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250-253 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Test Code : 250-253
Test appellation : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Vendor appellation : Symantec
: 235 true Questions

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Symantec Administration of Veritas Cluster

Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX gives unreasonable Availability and cataclysm restoration for physical and digital Server Environments | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware digital Servers throughout Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) these days unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing towering availability and catastrophe restoration to heterogeneous information centers running virtual server software. VCS for VMware ESX automates faraway failover for catastrophe healing and provides administration of clustered virtual and physical servers. preferrred to forestall downtime in case of utility, virtual laptop, network hyperlink, or server failures, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a solitary ESX server or across a campus or WAN. VCS is a key section of Veritas Server basis, a collection of items which allows for enterprise valued clientele to find in aspect what is working on the servers of their facts center, actively maneuver and administer those servers, and confirm that mission principal purposes operating on these servers are full the time attainable. Symantec can exist demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX on the VMworld 2006 convention being held in los angeles this week.

"VMware directors are seeking tools that no longer most efficacious automate cataclysm restoration but aid them reduce the vulnerabilities associated with operating assorted digital servers on the identical actual server," referred to Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's information core administration group. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these issues by using combining catastrophe recovery and towering availability, and consolidating control of each digital and actual servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX complements Symantec's clustering options for home windows, Linux and UNIX structures. Symantec is the market chief in pass-platform server clustering, in keeping with the 2006 edition of the IDC worldwide Clustering and Availability software report(1). With brought succor for VMware ESX, the market's most established digital server platform, VCS for VMware ESX provides a solitary solution to consolidate administration of VMware digital servers in heterogeneous facts core environments.

finished unreasonable Availability and cataclysm recuperation

VCS for VMware ESX provides towering availability and catastrophe recovery for physical and virtual servers. by means of simplifying and automating far flung failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX provides brought coverage against virtual desktop or utility disasters, including:

-- software and resource monitoring, in addition to server monitoring, which gives a better flush of availability; -- automatic restoration from utility, community storage, digital resource, digital server, and physical server failures; -- Centralized administration of virtual and physical components and servers from a solitary console; -- finished trying out for catastrophe recovery integrating each utility failover and data replication to enable businesses to test cataclysm healing without disrupting production environments. "as it managers are attempting to rein in server sprawl and enrich aid utilization across the business, they are faced with the problem of deploying assorted statistics availability and management options to wield and give protection to an ever-transforming into population of digital servers," spoke of Brian Babineau, Analyst, commercial enterprise strategy group. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the assignment for VMware shoppers through presenting a solitary platform that can steer limpid of downtime of mission crucial purposes operating in digital and physical server environments across any distance and any platform."

New assist for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX also allows for clients to maximize the advanced aspects of VMware by using recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and dispensed resource Scheduler (DRS). If a digital computer is moved from one server to another for planned protection using VMotion, the circulate can exist identified by VCS and VCS will purchase the essential action to replace the cluster status for this reason. it is additionally suitable with allotted useful resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization feature.

computerized catastrophe recuperation trying out

unique to VCS is fireplace Drill, a characteristic of VCS that gives an delivered layer of insurance device for digital servers. With hearth Drill, groups can determine their cataclysm healing device and configuration without impacting the construction ambiance. In virtual environments the location server places exchange frequently, fire Drill helps computer screen and track cellular servers, their configuration and dependency hyperlinks.

expense and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to exist released within the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX starts at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the realm leader in presenting solutions to champion individuals and organizations assure the security, availability, and integrity of their tips. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in forty international locations. extra counsel is accessible at www.symantec.com.

(1) IDC, international Clustering and Availability software 2005 supplier Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

be awake TO EDITORS: if you would love more information on Symantec enterprise and its items, tickle talk over with the Symantec information scope at http://www.symantec.com/news. full fees cited are in U.S. greenbacks and are telling best in the united states.

Symantec and the Symantec brand are trademarks or registered logos of Symantec organisation or its associates within the U.S. and different nations. other names can exist logos of their respective owners.


