1Z0-058 exam Dumps Source : Oracle real Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Test Code : 1Z0-058
Test title : Oracle real Application Clusters 11g(R) Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration
Vendor title : Oracle
: 139 real Questions
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This chapter introduces Oracle Clusterware and Oracle apt software Clusters (Oracle RAC) by using describing these products in addition to a pass to installation, administer, and install them. This chapter describes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC architectures as well because the software and hardware components for both of those items. This chapter additionally in brief describes workload administration, capabilities, and high availability for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments. This chapter contains the following matter matters:Oracle Clusterware and Oracle precise software Clusters
A cluster includes distinct interconnected computer systems or servers that appear as if they are one server to cease clients and purposes. Oracle Database 10g precise software Clusters (Oracle RAC) allows for the clustering of the Oracle Database. Oracle RAC uses Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind distinct servers in order that they office as a sole equipment.
Oracle Clusterware is a conveyable cluster management solution it's built-in with the Oracle database. The Oracle Clusterware is additionally a required piece for the expend of Oracle RAC. furthermore, Oracle Clusterware permits both single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC databases to expend the Oracle immoderate availability infrastructure. The Oracle Clusterware makes it workable for you to create a clustered pool of storage to exist used via any combination of single-illustration and Oracle RAC databases.
Oracle Clusterware is the handiest clusterware that you just necessity for most platforms on which Oracle RAC operates. that you may additionally expend clusterware from different vendors if the clusterware is licensed for Oracle RAC.
Single-instance Oracle databases hold a one-to-one relationship between the Oracle database and the instance. Oracle RAC environments, however, hold a one-to-many relationship between the database and situations. In Oracle RAC environments, the cluster database cases entry one database. The mixed processing vigor of the varied servers can give more suitable throughput and scalability than is attainable from a sole server. Oracle RAC is the Oracle Database alternative that gives a sole gadget photo for dissimilar servers to entry one Oracle database. In Oracle RAC, each and every Oracle illustration continually runs on a separate server.
Oracle RAC is a unique expertise that provides immoderate availability and scalability for every sole application varieties. The Oracle RAC infrastructure is likewise a key component for enforcing the Oracle enterprise grid computing architecture. Having assorted instances access a sole database prevents the server from being a sole factor of failure. Oracle RAC enables you to blend smaller commodity servers prerogative into a cluster to create scalable environments that champion mission faultfinding trade functions. purposes that you just deploy on Oracle RAC databases can operate without code alterations.The Oracle Clusterware architecture and Oracle Clusterware Processing
The Oracle Clusterware is application that when set aside in on servers operating the very working gadget, permits the servers to exist sure collectively to office as if they hold been one server. The Oracle Clusterware requires two clusterware components: a voting disk to list node membership counsel and the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) to list cluster configuration information. The balloting disk and the OCR necessity to live on shared storage. The Oracle Clusterware requires that each node exist linked to a private community by the expend of a personal interconnect.
The private interconnect that Oracle Clusterware requires is a separate network that you just configure between the cluster nodes. This interconnect, which is required via Oracle RAC, will likewise exist the equal community that the clusterware uses, however the interconnect should now not exist attainable by pass of nodes that don't look to exist a piece of the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you just configure a redundant interconnect to remain away from the interconnect from being a sole component of failure. Oracle likewise recommends that you expend user Datagram Protocol (UDP) on a Gigabit Ethernet on your cluster interconnect. Crossover cables aren't supported to exist used with Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC databases.
The Oracle Clusterware manages node membership and prevents nick up intellect syndrome in which two or greater situations try to control the database. this can gyrate up in circumstances the plot there's a spoil in communique between nodes in the course of the interconnect.
The Oracle Clusterware architecture supports immoderate availability by instantly restarting stopped accessories. The Oracle Clusterware can instantly re-delivery a node to steer clear of problems with that node from affecting the availability of the relaxation of the Oracle RAC environment. In an Oracle RAC ambiance, every sole Oracle approaches are beneath the manage of the Oracle clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware additionally provides an software programming interface (API) that allows you to manage other Oracle procedures with Oracle Clusterware.Oracle Clusterware application component Processing details
The Oracle Clusterware includes a number of inheritance processes that facilitate cluster operations. The Cluster Synchronization provider (CSS), event administration (EVM), and Oracle Cluster accessories talk with different cluster component layers within the different instances inside the equal cluster database environment. These add-ons are likewise the leading verbal exchange links between the Oracle Clusterware high availability components and the Oracle Database. in addition, these accessories video parade and control database operations.
here list describes the features of one of the most most primary Oracle Clusterware accessories. This record contains these add-ons which are processes on Unix and Linux operating techniques or features on home windows.
notice:On windows-based mostly operating techniques, most of the add-ons are threads of the Oracle system as a substitute of separate processes.
Cluster Synchronization functions (CSS)—Manages the cluster configuration by controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and by notifying contributors when a node joins or leaves the cluster. if you are the usage of third-birthday party clusterware, then the css manner interfaces with your clusterware to manipulate node membership information.
