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Authors: Rod Scrimger, Paul LaSalle, Mridula Parihar and Meeta GuptaPages: 700Publisher: WileyISBN: 0764548425
TCP/IP is the protocol suite that runs almost each network ambiance nowadays. in consequence there are a whole bunch books about TCP/IP – some deal with network implementation considerations, some with applications, others are about protection implications, and nonetheless additional you could discover books on protocol thought and protocol evaluation. finally there are books which are attempting to give you an overview, a starting point on everything there is to know about TCP/IP. “TCP/IP Bible” is one such e-book. who are the authors and have they accomplished an outstanding job?
about the authors
The book is written by using a crew of 5 authors: Rob Scrimger, Paul LaSalle, Mridula Parihar, Meeta Gupta and Clay Leitzke. All of them are network consultants, hang quite a lot of certifications in networking issues (above all from the Microsoft certification programme), and work as trainers and educators. The Indian pert of the group (Parihar and Gupta) work for India’s main IT working towards and schooling business NIIT Ltd.
inside the ebook
As one would predict from individuals with huge event in instructing and practising, the ebook presents a clear writing fashion and a systematic presentation of the issues – as is obvious from a first look internal its covers.
The booklet is equipped in 4 constituents, each and every with several chapters covering particular person topics.
part I – realizing TCP/IP Communications, deals with the quite a few layers of the TCP/IP stack. First, the OSI reference model is introduced and then you see how this interprets in observe into the TCP/IP stack model. each and every chapter in this part covers a selected layer of the stack: actual, network, cyber web, transport and utility.
partly II – Working with TCP/IP, you get all of the advice essential to deploy and configure TCP/IP on today’s most typical working methods. The authors covered guidelines for manual configuration on a standard Linux distribution, in addition to on all of the home windows methods from Microsoft.
computerized configuration is examined next. right here you’ll locate advice on protocols for automated configuration of TCP/IP nodes: Bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Closing half II is a chapter on naming and name decision issues. The native HOSTS file, DNS, NetBIOS naming and WINS are vital themes when designing a community, and in this chapter you’ll get an overview of these topics as well as some implementation details (for ex. configuring DNS on windows 2000).
part III – standard TCP/IP applications is about the most usual functions that run on TCP/IP. however first off, the authors examine the issues with featuring internet access to your community. deepest community addressing is lined in addition to instructions for designing a non-public network. seeing that connecting a network to the cyber web is a excessive security risk, the authors covered overviews of firewalls (from fundamental packet filters to stateful packet inspection firewalls and applications proxy firewalls), network tackle translation (NAT), VPNs and tunneling protocols. you will be aware these are the aspects integrated in most security home equipment now available available on the market.
The next chapters cowl the individual applications:
The fourth and final part of the book, building and maintaining TCP/IP Networks, is focused on implementation and preservation guidelines. The chapters in this part comprise very effective counsel on planning, building and monitoring your network. First of all of the authors focal point on the way to investigate your addressing scheme, calculate address needs and the amount of site visitors clients will generate in a single day. This information is very critical whereas planning a community. subsequent chapter is set designing routing for the community, and some advices for server placement observe. additionally, a chapter on network security is blanketed, which covers authentication, encryption, PGP and SSL.
the following chapters are dedicated to troubleshooting community and connectivity complications and monitoring TCP/IP networks (including equipment for packet seize i.e. sniffers). principally beneficial here's a dissection of the general network troubleshooting technique. finally, the ultimate chapter is about technologies that are only being introduced or can be within the near future: IPv6, TCP/IP within the instant world, and smart home equipment.
After reading the booklet, what are my recommendations?
TCP/IP Bible is possibly an unfortunate choice for a title. definitely, the booklet carries guidelines and guidelines for establishing a whole community, from the physical assemblage to the implementation of a variety of community based capabilities in a company. It is not merely concerning the TCP/IP protocol suite, it consists of plenty extra.
attempting to round up and collect all there's to know about TCP/IP networking into a single extent, seems like a massive task. Yet, the authors managed to do just that, in a really obtainable means. on the other hand, many of the issues coated are handled best as an overview or introduction to the subject. If there changed into an in depth dialogue of each and every subject, the booklet would be 10 times longer (and heavier), now not the 600 pages you get with this quantity. hence my advice is: don’t read this ebook if you are seeking for detailed dialogue of TCP/IP protocol suite internal workings.