Symantec declares the supply of Veritas Storage basis 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Symantec Corp. announced the commonplace availability of its Storage foundation 5.0 family unit of products, proposing public and private sector businesses with fresh visibility and control over advanced statistics center storage environments. besides this fresh storage management offering, Symantec is releasing for prevalent availability Veritas Cluster Server 5.0, a key element of the Veritas Server groundwork household. Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 is a confirmed solution for reducing planned and unplanned application and database downtime. Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are core add-ons of the Symantec data middle foundation reply family, the simplest providing that allows government and industry valued clientele to standardize on a solitary layer of infrastructure software across their total facts core, enabling them to reduce datacenter complexity, multiply provider degrees, and drive down operations costs.

shoppers who leverage the Symantec data middle foundation can realize powerful operational merits such as the aptitude to educate their team of workers on one set of tools instead of dozens of disparate supplier-certain tools; superior negotiating leverage and adaptability in deciding upon amongst any principal storage and server supplier; and stronger utilization of server and storage hardware assets. in addition, clients can achieve significant direct cost savings. by using standardizing on solutions love Veritas Storage basis 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0, firms can forestall paying for duplicative server and storage software from assorted carriers, and know great storage hardware discount rates via stirring records from high-cost tier one storage to lessen cost tier two storage.

Storage groundwork 5.0 offers information center-vast visibility into the complete storage environment throughout full most principal software, server, working device and storage platforms. moreover, Storage basis 5.0 offers efficacious centralized wield over storage administration, enabling hundreds of methods to exist managed from a solitary console and automating activities initiatives to eliminate human mistake and time-consuming manual approaches. in addition, with this unencumber, Symantec gives clients with the first synchronous unencumber throughout full predominant UNIX and Linux structures.

an impressive server administration providing from Symantec, Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 contains fresh aspects designed to in the reduction of each planned and unplanned downtime, no matter if as a result of hardware failures, records middle extensive mess ups, or server protection, through automating endemic and wide enviornment software failover. Cluster Server 5.0 enables valued clientele to monitor, manage, and file on varied local and faraway clusters from a solitary internet-based console. To more advantageous assure the success of a cataclysm healing approach, Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 contains fire Drill, a utensil that automates DR trying out, cutting back the time, price, and risk of the testing procedure. as a result of data center servers and functions are normally altering, regularly testing a catastrophe recovery fashion is crucial to assure a a hit recovery in the event of a system or website-wide outage. IT administrators now accommodate the means to achieve unheard of manage and confidence in their methods as fireplace Drill helps guarantee reliability and efficiency of their DR techniques and procedures.

Pricing and Availability

Veritas Storage foundation 5.0, Veritas quantity Replicator 5.0, Veritas Storage basis simple and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 can exist organize now via Symantec's direct income force, enterprise VAR channel, system integrators, and pick OEM companions. Veritas Storage basis basic can also exist downloaded at www.symantec.com/sfbasic. Storage basis administration Server may also exist downloaded at www.symantec.com/sfms. Veritas Storage groundwork 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are licensed per server tier or per processor. Veritas Storage basis fundamental is attainable free. The not obligatory annual succor subscription for Veritas Storage basis basic begins at US $98 per processor.


Veritas Cluster Server for home windows | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-specific Certification is obtainable with the aid of:SymantecCupertino, CA USAPhone: 408-517-8000Email: This email wield is being blanketed from spambots. You exigency JavaScript enabled to view it.

skill level: basis                          fame: Unknown

least expensive: $a hundred and fifty (shortest song)               

summary:for people who've the advantage and talents fundamental to plan, design, and install Veritas Storage basis towering Availability for windows in an industry atmosphere.

preliminary necessities:You must rush the Administration of Veritas Storage groundwork towering Availability for home windows examination ($one hundred fifty) and settle for the Symantec Certification agreement. The examination is 90 minutes lengthy and consists of seventy two questions. A passing score of seventy two% is required. working towards is available however not required.