Cluster equipped features (CRS)—The fundamental program for managing high availability operations within a cluster. anything else that the crs system manages is referred to as a cluster aid which could exist a database, an illustration, a carrier, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) handle, an utility technique, etc. The crs process manages cluster elements based on the aid's configuration assistance it's saved within the OCR. This comprises beginning, cease, video parade and failover operations. The crs technique generates events when a resource repute alterations. in case you hold installed Oracle RAC, crs monitors the Oracle example, Listener, etc, and instantly restarts these accessories when a failure happens. by means of default, the crs system makes 5 attempts to restart a useful resource and then doesn't perform extra restart makes an attempt if the useful resource does not restart.
event management (EVM)—A history manner that publishes pursuits that crs creates.
Oracle Notification service (ONS)—A set aside up and subscribe carrier for communicating quick application Notification (FAN) activities.
RACG—Extends clusterware to aid Oracle-selected requirements and complex elements. Runs server callout scripts when FAN activities rob place.
manner monitor Daemon (OPROCD)—This technique is locked in reminiscence to parade screen the cluster and supply I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its determine, stops operating, and if the wake up is beyond the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure effects in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux platforms.
In here desk, if a manner has a (r) beside it, then the technique runs as the root person. in any other case the manner runs because the oracle consumer.
table 1-1 list of techniques and windows services associated with Oracle ClusterwareOracle Clusterware element Linux/Unix system home windows servicesWindows tactics
process computer screen Daemon
Oracle Notification service (ONS)
evmd (r), evmd.bin, evmlogger
Cluster in a position
Cluster Synchronization capabilities
init.cssd (r), ocssd (r), ocssd.bin
ocssd.exeThe Oracle Clusterware application add-ons
When Oracle Clusterware operates, a number of platform-particular techniques or capabilities will likewise exist running on each and every node within the cluster to aid Oracle Clusterware. The Oracle Clusterware platform-certain UNIX-primarily based processes and home windows-primarily based features are described under here headings:Oracle Clusterware strategies on UNIX-based methods
The Oracle Clusterware strategies on UNIX-based mostly techniques are:
crsd—Performs immoderate availability restoration and administration operations such as holding the OCR and managing utility resources. This manner runs as the root person, or by means of a user within the admin community on Mac OS X-based methods. This process restarts automatically upon failure.
evmd—experience supervisor daemon. This manner likewise begins the racgevt process to manipulate FAN server callouts.
ocssd—Manages cluster node membership and runs because the oracle person; failure of this system consequences in cluster restart.
oprocd—technique parade screen for the cluster. notice that this manner simplest appears on platforms that carry out not expend supplier clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
note:Oracle RAC on Linux systems can hold dissimilar threads that look as separate methods with separate manner identifiers. Oracle Clusterware functions on home windows-based techniques
The Oracle Clusterware capabilities on home windows-based mostly programs are:
OracleCRService—Performs immoderate availability restoration and management operations akin to keeping the OCR and managing utility materials. This system runs as the root consumer, or by a user within the admin group on Mac OS X-primarily based techniques. This process restarts instantly upon failure.
OracleCSService—Manages cluster node membership and runs as oracle user; failure of this procedure outcomes in cluster restart.
OracleEVMService—experience manager daemon. This manner likewise starts the racgevt process to control FAN server callouts.
OraFenceService—system monitor for the cluster. notice that this system best seems on platforms that don't expend supplier clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.
An Oracle RAC database is a logically or bodily shared everything database. every sole datafiles, manage data, PFILEs, and redo log information in Oracle RAC environments hold to reside on cluster-aware shared disks in order that every sole the cluster database situations can entry them. every sole the instances ought to additionally participate the identical interconnect. furthermore, Oracle RAC databases can participate the very interconnect that Oracle Clusterware uses.
as a result of an Oracle RAC database uses a shared every petite thing structure, Oracle RAC requires cluster-aware storage for every sole database information. it's your option as to how to configure your disk, however you must expend a supported cluster-mindful storage solution. Oracle Database 10g gives automatic Storage management (ASM), which is the informed reply to manage your disk. however you may likewise additionally expend a cluster-conscious quantity manager or a cluster file system (not required). In Oracle RAC, the Oracle Database software manages disk entry and the Oracle utility is certified to exist used on loads of storage architectures. An Oracle RAC database can hold up to one hundred cases. reckoning on your platform, you could expend prerogative here file storage alternatives for Oracle RAC:
ASM, which Oracle recommends
Oracle Cluster File system (OCFS), which is accessible for Linux and windows systems, or a third-celebration cluster file system it is licensed for Oracle RAC
A network file device
Oracle RAC databases fluctuate architecturally from Oracle RACsingle-example Oracle databases in that each and every Oracle RAC database specimen likewise has:
All nodes in an Oracle RAC ambiance must connect with a local region community (LAN) to permit users and functions to entry the database. purposes should expend the Oracle Database capabilities feature to connect to an Oracle database. features enable you to outline guidelines and characteristics to control how users and purposes connect to database circumstances. These traits consist of a unique identify, workload balancing and failover options, and immoderate availability traits. Oracle internet features enables the affliction balancing of software connections throughout every sole of the instances in an Oracle RAC database.
clients can access an Oracle RAC database the expend of a consumer-server configuration or via one or more center tiers, with or without connection pooling. clients can exist DBAs, developers, software users, vigour users, corresponding to statistics miners who create their own searches, and so on.
