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250-365 exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Administration for Windows (NBU 6.5)
Test Code : 250-365
Test appellation : Data Protection Administration for Windows (NBU 6.5)
Vendor appellation : Symantec
: 324 true Questions
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I actually gain a confession to make: I’m now not always blown away by means of the antivirus software I evaluate.
over the years, I gain erudite to anticipate positive issues from these functions, and that i gain not been terribly surprised through most models which gain crossed my desk.
certainly, definitions evolve, and the capacity of detection enhance. but for the most part, antivirus software works its magic by comparing what it sees with a static set of definitions, then taking motion when it identifies a suit. The interface may also develop into extra intuitive, deployment greater painless and detection extra accurate, but the process itself continues to be mostly unchanged.
but the latest new release of Symantec Endpoint protection (v.12) became a nice surprise. With SEP, Symantec modified route.merits
Symantec seems to gain gone to first-rate lengths to multiply ordinary efficiency via working towards the software to sustain away from scanning information unnecessarily. To achieve this, it has added Symantec insight, know-how that makes utilize of facts accumulated from greater than 175 million decide-in customers to expense the protection of and assign reputations to nearly each executable (.exe) file accessible. The virus scanner makes utilize of this assistance to choose no matter if to scan a given file. When a acceptance ranks totally, the utility will pass it altogether, effortlessly minimizing scan instances and decreasing universal device aid utilization.
moreover, the newest rendition of Symantec online network for advanced Response (SONAR) introduces policy enforcement, which helps obscure new malicious techniques earlier than definitions gyrate into accessible. here's accomplished by means of staring at a application’s behavior in true time whereas leveraging its moves towards a behavioral profile. If the fruits of a number of suspicious movements results in a horrible ranking, the system will proactively discontinue the system and discontinue it from additional compromising the computing device. Any administrator who has wrung her palms (or pulled his hair out) whereas anticipating an endemic definition update will itsy-bitsy question recognize this delivered layer of malware protection.Why it works For IT
The administration console is smartly designed and straightforward to be trained, featuring materiel and facts for the complete company in a lone panel. administrators who gain used outdated types of SEP will ascertain the design and logic established, as it is strikingly corresponding to that of v.eleven. Most average tasks will also be performed in an terrible lot the selfsame manner as they complete the time were, from developing custom policies to deploying to new purchasers. Any administrator well-liked with this product family will gain no issue getting up to quicken with alterations within the new edition.
To aid, Symantec preconfigures the coverage settings of the miniature commerce version of SEP 12. That capability administrators can hit the ground running, making customizations as mandatory.
ultimate, but removed from least, as a result of perception reduces the information scanned and the epoch of scans, SEP 12’s efficiency is extraordinarily stronger on client methods, leading to a higher customary event for discontinue clients.disadvantages
though the miniature enterprise edition boasts advances, they arrive at a cost. The product becomes lots more cost-effective when an organization passes the 25-customer mark, and clients acquire extra discounts for longer subscription terms.
SAN FRANCISCO, Feb 14, 2017 (company WIRE) -- RSA convention– BT, probably the most world’s leading providers of communications services and options, and Symantec, the world’s leading cyber safety business, nowadays announced the mixing of Symantec’s newest know-how into BT’s portfolio of managed security services.
With this new agreement, BT purchasers will advantage from greater visibility of incoming web traffic and from simplified administration of community protection and hybrid cloud infrastructure.
Two new Symantec products will complement the latest Symantec Blue Coat ProxySG provider to bolster BT’s Managed web security portfolio: Symantec SSL Visibility materiel and Symantec Cloud service.
Symantec SSL Visibility materiel makes it workable for corporations to charge-without problems dispose of blind spots that Come with the inability of perception into encrypted statistics site visitors on networks. in view that approximately half of complete information superhighway traffic today is encrypted, this can create a colossal gap in an organization’s protection posture. With SSL Visibility equipment, valued clientele gain the visibility and control they necessity over encrypted traffic to assist be inevitable compliance with their privateness, regulatory and suited utilize guidelines.
Symantec Cloud service gives global insurance and helps be inevitable at complete times-on safety for user devices towards malware, viruses and superior threats. It leverages real-time intelligence from Symantec’s world Intelligence community, the realm’s greatest civilian random intelligence network, which harnesses records from more than 1 billion net requests, 2 billion emails, and 175 million endpoints to replace safety controls with complete hazard telemetry in true-time.
The compress introduced today additionally allows for entry to the Symantec management Centre platform required for the new Symantec SSL Visibility appliance and Symantec Cloud provider. This replaces the latest Blue Coat Directorcapability, in order to continue to be supported except at least 2020 for latest consumers.
Mike Fey, president and Chief operating Officer, Symantec, noted: “expanding Symantec’s capabilities within BT’s portfolio will deliver BT shoppers a comprehensive carrier that is required in these days’s cyber safety ambiance. by using presenting dedicated SSL visibility we can combat protection threats hidden in encrypted traffic in order that consumers can focal point on essential enterprise priorities. And the Symantec Cloud service enables shoppers to lengthen their mighty Blue Coat net safety capabilities to their cell team of workers, helping to protect users and advice on any materiel and from any place.”
Mark Hughes, CEO, BT security, observed: “Monitoring community environments has develop into increasingly complicated over the terminal few years, and enhancing visibility of encrypted traffic endeavor and picking blind spots is a must-have for a safe and at ease business. Their settlement with Symantec helps address this challenge and is a brand new step in proposing a full, complete package that equips Chief tips protection Officers with the administrative tools needed to monitor their networks.”
Symantec organization SYMC, +0.22% the realm’s main cyber security enterprise, helps groups, governments and people comfortable their most censorious facts at any status it lives. groups across the world expose to Symantec for strategic, integrated solutions to shield in opposition t sophisticated assaults throughout endpoints, cloud and infrastructure. Likewise, a worldwide community of more than 50 million people and households matter on Symantec’s Norton suite of products for insurance design at home and throughout complete of their contraptions. Symantec operates one of the crucial world’s largest civilian cyber intelligence networks, allowing it to peer and present protection to in opposition t probably the most superior threats. For additional info, please talk over with www.symantec.com or link with us on fb
BT’s aim is to utilize the power of communications to obtain a better world. It is one of the world’s main providers of communications capabilities and options, serving consumers in a hundred and eighty international locations. Its predominant actions embrace the supply of networked IT capabilities globally; local, country wide and international telecommunications capabilities to its consumers to be used at home, at toil and on the circulate; broadband, television and internet products and features; and converged mounted-mobile items and features. BT carries six client-dealing with traces of company: purchaser, EE, commerce and Public Sector, international functions, Wholesale and Ventures, and Openreach.
For the year ended 31 March 2016, BT neighborhood’s pronounced revenue turned into £19,042m with pronounced profit earlier than taxation of £3,029m.
British Telecommunications plc (BT) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of BT group plc and encompasses virtually complete agencies and belongings of the BT neighborhood. BT group plc is listed on inventory exchanges in London and new york.
For extra counsel, quest advice from www.btplc.com.