continuing necessities:None specified

See full Symantec Certifications

seller's web page for this certification


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Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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Implementing Security, section II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with section 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise usher to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the ultimate year or two, whether or not it is perquisite to discuss so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the conjectural safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to exist dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can train them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a beneficial deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they accommodate lately done. If a lock—let it accommodate been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the mendacious are tolerably unavoidable to exist the first to apply the learning practically; and the spread of learning is necessary to give just play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot exist too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with true facts will, in the end, exist better for full parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to pick from. The identical preference is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems comprehend OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems comprehend HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions use the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this exist of value to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more tangled process to report how to acclimatize a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can exist applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to animated documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and recede into a more circumstantial account of how to acclimatize a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of pile a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for use as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing possible entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having separate partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create unreasonable generation of logging data or fill your file system with great files through FTP or mail spool. The best way to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into separate physical partitions.

The root partition / can exist wee because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and emblem data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not accommodate data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can exist mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to bear /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a separate partition, or—even better—a separate disk array. If you only create one separate partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you use those directories, they too can exist mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally organize at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost full of them should exist disabled for pile firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND appellation services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not exist running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can exist used to display user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no reason to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service display the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service recrudesce the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. attain not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not resound (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of full processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might exist asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will exist doing the identical thing. And that's a telling question. The reply is to avoid solitary points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will exist standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. sustain in reason that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, betide internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced difficult drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers accommodate two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should exist taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. full will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that attain not accommodate tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can exist organize at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet appellation Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the appellation service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is accountable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its participate of exploits. Only very aged versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll exist surprised how many installations quiet accommodate the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The hapless thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is confident to exist some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many fresh features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, full Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a solitary server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are principal to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost full UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions Come with BIND as the appellation server, it is principal you bear confident you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, bear confident it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has solemn exploits. This warning should not exist ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves accommodate issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can exist organize at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to exist used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting fashion of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default full defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will forestall zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict full zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, use predefined match list none. This can exist accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will exist allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise usher to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits affect millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports fresh features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but tickle bear confident that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, use the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to collect information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to bear sendmail accommodate a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on unavoidable conditions that might testify mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to ship email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set full flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to exist fast, simple to administer, and secure, while at the identical time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to exist modular, thus Postfix is not a solitary executable love sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that discharge specific tasks. full the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) dash as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less desultory of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who attain not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will bear email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not dispense Postfix, discouragement not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a development workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can exist organize at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between fresh versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not exist of value specifically that you should use any one of them because the towering number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. purchase the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these common distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most appellation recognition, and is usually the first to regain any sort of corporate champion in the way of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, accommodate released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not exist of value that those software releases will not dash on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not champion your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by quality and pride in their efforts to bear Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to exist extremely stable and simple to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can exist upgraded without the exigency for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian also is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should pick custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should exist no exigency to install development packages, any of the fresh KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should pick to enable shadow password file support; pick to use MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the classic crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, use the setup utility. In Debian, you can use the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you accommodate to edit the commandeer files under /etc/pam.d to comprehend md5 on the password lines.

    You should also enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely simple to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who pick to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose train is not just to acclimatize your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to acclimatize the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a progression of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions report what needs to exist done, why it should exist done, and why you might not want to attain it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting confidential with Linux. Bastille Linux can exist organize at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security usher online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for pile secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of common security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that affect network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner also has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for pile a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The animated document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can exist organize at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more celebrated BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the Great strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote hole in the default install, only one localhost hole in two years in the default install." Almost full services are disabled until the administrator has enough undergo to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the identical file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will exist doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing champion for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will exist covered briefly later in the chapter.


