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050-895 exam Dumps Source : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8
Test Code : 050-895
Test name : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation : eDirectory 8.8
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David Clarke covers eDirectory testing aims for Novell direction 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking.This chapter is from the ebook
This chapter covers the following checking out ambitions for Novell direction 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:
identify simple listing provider projects.
determine regular directory carrier uses.
Describe how a listing is structured.
establish the role and benefits of eDirectory.
establish how eDirectory eight.6 works.
determine and picture the composition of eDirectory.
determine and picture eDirectory demur courses.
identify the current and design of the eDirectory tree.
NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory eight.6, the highest trait edition to date of Novell's world-category directory carrier.
eDirectory is the area's main directory service. It gives a unifying, cross-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, getting access to, and establishing monstrous major accessories of your community. eDirectory scales to the greatest community environments, together with the web. because it is in keeping with the X.500 standard, eDirectory helps lightweight listing access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext switch Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.
eDirectory can store and control tens of millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also offers the groundwork community service for monstrous NetWare servers and community resources. definitely, after network communications, it is the most fundamental network service provided through NetWare 6.
With monstrous this in intellect, i am confident you could possibly correspond that eDirectory administration is one of your key obligations as a Novell CNA (licensed community Administrator). in this chapter, you're going to explore 4 vital lessons involving eDirectory management:
Introduction to listing features—you're going to start with a short introduction to the basics of listing functions, including some habitual makes expend of and the course a directory is structured.
understanding eDirectory 8.6—then you definately'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory edition 8.6 and evaluate it to its predecessor, Novell listing features (NDS).
the expend of eDirectory Objects—you are going to dig into the fundamentals at the back of eDirectory's three forms of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.
enforcing eDirectory eight.6 Naming—at last, you are going to find out about naming conventions utilized in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.
As that you could see, there's lots to subsist taught during this chapter and when or not it's monstrous accomplished, you'll subsist an accomplished eDirectory administrator. So, let's win begun!
test targets covered:
establish primary directory service projects.
establish universal directory provider uses.
Describe how a listing is structured.
determine the duty and advantages of eDirectory.
The listing service is among the most simple community services supplied by means of monstrous NetWare 6 servers. really, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between monstrous servers in a great NetWare 6 network. As such, listing service administration is certainly one of your key duties because the community administrator.
As its name implies, the listing carrier provides entry to a database, known as eDirectory, that contains monstrous materials for the complete community. This object-oriented database is equipped into a hierarchical constitution referred to as the tree. eDirectory gives the simple basis for the directory provider, together with capabilities for replication and distribution. directory is capitalized during this case to differentiate it from the listing (or folder) in the file gadget. truly, these two "directories" define the two main roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File gadget Administrator (directories and info) and eDirectory Administrator (The directory).
The listing provider is your pal. it will possibly contemplate a microscopic intimidating initially, but should you win to understand the listing service (and eDirectory, for that rely), it's definitely fun. basically.How directory features Work
A directory provider classifies monstrous network substances into a finite number of objects. These objects can subsist geared up by means of characteristic, place, size, class, or color—it doesn't rely. The point is, a listing service organizes community components independently from their physical places. for instance, servers are equipped in response to function. Then users are placed in the applicable containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productiveness because users are near the components they need. When a person logs in to the community, the person can access any demur in the Tree, regardless of its vicinity. This offers a slick aptitude for managing not only clients, but additionally monstrous their hardware and applications. Of path, within the eDirectory tree (as in life), it's best to locality user objects and their elements (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in nearby proximity to each other.
A listing service performs a yoke of simple projects, including the following:
Connecting disparate techniques—A directory carrier integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to partake daily administration. In cutting-edge company world, such programs are required now not handiest to talk with every other, but also to partake assistance and expend ordinary features to fulfill the pursuits of the company.
pleasurable the wants of the person, organization, and company—The community ought to subsist bendy satisfactory to supply a set of exciting features based on particular person wants.
Emulating monstrous enterprise relationships—The network should subsist in a position to guaranteeing that depended on relationships are built and maintained between people, business, the enterprise's intranet, and the worldwide internet.
Coordinating suggestions stream—suggestions may also emanate both from the enterprise (procedural) or from the network (technical). A listing service coordinates information stream, no subsist counted what the source or classification of suggestions.
guaranteeing assistance availability—A listing carrier offers a course for making monstrous community guidance attainable to users, instruments, purposes, or different elements.
A listing and a Relational Database management gadget (RDBMS) are two part entities with different capabilities. besides the fact that a directory is a set of information, it doesn't substitute the daily RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one one more, besides the fact that they serve diverse purposes.
typically, a directory provider may subsist utilized in the following ways:
Organizing statistics—A listing service organizes information or recommendation for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory retailers monstrous consumer, server, printer, and other community gear advice.
having access to suggestions readily—corresponding to the file-and-folder gadget used on a pc, a directory provider makes information about community materials available to clients, instruments, and functions. A listing provider provides employees with international entry to network resources. organizations and groups also expend listing functions to give consumer authentication and authorization for using these network substances and features. For agencies with significant numbers of mobile users, eDirectory offers a course for storing person counsel required by course of some functions. (Such purposes are described as directory-enabled.) From the consumer's point of view, a directory carrier gives a world view of monstrous community elements, equivalent to clients, functions, features, device elements, and devices.
offering safety—A directory provider uniquely identifies community materials, locates community objects when required, helps tough security elements, and controls the user entry to network materials.
providing services to valued clientele—For businesses taking handicap of the features of electronic company transactions, directory services can aid prepare numerous databases while helping to mesh disparate network methods. This offers more advantageous administration of strategies between customers, employees, and provide-chain companions. The ensuing advantages are as follows: decreased expenses for administration and hardware, quicker access to information and suggestions, and relaxed network entry with superior fault tolerance.