View source edition on businesswire.com: http://www.businesswire.com/information/domestic/20170214005516/en/
source: Symantec company"> <Property FormalName="PrimaryTwitterHandle" cost="@Symantec
Symantec CorporationMara Mort, 1-415-850-8645Mara_Mort@symantec.com
Copyright company Wire 2017
© 1996-2017 Ziff Davis, LLC. PCMag Digital group laptop, pc magazine and computer PCMag.com are among the many federally registered logos of Ziff Davis, LLC and might no longer be used via third parties devoid of explicit permission.
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The Reduxio HX550 is a dual controller hybrid storage array within a 2U chassis. The system frontends sixteen 7.2k 2TB difficult drives with eight 800GB SSDs to create a 38.4TB raw data pool in each system. Stopping there makes the HX550 sound just about like any other midrange hybrid offering that's trying to appeal to the needs of the SMB and enterprise markets. However, Reduxio is much more, in that it offers several unique twists that are uncommon or even entirely novel in this class of storage. Primary amongst these is Reduxio's raison d'être which is that data should be protected at complete times. Reduxio executes on this mission by offering BackDating, which offers one second RTO and RPO, effectively letting an organization roll back at second granularity at any time. Reduxio customers gain found this methodology to be efficient at dealing with complete sorts of data loss or access issues, especially in the mug of the burgeoning issue of ransomware.
This approach to data recovery is one pillar of TimeOS, the storage operating system that enables complete of Reduxio's unique capabilities. TimeOS also includes true time, fully automated adaptive tiering activities for irritated data in addition to real-time data reduction, which is a feature not often found in hybrid arrays. While the system offers 38.4TB raw, Reduxio figures customers with an HX550 will observe up to 120TB+ of usable space. Reduxio's global dedupe and compression is done in-memory and inline, which is principal architecturally as rapid data migration between boxes or between Reduxio and the cloud is another fundamental selling point.
As the HX550 continues to set itself apart from the other arrays on the market, it comes with its own data protection and mobility capability with NoRestore. The NoRestore feature combines primary and secondary storage management into a lone platform. This built-in copy data management is an principal feature, as most organizations are dealing with a growth in copy data and the necessity to gain a catastrophe recovery solution. NoRestore allows customers to liquidate their existing data protection tools. NoRestore works by continuously sending incremental updates of deduped and compressed data to a repository which may be another Reduxio system, any iSCSI storage or cloud storage. To restore data, any Reduxio system can create a volume from data stored in the background. The capacity to obtain the volume available before complete the data is copied back leads to faster restores with the company making the bold pretense of restoring 100TB in seconds. When a Reduxio system uses a repository, customers fetch a one-stop-shop solution with no necessity to add secondary storage or the different management that would entail.
Along the line of other “instant” capacity that typically takes a unbiased amount of time investment, is the NoMigrate feature. This feature promises a drag-and-drop near-instant migrate capacity from Reduxio to Reduxio or from a third-party vendor to Reduxio. Instant migration seems like a difficult pill to swallow for anyone that has migrated big volumes of data before. Reduxio claims that it can drag this off by being configured as a host to the source storage system, allowing it to virtualize resources from the source system and migrate them. If there are any I/O requests during migration, the requests will be sent to the Reduxio system as if the data were already there. If users attempt to read data that hasn’t made it to the Reduxio system yet, it will prioritize the copy of those blocks so they are immediately available for unvarying application operation.
Another spirited feature that Reduxio uses to set itself apart from the rest of the pack is its cloud-based analytics solution, StorSense. StorSense is a SaaS solution provided with complete Reduxio arrays that collects and analyzes data in order to find issues and speeds the resolution of said issues, or allows Reduxio engineers to amend the issues that it finds. The system is designed to be highly secure, letting users rest effortless knowing that issues can be resolved without risking data.
All of these features are managed through a GUI that resembles a video game console more than what is most commonly associated with storage administration. Deployment is simple and multiple units can be addressed intuitively through the GUI.
We gain two HX550's in the lab for this review, however performance numbers are from a lone unit. Some features, however, require a second array, which is notable in the management walkthrough below.
Reduxio HX550 Specifications:
Design and Build
The Reduxio HX550 is a storage array with a 2U configuration factor. Across the front of the device is a striking bezel that opens on a hinge to access the drives beneath (one needs a torque screwdriver to open the bezel). Beneath are the 24 2.5” drives with indicator lights for status and oversight at the bottom of the bays.
Moving around to the rear of the device, there are power supplies on either side with PCM status LEDs, PCM power switch, and the PCM power connector. There is a lever and handle by the controllers where the power supplies can be swapped out. In the middle are the two controllers stacked on top of one another. Both gain hardware status LEDs, two interconnect ports, two USB 3.0 ports, two data ports, one management port, and one micro HDMI port.
Management and Usability
While there are several options in terms of management, for this review they used Reduxio Storage Manager. This browser-based GUI is simple to utilize and intuitive. The dashboards can easily be customized through dragging and dropping what is needed. As opposed to breaking down each feature of the GUI, they will instead behold at some of the unique features to Reduxio. Specifically, they will be looking at the NoRestore feature and how it applied to their Sysbench test.
First, though, they will behold at the main dashboard screen that has the alerts on the left side, the number of hosts connected to the right, followed by a menu button, the volumes, and a real-time readout of performance.
The dashboard is customizable by dragging and dropping widgets from the central list to the two view windows. On this system, the Alerts widget is on the left and the IOPs widget is on the right. The othe widgets are Throughput, Latency, Top-IOPs, top-Throughput, and Capacity. Clicking on any widget in a window takes you to the particular page in the UI.
Users can click on tiering to observe where and at what quicken data is being tiered.
The space usage tab shows how much space is being used versus the total.
The final tab we’ll observe looks at the total capacity savings using NoDup.
Under the Setting tab, users are given the option of adding a remote Reduxio system, a third-party iSCSI storage, or an S3-based cloud storage.
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If users chose to utilize a remote Reduxio system, they would be prompted to select the remote system. In this case, they didn’t gain another system to test this.
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There is also the option to add S3-based cloud storage, if that works better for the organization and how it is laid out.
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Since iSCSI is what they necessity for their benchmark, they added two.
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Once they gain the iSCSI storage they need, they can set up NoRestore through the settings tab. Under the repositories sub-tab, they are prompted with the option of configuring NoRestore for backup or add an additional repository.
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Choosing to configure for backup, they only had to wait for a brief few minutes.
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Once the configuration for backup is finished, they can click over to the NoRestore tab and observe their Sysbench shows up in the New Volume sub-tab.
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From here they create a backup assignment of their Sysbench test and originate to quicken the backup to observe just how quickly they can restore it.
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While it is running, they can Go through and set up the data protection they want for the backup. In this case, they chose continuous-replication. There are also options here for naming the data protection group and setting up backdating.
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Users can also easily check the status of their backups here. The GUI gives information such as total data protected, used space, alerts, the capacity to discontinue the data transfer, and the capacity to search other transfers.
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Another spirited feature of NoRestore is that it gives users the capacity to behold into data transfer windows. Users can select which day and time to narrow down their search or cast a wide net to observe what they catch.
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Application Workload Analysis
The application workload benchmarks for the Reduxio HX550 consist of the MySQL OLTP performance via SysBench and Microsoft SQL Server OLTP performance with a simulated TPC-C workload. In each scenario, they had the array configured with dual-drive redundancy. The testing platform consisted of four Dell PowerEdge R730 servers running VMware ESXi 6.5, and leveraged a Dell EMC Networking Z9100 switch with 9000 MTU jumbo frames as the backbone.