    1998 in review | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LWN 1998 Linux timeline

    This is version 1.0 of the 1998 Linux timeline. Thanks to input from many of you, many omissions from the previous version accommodate been fixed. For those who accommodate seen the earlier version, check out the changes page to view what got added. The permanent site for this page is and will remain:

    http://lwn.net/1999/features/1998timeline/

    We're quiet looking for input for the final version of this page, which will exist section of the January 7, 1999 issue of LWN. tickle drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page.

    This page was produced by Jonathan Corbet at Eklektix, Inc. Contributions accommodate since Come in from Zachary Beane, Christopher Bohn, notice Bolzern, Malcolm Caldwell, Victor Chang, Alan Cox, David Damerell, Joe DeVita, Gael Duval, Sammy Ford, Emmanuel Galanos, Jason Haas, Hans ? (hzo), Tres Hofmeister, "Kerberus," Alexander Kjeldaas, Matthias Kranz, Barry Kwok, Erik Levy, William Mackeown, Rick Moen, Olivier M�ller, Hartmut Niemann, Rodolphe Ortalo, moneyed Payne, Kelly Price, G. Branden Robinson, Greg Roelofs, Daniel Roesen, Seth David Schoen, Dan Shafer, Lewis Tanzos, Jarto Tarpio, Henri de la Vall�e Poussin, Moshe Vainer, Steve Wainstead, David A. Wheeler, Micah Yoder, and James Youngman. Many thanks to full of these folks!

    You may jump straight to the month of your choice: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, or December.

    The Linux Weekly word begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an arresting adventure.

    [Netscape]Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most principal events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

    [RHAD] Red Hat Advanced development Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an principal component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers love "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.

    The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the word took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.

    Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another principal step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.

    [Qube] The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its towering performance, low price, and cute profile factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by null other than David Miller, source of much that is beneficial in the Linux kernel.

    [prize] The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical champion award; Red Hat 5.0 also won their Operating System award. But it was the tech champion award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been aphorism that Linux had no support. This was the nascence of the halt of the "no support" argument.

    [opensource] Red Hat announces that their installation champion staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and exact for long-suffering while they regain their act together.

    Linux according to Jesse Berst "I mediate it's Great if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are awake of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16). "Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23). "I personally mediate Windows NT will exist the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never recede mainstream" (Sep. 9). "I've always said that Linux could become a solemn challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).

    Eric Raymond and friends Come up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and keep up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal pains to propel Linux for corporate use.

    Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, full mention of this seems to accommodate vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.

    Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and apt libc5.

    The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the faith that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.

    [GGI] Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to bear a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. Interestingly, GGI had made no request for kernel inclusion at this time. No resolution was reached, but better communications with a number of kernel hackers did result from this episode.

    The Linux common Store opens; this is "the first walk-in Linux store." (Web page here).

    [Learning tree] Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The quality of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform commandeer for the industry environment."

    Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the great PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to proffer non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).

    Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.

    [Debian] [Sendmail logo] Bruce Perens, once leader of the Debian project, quits entirely in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.

    Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to bear money selling sendmail champion services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.

    John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should exist required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.

    [Mozilla] The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded full over the world, and people start hacking. fresh features, such as strong encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.

    Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in beneficial company, joining names love Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the ultimate time that Linus could exist said to exist an "unsung" hero.

    Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to convey "...there are probably quiet bugs with some of the fresh code, but I'll freeze fresh features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to exist rather slushy, to convey the least.

    The Open Group announces a fresh licensing policy for the X window system. fresh versions of X will exist proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from common distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the fresh licensing, and declares its intent to recede its own way.

    [NPR] Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.

    O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.

    The Linux Weekly word daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to sustain the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is also announced.

    Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes Great joy, and substantial disruption in kernel development as full toil stops and many patches regain lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes limpid just how conditional the entire process is on Linus's continuous presence.

    RH  champion partner logo[Avalon] Red Hat announces their commercial champion program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.

    The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.

    Eric S. Raymond publishes "Homesteading the Noosphere" on the web; This paper gives his view of how economics of open source software can work.

    Kernel hacker Alan Cox goes to toil for Red Hat.