From a gauge standpoint, directory capabilities can additionally supply digital provisioning, better safety, customer profiling, electronic wallets, automated notification techniques, customized web interfaces, and virtual deepest networks (VPNs).
A virtual inner most network (VPN) regularly is used to switch sensitive trade tips throughout an untrusted community (such because the information superhighway) in a at ease trend (usually by using encapsulating and encrypting records).
So, what attain you think? Is a directory service for you? Who is conscious of—you may even find it irresistible.directory structure
As you remember, the listing service provides access to the eDirectory database, which consists of monstrous resources for the whole community. What exactly does eDirectory contemplate like? From the outdoor, it appears devotion a tremendous cloud hovering over your community. On the inner, however, it follows a hierarchical tree constitution corresponding to the internet domain gadget. it is, genesis at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and at eventual to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is pointed out because the directory counsel Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for functions of their dialogue.
believe of the tree as definitely being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree begins with the Tree demur (referred to as the Tree Root) and builds from there. next, it sprouts container objects, which are branches reaching towards the sky. at last, leaf objects supply community performance to users, servers, and the file device. As you can remark in design three.1, the tree analogy is alive and smartly.
figure 3.1 The figurative listing functions tree.
The precise eDirectory tree is made up of analytic community objects. eDirectory objects define analytic or actual entities that provide organizational or technical characteristic to the network. As you're going to remark later in this chapter, they near in three flavors:
The Tree Root is the very perquisite of the eDirectory tree. because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is correctly a picture of a tree. Container objects profile the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and apartment other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container demur carries different objects, it's called a parent object.
eventually, leaf objects are the actual or analytic network supplies that deliver technical features and network performance. Leaf objects profile the lowest stage of the eDirectory constitution. you're going to study in regards to the most inviting leaf objects later in this chapter.
The constitution of the listing is governed by using a collection of suggestions at the selfsame time regular because the listing schema. These suggestions define the category of information, the syntax of that facts, and the objects the listing can include. Schema suggestions drop into two broad categories:
Object class definitions—These define the ilk of objects and the attributes of those objects.
Attribute definitions—These profile the constitution (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. effectively stated, the assign cost is the precise content or information.
bear in irony when I instructed you that eDirectory turned into in response to the X.500 standard? earlier than you Go tree hiking and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, acquire a brief study that tolerable to contemplate what that every one ability. I feel you'll spot some dazzling similarities between X.500 and what you may possess just realized about directory functions.realizing X.500
X.500 is a world commonplace for naming features. lots of industry necessities, corresponding to DNA (Digital community architecture), expend X.500 with their own naming capabilities to deliver tackle-to-name conclusion and directory functions. This permits these distributed machines to exist in a tremendous hierarchical administration gadget.
X.500 organizes network components (comparable to clients and servers) into a globally attainable listing. The X.500 specification establishes instructions for representing, having access to, and using recommendation kept in a directory database. in reality, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of perquisite here X.500 elements:
Scalability—significant databases can subsist subdivided into smaller directory system brokers (DSAs). A DSA can characterize either a solitary corporation or multiple organizations, and its contents can subsist allotted across diverse directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.
Replication—This characteristic enables the directory database, or parts thereof, to subsist replicated on backup listing servers located during the network.
Synchronization—as a result of X.500 must control a loosely coupled, allotted database, every server ought to subsist in a position to synchronize its database contents with other servers. listing database updates could subsist made either at the original grasp database (grasp-shadow arrangement) or at any writable duplicate (peer-to-peer mechanism). In both case, X.500 propagates listing database alternate assistance to monstrous servers maintaining replicas of the database or a DSA.
The X.500 directory is represented via a listing counsel Tree (DIT) and listing suggestions base (DIB). as a minimum a ilk of should sound general. The DIB contains objects (or nodes) and their linked homes and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that attend in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects characterize particular person network entities, similar to servers, printers, and so on. refer to determine three.2 for an illustration of the X.500 listing architecture.
The suggestions that assess the ilk of tips that can subsist stored in the DIB are held within the directory's schema. (Now this should still subsist sounding truly customary.) each and every demur in an X.500 DIT has a part identify that's known as its special identify, or DN, (that is, comprehensive identify). every demur may additionally also subsist observed by course of a relative distinguished identify, or RDN, (it's, partial identify).
listing database entry is managed by course of a DSA running on a local server. clients entry the database through a directory user Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, varieties-based, and browser-trend interfaces. DSAs and DUAs talk with each other the expend of the listing entry Protocol (DAP). moreover, DSAs may additionally talk with one a different using the listing gear Protocol (DSP), listing assistance Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the listing Operational Binding management Protocol (DOP).
figure three.2 X.500 listing architecture.
Now that you comprehend where directory capabilities came from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it subsist time to attain some tree hiking! seems devotion that fun I promised you, doesn't it?