Most public networks usually expend TCP/IP, however which you can expend any supported hardware and application aggregate. Oracle RAC database instances can likewise exist accessed via a database's defined, default IP tackle and through VIP addresses.
notice:do not to perform expend of the interconnect or the inner most community for consumer communication because Cache Fusion uses the inner most interconnect for inter-illustration communications.
apart from the node's host title and IP handle, you hold to likewise assign a digital host identify and an IP manipulate to each node. The virtual host title or VIP should soundless exist used to connect with the database illustration. for example, you could enter the virtual host title CRM within the tackle list of the tnsnames.ora file.
A virtual IP tackle is another public address that customer connections expend instead of the common public IP tackle. To configure VIP addresses, you should reserve a spare IP manipulate for every node that makes expend of the very subnet as the public community.
If a node fails, then the node's VIP fails over to an extra node on which the VIP cannot accept connections. commonly, VIPs fail over when the node on which a VIP runs fails or if every sole interfaces for the VIP fail or are disconnected from the network. customers that attempt to connect to the VIP receive a rapid connection refused error as an alternative of watching for TCP associate timeout messages. You configure VIP addresses in the address list in your database connection definition to allow connectivity. here piece describes the Oracle RAC application add-ons in additional element.The Oracle actual software Clusters application components
Oracle RAC databases hold two or greater database situations that every comprise reminiscence structures and inheritance tactics. An Oracle RAC database has the very techniques and recollection constructions as a single-example Oracle database in addition to further process and recollection constructions that are particular to Oracle RAC. any one example's database view is pretty much similar to another illustration's view within the identical Oracle RAC database; the view is a sole system photo of the atmosphere.
each illustration has a buffer cache in its system international enviornment (SGA). the usage of Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically blend each and every instance's buffer cache to enable the situations to technique facts as if the information resided on a logically mixed, sole cache.
word:The SGA measurement requirements for Oracle RAC are more suitable than the SGA necessities for single-instance Oracle databases due to Cache Fusion.
To exist sure that every Oracle RAC database illustration obtains the shroud that it should satisfy a question or transaction, Oracle RAC instances expend two tactics, the global Cache service (GCS) and the global Enqueue service (GES). The GCS and GES maintain information of the statuses of each records file and every cached shroud using a global useful resource listing (GRD). The GRD contents are dispensed across the entire energetic cases, which simply increases the dimension of the device global enviornment for an Oracle RAC example.
After one instance caches information, any other illustration in the equal cluster database can purchase a shroud vivid from one other illustration within the equal database quicker than by using reading the shroud from disk. hence, Cache Fusion strikes current blocks between cases in plot of re-reading the blocks from disk. When a constant shroud is required or a changed shroud is required on yet another illustration, Cache Fusion transfers the shroud photo at once between the affected circumstances. Oracle RAC uses the private interconnect for inter-example verbal exchange and shroud transfers. The global Enqueue provider parade screen and the instance Enqueue system manages entry to Cache Fusion materials in addition to enqueue recuperation processing.
These Oracle RAC tactics and the GRD collaborate to permit Cache Fusion. The Oracle RAC techniques and their identifiers are as follows:
LMS—global Cache service manner
LMD—world Enqueue provider Daemon
LMON—international Enqueue provider monitor
LCK0—instance Enqueue procedure
in case you expend network attached Storage (NAS), then you are required to configure a 2nd inner most community. access to this network is usually controlled with the aid of the seller's application. The inner most community uses static IP addresses.
note:most of the Oracle accessories that this section describes are apart from the accessories which are described for single-illustration Oracle databases in Oracle Database concepts. Oracle Clusterware components and immoderate Availability
if you betide to blend Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC, which you could obtain magnificent scalability and high availability. The Oracle Clusterware achieves this the expend of the components that this region describes under here topics:The Oracle Clusterware voting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry
The Oracle Clusterware requires here two primary files:
voting Disk—Manages cluster membership by the expend of a health assess and arbitrates cluster possession among the many instances in case of network failures. Oracle RAC makes expend of the vote casting disk to investigate which instances are participants of a cluster. The vote casting disk hold to remain on shared disk. for top availability, Oracle recommends that you've got multiple balloting disks. The Oracle Clusterware allows assorted voting disks however you should hold an bizarre number of voting disks, corresponding to three, five, and so on. in case you outline a sole voting disk, then exist sure to expend exterior mirroring to supply redundancy.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)—continues cluster configuration suggestions in addition to configuration tips about any cluster database inside the cluster. The OCR additionally manages counsel about methods that Oracle Clusterware controls. The OCR stores configuration counsel in a sequence of key-cost pairs within a directory tree constitution. The OCR should remain on shared disk that's purchasable by using every sole the nodes to your cluster. The Oracle Clusterware can multiplex the OCR and Oracle recommends that you expend this feature to ensure cluster immoderate availability. that you can supplant a failed OCR on-line, and you may update the OCR via supported APIs such as enterprise supervisor, the Server control Utility (SRVCTL), or the Database Configuration helper (DBCA).