I couldn’t definitely decide whom the e-book become meant for. The writer advertises it as correct for all reader stages, from beginning to advanced. probably the choicest reply is given by way of the authors themselves: they acknowledge the book is meant as a primer, a place to begin on the TCP/IP protocol. And during this sense it’s a pretty good book, in particular for people that have already begun working with TCP/IP, most likely implemented an easy network and a few primary features, however need to find out what else is there to understand. As for intermediate and advanced clients, this booklet can be at most excellent a reference on TCP/IP, not a supply of in-depth skills.
The authors did a particularly first rate job in explaining the “theoretical” part of TCP/IP – the OSI model and its correspondence to the TCP/IP layers. This might also appear to be esoteric stuff, but to be able to benefit a deeper knowing of how networking actually works, some theoretical background is indeed required. And this abilities will definitely repay as superior analytical and troubleshooting knowledge, simple for IT personnel. additionally, the authors have invested an effort to cowl each the Linux and the windows world, mainly when presenting advice on configuring a variety of TCP/IP-primarily based capabilities and applications.
This publication is a Bible in the feel it provides primary competencies on TCP/IP connected technologies. It’s a fine primer, however for further enlightenment you’ll ought to explore further, in all probability opt for a extra really expert book.
primary to DLPI is the conception of the SAP. In figure 1 you could see how the SAP identifiers are integrated in the LLC framing. The network layer above the interface is a knowledge hyperlink carrier consumer (DLSU) and the link layer driver is a DLSAP. DLPI uses a group of request primitives passed as messages from the DLSU to the DLSAP. In response, the DLSAP passes a group of acknowledgment primitives again to the DLSU.figure 1: records link LLC class encapsulation
determine 2 indicates the connection between the SAP and the DLSU. DLPI manages the state of the connection between the DLSU and the DLSAP with a state machine. desk 2 lists some of the normal primitives likely to be used for TCP/IP connectionless link layer service and their responses.determine 2: statistics hyperlink provider interface desk 2: Primitives used in STREAMS DLPI Message responseaim DL_ATTACH_REQ DL_BIND_ACK Used to inform driver to initialize hardware and associate actual layer with a movement. Required for trend 2 providers to initialize themselves DL_INFO_REQ DL_INFO_REQ Asks the company to ship assistance about the interface together with MAC category, provider mode, QOS (nice of provider) DL_BIND_REQ DL_BIND_ACK Requests DLP to bind an SAP to a stream. Used to indicate the class of carrier, connection oriented or connectionless SAP DL_ENABLEMULTI_REQ DL_OK_ACK Requests the provider to allow a muticast tackle for the specific DLSAP DL_PROMISCON_REQ DL_OK_ACK Asks company to allow promiscuous mode for this SAP DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ DL_OK_ACK Asks company to disable promiscuous mode for this SAP DL_UNITDATA_REQ DL_UNITDATA_IND Requests connectionless datagrams be handed to the DLS person from the SAP. The datagrams are handed in a message block preceded via DL_UNITDATA_IND primitive
prolonged multiplexing interface. extended multiplexing interfaces had been developed through some commercial RTOS vendors to extend the BSD four.four interface to consist of link layer multiplexing and multiprotocol ability. This allows one of the most capabilities present in the STREAMS DLPI interface to be attainable to TCP/IP-based mostly networking. a very good implementation will do that whereas still keeping compatibility with the common Berkeley-class TCP/IP stacks and drivers.
historically, quite a few makes an attempt had been made to permit drivers to help simultaneous interfaces to both Berkeley and circulation-category stacks. This changed into achieved with a layer of glue code that would reproduction the messages from STREAMS mblocks to Berkeley-class mbufs. a higher mechanism should still allow the specific information within the body to be shared between the mblock and mbuf header constructions.