    Bruce Perens proposes a fresh Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his undergo with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux measure groundwork project.

    [Project Heresy C|Net's "Project Heresy" starts a high-profile attempt to toil using only Linux. The result was a long progression of articles and "radio" programs, full on the Project Heresy page.

    Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.

    [Google] The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

    Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix accommodate no plans to champion Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).

    [SuSE] The SuSE 5.2 distribution is released.

    [Corel] Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their champion for the Linux system.

    The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a coerce in French computer circles.

    O2 titanic databases start to arrive. champion for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 demur database.

    The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a progression of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page quiet exists, but this project is no longer energetic in this form.

    "But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The titanic problem with Linux is that it has no simple direction. It's in the perquisite location at the perquisite time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).

    The Linux Weekly word moved to its own domain at lwn.net.

    A proposal goes out to create the Linux measure groundwork (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a great number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can exist organize on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.

    And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a beneficial time was had by all.

    Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the customary number of updates (partly as a result of the Linux Security Audit program). There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.

    "First, let me convey that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. love most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's desultory in hell of making palpable inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).

    The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to exist increasingly inelastic competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of full Unix vendors for Linux to regain branded so that it may compete more effectively and sustain the low halt UNIX 98-compliant." Very exiguous is heard thereafter.

    The Gartner Group says there is exiguous hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread use in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there exist broad third-party application support."

    [Wilbur] The Gimp 1.0 is released. This long-awaited release of one of Linux's highest profile tools did not disappoint.

    Stable kernel 2.0.34 is released after a long prepatch series.

    [Beowulf] The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. view this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.

    The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it also shows Linux to exist the only system other than NT that is increasing market share.

    "Like a lot of products that are free, you regain a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).

    [Netwinder] Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.

    Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.

    [Adaptec] Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces champion for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors accommodate since then announced agreements with Adaptec.

    The Chinese Linux Extension project begins; this project is doing a Chinese localization of Linux. (Web page (mix English/Chinese) here).

    IBM announces that it will dispense and champion the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.

    [Rocket]

    The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group holds "The Great Linux Revolt of 1998", turning Microsoft's Windows 98 product launch celebration into a Linux publicity event at two high-profile retail outlets.

    Not content with that, The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group Launches Windows 98...on a rocket.

    The UK Linux Developers' Conference is held in Manchester (basic web page here).

    Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...

    The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, aphorism that KDE is OK with him. Those who are emotion nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to view how much fun it really was.

    In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who attain not love the licensing of the Qt library.

    NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only exist an absolute disaster.

    Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released.

    The Internet Operating System Counter goes online and finds, after querying hundreds of thousands of hosts, that Linux has the largest web server market participate of any operating system out there. The results are available on the Internet Operating System Counter page.

    LinuxPPC 4.0 is released.

    "IBM, Informix, and Sybase also accommodate no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)

    [Oracle] Oracle announces champion for Linux in this press release. They promise to bear a ordeal version available by the halt of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a Great deal of attention resulted from this announcement.

    [Informix] Informix announces champion for Linux on almost the identical day with a press release of their own.

    The SVLUG/Taos "Future of Linux" panel is held featuring Linus and numerous other luminaries. (Writeup here). Among other things, this conference is where Intel first started making solemn noises about supporting Linux.

    "When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't succor but phenomenon if he was being set up to purchase the descend when Windows NT 5.0 proves to exist a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).

    [Forbes cover] Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy Story presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word. (Yes, it was the August 10 issue, but it came out in July).

    The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language champion and KDE added.

    Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.

    Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least two CD's to hold it.

    MkLinux distribution DR3 is released, announced thusly.

    Caldera releases Netware for Linux 1.0 (product info here).

    The EiffelBase library is released under an open source license; this library had previously been proprietary. (Info here).

    Red Hat announces (again) that their installation champion staff is running behind (again). Their note on the topic asks for long-suffering while they regain their act together.