SQL Server Performance
Each SQL Server VM is configured with two vDisks: 100GB volume for boot and a 500GB volume for the database and log files. From a system resource perspective, they configured each VM with 16 vCPUs, 64GB of DRAM and leveraged the LSI Logic SAS SCSI controller. While their Sysbench workloads tested previously saturated the platform in both storage I/O and capacity, the SQL test is looking for latency performance.
This test uses SQL Server 2014 running on Windows Server 2012 R2 guest VMs, and is stressed by Quest's Benchmark Factory for Databases. While their traditional usage of this benchmark has been to test big 3,000-scale databases on local or shared storage, in this iteration they focus on spreading out four 1,500-scale databases evenly across the Reduxio HX550 (two VMs per controller).
SQL Server Testing Configuration (per VM)
SQL Server OLTP Benchmark Factory LoadGen Equipment
For SQL Server, they ran two sets of tests with 2 VMs on one and 4 VMs on the other. The 4 VM SQL Server was able to hit an aggregate score of 12,351.9 TPS with individual VMs ranging from 3,085 TPS to 3,089 TPS. The 2 VM SQL Server was able to hit an aggregate score of 6,240.1 TPS with individual VMs ranging from 3,119.7 TPS to 3,120.5 TPS.
Switching over to average latency, the 4 VM benchmark had an aggregate latency of 115.75ms with individual VMs ranging from 114ms to 119ms. The 2 VM benchmark had a much better showing with an aggregate score of 65ms with individual VMs ranging from 64ms to 66ms.
Each Sysbench VM is configured with three vDisks, one for boot (~92GB), one with the pre-built database (~447GB), and the third for the database under test (270GB). From a system-resource perspective, they configured each VM with 16 vCPUs, 60GB of DRAM and leveraged the LSI Logic SAS SCSI controller. Load gen systems are Dell R730 servers.
Dell PowerEdge R730 Virtualized MySQL 4 node Cluster
Sysbench Testing Configuration (per VM)
In their Sysbench benchmark, they ran sets of VMs with 4VMs and 8VMs. For transactional performance, the 8VM gave us 2,472.3 TPS and the 4VM gave us 2,031.9 TPS.
Looking at average latency in their Sysbench workload, the 8VM gave us 103.55ms and the 4VM gave us 63ms.
In their worst-case 99th percentile latency measurement, the 8VM hit 228ms while the 4VM hit 150ms.
VDBench Workload Analysis
When it comes to benchmarking storage arrays, application testing is best, and synthetic testing comes in second place. While not a consummate representation of actual workloads, synthetic tests accomplish aid to baseline storage devices with a repeatability factor that makes it effortless to accomplish apples-to-apples comparison between competing solutions. These workloads present a orbit of different testing profiles ranging from "four corners" tests, common database transfer size tests, to trace captures from different VDI environments. complete of these tests leverage the common vdBench workload generator, with a scripting engine to automate and capture results over a big compute testing cluster. This allows us to repeat the selfsame workloads across a wide orbit of storage devices, including glitter arrays and individual storage devices. On the array side, they utilize their cluster of Dell PowerEdge R730 servers:
Looking at peak read performance, the Reduxio HX550 started just under 1ms at 6,202 IOPS and was able to maintain sub-millisecond latency until around 30K IOPS. It peaked at 65,177 IOPS at a latency of 63ms.
Looking at 4K peak write performance, the HX550 had sub-millisecond latency performance until around 19K IOPS and peaked at 27,708 IOPS with a latency of 74ms.
Switching to 64K peak read, the HX550 started above 1ms (1.45ms to be exact) and peaked at 9,590 IOPS or 667.1MB/s at 49ms latency.
For 64K sequential peak write, the HX550 has sub-millisecond latency performance until about 2K IOPS and peaked at 6,334 IOPS or 444.8MB/s with a latency of 40ms.
In their SQL workload, the Reduxio HX550 started above 1ms and peaked at 15,066 IOPS with a latency of 63ms.
The SQL 90-10 workload once again saw the HX550 start above 1ms (2.62ms at 1,903 IOPS) and then peak at 20,141 IOPS with 45ms latency.
The SQL 80-20 saw the HX550 start at 1,898 IOPS and 2.58ms latency and peak at 19,764 IOPS and a latency of 52ms.
With their Oracle workload, again the Reduxio HX550 started above 1ms, 2,897 IOPS at 1.78ms and peaked at 31,422 IOPS with a latency of 40ms.
With the Oracle 90-10, the HX550 started at 2,397 IOPS at a latency of 2.1ms and peaked at 25,512 IOPS with a latency of 21ms.
With the Oracle 80-20, the HX550 started at 2,399 IOPS with a latency of 2.07ms and peaked at 25,097 IOPS with a latency of 22.6ms.
Switching over to VDI plenary Clone, the boot test showed the Reduxio HX550 to again start above 1ms and peak at 21,575 IOPS with a latency of 41ms.
The VDI plenary Clone initial login started off just under 1ms, but broke sub-millisecond performance around 2K IOPS. It peaked at 16,226 IOPS with a latency of 57ms.
The VDI plenary Clone Monday login started at 1,503 IOPS with a latency of 4.9ms and peaked at 13,225 IOPS and a latency of 39ms.
Moving over to VDI Linked Clone, the boot test for the HX550 started at 1,496 IOPS and 2ms latency and peaked at 16,731 IOPS with 21ms latency.
In the Linked Clone VDI profile measuring Initial Login performance, they saw the HX550 start at 1,401 IOPS with a latency of 1.3ms and a peak of 13,047 IOPS with a latency of 19.5ms.
In their terminal profile looking at VDI Linked Clone Monday Login performance, they saw the HX550 once again start above 1ms (1,302 IOPS with 2.8ms latency) and peak at 12,187 IOPS with 27ms latency.
The Reduxio HX550 is a 2U, midrange, hybrid storage array. The array can gain up to 38.4TB of raw storage through a combination of 18 7200RPM HDDs and 6 SSDs. This is more or less where the HX550 stops resembling other arrays on the market. The HX550 comes with several features, which set it far apart from the rest of the field. Leveraging its operating system, TimeOS, the array comes with auto tiering, allowing for the irritated data to be moved to the faster storage media and cold data to be moved to the more cost-effective storage media. The HX550 uses a process it calls BackDating, allowing for second-by-second roll-back granularity, which can greatly aid obviate data loss. The array has two “instant” features, NoRestore and NoMigrate, which allow for near instant restores and migrations by touching data around in a artery that makes it instantly accessible to users. Furthermore, the HX550 comes with an analytics SaaS solution that helps users proactively respond to issues (or allows Reduxio engineers to remotely react to the issue before they cause mayhem).
