren, D. (1991, May). The role of indigenous scholarship in facilitating a participatory approach to agricultural extension. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Agricultural scholarship Systems, scandalous Boll, Germany.

    Winarto, Y. (1993). Farmers' agro-ecological scholarship construction: The case of integrated pest management among rice farmers on the north-west coast of West Java. pastoral People's Knowledge, Agricultural Research and Extension Practice, 1 (3), London: IIED.

    Young, A. (1989). Agroforestry for soil conservation. Wallingford: CAB International.

    Yuryevic, A. (1994, July). Community-based sustainable evolution in Latin America: The sustain of CLADES. Paper presented at IIED Symposium, Brighton.

    Zijp, W. (1993). Being a friendly communicator doesn't resolve complete of extension's problems. evolution Communication Report, 80, 20.

    Previous Page Top of Page Next Page



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11901559
    Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-27u
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12884390
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/12/pass4sure-250-722-implementation-of-dp.html
    RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/NeverMissThese250-722QuestionsBeforeYouGoForTest
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/822eizpxvugblfggwzj0uyd6sf68oi3b






    Back to Main Page





    Killexams 250-722 exams | Killexams 250-722 cert | Pass4Sure 250-722 questions | Pass4sure 250-722 | pass-guaratee 250-722 | best 250-722 test preparation | best 250-722 training guides | 250-722 examcollection | killexams | killexams 250-722 review | killexams 250-722 legit | kill 250-722 example | kill 250-722 example journalism | kill exams 250-722 reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review 250-722 | review 250-722 quizlet | review 250-722 login | review 250-722 archives | review 250-722 sheet | legitimate 250-722 | legit 250-722 | legitimacy 250-722 | legitimation 250-722 | legit 250-722 check | legitimate 250-722 program | legitimize 250-722 | legitimate 250-722 business | legitimate 250-722 definition | legit 250-722 site | legit online banking | legit 250-722 website | legitimacy 250-722 definition | >pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | 250-722 material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure 250-722 exams | pass4sure 250-722 reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure 250-722 security | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure 250-722 dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure 250-722 braindumps | pass4sure 250-722 test | pass4sure 250-722 torrent | pass4sure 250-722 download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

    www.pass4surez.com | www.killcerts.com | www.search4exams.com | http://tractaricurteadearges.ro/