an excellent extended multiplexing interface mechanism gives you a DLPI-type binding mechanism for binding a stack to an arbitrary hyperlink layer interface. it will do that while proposing as much backward compatibility as feasible with Berkeley-fashion implementations. As in DLPI, this superior mechanism may still permit assorted stacks to be bound to the same hyperlink stage interface. It gives a familiar mechanism for tackle decision between MAC addresses and protocol addresses. This tackle resolution skill should still guide the BSD ARP protocol in the past discussed under the section about BSD 4.3. As with DLPI, the superior interface has a state computer to maintain tune of the connection between the stack and the link layer. It additionally offers a means of enabling multicast addresses on an interface. This class of mechanism became absent from BSD four.3 and simplest partly current in BSD four.4.
hosting TCP/IP in your embedded gadget
when you consider that the BSD stack has been available in supply code kind for decades, most americans imposing TCP/IP for embedded programs have used it as a base. hardly any individual implements his or her own protocol suite from scratch. You’ll have a couple of fundamental decisions if you wish to put TCP/IP in a product for the primary time, even if you need to use a business of TCP/IP or do your personal port.
You may also need to analyze a number of elements before you decide which direction to take for incorporating TCP/IP. You’ll need to ask yourself primary questions about the connectivity requirements to your design. as an instance, how sensitive is your venture to unit manufacturing charge? Ask in regards to the future of your design. what is its reuse talents? Is the project to be a platform for launching future tasks? Following are a few vast categories of products utilized in related embedded techniques. every of these classes suggests a distinct path to your implementation of TCP/IP in your embedded design.
1. The embedded product is according to a legacy gadget. There is barely a constrained need for far off entry. to this point, far flung access has most effective been attainable through a serial port. TCP/IP makes it possible for access to this serial port. knowledge raise in manufacturing charge isn't the deciding on element when including TCP/IP
2. The product may still be quite effortless to maintain. A network connection is required for far flung management of the product
three. The networking connection is required for facts seize and evaluation
four. The product is a router, gateway, change, broadband modem, or a similar product by which networking is a primary point
5. The product is a client device with a graphical screen, comparable to a personal digital assistant. The ability to browse the internet is a simple part
6. The gadget is associated with a size and handle equipment. a straightforward components have to exist for reaching the device from a laptop with an internet browser. An embedded net server is a fundamental requirement
under I checklist probably the most choices you've got nowadays for incorporating TCP/IP in your product.
complete hardware implementationA variety of agencies are developing completely self-contained playing cards in a small form component that add community connectivity. The stack is carried out as part of an opaque device and is frequently packaged as a PCM card which can be interfaced to your device’s serial port. Your gadget is made to consider it is speakme to a serial port. This solution may well be superior for a class 1.
Roll your own stack without a RTOSUsing no RTOS comprises snarfing a free (public area) or source-licensable TCP/IP stack and porting it straight to the hardware with out the benefit of a commercial RTOS. At minimum, you are going to deserve to enforce a simple scheduler, a timer mechanism, and a buffer allocation mechanism. This answer may well be acceptable for categories 1 and a pair of, however only if the requirement area is smartly described and there is no use for reuse.
Third-birthday party integrationWith this formula, you could possibly buy an RTOS from one supplier and a TCP/IP stack from yet another.
All in oneWith this choice, you could possibly purchase a bundled product from a supplier who has a complete answer that includes an RTOS, building equipment, and a TCP/IP stack. This solution can also be used for all the product categories above. Of path, with category 1 you possibly can have to incur some redesigning to incorporate the new RTOS into your design.
choice criteria for commercial RTOSand TCP/IP products
right here is an inventory of gadgets you might also are looking to believe when deciding upon an RTOS and network stack vendor:
an established answer
As a technology, TCP/IP is near twenty years historical. It became developed as half of 1 of the first attempts to establish an internetwork. The protocol suite has outlasted more recent LAN and WAN networking protocols, and by means of now many of these other protocols were dropped or forgotten. TCP/IP and the concept of the information superhighway is stylish in its simplicity. largely on account of its ubiquity and its simplicity, this historical TCP/IP-based web has become the international fabric uniting a great deal of contemporary lifestyles and is now the basis for a great deal of the hot new "high know-how" of nowadays.
certainly, I shouldn’t try to dictate the decisions you make as an embedded engineer should you circulate your legacy design to the web-enabled world or as you boost your fresh web equipment. As an embedded engineer, you are going to observe your personal dictates given the enterprise and technical constraints specific to your challenge. As I mentioned above, there are lots of choices for making a choice on and integrating TCP/IP to your design. most of the new ASICS designed today have further gate skill in addition to added bandwidth within the CPU core, and sometimes reminiscence isn't as limited as in previous designs. After making the right option in your design, you might also find that in these days’s world most designs have enough headroom to comprise internet ability. Even on many small embedded systems, adding TCP/IP probably received’t be a huge draw for your system for CPU and memory.