The IT certification merry-go-round has monstrous the time moved at a dizzying tempo, and people who are looking to gain or retain Novell certifications will requisite to jump on to answer Novell's original necessities. perquisite here is an in depth contemplate on the adjustments.constant change has monstrous the time been fragment of the IT certification online game, and Novell has recently thrown one other curveball by aphorism original alterations to its daily certifications. when you are pursuing the NetWare 6 certification or requisite to complete a constant certification requirement to retain your Novell designation, study on. this text will provide you with an overview of the brand original requirements for Novell’s CNA, CNE, and MCNE certifications, as neatly because the carrying on with requirements for currently licensed gurus.
New CNA requirementsThe first step in Novell certification is fitting an authorized Novell Administrator (CNA). To achieve this certification for NetWare 6, you requisite to current Novell exam 050-677, Foundations of Novell Networking. This exam covers matter matters such as directory features, protection, net services, LAN/WAN technologies, and client/server administration. To reclaim together for this examination, which you can attend Novell direction 3001.
besides the fact that children passing a solitary examine to deserve CNA certification has now not changed, the information it truly is covered within the exam has. as an example, LAN/WAN expertise is now blanketed in the CNA exam, whereas earlier than it became lined in a part Networking technologies exam. These alterations are being made to deliver certified gurus with a greater generalized background as a substitute of testing best on selected Novell guidance for the CNA exam.
To give you the requisite historical past and journey, Novell recommends that you cling each the CompTIA A+ and network+ certifications before attempting examination 050-677.
adjustments to the CNE programThe largest trade in Novell certification is within the licensed Novell Engineer (CNE) song. first of all, the Networking technologies exam has been eradicated. Novell has partnered with CompTIA and now requires that you pass the community+ examination as fragment of the CNE certification. The assistance in both checks turned into basically the equal anyway, so this makes lots of sense.
a different trade to the CNE certification software is that there are not any extra electives. monstrous exams at the minute are considered to subsist core assessments, making the application the identical for monstrous CNE candidates. I respect that this also makes sense, given that monstrous CNEs will now possess the equal gauge physique of expertise. in case you want to specialize in a matter matter that up to now became regarded an non-compulsory, such as BorderManager or GroupWise, which you can acquire particular person lessons and assessments and deserve "specialist Certificates" for distinctive items and applied sciences.
if you're pursuing the CNE certification, subsist prepared because fitting a CNE nonetheless takes lots of difficult work. You must first dangle the CNA and community+ certifications. Then, you possess to current four core checks:
requirements for MCNE certificationAfter obtaining their CNE certification, many professionals near to a conclusion to attain the master CNE (MCNE) certification. here is the ultimate stage of Novell certification and indicates that you're an expert in Novell networking.
in the past, you could attain MCNE certification by using specializing in a yoke of areas of potential, corresponding to ZENworks, BorderManager, or GroupWise. Novell has scrapped those specialization areas and now requires monstrous MCNE candidates to meander the equal three exams. To acquire this certification, you should first subsist a CNE. you are then faced with the challenge of passing three extra tests:
continuing certification requirementsLike most providers, Novell requires its licensed professionals to update their certifications whenever a brand original edition of its working gadget is launched. This ensures that you possess competencies of Novell’s newest products and continues the certification helpful to employers.
in case you presently dangle the CNE certification, you could acquire Novell examination 50-676, Upgrading to NetWare 6, to fulfill the continuing certification requirement. To reclaim together for this examination, that you could acquire Novell class 3000. Novell has not set a mandatory date for recertification, however it should subsist introduced quickly.
CNEs aren't the only ones required to supersede their certifications. The MCNE carrying on with certification requirement states that MCNEs ought to meander the NetWare 6 carrying on with certification requirement and circulate the IT venture+ examination. You can possess except Jan. 3, 2003, to answer these requirements.
Wrap upNovell turned into the primary seller to start-delivery the IT certification craze and has at monstrous times taken satisfaction in protecting its classes and checks up to this point and valuable to the business. The alterations outlined in this article are a continuation of its efforts to deliver a high-quality certification application to industry experts and employers. I confidence that these adjustments are superb and may provide IT authorities licensed via Novell with a powerful overview of critical IT topics, as well as Novell items, making the certification more applicable to what IT professionals remark in the site of work day by day.
EUC with HCI: Why It concerns
you're chargeable for managing 15,000 consumer debts and 20,000 computers in your business. it's 9 a.m. on Monday. attain you know where your users' computer systems are? if you are working for a customary business, nearly actually you don't. "British Telecom recently audited their IT property and located that they had 20,000 greater computer systems than they thought," says Dave Bingham, Consulting Director, Fujitsu Consulting UK. Now that's a major programs management problem!
Many groups are sinking below the ordeal of their latest legacy network identification, entry handle, and provisioning techniques. some of the warning signals that you may possess an issue:
What attain Novell, id management and LDAP (lightweight listing entry Protocol) ought to attain with any of this? is this the equal moribund company typical for the develope NetWare, NDS (Novell directory provider), and GroupWise product traces? yes, a revitalized Novell is aggressively pursuing the community id management and directory functions market with a original generation of LDAP-based mostly items and technologies. by means of structure on Novell's tolerable strengths in listing administration and de-coupling these products from their flagship NDS NOS product, it's hoping to compete at once with iPlanet, Oblix, notable path, Microsoft, and different identification administration carriers. The following yoke of years should subsist a battleground for network identity vendors and consultants as they fight to set up themselves in this original marketplace. allow us to acquire a more in depth examine Novell's LDAP implementation and listing service items to contemplate why subsist confident to subsist seriously due to the fact them if you want an trade scale LDAP system.