Turning to performance, they ran both their Application Workload Analysis (including SQL Server and Sysbench), and their VDBench Workload Analysis. For SQL, the Reduxio HX550 was able to hit aggregate TPS scores of 12,351.9 for 4VM and 6,240.1 for 2VM. For SQL latency, the HX550 hit aggregate scores of 65ms for 2VM and 115.8ms for 4VM. Sysbench showed the HX550 to gain 2,472 TPS, 103.6ms average latency, and 228.4ms worst-case scenario latency for the 8VM and 2,032 TPS for the 4VM, 63ms average latency, and 150.1ms for worst-case scenario latency. For their VDBench workload, the Reduxio HX550 performance was lackluster. Sub-millisecond latency performance was either very slight or absent and complete tests ended with a massive latency spike. There were only three tests that started below 1ms: 4K read, 64K read, and VDI plenary Clone initial login. The highest score seen was in the 4K read at 65K IOPS, but it also had 63ms latency. In fact, the lowest peak latency was 19.5ms for the VDI LC Boot.
While there is no question the Reduxio HX550 reshapes the artery they contemplate about enterprise storage arrays (i.e., blending primary storage and backup capabilities), the feature set requires significant overhead, which unbalances the expense to performance ratio. Prospective customers will necessity to observe considerable value from Reduxio's RPO/RTO and simplicity of deployment and management differentiators, while not requiring the higher performance they'd observe from a similarly priced glitter array. To be sure, the HX550 is easy; in miniature environments it can effectively replace primary and backup arrays with an interface that's modern and a bit edgy. There's also no doubt that the ease of recovery from something like ransomware, is a very compelling story. But if you gain the time and staff to withhold together a more standard storage array, backup appliance and usurp software architecture or converged solution, you'll capitalize from a materially better performance profile. When evaluating Reduxio, it's pellucid the backup and recovery features add value and for smaller IT organizations, the systems are effortless to deploy and manage. If these are things an organization needs; in the discontinue the Reduxio value proposition turns into a simple question of whether or not there's enough performance in the system.The Bottom Line
The Reduxio HX550 hybrid array offers near-instant recovery and a simple deployment and management model. These features accomplish repercussion performance though; any evaluation of Reduxio must ensure that application responsiveness is acceptable.
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After your network hardware has been installed, whether it’s wired or wireless, the next step is to obtain positive that Windows’ networking software is set up correctly. This procedure is different for XP and Vista, so I’ll Go through the steps for each operating system separately. If you gain both XP and Vista computers on your network, they’ll toil together just fine, as long as you set up both types using the following instructions. I cover XP first, then Vista.
After you’ve set up basic networking, you may want to obtain some optional settings. So after covering initial setup for XP and Vista, the remainder of this section covers the following topics:
You may want to review complete these topics before starting to set up your network.Setting Up a Network on XP
Windows XP comes with a Networking Setup Wizard program that can automatically configure file sharing and Internet access for each of the computers on your network. The wizard lets you obtain a few basic choices, but otherwise takes care of complete the technical details for you. You gain to quicken this wizard at least once, whether you want to or not. For security reasons, Windows doesn’t enable file and printer sharing until this wizard has been quicken at least once.
To start the wizard on XP, click Start, Control Panel, Network and Internet Connections, and Set Up or Change Your Home or miniature Office Network. Read the “Checklist for Creating a Network” if you want, and then click Next. follow the wizard through the following steps.Select a Connection Method
The wizard asks you to select a statement that best describes your computer. The choices can be confusing, so account them each carefully. They are
This Computer Connects to the Internet Through Another Computer on My Network or Through a Residential Gateway—Choose this if your network has a hardware Internet connection-sharing router, or if you’ve set up some other computer to share its connection with Internet Connection Sharing.
Also, utilize this election if your LAN has routed Internet service, such as that provided by a DSL, cable, ISDN, or Frame Relay router connected to your network hub, and the router for that service has been configured to filter out Windows networking traffic, which we’ll discuss later in this chapter.
To fetch to the next three options, click Other. These alternatives are as follows:
This Computer Connects to the Internet Directly or Through a Network Hub. Other Computers on My Network also Connect [this way]—Select this if your computer uses its own dial-up or direct DSL/cable Internet connection, but you accomplish not want to utilize Windows’s Internet Connection Sharing to share the connection with the rest of your LAN.
Also, utilize this selection if you utilize “multiple-computer” cable Internet service with no router. (I strongly prod you not to utilize this sort of connection—please read “Providing Shared Internet Access” later in this chapter for principal warnings.)
This Computer Connects Directly to the Internet. I accomplish Not gain a Network Yet—You would utilize this election if you had a direct Internet connection (that is, a cable or DSL modem that uses a network adapter), but no LAN. Because you’re setting up a LAN, this election probably isn’t appropriate.
You accomplish want to utilize this election if you are setting up a network only to utilize a shared Internet connection, and don’t want to share files with other computers. This might be the case if you are sharing an Internet connection in an apartment structure or other public space, for instance. In this case, this election indicates that you account your network to be as untrustworthy as the Internet itself.
Make the usurp selection and click Next.Select Your Internet Connection
If you chose one of the “This computer is directly connected to the Internet” choices, Windows presents a list of options for making that connection, listing your network adapters and your configured dial-up connections. choose the connection that is used to achieve the Internet and click Next. If you utilize a dial-up or PPPoE connection (frequently used with DSL service), choose the usurp dial-up connection. Otherwise choose the network adapter that connects to your broadband modem.Give This Computer a Description and Name
Enter a brief description of the computer (such as its location or primary user) and a appellation for the computer. choose a appellation using just letters and/or numbers with no spaces or punctuation. Each computer on your LAN must gain a different name.
If you’re difficult pressed to Come up with names, try the names of gemstones, composers, Impressionist painters, or even Star Wars characters, as long as Mr. Lucas’ lawyers don’t hear about it. I utilize the names of islands in the Indonesian archipelago—with more than 25,000 to choose from there’s itsy-bitsy random of running out of unique names!
Some Internet service providers, especially cable providers, require you utilize a appellation that they provide. (If you gain a hardware connection-sharing device hooked up to your cable modem, enter that appellation into the hardware device and utilize any names you want on your LAN.)Name Your Network
Choose a appellation for your network workgroup. This appellation is used to identify which computers should expose in your list of network choices later on. complete computers on your LAN should gain the selfsame workgroup name. The wizard puts MSHOME into the appellation field, but I strongly intimate that you change it to WORKGROUP, which is the default on both earlier and later versions of Windows.File and Printer Sharing
The wizard asks whether you want gyrate file and printer sharing on or off. Select gyrate On File and Printer Sharing unless your network will accommodate computers that you don’t trust; that is, computers in a public area, computers on a public wireless network, computers whose users you don’t know, and so on. (If you later change your mind, or rush your computer from one network to another, you can gyrate file sharing on or off using the Exceptions tab on the Windows Firewall control panel.)Ready to Apply Network Settings
The wizard lets you review your selections. Click Next to proceed.You’re Almost Finished...
You necessity to quicken the wizard on complete the computers on your LAN at least once. If complete the computers utilize Windows XP, select Just Finish the Wizard, and then quicken the wizard on each of your other computers. If you gain computers running versions of Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, or 2000, you can create a disk that lets you quicken the wizard on these older machines, or you can utilize your Windows XP CD-ROM on these computers.