Thomas Herbert is a field consulting engineer with Wind River techniques. before that, he worked in embedded methods in numerous purposes for decades for such companies as Xerox Corp., Eastman Kodak, and as an unbiased advisor. Tom has contributed a couple of articles to Embedded techniques Programming during the last few years and holds a patent in sample focus. He can also be reached at email@example.com
Many unbelievable books were written about TCP/IP internals, application programming the usage of TCP/IP, and maintenance and configuration of IP networks. i need to imply a couple of references under which I actually have discovered beneficial for explaining the internals of TCP/IP that can be beneficial to the embedded engineers who are looking to bone up on networking.
the primary and most critical references for TCP/IP are here two volumes. in case you really need each to see how the protocols work and how they're implemented, these books are have to-haves:
For an authoritative work on BSD four.4, I imply the following ebook:
For widespread tips on STREAMS:
Herbert, Thomas F., " enforcing network Protocols and Drivers with STREAMS," Embedded methods Programming, April 1997, p. 28.
or you might also need to read the definitive reference on SVR4 STREAMS. besides the fact that you aren’t certainly interested in STREAMS, chapter 11 on DLPI (statistics hyperlink provider Interface) is an outstanding analyze what functionality has to be in an outstanding multiplexing records hyperlink interface. lamentably, on the time of the writing of this text, this booklet is out of print.Unix Press. STREAMS Modules and Drivers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-hall, 1993.
if you verify the standard explanations for network disasters, you can be extra proactive in keeping off issues before they charge your company time and funds.
through Anthony Sequeira and Keith Barker
remember to now not be asking whether your network goes to fail, however when or not it's going to fail. fortunately, if you cautiously check the normal motives for community failures, you can be a good deal extra proactive in heading off issues before they can charge your corporation lots and even tens of millions of bucks.
A lack of thousands and thousands of bucks is not an exaggeration. do not forget, for instance, the Sony pscommunity outage of 2011. That outage reportedly can charge Sony a groovy $171 million, but many analysts say the exact charge became a good deal extra since it resulted in a lasting customer mistrust of the online carrier.
We picked the Sony example because it ends up in the No. 1 situation they see in corporations' community infrastructure: the failure to create and adopt a comprehensive protection coverage.
Have a security coverage in location
Your security coverage may still begin through assessing the chance to the community. After that, you should bring together a group that may respond the second there are security-linked considerations.
an organization’s security policy should be a constant work in growth, just as make sure you have a continual training method for these critical documents.
The documents require well-nigh steady manipulation, for the reason that you need to control security-linked adjustments and at all times monitor both inner and exterior networks for inevitable breaches.
Use Proactive community administration
another enviornment the place they see groups suffering losses is in the enviornment of network management. Too many companies do not take competencies of the equipment which are interior to their community accessories, in addition to external equipment, so that they will also be proactive in key areas.
a ways too commonly, community administration is a reactive discipline. IT personnel should still are trying to correct this instantly by means of taking capabilities of the starting to be number of tools and applied sciences that give more desirable network visibility and manage.
The acronym FCAPS, which highlights crucial network areas, will focus your efforts extra without difficulty:
· Fault management
· Configuration management
· Accounting administration
· efficiency administration
· safety management.
review New and rising technologies
We’re no longer suggesting a constant “rip and replace” on your network infrastructure just because whatever new hits the IT headlines, but they do recommend a careful evaluation of new and emerging technologies that could assist your corporation obtain its business dreams. regularly, these technologies can enrich community protection and management. that you would be able to delivery with a pilot or prototype to utterly verify a brand new expertise to make sure that its merits will outweigh any growing pains.
To steer clear of these standard issues, here are some assistance to get you started:
· Dig out your latest safety coverage and begin updating it.
· Use requisites-primarily based web sites to help create and update your security policy.
· contain all crucial contributors of your corporation within the policy.