word:each the vote casting disks and the OCRs hold to live on either cluster file device files or on shared uncooked gadgets that you just configure prior to installing Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle Clusterware high Availability and the software Programming Interface
Oracle Clusterware gives a immoderate availability software programming interface (API) that you should expend to permit Oracle Clusterware to manipulate functions or tactics that flee a cluster. This makes it workable for you to give immoderate availability for your gross applications. The Oracle Clusterware with ASM allows for you to create a consolidated pool of storage to aid each the single-instance Oracle databases and the Oracle RAC databases that are running to your cluster.
To maintain immoderate availability, Oracle Clusterware components can respond to repute alterations to restart applications and tactics according to defined immoderate availability rules. additionally, that you may expend the Oracle Clusterware high availability framework through registering your functions with Oracle Clusterware and configuring the clusterware to start, cease, or relocate your software techniques. it is, you can perform customized purposes particularly available by using Oracle Clusterware to create profiles that computer screen, relocate, and restart your purposes. The Oracle Clusterware responds to FAN movements that are created by pass of an Oracle RAC database. Oracle declares FAN routine when cluster servers may additionally develop into unreachable and community interfaces are behind or non-useful.Workload management with Oracle apt software Clusters
Workload administration makes it workable for you to manipulate the distribution of workloads to supply best performance for clients and purposes. This includes presenting the highest availability for database connections, speedy failure recovery, and balancing workloads optimally throughout the energetic configuration. Oracle Database 10g with Oracle RAC comprises many features that may enlarge workload administration corresponding to connection load balancing, quick connection failover (FCF), the weight balancing advisory, and Runtime Connection Load Balancing. Workload management offers the most desirable benefits to Oracle RAC environments. which you could, besides the fact that children, rob capabilities of workload management by using Oracle functions in single-illustration Oracle Databases, specifically people who expend data rob permeate of or Streams. Workload management contains here components:
excessive Availability Framework—The Oracle RAC immoderate availability framework allows for the Oracle Database to preserve add-ons in a operating state continually. Oracle immoderate availability implies that Oracle Clusterware monitors and restarts essential components in the event that they cease, until you override the restart processing. The Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC likewise provide indicators to shoppers when configurations exchange. This enables purchasers to instantly react to the alterations, enabling software builders to screen outages and reconfigurations from cease clients. The scope of Oracle immoderate availability spans from the restarting of stopped Oracle processes in an Oracle database illustration to failing over the processing of a gross instance to other purchasable situations.
Load Balancing Advisory—here is the skill of the database to deliver guidance to purposes concerning the present provider degrees being supplied by using the database and its situations. functions can rob odds of this tips to direct connection requests to the instance that will give the application request with the most desirable service noteworthy to finished the software's processing. Oracle has integrated its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) and Oracle statistics issuer for .internet (ODP.net) connection pools to travail with the affliction balancing information. applications can expend the integrated connection pools without programmatic changes.
services—Oracle Database 10g introduces a magnificent automatic workload administration facility, known as features, to enable the enterprise grid vision. capabilities are entities that you should outline in Oracle RAC databases. services allow you to community database workloads and route the travail to the most confiscate circumstances which are assigned to system the service. in addition, that you may expend functions to outline the supplies that Oracle assigns to system workloads and to monitor workload materials. applications that you simply assign to services transparently purchase the defined workload management features, including high availability and load balancing guidelines. Many Oracle database facets are integrated with features, similar to useful resource supervisor, which allows for you to obviate the components that a provider can expend inside an example. Some database facets are additionally built-in with Oracle Streams, advanced Queuing, to obtain queue region transparency, and the Oracle Scheduler, to map capabilities to selected job classes.
In Oracle RAC databases, the service efficiency guidelines that you configure control the volume of travail that Oracle allocates to each and every accessible instance for that service. As you extend your database via adding nodes, functions, accessories of functions, and the like, that you would exist able to add greater capabilities.
Connection Load Balancing— Oracle web capabilities offers connection load balancing for database connections. Connection load balancing occurs when the connection is created. Connections for a given provider are balanced across every sole the operating situations that present the service. you should define the pass you want connections to exist balanced within the carrier definition. besides the fact that children, you must nonetheless configure Oracle net features. when you allow the load balancing advisory, the Listener uses the affliction balancing advisory for connection load balancing.