To utilize a disk, choose Create a Network Setup Disk, and insert a blank, formatted floppy disk. If you ran the wizard earlier and just changed some of the settings, choose utilize the Network Setup Disk I Already Have, and reinsert the setup disk you created earlier. Otherwise, choose Just Finish the Wizard; I Don’t necessity to quicken the Wizard on Other Computers.
Now, continue with the next section to review the IP addressing choices made on your network, as discussed in the section titled “IP Addressing Options.”Setting Up a Network on Vista
Surprisingly, Windows Vista does not gain a network setup wizard to walk you through setting up file sharing for a home or miniature office network. If you’ve just set up a wireless network, the procedure I described earlier under “Wireless Networking” took care of the wireless connection itself. But, after the wireless connection is set up, or if you’ve just installed a wired Ethernet or HomePNA (phoneline) network, you gain to check or change a few other settings before you can share files and printers on your new network.
If your network is going to be used only to share an Internet connection, you don’t necessity to fulfill these steps. But, if you accomplish want to share files and/or printers among the computers on your network, you must check the following settings:
I recall you through these steps in detail in the following sections.
Each computer on the network must gain a unique computer name. In addition, each computer has a workgroup appellation that should be the selfsame on each of your computers. I recommend that you utilize WORKGROUP as the workgroup name—yes, it’s unimaginative, but most Windows computers Come with this appellation preset, so we’ll Go with it.
To check the workgroup appellation on your Vista computers, click Start, right-click Computer, and select Properties. The workgroup appellation is shown under the heading Computer Name, Domain and Workgroup Settings. If any computer has a different workgroup name, click the Change Settings button and ratify the User Account Control prompt. When the System Properties dialog appears, click Change and type WORKGROUP under the Workgroup button. Click OK, and then let Windows restart.Enable File and Printer Sharing
To enable File and Printer Sharing on Vista, click Start, Control Panel. Select Network and Internet, and then Network and Sharing Center, shown in device 6.5.
Figure 6.5 The Network and Sharing seat lets you control Vista’s sharing features.
The first thing to note is the network type that you originally selected when you started Windows after installing your network. When you connect Vista to any network, wireless or wired, it probes the other devices on the network to observe whether it’s been connected to the selfsame network before, or if the network is new. The first time Vista is connected to a new network, it asks you whether the network is Public or Private. If you label the network Public, it’s considered to be “dangerous” in that you wouldn’t want to trust other users to observe the contents of your computer, and so file sharing, network device discovery, and other services are disabled on that network connection. If you label the network Private, network services such as file sharing can be enabled.
So before you can share files, check the label next to your network’s appellation (which is usually just Network). If the label is Public, click the word Customize. Check Private, click Next, confirm the User Account Control prompt, and then click Close.
Now, check the following settings:
If you necessity to change any of these settings, click the miniature v in the coterie to the perquisite of the feature appellation and change the setting. You will probably necessity to confirm a User Account Control prompt.
At this point, file and printer sharing is ready to go. There is one more step only if you’ve added a third-party firewall program to your computer.Open Firewall
If you’ve added a third-party network firewall program to your computer, just setting File and Printer Sharing On may not be enough to let other computers “see” your computer or utilize any folders or printers you share. You may necessity to recall extra steps to open your firewall to Windows file sharing data. You’ll gain to check the manufacturer’s instructions for the specifics, but what you want to accomplish is to permit inbound and outbound Windows File Sharing data traffic. If your firewall requires you to specify TCP and UDP port numbers, be positive that the following protocols and ports are open:
Open these ports to other computers on your selfsame network (same subnet).IP Addressing Options
Windows uses TCP/IP as its primary network protocol. Each computer on the network needs to gain a unique IP address assigned to it. There are three ways that IP addresses can be assigned:
By default, a newly installed network adapter will be set up for dynamic addressing. I recommend that you accomplish not rely on APIPA to configure your network. In my experience, it can antecedent horrendous slowdowns on your computers. If you don’t gain a device or computer to provide DHCP service, configure static TCP/IP addresses.Configuring Dynamic (DHCP) IP Address Assignment
By default, Windows sets up newly installed network adapters to utilize dynamic IP address assignment, so for new adapters, you don’t necessity to recall any additional configuration steps.
You will necessity a computer or hardware device to provide DHCP service (which provides configuration information) to complete your other computers. This is provided automatically by any Windows computer that runs Windows Internet Connection Sharing (there can be at most one such computer on a network), by the addition of an Internet connection-sharing router, or a wireless access point that includes an Internet connection-sharing feature. (Alternately, you could quicken the DHCP service on a Windows Server computer. These operating systems can be used on workgroup networks as well as domain networks, although setting them up is beyond the scope of this book.)
If you are using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, it assigns IP address 192.168.0.1 with a network mask of 255.255.255.0 to the network adapter in the sharing computer. Other computers should be configured for dynamic addressing and receive addresses from 192.168.0.2 on up.
If you are configuring a hardware Internet Connection Sharing router, you may necessity to enable and configure its DHCP server. Usually, the DHCP feature is enabled by default, so you accomplish not necessity to configure it. If you do, you can utilize the following settings:
Server IP address:
DHCP starting address:
Number of addresses:
(As provided by your ISP)
Some routers prefer to utilize a different subnet (range of network addresses)—for instance, 192.168.1.x. Whichever orbit you use, be positive to utilize the selfsame subnet orbit for any static IP addresses you assign. There is more information on setting up IP address ranges in the online Appendix C, “Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance” in the discussion of enabling Remote Desktop.Configuring Static IP Addresses
You’ll want to set up static (fixed) IP addresses for some or complete of your computers in three situations:
The goal in assigning static IP addresses is to ensure that each computer on your network has a unique IP address, shared by no other, and that complete the other TCP/IP setup information is the selfsame on every computer.
I intimate you obtain a worksheet that lists the setup information for your network. Determining what settings to utilize depends on the type of network you have, which will be one of the following three choices:
If your network does not gain a router, and you are not using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, utilize the following values for your computers:
192.168.0.x, where x is a number from 200 on up
If your network has a router, connect it and gyrate on one of your computers. be positive that the router is configured and working, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and be positive that you can view web pages from the attached computer. Then click Start, complete Programs, Accessories, Command Prompt. In the command prompt window, type ipconfig /all and press Enter. obtain a note of the IP address, network mask, gateway address, and DNS server listed in the window. (On Vista, ignore the IPv6 information, and ignore the information for networking adapters that gain the word Tunnel or Teredo in their name.)
Then utilize the following values for any computers and devices that necessity a static IP address:
a.b.c.x, where a.b.c are the first three numbers of the IP address you saw in the Command Prompt window, and x is a number from 200 on up. This might discontinue up being something like 192.168.1.200.
As notable in the Command Prompt window, usually 255.255.255.0.
As notable in the Command Prompt window, usually something like 192.168.0.1.
As notable in the Command Prompt window, usually the DNS addresses supplied by your ISP, or in some cases the selfsame as the gateway address.