· instruct proactively on the facets of your protection policy.
· Divide network administration into the FCAPS areas.
· Take inventory of the network administration tools in use and examine their shortcomings.
· educate employees to are looking for out new and rising technologies and enforce a formal review technique.
· invest in practising for all levels of IT personnel, especially within the areas of recent and rising technologies.
however the complicated landscape of networking today can frequently suppose overwhelming, that you could achieve striking consequences if you focal point on the areas which are without difficulty managed. This technique may additionally develop into dependancy-forming as you remedy more complications for your infrastructure earlier than monetary or recognition mess ups strike.
Anthony Sequeira, a Cisco licensed Internetwork professional (CCIE), is an author, speaker and CBT Nuggets coach who focuses on all levels of Cisco certification.
Keith Barker, CCIE, is a CBT Nuggets coach and advisor, and the writer of technical books and articles, including a few Cisco Press certification publications.
Barker and Sequeira co-host the “Cisco R&S Troubleshooting Mastery” practising course.
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January 14, 2000Web posted at: 10:42 a.m. EST (1542 GMT)
by Laura Chappell
(IDG) -- While there are plenty of specialized network management applications to help identify and fix problems, less than a dozen of them are absolutely essential for troubleshooting. These are the tools you'll use the most, so make sure your toolkit is equipped with these 10 basic necessities for effective, efficient network management.
1. Ping.Ping tests end-to-end connectivity by sending an Internet Control Message Protocol packet to see if a node or device is online and responding. One of the first steps in troubleshooting a network is to use the generic IP loopback address 'ping 127.0.0.1' to test the local device.
You can also use ping to test the maximum transmission unit - the maximum amount of data that can be carried in each packet end-to-end. Moreover, you might use ping to determine the round-trip time in milliseconds to another device on the network.
However, any tools that generate a lot of traffic through your ISP's routers will probably trigger an alarm. If your traffic increases CPU usage or saturates a link to the Internet, your ISP may investigate and limit your activities.
2. Traceroute.Traceroute builds on the functionality of ping by evaluating the hops along a path and calculating the time it takes a packet to travel from one router to the next.
For example, say you ping a remote device but it takes a long time to receive a response. To learn where the delay is occurring, use traceroute to examine the round-trip time to each of the routers along the path.
3. Protocol analyzer/network analyzer.A protocol analyzer (sometimes called a network analyzer) is an absolute necessity for understanding what your network is doing. Analyzers capture all packets, or specific packets defined in a filter, into a trace buffer. The analyzer decodes the packets to give you a readable definition of the contents. Some more advanced analyzers, such as Network Associates' Sniffer Pro, can also interpret the communications patterns to provide alarms and troubleshooting recommendations.
AG Group's EtherPeek is another popular analyzer, and Windows NT comes with a no-frills analyzer called Network Monitor. EtherPeek and Network Associates' Sniffer Basic cost less than $1,500, whereas Sniffer Pro and other more advanced analyzers cost closer to $10,000.
4. Port scanner.Port scanning can tell you what services are available on a remote device. Just as using ping could get you into trouble, your ISP or the targeted system may construe port scanning or port probing as a hostile action or intrusion. Moreover, port scanning may violate your ISP usage agreement.
5. Nslookup/DIG.Basic nslookup utilities make queries to Domain Name System (DNS) servers. An nslookup query will ask the default DNS server for host name-to-IP address resolutions. Domain Internet Grouper (DIG) is similar to nslookup, but provides a more detailed reply from the DNS server. For example, a simple nslookup reply for www.internal.net analysis.org returns the following information:
Translated name:server.netanalysis.comIP address:10.23.4.99Alias:www.internal.netanalysis.orgDIG returns the information above plus the following:Name servers:AUTH00.NS.INT.NETIP address: 10.23.66.1AUTH01.NS.INT.NETIP address: 10.23.77.1
6. ARP.6. ARP. Address Resolution Protocol keeps track of IP addresses and their corresponding physical network addresses. You can read ARP tables to identify the hardware address that is being used to send packets.
7. Route.Route is a utility that lets you read and manipulate IP routing tables on a local device. The tables determine the next hop along a path to a host or network. These tables also contain the default gateway entry if one exists.