    The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer (Russ Nelson and Chip Salzenberg associate the board a month later). Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark.

    Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.

    [GNOME] GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.

    The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux measure Base, which was having pain finding consensus on its goals.

    Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux measure groundwork project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.

    Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its fresh officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The fresh folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.

    [LSB] Red Hat puts out a paper on why they attain not love the Qt license and why they will not exist including KDE anytime soon. The paper is quiet available on Red Hat's web site.

    The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will bear the true measure for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a just amount of press aphorism that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One beneficial upshot of their presence may accommodate been to succor drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux measure groundwork projects to merge back together and regain solemn about producing something.

    "Organizations should not deem deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. They believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)

    Red Hat makes the development version of their distribution available as "RawHide".

    "Personally, I mediate open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without full this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).

    Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of lawyer action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.

    Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.

    The Linux Internet Server Administration usher project starts up with a page at lisa.8304.ch.

    Linux Magazine France debuts as "the" French print magazine on Linux (information here).

    Stackguard/Immunix 5.1 is released. StackGuard is actually a version of gcc modified to protect against stack overrun attacks; Immunix is a version of the Red Hat distribution built with this compiler.

    Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may exist made available to developers.

    [SuSE] SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.

    [Caldera] Caldera splits into two separate companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here).

    "The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a fresh benevolent of industry organization that could profile the basis for a fresh benevolent of economy."(Harvard industry Review, September)

    SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems swirl up for a wee percentage of users.

    [UDI] The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would love to bear lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.

    SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other beneficial stuff. This product gets a just amount of attention as possible competition to Microsoft on the desktop.

    [DB2] IBM announces champion for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).

    [Sybase] Sybase announces champion for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.

    Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to great customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a amaze to "small" customers who accommodate been trying to regain Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.

    Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to exist released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.

    The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a desolate chapter in the history of free software. It is also rumored that TOG has little, if any development staff working on X at this point, signification that it may not matter much which license they use.

    Microsoft lists Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their true purpose is to affect the upcoming antitrust trial.

    [CLUE] Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with Great success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can exist organize on the Installfest pages.

    Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) publish minority [Intel] investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to exist used to build an "enterprise champion division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

    Intel joins Linux International.

    Net pioneer Jonathan Postel dies, depriving the world of a much-needed leader in the middle of the domain appellation debate.

    The International Kernel Patch is introduced, providing cryptographic capabilities in a way that does not dash afoul of obnoxious national crypto export laws.

    GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.

    Linuxpower.org hits the web. This site has since become a beneficial source of Linux articles and tutorials.

    [eCos] Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).

    Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they ship out makes a titanic thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.

    Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera also announces Linux administration training courses.

    "Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's youthful expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to proffer Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).

    [LinuxToday] LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of fresh Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.

    Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things recrudesce to normal, of course, but some people regain talking. It becomes limpid once again that the Linux kernel is getting to exist too titanic for one person to sustain on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.

    The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users.

    "For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an simple way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to originate on October 15th. That may exist short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could cause Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)

    Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to exist done lightly.

    AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports testify that it was highly successful.

    Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release also claims that Linux was developed by "a solitary individual."

    Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award. Larry, of course, is the developer of Perl and lots of other beneficial stuff.

    Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.

    Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.

    [Allaire] Allaire announces that they will champion Linux with "a future version" of their common "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people accommodate been waiting for.

    [Compaq] Compaq is reported to exist ready to champion VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not device to sell Linux-installed systems directly. [LinuxWorld]

    LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.

    Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The epistle (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted. The definitive refutation was probably this response from AFUL (also available in English).

    Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.

    France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.

    The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will exist using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development.

    "What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was also from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but also businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).

    The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a titanic success. (LWN coverage here).

    Corel announces that Word flawless 8 for Linux will exist downloadable for Free for "personal use." They also publish a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder. [WineHQ]

    Corel also commits to helping the WINE development effort, a major boost for this long-awaited project. (Note from Corel here).