Why Novell and LDAP?Novell realized it necessary an open commonplace for its front-conclusion application software. LDAP changed into the obvious selection as a result of Novell had historically primarily based each the NetWare and NDS techniques on the X.500 protocol and LDAP turned into at the start designed because the X.500 entrance conclusion. In March 1999, Novell launched a copy of open source LDAP as a fragment of its SDK (application developer's kit) indicating its complete aid for the LDAP ordinary. at the time Kurt Zeilenga, chief architect of the OpenLDAP challenge, stated, "international adoption of technologies requires that builders possess access to open and reusable code. we're pleased that Novell has chosen to expend OpenLDAP application and has made its alterations accessible to the community so monstrous may also advantage. They contemplate ahead to working with Novell in furthering open source LDAP application." It clearly had the complete assist of the developer neighborhood.
youngsters LDAP has been round as a typical protocol when you respect that 1995 except these days it has been a strictly returned-office trade community carrier. up to now, the most efficacious open ordinary for directories changed into X.500, delivered in 1988. considering that X.500 became OSI model based, LDAP became designed to serve as a translation protocol between the TCP/IP and OSI fashions. since it is probably the most open and supple of monstrous of the community features protocols, the network id administration group has embraced it as the core technology to combine user and computer identification counsel together into one seamless complete. it's now the de facto daily for most major id management functions applications. Openwave and iPlanet each expend LDAP as the underlying address listing know-how for trade e mail capabilities items. LDAP is a longtime, amazing, scalable open listing common -- an extremely captivating answer.
Novell NDS and LDAPHow has that modified Novell's products? First, let us issue at the particulars of how the NDS system has completely integrated LDAP. NDS 8 gives powerful LDAP aid with the aid of permitting access at once to a NDS data store. This affords the best of both worlds -- open requirements for directory entry whereas leveraging Novell's protection strengths corresponding to tough authentication and server-server replication. This improved support includes:
eDirectory - Novell's listing carrier ProducteDirectory, which developed from NDS, is a listing provider that is scalable, extensible, and inordinate efficiency. basically, Novell has publicly proven that eDirectory can manipulate greater than 1000000000 objects in a solitary tree. This potential some distance exceeds what most commercial enterprise networks or e-corporations will ever require. a few of eDirectory's major accessories devotion global printing features are incorporated into NetWare 6.
FeaturesSome of eDirectory's original or more suitable elements included in version eight.7 - codenamed "Falcon" are:
directory StructureHere is a brief overview of the Novell directory constitution from suitable to backside. Novell calls its directories "container objects."
DirXMLDir XML provides bi-directional and Meta-listing capabilities between e-listing and other commercial enterprise and legacy methods. The techniques communicate with the aid of without delay processing XML files. DirXML runs on lots of structures -- Linux, NetWare, Solaris, and home windows NT/2000, but requires eDirectory eight.5 or later. at the minute purchasable DirXML drivers include:
DirXML ComponentsBetween eDirectory/DirXML there are two various kinds of data flows.
Developer ServicesAdditional features and products Novell offers especially designed to aid developers consist of:
Some CautionsNovell is stirring the perquisite course by using porting the gear to part platforms, but when you definitely are looking to possess a totally integrated system, obtain confident you nevertheless subsist the expend of the other Novell products along with eDirectory. despite the fact eDirectory has some awesome aspects that obtain it easier to strengthen enterprise scaled listing capabilities based purposes, it remains at heart an NDS based mostly product. it will probably work most efficacious for you if you already possess a NetWare installation and some familiarity with the Novell strategy to community based mostly enterprise capabilities. Tony Neal, IT manager at Marriott international Inc. views Novell LDAP attend as "an extra piece of the protocol mystify so as to tie every microscopic thing collectively, with NDS as the perquisite engine beneath". It is not transparent when speakme to Novell how many of their eDirectory installations are definitely original valued clientele and not simply additional sales to the present Novell client base.
a few years lower back Novell took a earnest misstep after they proposed a brand original excellent-degree .dir locality for the web. The proposed .dir domain changed into a so-called chartered domain and would possess required .dir candidates to subsist fully compliant with LDAP 2000, an LDAP conformance test sponsored by using DIF. Novell claimed that organising the .dir domain turned into crucial because it would guarantee the classification of web sites that would expend it. The proposed locality instantly met with neighborhood resistance and was promptly withdrawn. "Why is each person looking to ICANN to rubber-stamp their trade fashions?" talked about Rick Wesson, CEO of Alice's Registry, in Santa Cruz, Calif., a consultancy for ICANN-authorised registrars. "Novell desires to create a LDAP (light-weight listing access Protocol) root, however does not want a TLD to attain that. it might build the identical infrastructure beneath the latest DNS domains."
Is Novell earnest about LDAP?Novell has been lively with two emerging IETF requirements companies. These efforts will microscopic doubt turn out to subsist in future Novell internet, working gadget, and directory products.
Novell developers are working on the next unencumber of Netware code named "Nakoma." it'll encompass enhanced DirXML support for tighter integration between NetWare, Novell Portal services, and legacy company directories that require listing-based mostly id and access capabilities. present projected availability is summer season 2003.