8. SNMP tools.SNMP management tools provide a way to gather and display Management Information Base (MIB) data extracted from devices that support SNMP agents. You can track SNMP devices via an alarming/alerting system that notifies the SNMP manager when a user-defined threshold has been exceeded. However, one of the main obstacles to implementing an SNMP management system is the lack of a true cross-platform product.
9. Cable tester.You need a cable tester to precisely test and troubleshoot network wiring. Tools such as Microtest's OmniScanner often come configured with an entire set of tests to evaluate cable integrity and interference. Cable testers can report total cable lengths, pass/marginal/fail test results, near-end crosstalk, attenuation, impedance and more.
Some cable-tester manufacturers define their tools as network analyzers. Although these devices may provide some information about the packet types crossing the wire, such as broadcasts, they are no substitute for true network analyzers that display packet contents.
10. Combination tools and miscellaneous utilities.There are several indispensable combination troubleshooting tools, including NetScanTools Pro 2000 and the AG Group's NetTools. Each provides a group of utilities that let you port scan, ping, trace route and perform nslookup, saving hours of troubleshooting time. Of the two, NetTools is less expensive and offers a subset of the tools included in NetScanTools Pro 2000.
You may also want to consider other utilities that provide basic configuration and connection information, such as Windows WINIPCFG, IPCONFIG and netstat. An IP address calculator is another handy tool to have around, and you may even be able to find a freeware version on the Internet.
Having the right tools makes the job of troubleshooting TCP/IP networks less painful and less mysterious.RELATED STORIES:
Top 10 personal-finance toolsJanuary 12, 200010 computing books that matterDecember 23, 1999Top 15 notebook PCsDecember 1, 1999Top 10 Net retailersNovember 30, 1999Top 10 financial services onlineNovember 26, 1999Top 10 portalsNovember 19, 1999Top 10 backup toolsNovember 2, 1999RELATED IDG.net STORIES:
Expanding your view of the network(FCW)The inner workings of traceroute(Network World Fusion)More on ping and traceroute(Network World Fusion)Tools for tomorrow's webmaster(Sunworld)Tools that test Web apps offline(Computerworld)Web development software: Tools of the trade(Civic.com)New tricks can't save old FTP client(PC World)The power of /proc(Sunworld)
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A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP ToolsARP specificationsICMP specificationsTrace filesSNMP specifications
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GAITHERSBURG, Md., April 16, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- GL Communications Inc. a global leader in telecom test and measurement solutions, announced today its enhanced End-to-End Wireless Network Simulation Test Suite (4G LTE + IMS, 3G, 2G). The Test Suite is enhanced to support variety of procedures for testing inter-operability between the networks simulating Voice, and SMS (Circuit Switched (CS) traffic) and WEB HTTP browsing (Packet Switched (PS) traffic) with roaming/non-roaming users in the network. The test suite supports massive number of subscriber profiles (up to 64,000 Voice/SMS) using a single CSV database system shared across the 4G, 3G, and 2G networks.
Speaking to the press, Mr. Vijay Kulkarni, CEO of the GL Communications Inc., said ,“ GL's Wireless Network Simulation Test Suite (4G LTE + IMS, 3G, 2G) along with radio access elements is used to provide an advanced full-fledged “Live Network” at your company premises in any customized package to suit test requirements. The test suite provides reliable integrated solutions to vendors and service providers for simulation, monitoring, troubleshooting any wireless network, including, 4G, 3G, 2G and upcoming 5G. The test suite is an invaluable tool for protocol characterization and testing, performance measurement, training, and education.”
He further added, “One can setup a complete virtual real-time network simulating all the network elements, or any of the network elements in the architecture can be replaced with user's DUT to perform single interface, multi-interface, or wrap-around testing. Complex scenarios such as roaming, handovers, inter-network calls can be achieved easily. The Remote MAPS™ Controller application communicates with multiple MAPS™ Servers over TCP/IP and allows for multi-node multi-interface simulation from a single client GUI.”
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Few Important Enhancements
A recent enhancement to MAPS™ Wireless Network Simulation Test Suite (4G LTE + IMS, 3G, 2G) includes ability to simulate -
About GL Communications Inc.