    [PHT] Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They accommodate long claimed to exist the most common distribution in Japan, and mediate it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).

    Www.alphalinux.org goes live, providing a solitary site for Alpha-related information for the first time.

    [AFUL] AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to champion the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).

    Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).

    Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them [ExtremeLinux] public. The memos avow frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some possible responses. The furor in the press was just as great as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).

    Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.

    Linux has a towering profile at COMDEX, though it was not the center of the display as some pundits had expected.

    The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to succor build high-availability clusters.

    The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux champion can exist implemented. One of the titanic nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).

    Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is conjectural to exist the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will accommodate the 2.2 kernel.

    LinuxPPC 5.0 is announced; the actual release is set for January 5, 1999. (Info here). [Ext2]

    Ext2 hits the net as another monthly Linux magazine.

    Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.

    Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An arresting angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).

    The Silicon Valley Tea Party celebrates the opening of the Microsoft campus there. (Writeup here). [StarDivision]

    StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).

    Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will exist released under an open source license. This license does not meet everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications exist distributed as patches. As a result, though most avow that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.

    Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).

    OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).

    Slackware distribution 3.6 is released

    Red Hat and SuSE both publish champion programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).

    Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to bear its database available.

    Sunsite.unc.edu transforms into MetaLab.unc.edu to better reflect its purpose and to regain away from Sun's trademark. It remains one of the primary Linux repositories and the home of the Linux Documentation Project.

    The CLOWN project creates a 550-node cluster, aiming for a spot in the record books (Coverage here).

    A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the profile of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest pretension to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" era on who should control the trademark; that era remains open as this is written.

    [BSDI] BSDI announces the aptitude to dash Linux binaries, giving users of Linux applications "a reliable, commercially supported operating system to dash them on." The implication, of course, is that such a platform had not previously been available. The really arresting point, though, is that Linux now has enough applications to bear other OS vendors envious.

    Linus and Tove are guests of deference at Finland's Independence Day celebration. They regain to meet the President and are voted "the most arresting couple" at the event. (Coverage here, click on "��nestys" for pictures).

    Red Hat hacker (and RPM culprit) Eric Troan gets married, no pictures (yet) available.

    The Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System is established to better regain fresh kernels out to the world. (Mirror page here).

    The Linux Kernel History is published due to the efforts of Riley Williams and others. An almost complete reconstruction of full the released Linux kernels has been done. (Kernel history page here).

    [Mandrake] [Gecko]

    Mandrake distribution 5.2 is released.

    Netscape's "Gecko" rendering engine is released. Gecko is the first high-profile product out of the Netscape/Mozilla open source development effort; it is a leaner, meaner, faster, more standards-conformant web page layout engine. (Press release here).

    [YellowDog]

    The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).

    Corel announces a partnership with the KDE development team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).

    IBM releases version 3.5 of the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here). (An earlier version of AFS had been available before 1998, view the Linux-AFS FAQ for more).

    Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).

    GNOME 1.0 enters code freeze and 0.99 betas are released.

    Compaq releases a Linux driver for its PCI RAID controller, and it is under the GPL. (Press release here).

    LibGGI 2.0 (beta) released (Announcement here).

    IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They also keep out the beta version of DB2 for free download. [Sun]

    Sun opens up the Java license. It's quiet not an open source license, but things are headed in the perquisite direction.

    Sun announces champion for Linux on UltraSparc systems

    "The question is how to attain it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source confidential with IBM's plans. "With a common public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best way to decipher this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).

    Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and also announces champion for Samba on their systems.

    KDE 1.1 goes into code freeze and beta releases are made available.

    IBM is said to exist considering becoming a champion provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.

    The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).

    Reports convey that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed. [Corel]

    WordPerfect 8 becomes available for download; it proves to exist popular. (Information here).

    The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to regain Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).

    The first pre-2.2 kernel is released.

    A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market participate rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

    Eklektix, Inc. Linux powered! Copyright © 1998 Eklektix, Inc., full rights reservedLinux ® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds


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