Some enhancements which are a fragment of "mission fate" the universal Novell eDirectory and directory enhancement application encompass:
In conclusion, Novell has been working difficult to site itself in the forefront of the LDAP construction neighborhood. Novell has leveraged its skills with X.500 and NDS to create a magnificent set of gear using LDAP and the NDS structure. if you are nosy about huge-scale identification administration purposes and also you already possess some familiarity with the Novell atmosphere, eDirectory might possibly subsist simply the toolkit you requisite to build your utility.
extra suppliesBeth Cohen is president of Luth computer specialists, Inc., a consulting practice specializing in IT infrastructure for smaller organizations. She has been in the trenches assisting enterprise IT infrastructure for over two decades in a yoke of different fields together with architecture, construction, engineering, software, telecommunications, and research. She is at present writing a reserve about IT for the tiny trade and pursuing an suggestions Age MBA from Bentley school.
Hallett German is an IT advisor who is skilled in imposing splendid IT infrastructures with an stress on electronic messaging and directories. he is the founding father of the Northeast SAS users group and former President of the REXX Language association. he is the creator of three books on scripting languages.
» remark monstrous Articles by means of Columnist Beth Cohen
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This chapter covers the following testing objectives for Novell Course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:
Identify basic Directory Service tasks.
Identify common Directory Service uses.
Describe how a Directory is structured.
Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
Identify how eDirectory 8.6 works.
Identify and picture the composition of eDirectory.
Identify and picture eDirectory demur classes.
Identify the current and design of the eDirectory tree.
NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the greatest version to date of Novell's world-class directory service.
eDirectory is the world's leading Directory service. It provides a unifying, cross-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, accessing, and developing monstrous major components of your network. eDirectory scales to the largest network environments, including the Internet. Because it is based on the X.500 standard, eDirectory supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.
eDirectory can store and manage millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also provides the foundation network service for monstrous NetWare servers and network resources. In fact, after network communications, it is the most fundamental network service offered by NetWare 6.
With monstrous this in mind, I'm confident you would correspond that eDirectory management is one of your key responsibilities as a Novell CNA (Certified Network Administrator). In this chapter, you will explore four notable lessons regarding eDirectory management:
Introduction to Directory Services—You'll start with a brief introduction to the basics of Directory services, including some common uses and how a Directory is structured.
Understanding eDirectory 8.6—Then you'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell Directory Services (NDS).
Using eDirectory Objects—You'll dig into the basics behind eDirectory's three types of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.
Implementing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—Finally, you'll learn about naming conventions used in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.
As you can see, there's a lot to learn in this chapter and when it's monstrous done, you'll subsist an accomplished eDirectory administrator. So, let's win started!
Test Objectives Covered:
Identify basic Directory Service tasks.
Identify common Directory Service uses.
Describe how a Directory is structured.
Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
The Directory Service is one of the most fundamental network services provided by monstrous NetWare 6 servers. In fact, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between monstrous servers in a great NetWare 6 network. As such, Directory Service management is one of your key responsibilities as the network administrator.
As its name implies, the Directory service provides access to a database, called eDirectory, that contains monstrous resources for the entire network. This object-oriented database is organized into a hierarchical structure called the tree. eDirectory provides the basic foundation for the Directory service, including capabilities for replication and distribution. Directory is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the directory (or folder) in the file system. In fact, these two "directories" define the two major roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File System Administrator (directories and files) and eDirectory Administrator (The Directory).
The Directory service is your friend. It may look a microscopic intimidating at first, but when you win to know the Directory service (and eDirectory, for that matter), it's actually fun. Really.How Directory Services Work
A Directory service classifies monstrous network resources into a finite number of objects. These objects can subsist organized by function, location, size, type, or color—it doesn't matter. The point is, a Directory service organizes network resources independently from their physical locations. For example, servers are organized according to function. Then users are placed in the commandeer containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productivity because users are near the resources they need. When a user logs in to the network, the user can access any demur in the Tree, regardless of its location. This provides a slick means for managing not only users, but also monstrous their hardware and applications. Of course, in the eDirectory tree (as in life), it is best to site User objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in nearby proximity to each other.
A Directory service performs several basic tasks, including the following:
Connecting disparate systems—A Directory service integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to partake common management. In today's trade world, such systems are required not only to communicate with each other, but also to partake information and expend common services to meet the objectives of the organization.
Satisfying the needs of the user, organization, and business—The network must subsist supple enough to provide a set of unique services based on individual needs.
Emulating monstrous trade relationships—The network must subsist capable of ensuring that trusted relationships are built and maintained between people, business, the company's intranet, and the World Wide Web.
Coordinating information flow—Information may emanate either from the trade (procedural) or from the network (technical). A Directory service coordinates information flow, no matter what the source or ilk of information.
Ensuring information availability—A Directory service provides a means for making monstrous network information available to users, devices, applications, or other resources.
A Directory and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) are two part entities with different functions. Even though a Directory is a collection of information, it does not supersede the traditional RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one another, even though they serve different purposes.
Typically, a Directory service may subsist used in the following ways:
Organizing data—A Directory service organizes data or information for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory stores monstrous user, server, printer, and other network device information.
Accessing information easily—Similar to the file-and-folder system used on a computer, a Directory service makes information about network resources available to users, devices, and applications. A Directory service provides employees with global access to network resources. Businesses and organizations also expend Directory services to provide user authentication and authorization for using these network resources and services. For organizations with great numbers of mobile users, eDirectory provides a means for storing user information required by some applications. (Such applications are described as Directory-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a Directory service provides a global view of monstrous network resources, such as users, applications, services, system resources, and devices.
Providing security—A Directory service uniquely identifies network resources, locates network objects when required, supports robust security features, and controls the user access to network resources.