This section introduces the storage alternatives for Oracle RAC and the setting up tactics for each Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC under prerogative here topics:Oracle Clusterware setting up manner Description
The Oracle Clusterware is distributed on the Oracle Database 10g installation media. The Oracle common Installer (OUI) installs Oracle Clusterware into a directory constitution, which can exist known as CRS_home, it really is nick slack other Oracle software working on the machine. as a result of Oracle Clusterware works closely with the working equipment, gadget administrator entry is required for probably the most installing tasks. additionally, one of the vital Oracle Clusterware methods should flee as the gear administrator, which is often the basis person on Unix and Linux methods and the gear Administrator person on windows programs.
prior to installing Oracle Clusterware, Oracle recommends that you flee the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) to exist sure that your ambiance meets the Oracle Clusterware installation requirements. The OUI additionally instantly runs CVU on the conclusion of the clusterware setting up to examine a considerable number of clusterware components. The CVU simplifies the setting up, configuration, and standard administration of the Oracle Clusterware installing manner by means of deciding on problems in cluster environments.
right through the Oracle Clusterware installation, you must identify three IP addresses for each node that goes to exist a piece of your installation. One IP address is for the private interconnect and the different is for the common public interconnect. The third IP manipulate is the digital IP tackle that valued clientele will expend to connect to each instance.
The Oracle Clusterware setting up system creates the voting disk and OCR on cluster-aware storage. in case you select the alternative for routine redundant copies during the setting up technique, then Oracle Clusterware instantly keeps redundant copies of these files to sustain away from the information from fitting sole facets of failure. The routine redundancy feature likewise eliminates the want for third party storage redundancy solutions. in case you expend customary redundancy, Oracle Clusterware immediately continues two copies of the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) file and three copies of the balloting Disk file.
notice:in case you select external redundancy for the OCR and voting disk, then to enable redundancy, your disk subsystem necessity to exist configurable for RAID mirroring. otherwise, your gadget can exist inclined because the OCR and balloting disk are sole points of failure. Oracle real software Clusters installing and Database creation process Description
The Oracle RAC utility is allotted as a piece of the Oracle Database 10g installing media. with the aid of default, the common Oracle Database 10g utility installing technique installs the Oracle RAC option when it recognizes that you're performing the installation on a cluster. The OUI installs Oracle RAC into a listing constitution, which can exist known as Oracle_home, it's separate from other Oracle software running on the desktop. as a result of OUI is cluster-mindful, it installs the Oracle RAC utility on the entire nodes that you simply described to exist a piece of the cluster. if you're the expend of a licensed cluster file device for the Oracle home, then most efficient opt for the node that you're related to for the installing.
You necessity to first set up Oracle Clusterware before setting up Oracle RAC. After Oracle Clusterware is operational, you can expend OUI to install the Oracle database utility with the Oracle RAC components. every sole over the installation, OUI runs DBCA to create your Oracle RAC database in response to the options that you just select. The DBCA likewise runs the web Configuration helper (NETCA) to configure the community on your Oracle RAC ambiance.
Oracle recommends that you simply select ASM throughout the installing to simplify storage management; ASM immediately manages the storage of every sole database information within disk corporations. that you could likewise configure capabilities throughout setting up, counting on your processing requirements. if you're the expend of the Oracle Database 10g middling version, then you must expend ASM for storing every sole the database files.
by default, DBCA creates one carrier in your ambiance and this provider is for the database. The default service is available on every sole situations in an Oracle RAC atmosphere, except the database is in confined mode.Cloning Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC application in Grid Environments
This section in brief summarizes the procedures for deploying Oracle RAC in grid environments that hold mountainous numbers of nodes using cloned photographs for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. Oracle cloning is the favored formulation of extending your Oracle RAC environment via adding nodes and situations. To operate the cloning methods that are summarized in this section, check with the Oracle frequent Installer and OPatch user's e book.that you may likewise expend commercial enterprise manager Grid manage to office cloning.
The cloning procedure assumes that you simply successfully installed an Oracle Clusterware home and an Oracle domestic with Oracle RAC on as a minimum one node. additionally, every sole root scripts hold to hold flee effectively on the node from which you're extending your cluster database. to expend Oracle cloning, first clone the Oracle Clusterware domestic and then clone the Oracle domestic with the Oracle RAC software.
To clone the Oracle Clusterware home, on UNIX-based mostly techniques create a tar file of the Oracle Clusterware home and duplicate the file to the brand unique node's Oracle Clusterware domestic. On home windows-based techniques you necessity to create zip info. Then on UNIX-based mostly programs create the mandatory clients and groups on the unique nodes. On windows-primarily based methods, you don't necessity to create users and organizations, however the user that performs the cloning should soundless exist the very person that performed the installing.