If you are using Windows Internet Connection Sharing, utilize the following values for those computers and devices that necessity a static IP address:
192.168.0.x, where x is a number from 200 on up
I intimate that you then list on your worksheet complete your computers and any printer devices. Next to each, write down “automatic” if you are letting the computer fetch its address automatically, or write down the IP address that you will be setting manually. This artery you can sustain track of which numbers gain been used already. The finished worksheet might behold something like this:My Network: Information from command prompt window: IP Address: 192.168.0.2 (so: complete IP addresses will start with 192.168.0) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1 DNS Servers: 10.11.12.13 10.21.22.23 My IP Address assignments: java 192.168.0.200 (want to access from Internet with Remote Desktop) sumatra automatic bali automatic HPJetDirect 192.168.0.201 (print server)
With this worksheet in hand, configure each computer or device that requires a static IP address.
To assign an IP address to a computer running Windows XP, utilize the following steps:
On the generic tab, enter the selected IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and one or two DNS server IP addresses, as shown in device 6.6.
Figure 6.6 Enter static IP address information on the generic tab.
You can configure your preferred Internet domain appellation (called the preferred DNS suffix) on the Network Identification page in the System Properties dialog. To fetch there, right-click [My] Computer and select Properties, or select Advanced, Network Identification in the Network Connections window. View the Computer appellation tab, click Change, and then click More.
You can also enter a preferred Internet domain appellation for each individual network or Internet connection. You might want to utilize your company’s domain appellation on the network connection, and your ISP’s domain appellation on a dial-up connection. To accomplish this, view the network connection’s properties dialog, click the Advanced button, select the DNS tab, and enter the domain appellation under DNS Suffix for This Connection, as shown in device 6.7.
Figure 6.7 Enter per-connection DNS information on the connection’s Advanced Properties DNS tab.
Also, if your ISP has provided you with more than two DNS server addresses, click Add to enter additional addresses on this selfsame tab.
On Vista, follow these steps:
Then follow the steps previously described for assigning an IP address on Windows XP, starting at step 4.Configuring Additional Useful Network Services
Besides the TCP/IP protocol and network services that are installed by default with Windows, you may want to install some additional services manually as portion of your network setup.Link level Topology Discovery (LLTD) for XP
Windows Vista includes a network map feature that shows a diagram of the devices and computers on your network. The map is constructed from data collected by the Link level Topology Discovery (LLTD) protocol. Vista comes with LLTD software preinstalled, but to fetch it in XP you must gain Service Pack 3 installed. Thus, if you gain computers running both Windows Vista and XP Service Pack 2 on your network, the XP SP2 computers don’t note up on Vista’s Network Map.
To install LLTD back on XP without installing Service Pack 3, fulfill the following steps on each of your XP computers:
If you are using a hardware Internet-sharing router or Windows Internet Connection Sharing, you should install the Internet Gateway Device Discovery and Control Client on complete your Windows XP computers. This service places an icon in each computer’s Network Connections folder that lets users monitor and manage the Internet connection that is hosted on the sharing computer or the router.
To install the Discovery and Control Service, follow these steps on each XP computer:
When this service has been installed, an icon appears in your Network Connections window for your router or other network devices. You can double-click this icon to open the device’s setup and control page. What appears varies from device to device, but it’s usually the device’s built-in setup web page.Universal Plug and Play
If you utilize a hardware connection-sharing router or Internet Connection Sharing, you may also want to account enabling a feature called Universal Plug and Play (UPnP). UPnP provides a artery for software running on your computer to communicate with the router. Here’s what UPnP can do:
UPnP has a downside, however: It has no built-in security mechanism, so any program on any computer on your network could potentially recall control of the router and open “holes” for incoming connections (and there are already some viruses and Trojan horses that recall advantage of this). However, Windows Firewall or your third-party firewall package will noiseless provide some protection. Windows Firewall warns you if an undesired program prepares to receive incoming network connections, and this cannot be disabled as long as you are not using a Computer Administrator user account. In addition, most third-party firewalls inform you if an unrecognized program requests either incoming or outgoing network connections. UPnP abuse is not yet a earnest problem. If you utilize Remote Assistance or Windows Messenger, the benefits that UPnP provides mostly outweigh the risks.
To utilize UPnP, you must enable the feature in your router. It’s usually disabled by default. If your router doesn’t currently back UPnP, you may gain to download and install a firmware upgrade from the manufacturer. Most routers now accomplish back UPnP.
On Windows XP, UPnP is enabled by default. If you gain a UPnP router or Windows Internet Connection Sharing running on your network, the Network Connections screen should panoply an icon for the router as shown in device 6.8.
Figure 6.8 If your router supports UPnP, an Internet Gateway icon should expose in Network Connections.
On Vista, UPnP is controlled by the Network Discovery setting, which is enabled by default on private networks and disabled on public networks. To manually control Network Discovery on Vista, follow these steps:
When UPnP is working, on XP you should observe an icon for your router or gateway under the title Internet Connection in the Network Connections window. If you right-click this icon and select Status, you’ll observe a dialog similar to the one shown in device 6.9, displaying the status of the router’s connection. If your Internet service uses a connection-based system such as PPPoE or standard dial-up service via a modem, this dialog may panoply a button that lets you connect to and disconnect from your ISP.
Click Properties and then Settings to panoply a list of network services for which the router is forwarding incoming connections to computers on your network. This list shows only forwarding settings made via UPnP. Services you’ve forwarded using the setup screens on your router, such as Remote Desktop, as discussed in the online Appendix C, accomplish not expose here and new settings should not be made here—they usually fade when the router is reset.
On Vista, the icon appears in the Network Map in the Network and Sharing Center. complete you can accomplish with it is select Properties, and from the properties log, View Device Web Page. (The capability to monitor port forwarding is not available on Vista.)Designating a Master Browser
Windows uses a database of known online computers to build the panoply known variously as Network Neighborhood, Computers Near Me, or View Workgroup Computers. The database is managed by a software service called the Browser Service. It runs on one of your computers, which is designated the “master browser.” The master browser is selected by an automatic election held by the computers on the network. In addition, on a larger network some computers may be elected as backup browser servers.
When you are running a network with different versions of Windows, or if your computers don’t complete gain the exact selfsame list of protocols installed, this service sometimes malfunctions: The election goes haywire (perhaps because of the Windows equivalent of the hanging chad), or the database is filled incorrectly, or other problems occur. The result is that the Network Neighborhood panoply doesn’t office correctly even though the computers clearly can communicate with each other (for example, one can map network drives to folders shared by the invisible computers).
If you find that this occurs on your network, you may want to favor the master browser service to quicken on a designated Windows XP or Vista computer that is always left on. This can aid stabilize the list of local computers.
To obtain this toil you gain to configure one computer to always be the master browser, and configure complete the other computers never to present to be the master. To obtain these settings on a computer running Windows Vista, XP, 2000, or NT you gain to edit the Registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Browser\Parameters. Two values can be altered (refer to Chapter 5, “Tweaking and Tuning Windows,” for more details on editing the Registry):
True—This computer will be the master browser
False—Master is determined by election
No—Never serve as master
Yes—Ask to be the preferred master
Auto—Offer to be master if needed
If you want to favor one computer to be the master browser in complete circumstances, set the IsDomainMasterBrowser value to proper on that computer and mistaken on complete others. If you want to set one computer to be the preferred browser, but let others step in if the master is unavailable, just set the MaintainServerList key to Yes on the preferred computer, and be positive to gyrate it on before the others.