Providing services to customers—For organizations taking handicap of the features of electronic trade transactions, Directory services can attend organize multiple databases while helping to mesh disparate network systems. This provides better management of processes between customers, employees, and supply-chain partners. The resulting benefits are as follows: reduced costs for administration and hardware, faster access to data and information, and secure network access with superior fault tolerance.
From a universal perspective, Directory services can also provide electronic provisioning, enhanced security, customer profiling, electronic wallets, automated notification systems, customized Web interfaces, and virtual private networks (VPNs).
A virtual private network (VPN) often is used to transfer sensitive company information across an untrusted network (such as the Internet) in a secure fashion (typically by encapsulating and encrypting data).
So, what attain you think? Is a Directory service for you? Who knows—you might even devotion it.Directory Architecture
As you recall, the Directory service provides access to the eDirectory database, which contains monstrous resources for the entire network. What exactly does eDirectory contemplate like? From the outside, it looks devotion a tremendous cloud hovering over your network. On the inside, however, it follows a hierarchical tree structure similar to the Internet domain system. That is, starting at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and eventually to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is referred to as the Directory Information Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of their discussion.
Think of the tree as actually being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree demur (called the Tree Root) and builds from there. Next, it sprouts container objects, which are branches reaching toward the sky. Finally, leaf objects provide network functionality to users, servers, and the file system. As you can remark in design 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.
Figure 3.1 The figurative Directory services tree.
The true eDirectory tree is made up of analytic network objects. eDirectory objects define analytic or physical entities that provide organizational or technical duty to the network. As you will remark later in this chapter, they near in three flavors:
The Tree Root is the very top of the eDirectory tree. Because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects define the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container demur contains other objects, it is called a parent object.
Finally, leaf objects are the physical or analytic network resources that provide technical services and network functionality. Leaf objects define the lowest smooth of the eDirectory structure. You'll learn about the most inviting leaf objects later in this chapter.
The structure of the Directory is governed by a set of rules collectively known as the Directory schema. These rules define the ilk of data, the syntax of that data, and the objects the Directory can contain. Schema rules drop into two broad categories:
Object class definitions—These define the ilk of objects and the attributes of those objects.
Attribute definitions—These define the structure (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. Simply stated, the assign value is the actual content or data.
Remember when I told you that eDirectory was based on the X.500 standard? Before you Go tree climbing and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, acquire a quick contemplate at that gauge to remark what that monstrous means. I reflect you'll spot some astounding similarities between X.500 and what you've just learned about Directory services.Understanding X.500
X.500 is an international gauge for naming services. A variety of industry standards, such as DNA (Digital Network Architecture), expend X.500 with their own naming services to provide address-to-name resolution and directory services. This enables these distributed machines to exist in a great hierarchical management system.
X.500 organizes network resources (such as users and servers) into a globally accessible Directory. The X.500 specification establishes guidelines for representing, accessing, and using information stored in a directory database. In fact, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of the following X.500 features:
Scalability—Large databases can subsist subdivided into smaller Directory System Agents (DSAs). A DSA can picture either a solitary organization or multiple organizations, and its contents may subsist distributed across multiple Directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.
Replication—This feature allows the Directory database, or portions thereof, to subsist replicated on backup Directory servers located throughout the network.
Synchronization—Because X.500 must manage a loosely coupled, distributed database, each server must subsist able to synchronize its database contents with other servers. Directory database updates may subsist made either at the original master database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates Directory database change information to monstrous servers holding replicas of the database or a DSA.
The X.500 Directory is represented by a Directory Information Tree (DIT) and Directory Information base (DIB). At least one of those should sound familiar. The DIB consists of objects (or nodes) and their associated properties and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that aid in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects picture individual network entities, such as servers, printers, and so on. refer to design 3.2 for an illustration of the X.500 Directory architecture.
The rules that determine the ilk of information that may subsist stored in the DIB are held in the Directory's schema. (Now this should subsist sounding really familiar.) Each demur in an X.500 DIT has a unique name that is referred to as its distinguished name, or DN, (that is, complete name). Each demur may also subsist referred to by a relative distinguished name, or RDN, (that is, partial name).
Directory database access is managed by a DSA running on a local server. Users access the database through a Directory User Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, forms-based, and browser-style interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each other using the Directory Access Protocol (DAP). Furthermore, DSAs may communicate with one another using the Directory System Protocol (DSP), Directory Information Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol (DOP).
Figure 3.2 X.500 Directory architecture.
Now that you know where Directory services came from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to attain some tree climbing! Sounds devotion that fun I promised you, doesn't it?
A great food and universal merchandise wholesaler in the United States had a strategic vision based on strengthening its relationships with the market’s largest retailers, and increasing its vertical penetration through the acquisition of niche channel wholesalers.
The company was relying upon the added trade flexibility provided by their SAP implementation and extending their existing investment in legacy technology to support this vision. Integration of the legacy technology, however, had become a barrier to their success, due to its security management inefficiencies and administration risk.
The company was struggling with maintaining a secure IT architecture compliant with government laws and corporate trade control objectives. Their existing security architecture was based on the coordination and integration of disparate application-based security systems. Each of the applications was designed with its own user identity, authentication and authorization capabilities that resulted in their security management becoming overly complex, labor-intensive and error-prone.
The company was seeking to transition to a shared-service identity management architecture, consisting of directory and security services that obtain identity, security and policy management reusable resources across monstrous applications. At the hub of this vision was their desire to extend their investment in their SAP R/3 Human Resources module and expend it as the authoritative source for their identity management solution.
The company had two key objectives.