Extract the tar file, or unzip the zip file, and flee the Oracle prevalent Installer (OUI) in clone mode as described within the Oracle generic Installer and OPatch person's book. Then flee the installing scripts and iterate these steps on each node that you're adding. The manner for cloning the Oracle home onto unique nodes is similar to the technique for cloning the Oracle Clusterware home. furthermore, you ought to flee the Oracle net Configuration helper (NETCA) on every unique node to create a Listener.
in case you haven't already created a database, then that you could flee the Database Configuration helper (DBCA) to create one. eventually, observe the post-cloning processes to comprehensive the extension of your Oracle RAC ambiance onto the brand unique nodes.further concerns and contours for Oracle precise application Clusters
besides configuring capabilities to manipulate your workloads, likewise disagree with the usage of prerogative here aspects should you deploy Oracle RAC:
Scaling Your Oracle RAC Database—As outlined, that you could add nodes and cases to your Oracle RAC environment the usage of Oracle cloning. in case you determine to now not expend cloning, then that you could extend your database through the expend of the guide procedures which are described in Chapter 10, "including and Deleting Nodes and circumstances on UNIX-based programs" or Chapter eleven, " adding and Deleting Nodes and instances on home windows-based mostly techniques".
enterprise supervisor—Use commercial enterprise manager to administer your complete Oracle RAC environment, not just the Oracle RAC database. expend commercial enterprise supervisor to create and regulate features, and to start and forestall the cluster database cases and the cluster database. trade supervisor has further elements as distinctive in the piece "Overview of using enterprise supervisor with Oracle actual software Clusters".
healing supervisor (RMAN)—RMAN backs up, restores, and recovers datafiles, control information, server parameter files (SPFILEs) and archived redo logs. which you can expend RMAN with a media supervisor to back up info to external storage. you can likewise configure parallelism when backing up or recovering Oracle RAC databases. In Oracle RAC, RMAN channels can exist dynamically allocated throughout the entire Oracle RAC circumstances. Channel failover allows for failed operations on one node to continue on an extra node. you can expend RMAN in Oracle RAC from the Oracle trade supervisor Backup supervisor or from a command line.
computerized undo management—instantly manages undo processing.
computerized section house management (ASSM)—immediately manages angle freelists and freelist organizations.
in the neighborhood managed tablespaces—Enhances house management efficiency.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—Use CVU to check the popularity of your clusterware in case you smack problems or expend it whenever you reconfigure your cluster.
Sequences—if you expend sequence numbers, then every sole the time expend CACHE with the NOORDER altenative for surest sequence number era performance. With the CACHE choice, despite the fact, you may hold gaps within the sequence numbers. if your ambiance can't tolerate sequence number gaps, then expend the NOCACHE alternative or disagree with pre-generating the sequence numbers. if your utility requires sequence number ordering but can tolerate gaps, then expend CACHE and ORDER to cache and order sequence numbers in Oracle RAC. if your application requires ordered sequence numbers without gaps, then expend NOCACHE and ORDER. This combination has probably the most macabre repercussion on performance compared to other caching and ordering combos.
Indexes—in case you expend indexes, reckon alternate options, akin to invert key indexes, to optimize index efficiency. invert key indexes are exceptionally constructive when you hold established inserts to 1 side of an index, akin to indexes which are in accordance with insert date.
This region describes the following Oracle RAC environment management issues:Designing Oracle real software Clusters Environments
agree with performing the following steps prerogative through the design and structure of purposes that you're deploying on an Oracle RAC database. believe tuning:
The design and the utility
The recollection and that i/O
The operating equipment
note:If an application does not scale on an SMP desktop, then stirring the utility to an Oracle RAC database can't enhance efficiency.
agree with the expend of hash partitioning for insert-intensive on-line transaction processing (OLTP) purposes. Hash partitioning:
Reduces contention on concurrent inserts into a sole database constitution
impacts sequence-based indexes when indexes are in the neighborhood partitioned with a table and tables are partitioned on sequence-primarily based keys
Is clear to the application
in case you hash partitioned tables and indexes for OLTP environments, then which you could drastically enlarge efficiency for your Oracle RAC database. note that you just can't expend index latitude scans on an index with hash partitioning.
if you're the expend of sequence numbers, then always expend the CACHE option. in case you expend sequence numbers with the CACHE option, then:Administrative gear for Oracle real software Clusters Environments
Oracle allows for you to administer a cluster database as a sole gadget photo through trade manager, SQL*Plus, or through Oracle RAC command-line interfaces comparable to Server manage (SRVCTL). that you could likewise expend several tools and utilities to manipulate your Oracle RAC environment and its accessories as follows:
business supervisor—commercial enterprise supervisor has each the Database manage and Grid manage GUI interfaces for managing each sole specimen and Oracle RAC environments.
Cluster Verification Utility (CVU)—CVU is a command-line device so you might expend to assess a number cluster and Oracle RAC-specific components corresponding to shared storage contraptions, networking configurations, device necessities, and Oracle Clusterware, in addition to working device groups and users. you can expend CVU for pre-installation checks in addition to for set aside up-installing tests of your cluster environment. CVU is particularly advantageous throughout pre-installing and throughout installation of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC components. The OUI runs CVU after Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle installing to assess your environment.