Abstract: Following a record year of rulemaking, the Obama Administration is continuing to unleash more costly red tape. In the first six months of the 2011 fiscal year, 15 major regulations were issued, with annual costs exceeding $5.8 billion and one-time implementation costs approaching $6.5 billion. No major rulemaking actions were taken to reduce regulatory burdens during this period. Overall, the Obama Administration imposed 75 new major regulations from January 2009 to mid-FY 2011, with annual costs of $38 billion. There were only six major deregulatory actions during that time, with reported savings of just $1.5 billion. This flood of red tape will undoubtedly persist, as hundreds of new regulations stemming from the vast Dodd–Frank fiscal regulation law, Obamacare, and the EPA’s global warming crusade foster through the regulatory pipeline—all of which further weakens an anemic economy and job creation, while undermining Americans’ fundamental freedoms. Action by Congress as well as the President to originate this regulatory surge is essential.The Hidden Tax
Most Americans are complete too chummy with the income, property, and sales taxes that shrink paychecks and multiply the cost of most every product and service. Just as significant—although less visible—are the ever-increasing costs of regulation. Every facet of daily life, including how Americans heat their homes and light their rooms, what food they buy and how they cook it, the toys that occupy their children and the volume of their television commercials, are controlled by government’s ballooning compendium of dos and don’ts. The attendant costs of each one constitutes a “hidden tax.”
Many people may contemplate that regulatory costs are a commerce problem. Indeed, they are, but the costs of regulation are inevitably passed on to consumers in the configuration of higher prices and limited product choices. Basic items, such as toilets, showerheads, lightbulbs, mattresses, washing machines, dryers, cars, ovens, refrigerators, television sets, and bicycles, complete cost significantly more because of government decrees on energy use, product labeling, and performance standards that Go well beyond safety—as well as hundreds of millions of hours of testing and paperwork to document compliance.
There is no official accounting of total regulatory costs, and estimates vary. Unlike the budgetary accounting of direct tax revenues, Washington does not track the total burdens imposed by its expansive rulemaking. An oft-quoted estimate of $1.75 trillion annually represents nearly twice the amount of individual income taxes collected terminal year.Increased Burdens in 2011
The cost of new regulations, however, can be tracked, and it is growing substantially. Following record increases in fiscal year (FY) 2010, regulatory burdens gain continued to multiply in 2011. Overall, from the mount of the Obama Administration to mid-FY 2011, regulators gain imposed $38 billion in new costs on the American people, more than any comparable epoch on record.
In total, according to the Government Accountability Office, 1,827 rulemaking proceedings were completed during the first six months of FY 2011 (between October 1, 2010, and March 31, 2011). Of these, 37 were classified as “significant/substantive” or “major,” significance they each had an expected economic repercussion of at least $100 million per year.
Fifteen of those rulemakings increased regulatory burdens (defined as imposing new limits or mandates on private-sector activity). No major rulemaking actions decreased regulatory burdens during the first half of fiscal 2011.
The annual costs of the 15 new major regulations total more than $5.8 billion, according to estimates by the regulatory agencies. In addition, the regulations impose nearly $6.5 billion in one-time implementation costs.
It should be notable that the additional costs embrace $1.8 billion annually for compliance, and one-time implementation expenses of $5.2 billion, stemming from new emissions limits on industrial and commercial boilers and incinerators. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced it would reconsider these rules, and postponed their efficient dates pending that reconsideration. But the rules remain on the books. The postponement will extend until judicial review is concluded or the agency completes its reconsideration, whichever is earlier. While the reconsideration of these costly rules is welcome, the continuing mistrust constitutes a significant cost, as businesses are constrained from undertaking expansion, developing new products, or making efficiency improvements.
The totals also embrace five sets of intricate regulations promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to control fiscal institutions. While the SEC estimated the costs imposed by these rules at just over $180 million, that device only reflects a minuscule portion of the total burden. For example, costs related to the staff time required to comply with three of the regulations are not included in the SEC’s estimate, although that may constitute three-quarters of the total man hours required to comply. Specifically, the SEC calculated the costs of “outside” professional services needed to fulfill three of the new regulations, but did not embrace costs for the 317,926 hours of “internal” toil that regulatory compliance requires. Perhaps more important, the figures accomplish not embrace reductions in efficiency or forgone innovation, the costs of which could dwarf the direct compliance burden.
Other notable new rules embrace expansion of the Americans with Disabilities Act, restrictions on the expenditures of health insurers, and increases in minimum wages for immigrants.Unprecedented Growth in Red Tape in the Obama Era
The new regulations continue a multiyear trend of heavier burdens placed on the U.S. economy and the American people. This trend did not originate with the presidency of Barack Obama; the Administration of George W. Bush, for example, generated more than $60 billion in additional annual regulatory costs.
However, the rate at which burdens are growing has accelerated under the Obama Administration. During its first 26 months—from taking office to mid-FY 2011—the Obama Administration has imposed 75 new major regulations with reported costs to the private sector exceeding $40 billion. During the selfsame period, six major rulemaking proceedings reduced regulatory burdens by an estimated $1.5 billion, noiseless leaving a net multiply of more than $38 billion.
The actual cost of the new regulations is almost certainly higher, for several reasons. First, the reported totals accomplish not embrace “non-major” rules, i.e., those deemed unlikely to cost $100 million or more annually. Moreover, as agencies estimate the impacts of their own rules, costs are routinely minimized. Nor accomplish agencies always analyze the costs of proposed rules. Twelve of the 75 major regulations adopted by the Obama Administration through the discontinue of March 2011 did not embrace quantified costs.
The regulations imposed embrace fuel economy and emission standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles, with an annual cost of $10.8 billion; energy conservation standards for lightbulbs, with an annual cost of $700 million; constraints on “short sales” of securities, at $1.2 billion; and a slew of other costly regulations related to the Dodd–Frank fiscal regulation statute and Obamacare health regulations.
No other President has burdened businesses and individuals with a higher number and larger cost of regulations in a comparable time period. President Bush was in his third year before new costs hit $4 billion. President Obama achieved the selfsame in 12 months.More Regulators, Bigger Budgets
In addition to the costs imposed on the private sector, regulations swell the government workforce and fatten the federal budget. According to a report by the Weidenbaum seat on the Economy, Government, and Public Policy and The George Washington University’s Regulatory Studies Center, regulatory staff at federal agencies (full-time equivalents) increased about 3 percent between 2009 and 2010, from 262,241 to 271,235, and is estimated to mount another 4 percent—to 281,832—in 2011. Federal outlays for developing and enforcing regulations are also expected to grow by 4 percent this year, from $46.9 billion in 2010 (in constant 2005 dollars) to $48.9 billion.
More Costly Regulations Looming. The torrent of new regulation will not discontinue any time soon. The regulatory pipeline is chock plenary of proposed rules. The spring 2011 Unified Agenda (also known as the Semiannual Regulatory Agenda) lists 2,785 rules (proposed and final) in the pipeline. Of those, 144 were classified as “economically significant.” With each of the 144 pending major rules expected to cost at least $100 million annually, they delineate at least $14 billion in new burdens each year.
This is an multiply of 15.2 percent in the number of economically significant rules in the agenda between spring 2010 and spring 2011. Moreover, in the past decade, the number of such rules has increased a whopping 102 percent, rising from 71 to 144 since 2001.