The short-term objective was to implement a security solution whereby authorization for access to the warehouse management system would subsist centrally defined, managed and controlled, based on predefined job roles. The solution had to automatically add, change or delete a user’s access in monstrous warehouse systems within the company’s numerous distribution centers located throughout the United States.
The long-term goal was to design an identity management solution that would create an efficient and dependable process for ultimately administering monstrous user access needs for monstrous level-one applications (to involve TCI, Manugistics, SAP, MS Exchange, and WebSphere MQ) and operating systems (to involve OS/390, AS/400, NT and AIX) at the company. The company also was introducing a original internet architecture and looking to extend their web commerce capabilities. The identity management solution had to incorporate a web solitary sign-on solution (using IBM Tivoli Access Manager) that will establish a common web authentication, identity control and authorization structure.
Creating the solution
A four-week strategy session produced requirements and an implementation arrangement to achieve the short- and long-term objectives. The tall smooth design consisted of utilizing SAP R/3 HR as the authoritative source for the company’s employee identities. Events (hire, change, termination) would subsist provisioned from SAP to an identity repository consisting of Novell eDirectory.
A ‘role based access controls (RBAC)’ model would subsist developed based upon employee attributes available within SAP R/3 HR (job codes and positions), and utilized to provision employee actions (add, change, disable) to downstream applications. The provisioning of employee information from SAP R/3 HR to the identity repository and down to a warehouse management application would subsist enabled using Novell DirXML software/technology.
The final component of the solution would subsist establishing IBM’s Tivoli Access Manager as the solitary control point for web based authentication to secure monstrous internet and intranet-based traffic/access. Tivoli Access Manager would subsist configured to expend the identity repository as the authentication source for web-based applications and users.
A 90-day implementation arrangement was developed that broke the project down into four steps:
The first deliverable in this step was an ‘identity model.’ The process used to develop this model consisted of an analysis of the SAP HR environment and trade processes, as well as the applications to subsist provisioned downstream and protected by the web solitary sign-on solution. This analysis required not only a review of the technical needs of the applications but also of the underlying trade processes supporting the technology (HR and downstream applications). This was done to ensure that any data trait demands placed on the model could subsist supported.
The next step was to enable the clients SAP R/3 Human Resource module to partake information between SAP and Novell eDirectory. SAP requires the expend of application link enabling (ALE) functionality and an SAP-validated interface system (IDOC processing) to partake information. ALE uses SAP intermediate document (IDOC) capabilities to pass information across systems.
Synchronizing between systems
It was determined that the identity repository would require a flat tree structure. The initial scope of the identity management project was to synchronize ’employee identity’ attributes from the SAP R/3 HR module to an identity repository ‘Company_IM tree.’ This was achieved utilizing a technology solution from Novell called DirXML. DirXML is an event-driven utility that provides supple synchronization between disparate systems so that enterprise data can subsist kept up to date with minimal maintenance costs. DirXML was used to synchronize employee identity information between SAP R/3 HR, eDirectory and the warehouse management application.
Since the applications had different ways of representing data elements, DirXML was used to match the ‘object classes’ (accounts or records) and ‘attributes’ (fields) between the different applications. By doing this ‘schema mapping,’ the underlying applications did not requisite to subsist modified to match eDirectory. Each application was enabled with a DirXML driver that mapped their demur classes and attributes to allow the DirXML configuration to subsist based on eDirectory attributes.
Additionally, some applications required fields to subsist filled in before a user account could subsist created. By identifying these required attributes, DirXML was used to enforce the trade processes by ‘vetoing’ the creation of an account until monstrous required attributes had values. Applications also had existing employee accounts where a system to match objects between the systems had to subsist created. They achieved this through a process known as ‘object mapping’ that allowed existing objects to subsist matched to existing or newly created eDirectory objects as long as unique matching criteria could subsist determined.
Finally, different applications did not picture data in the selfsame format or method. This was overcome through the expend of data transformation techniques that can manipulate data from one system to the next into the proper format. This can subsist as simple as translating a complete name into three attributes (given name, middle initial, eventual name) or as tangled as applying an external process to a sequence of attributes.
DirXML was also used to provision the necessary accounts to the warehouse management application. This was achieved by the execution of a data mapping exercise that identified monstrous the necessary fields required by the warehouse management application. Each territory was then reviewed to determine if it would subsist populated directly from an identity repository attribute, derived from an identity repository assign or created by the DirXML functionality based upon predefined rules.
Implementing web solitary sign-on
The first step of this facet was to dissect the usage patterns. This proved difficult in that monstrous usage was estimated while there was microscopic or no current activity. They developed a number of architectural assumptions for this portion of the project.
IBM Tivoli Access Manager includes a tall performance, multi-threaded web reverse proxy that applies fine-grained security policy to the protected web demur space. In this configuration, IBM Tivoli Access Manager delivered solitary sign-on to the company’s IBM Websphere portal and underlying web applications. Out of the box however, the Tivoli Access Manager did not provide for aboriginal integration with eDirectory for user authentication (although the latest version 4.1 does provide out-of-the-box integration for Novell eDirectory).
To achieve this they utilized the cross domain authentication service (CDAS) functionality of Tivoli Access Manager, a instrument for federating authentication requests to directories and user repositories. In this configuration, users were authenticated in Tivoli Access Manager to the Novell eDirectory IM tree. Required attributes are returned from eDirectory to the CDAS API that then returns these attributes to Tivoli Access Manager where access decisions are made.