Server control (SRVCTL)—SRVCTL is a command-line interface so you might expend to manipulate an Oracle RAC database from a sole element. that you may expend SRVCTL to birth and quit the database and circumstances and to delete or movement circumstances and functions. which you can likewise expend SRVCTL to manage configuration assistance.
See additionally:Appendix E for greater tips about SRVCTL
Cluster capable functions manage (CRSCTL)—CRSCTL is a command-line instrument for you to expend to manage Oracle Clusterware. that you could expend CRSCTL to start and quit Oracle Clusterware. CRSCTL has many alternatives corresponding to enabling online debugging,
Oracle Interface Configuration device (OIFCFG)—OIFCFG is a command-line instrument for each single-instance Oracle databases and Oracle RAC environments so that you can expend to earmark and de-allocate community interfaces to add-ons. which you could additionally expend OIFCFG to direct accessories to expend particular community interfaces and to retrieve component configuration information.
OCR Configuration device (OCRCONFIG)—OCRCONFIG is a command-line instrument for OCR administration. that you could additionally expend the OCRCHECK and OCRDUMP utilities to troubleshoot configuration problems that impress the OCR.
net-primarily based commercial enterprise manager Database control and Grid manage permit you to parade screen an Oracle RAC database. The enterprise manager Console is a valuable factor of manage for the Oracle atmosphere that you entry by pass of a graphical user interface (GUI). expend the enterprise manager Console to initiate cluster database administration projects. expend commercial enterprise manager Grid control to manage dissimilar Oracle RAC databases. additionally exist cognizant prerogative here elements about monitoring Oracle RAC environments:
The global views, or GV$ views, are in accordance with V$ views. The catclustdb.sql script creates the GV$ views. flee this script in case you don't create your database with DBCA. in any other case, DBCA runs this script for you.
Statspack is Oracle RAC-aware.
note:as an alternative of using Statspak, Oracle recommends that you just expend the extra sophisticated management and monitoring features of the Oracle Database 10g Diagnostic and Tuning packs which encompass the computerized Database Diagnostic video parade (ADDM).
You don't necessity to office special tuning for Oracle RAC; Oracle RAC scales with out particular configuration changes. in case your application carried out neatly on a single-instance Oracle database, then it is going to perform well in an Oracle RAC atmosphere. most of the tuning projects that you'd perform on a single-illustration Oracle database can additionally enlarge Oracle RAC database efficiency. here's especially apt in case your atmosphere required scalability across a improved variety of CPUs.
some of the Oracle RAC efficiency facets are:
Dynamic useful resource Allocation
Cache Fusion permits A Simplified Tuning Methodology
You don't hold to tune any parameters for Cache Fusion
No application-level tuning is critical
you could expend a backside-up tuning approach with very nearly no repercussion for your current functions
more targeted performance information
supply: Oracle organization
November 15, 2010 08:00 ET
Simplifies Deployment of a tremendously purchasable, Virtualized Database
REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwire - November 15, 2010) - Oracle (NASDAQ: ORCL)
enjoyable aggregate of Virtualization and Clustering Speeds Time to Market and enables better Availability
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This latest generation of database builds on the innovations introduced in Oracle Database 11g to aid organizations deliver better information throughout the enterprise, at a higher property of service, and at a much lower cost.
In this release, Oracle real Application Clusters (RAC) delivers grid plug and play and unique server pooling capabilities that enable organizations to reduce their server costs by streamlining the provisioning and management of consolidated database grids.
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I necessity to migrate a single-instance Oracle database, version 10.1.0.3, on Tru64 to a RAC cluster, version 10.2, on Linux. What is the best methodology to carry out this?
There are three major changes happening here: one is an upgrade from Oracle 10g release 1 to release2, the next is a database scurry to a different platform, and the final change involves converting a single-instance database to RAC. First, you will want to determine how to upgrade your database to 10.2 as well as how to migrate it from Tru64 to Linux. A Good reference is the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Upgrade Guide.
You hold a pair of choices with respect to the upgrade:
Which option you select will depend on how large your database is and how much of an outage you hold to perform this migration. The upgrade guide discusses every sole of these options. For more information on transportable tablespaces, the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Administrator's guide is a Good reference.
After the upgrade is completed and the database has been migrated to the Linux server, then you necessity to reckon how to configure RAC. A Good plot to start is to review the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) for Linux - Oracle Clusterware and Oracle real Application Clusters Installation Guide.
Carefully review the section titled "Converting to Oracle real Application Clusters from Single-Instance Oracle Databases."
Another Good reference is the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) - Oracle Clusterware and Oracle real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide.
Application servers, those dependable workhorses that flee most enterprise Java applications, are rarely a passionate topic of conversation these days. As a technology category, the application server appears to exist fairly "established" and that the focus has moved elsewhere in the stack, but appearances can exist deceiving.
In fact, much remains to exist done at the application server layer. One region ripe for innovation is the faculty for application server instances to travail together to enable more rapid deployment of unique applications and hardware while at the very time improving the utilization of underlying physical resources. In contrast to the traditional one-app/one-app-server/one-OS/one-machine architecture, a unique approach has emerged with multiple application servers pooling and sharing lower-cost compute resources, while dynamically reallocating these resources across applications as needs evolve.