Timid Regulatory Review. In January, responding to criticism that the regulatory tribulation had grown too onerous, and acknowledging the necessity to liquidate ineffective and harmful regulations, President Obama issued an executive order calling for an agency-by-agency review of existing regulations. On May 26, the Administration released introductory results from that review, identifying numerous regulations that could be eased. Among them:
Overall, the Administration claims that the changes identified, if implemented, could reduce regulatory costs by about $1 billion per year.
But it is too soon for Americans to breathe a collective sigh of regulatory relief. The promised tribulation reductions are noiseless only a fraction of the new burdens being constantly created. Moreover, many of the reforms identified are the low-hanging fruit of regulatory excesses which should gain been plucked long ago. The milk regulation has been in status since the 1970s, and a request to liquidate dairies from the regulations had been submitted to the EPA four years ago. Similarly, the problems with the anti-collision systems mandated by the DOT gain long been known. In fact, the DOT was sued over the issue more than a year ago by the railroad industry, and the agency only committed to reforming the mandates as portion of a legal settlement.
Lastly, it should be notable that independent agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the new Consumer fiscal Protection Bureau (considered by many to be the most powerful regulatory agency yet established), did not participate in the initial review process.
The Administration’s review of unnecessary regulations is a step in the perquisite direction, but it should be more earnest and comprehensive than what has been offered thus far.Steps for Congress
To protect Americans and the economy against runaway regulators under any Administration, additional oversight is necessary. Specifically, Congress should recall several steps to multiply scrutiny of new and existing regulations to ensure that each is necessary, and that costs are minimized. Congress should:
Despite the decrepit economy, the Obama Administration has continued to multiply the regulatory tribulation on Americans in the first half of FY 2011, with 15 new major regulations imposing $5.8 billion in additional annual costs, as well as $6.5 billion in one-time implementation costs.
From the mount of the Obama Administration to the discontinue of March 2011, a staggering 75 new major regulations, with costs exceeding $38 billion, gain been adopted. While the President has acknowledged the necessity to rein in regulation, the steps taken to date gain fallen far short. The President cannot gain it both ways—having identified overregulation as a problem, he must recall true and significant steps to rein it in. At the selfsame time, Congress—which shares much of the blame for inordinate regulation—must step in, establishing censorious mechanisms and institutions to ensure that unnecessary and excessively costly regulations are not imposed on the U.S. economy and the American people. Without such determinative steps, the costs of red tape will continue to grow, and Americans—and the U.S. economy—will be the victims.
—James L. Gattuso is Senior Research Fellow in Regulatory Policy in the Thomas A. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies, and Diane Katz is Research Fellow in Regulatory Policy in the Thomas A. Roe Institute, at The tradition Foundation.Appendix A
Data on the number and cost of rules are based on rules reported to Congress by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) pursuant to the Congressional Review Act of 1996. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Federal Rules Database, at http://www.gao.gov/legal/congressact/fedrule.html (July 19, 2011).
Rules included are those categorized as either “major” or “significant/substantive.” Rules which accomplish not involve regulations limiting activity or mandating activity by the private sector were excluded. Thus, for instance, budgetary rules which set reimbursement rates for Medicaid or conditions for receipt of agricultural subsidies were excluded.
The GAO database includes rulemakings from complete agencies, including independent agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission, which are not required to submit analyses to the Office of Management and Budget for review. If an agency did not prepare an analysis, or did not quantify costs, no amount was included, although the rule was included in the matter of major rules.
Cost figures were based on Regulatory repercussion Analyses conducted by agencies promulgating each rule. The agencies’ totals were then adjusted to constant 2010 dollars using the GDP deflator. Where applicable, a 7 percent discount rate was used. Where a orbit of values was given by an agency, costs were based on the most likely scenario if so indicated by the agency; otherwise the mid-point value was used. The date of a rule was based, for classification purposes, on the date of publication in the Federal Register. Rules after January 20, 2009, were attributed to the Obama Administration.
In a number of cases, reported costs disagree from those reported in previous versions of “Red Tape Rising.” Such changes were made as a result of refinements to their analysis, or to amend errors. The most substantial change was the addition of a rule expanding the application of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Although this rule was published in the Federal Register on September 15, it was not reported to the Government Accountability Office until March 15, after their FY 2010 estimates were published.
As this report focuses on the cost of major rules, rather than the cost-benefit trade-off, no benefits or “negative costs” were included in this study. They believe an awareness of the total costs of regulation being imposed is itself a censorious factor in regulatory analysis, in the selfsame artery that accounting for federal spending is a censorious factor in expenditure analysis. Inclusion of a rule in their totals, however, is not meant to indicate that a particular rule is justified. For actions reducing regulatory burdens, they used estimates provided by agencies that described the savings to consumers or society from the action.Appendix B
Major Regulations that multiply Private-Sector Burdens
October 2010–March 2011October 2010
The interim final regulation amends drilling regulations related to well control, well casing and cementing, secondary intervention, unplanned disconnects, recordkeeping, well completion and well plugging for oil and gas exploration, and evolution on the Outer Continental Shelf.
The final regulation requires the disclosure of inevitable design and investment-related information, including fee and expense information, to participants and beneficiaries in participant-directed individual account plans.
The interim final temporary regulation requires specified counterparties to pre-enactment security-based swap transactions to report inevitable information to a registered data repository or to the SEC.
The final regulation requires brokers or dealers trading securities on an exchange or an alternative trading system to establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures.
The interim final regulation implements the requirements of Obamacare for insurers to expend a government-regulated ratio of premium revenue on medical care.
The final regulation adopts new safety standards for baby cribs.
The final regulation establishes a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to reduce the partial and complete ejection of occupants through side windows in crashes, particularly rollover crashes.
The final regulation amends regulations governing the certification for employment of nonimmigrant workers in temporary or seasonal non-agricultural employment. It also revises the methodology by which the Department of Labor calculates the rife wages to be paid to H-2B workers and others in connection with a temporary labor certification.
The final regulation implements a Dodd–Frank provision requiring any issuer registering the present and sale of an asset-backed security to fulfill and disclose a review of assets underlying the offering.
The regulation implements a Dodd–Frank provision requiring securitizers of asset-backed securities to disclose fulfilled and unfulfilled repurchase requests. It also requires “statistical rating organizations” (credit agencies) to divulge a variety of information about asset-backed securities in any credit rating provided in connection with an offering.
The final regulation implements a Dodd–Frank provision requiring a divorce shareholder advisory vote to ratify executive compensation. It also requires companies soliciting votes to ratify merger or acquisition transactions to provide disclosure of inevitable “golden parachute” compensation arrangements and, in some circumstances, to conduct a shareholder advisory vote to ratify the golden parachute compensation arrangements.
The final regulation sets national emission standards for emissions for two “area source” categories: industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers.
The final regulation establishes emission standards for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters at “major sources” requiring application of the maximum achievable control technology.
The final regulation establishes new source performance standards and emission guidelines for commercial and industrial solid fritter incineration units.
The regulation and interpretive guidance implements the ADA Amendments Act of 2008. The upshot of the changes is to obtain it easier for an individual seeking protection under the ADA to establish that he or she has a disability.
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