The project from start to finish lasted eight months and established a original internet-enabled security architecture based upon the existence of identity driven enterprise roles. These roles enabled a consistent definition of a user’s trade purpose for access to company resources and more timely and efficient administration. The cost savings goal that is now being targeted is to reduce their helpdesk support calls by completing the standardization of user IDs and passwords across the architecture. The company estimates a 90 percent reduction from their historical 5,000-a-year password reset convoke population.
The project itself reinforced to management the requisite to identify key stakeholders early in the project. Achieving this smooth of integration across a security architecture is disruptive; frequent and meaningful communication with trade process owners was crucial to identifying and resolving process/technology conflicts throughout the project.
Additionally, management realized that implementing an identity-based security architecture requires extensive enterprise requirement definitions and adequate full-time resources to ensure sustainability.
The solution provided the company with key value statements, which focused on corporate goal and initiatives:
Creating an identity-based security architecture allowed the company to easily migrate from a decentralized security architecture to a centralized architecture based on trade processes. The halt result was a robust and supple security architecture to ply acquisitions and the migration towards a absolute web-based application architecture.
Jim Burns is a principal with Deloitte & Touche (www.deloitte.com).
Casselberry, FL (PRWEB) May 23, 2012
Zvetco Biometrics, a leader in fingerprint identity and authentication solutions, today announced that the City of Apopka has deployed the company’s P4500 biometric fingerprint reader and the Authasas® enterprise grade biometric software, to achieve compliance with CJIS mandates at situation and federal levels. The City of Apopka selected Zvetco and Viable Solutions, Inc. to provide and install a turn-key solution to secure mobile access to information, reduce helpdesk costs and simplify compliance with the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) mandate. With this installation, the City of Apopka delivers extremely tall security and convenience through fingerprint scanning.
Within the original mandates, agencies must enforce unique IDs, tough passwords, and comply with the CJIS Advanced Authentication requirement by 2013. However, Advanced Authentication is required for any system upgrade performed after 2005. This means that instead of a 2013 deadline, the mandates must subsist met at the time of the upgrade. Agencies that are audited and don’t comply with the CJIS policy could subsist denied access to CJIS systems or visage penalties.
The City of Apopka has chosen Zvetco Biometrics and their VAR, Viable Solutions, Inc. to deliver much needed biometric tools to achieve tight integration within a Novell eDirectory environment. In addition to their all-metal biometric readers, Zvetco provided Authasas®, advanced authentication software that enabled the first of its kindhearted connectivity with Novell eDirectory.
City of Apopka’s IT Supervisor, Robert Hippler, says, "Zvetco scanners are a cost efficacious product that easily connects to their VDI and Physical workstations. With those in site they are able to deliver the original Authasas® Biometric Authentication to desktops, meeting and even exceeding the CJIS requirements."
"Zvetco’s Verifi fingerprint readers deliver on the vow to provide simple yet secure access to organizations’ networks and applications," said Zavi Cohen, CEO at Zvetco Biometrics. "It’s gratifying to remark Zvetco solutions supporting government agencies’ needs for security and efficiency in their daily operations. He added, “The Zvetco solution can subsist utilized in a Novell environment as well as Windows lively Directory. By deploying Zvetco’s Enterprise grade fingerprint readers the City of Apopka achieved noteworthy cost benefits when compared with traditional AFIS ilk readers”.
Eliot Lloyd Lanes, CEO, and CTO of Viable Solutions, Inc. states, “We possess supported the City of Apopka for decades, and they possess worked with Zvetco Biometrics for many years. The City’s IT Director, Donald Kahrs was conscious that Viable Solutions, Inc. has helped with pioneering efforts in the territory of Biometrics integration. So, when they needed to meet the CJIS requirements, they turned to us. They then looked to Zvetco Biometrics, who presented Authasas. During the project they built nearby ties with Authasas and together they possess now delivered a solution that will suitable any current Novell and/or Microsoft environment with ease and cost effectiveness.”
About Zvetco Biometrics
Zvetco Biometrics is a manufacturer of best-in-class identity authentication hardware and provider of identity management solutions. Founded in 1999, Zvetco provides its customers in corporate enterprise, government, pecuniary services, healthcare, gaming, food services and point-of-sale with cost-effective network security tools that obviate identity theft, extend accountability and purge the cost and inconvenience of password-based access. Zvetco Biometrics' Verifi™ line of biometric products incorporates precision fingerprint-sensing technology into ergonomic computer peripherals that deliver unparalleled performance, reliability and convenience.
Verifi™ is a trademark of Zvetco Biometrics. Authasas® is a trademark of Authasas, a provider of advanced authentication software. monstrous other trademarks, registered trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.
Media Contact: Christy Elliott, Zvetco Media DirectorPhone: (407) 681-0111 Extension: 804Web site: http://www.zvetcobiometrics.com
About Viable Solutions, Inc.
Viable Solutions, Inc. is a world leader in networking and collaboration design, implementation, and support. They also provide a secure, robust, and dependable private corporate cloud. Founded in 1986, Viable Solutions, Inc. provides its customers in monstrous manner of industry cost-effective design, implementation, and support tools and services (on premise or cloud baased) to meet and exceed their trade process needs. Information about Viable Solutions, Inc. and its products and services by calling (407) 249-9600 option 2.
Media Contact: imprint Grebinger, Sales ManagerPhone: (407) 249-9600 Extension: 502Web site: http://www.viable-solutions.com
Read the complete fable at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/5/prweb9529543.htm
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CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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