Grid computing refers to the aggregation of multiple, distributed computing resources, making them office as a sole computing resource with respect to a particular computational task. Grid is a configuration of virtualization in the sense that it hides the details of resources and makes them appear dote something different. Application grid applies the very concept to application servers and describes an architecture in which multiple application server instances travail together to provide a shared, dynamically allocatable pool of resources to a set of applications.
Why an Application Grid?Before delving into what it takes to perform this concept work, let's ogle at the motivation for seeking an alternative approach in the first place. What is the primary infrastructure challenge as it stands today? An issue widely discussed in the pages of Java Developer's Journal is that of stove-piped architecture whereby applications are structured as monolithic entities that are difficult to integrate and reuse. Industry adoption of SOA has gone a long pass to breaking down stovepipes at the application level. SOA achieves this by decomposing applications into finer-grained services that can exist connected and reused in a more flexible way. Stove-piped resources typically remain underneath each of these SOA services - machines that are statically allocated to the entities they run. As each stovepipe (stack) is statically configured, bringing unique stacks online takes a lot of distress and a mountainous investment in hardware that will likely exist underutilized.
With an application grid, the allocation of machines to applications is dynamic since it becomes easier to bring both unique machines and unique applications into service. With a stovepipe under an application, increasing capacity typically means adding another app server/OS/machine stack and then putting a mechanism in plot to load-balance. This causes inefficiency because you don't score linear scaling - doubling the number of servers doesn't score you double the number of transactions per second or concurrent users - because other bottlenecks further into play. By contrast unique application grid-enabled application servers champion clustering that scales to much higher levels.
An application grid likewise helps help hardware efficiency because excess capacity can exist redirected to applications that necessity it most. By sharing and pooling resources, an application grid allows the total compute resources required to exist less than the sum of every sole the applications' peak demands. Since few applications hit their peak loads at the very time in most environments, shared resources can exist moved from lower-demand applications to those with higher demand. Continuous, automated, dynamic adjustment of resources is one of the primary capabilities of the application grid architecture.
Finally, an application grid enables a higher property of service. Faster response times and higher reliability, which further from the application grid's faculty to parallelize computation, replicate data across distributed nodes, and reduce interruptions from network problems or Java garbage collection, allow more computation per unit of time, and help resiliency by eliminating sole points of failure and automating failover. An application grid likewise provides tools to manage a collection of machines in an aggregated way, enabling faster administrative response and reducing human error.
Creating an Application GridSounds great, but can this exist achieved with current technologies? There is certainly more travail for vendors in future product releases, but much can exist done today. There are four fundamental capabilities that must exist in plot at the application server level: clustering, adjusting, metering, and automating.
Clustering is supported by most application servers, though with varying levels of reliability and administration. It is most often used for availability/failover: instances in a cluster divide travail and replicate data, such as Web user sessions; each instance is answerable to another member of the cluster that serves as a backup. A backup server automatically takes over responsibilities in the event of the primary's failure. Clustering likewise allows horizontal scale-out since travail is distributed (load-balanced) across the cluster.
Adjustment capability coupled with scale-out clustering is a key component of application grids. It's one thing to statically set up a set of application server instances (nodes) as a cluster and set aside load balancing in front of it. But when nodes can exist added to or removed from the cluster while the application is running, they hold the basis for dynamic scaling.
Metering, or instrumentation, complements adjustment. They necessity to adjust clusters for visibility into what's happening inside them. Are any computing resources near faultfinding thresholds? Are application service levels in danger? In short, the application server, the Java Virtual Machine, and other resources must provide the prerogative benevolent of information about things dote recollection expend and latency.
Once they hold dynamically adjustable clustering with Good instrumentation, the linchpin of the application grid is automation. This meta-level controller plugs into the adjustment controls and metering instruments of the clusters creating an automated feedback loop of observations and adjustments. The mechanism adds nodes to clusters in necessity of capacity and removes nodes from clusters with reduced need. Since each cluster is illiterate of the surrounding clusters competing for resources, the application grid controller makes allocation decisions that are optimal for the grid overall, taking into account demands, resources, and policies.
Getting StartedMany enterprises hold already started down the path to an application grid by using the clustering mechanisms in coincident application servers for horizontal scale-out and by using scripting to partially automate the addition and removal of nodes.
State-of-the-art distributed caching technologies complement these early steps by creating an even more dynamic in-memory data grid with extreme scalability. Real-time JVM technology provides the predictability and additional instrumentation for applications with microsecond latency demands. And finally, as understanding and practices around application grid mature, management technologies with increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for cross-grid optimization will continue to evolve.
The combination of accelerating trade change and the agility enabled by SOA imposes increasingly volatile demands on infrastructure. At the very time, the economic climate is driving the necessity for greater resource efficiency. It's time for a unique approach to application resourcing: application grid.
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