GL Communications Inc is a global provider of test and measurement solutions and has over the years worked with major telecom equipment vendors, service providers, and system integrators to meet the testing requirements arising at various stages of telecom products development life cycle.
GL offers a broad set of test solutions that help perform all types of testing on networks, from initial system design, to fine-tuning, troubleshooting, live deployment, and monitoring. The products are widely used to verify and ensure 'quality and reliability' of Wireless (4G LTE, 3G, 2G), SONET/SDH, IP, TDM, and PSTN networks.
GL core product development is backed by a strong team of R&D experts to match evolving market and technical challenges in a most cost-effective and innovative way.
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What's Next After 25 Years of Wi-Fi?
Computer Security Researchers: WPA3 Could Have Been Better, Stronger
Wi-Fi Gets More Secure: Everything You Need to Know About WPA3
An airport operator in California and a British aerospace manufacturer are among the first organizations to put Wi-Fi 6 networks to the test. Boingo Wireless has begun testing Wi-Fi 6 access points and compatible smartphones at John Wayne Airport in Santa Ana, California, it announced earlier this month, while Mettis Aerospace says it will begin its own trial of the new protocol at its manufacturing facility in Redditch, England, in the second half of this year.
“We’re still defining what the success criteria will be,” says Mettis IT head Dave Green, but the firm plans to test the next-generation of Wi-Fi for a few applications: collecting sensor data from machines on the factory floor, allowing staff to use augmented reality-enabled tablets to troubleshoot problems, and transmitting live video feeds from harder-to-reach areas on the factory floor. Green says they know these applications will require low latency—one of Wi-Fi 6’s improvements over its predecessor—and the ability to handle hundreds of simultaneous connections at once—another of the standard’s selling points.
Wi-Fi 6 is the latest iteration of the now 20-year-old commercial Wi-Fi network technology. The Wi-Fi protocol is enormously popular, but like highways to popular places, it can get jammed up by too many users (see “Why Wi-Fi Stinks—and How to Fix It”, IEEE Spectrum, June 2016.)
So rather than focusing on improving the maximum theoretical speed for a single device on a network, the Wi-Fi 6 protocol includes changes that should make it possible for access points to keep up the speed for a growing number of devices and deliver as much as four times the throughput per user. (If you miss the old IEEE naming convention, the one that began 802.11a, 802.11b, before somehow ending with 802.11ax, sorry, but the Wi-Fi Alliance axed it.)
Kishore Raja, vice president for engineering strategic programs at Boingo Wireless, says Boingo is now focusing its efforts at John Wayne Airport on establishing backward-compatibility with non-Wi-Fi 6 devices. So far, only the airport’s staff can access the Wi-Fi 6 trial network with an early Wi-Fi 6-capable smartphone, the Samsung Galaxy S10. Once the service is fully deployed across the airport, the first public users to access Wi-Fi 6 networks may have older devices. As new devices emerge, Boingo will invite partners to test them first on the airport’s trial network.
Boingo is interested in deploying Wi-Fi 6 in high-density environments such as airports, sports stadiums, and military bases: all places where a sudden rush of users can overwhelm a conventional network. Boingo will be testing traffic handoffs between cellular and its new Wi-Fi 6 network, Raja says, to take advantage of Wi-Fi 6’s ability to handle more devices on a given network.
Cellular networks, which are licensed and operate over longer distances, have evolved through several generations (and naming conventions) alongside Wi-Fi and the two have begun to merge in some ways.
Network operators both large and small are scrambling to keep up with industrial and consumer demand as more and more devices require a network connection. Even far-flung cows are getting their own cellular connections. And the Wi-Fi network at the home of one IEEE Spectrum columnist supports more than 60 Internet of Things devices.
Wi-Fi 6 will better align with the lower-power IoT than previous power-hungry Wi-Fi iterations because it allows peripheral devices to rest between transmissions, saving battery life. To do this, it agrees on a future check-in time for that device, so the device can go into standby mode in the meantime.
Hardware-makers are already getting on board: in addition to Samsung’s new smartphone, Intel announced on 16 April that it would offer one of the first chips in the marketplace compatible with Wi-Fi 6. Earlier this month, Intel also announced a Wi-Fi 6 network adapter to PC makers.
Wi-Fi 6 is almost ready for takeoff.
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