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050-720 Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

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050-720 exam Dumps Source : Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

Test Code : 050-720
Test cognomen : Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11
Vendor cognomen : Novell
: 134 actual Questions

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Novell Novell Certified Linux Administrator

Novell licensed Linux Administrator (CLA) | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-impartial Certification is obtainable by:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This e mail address is being protected from spambots. You necessity JavaScript enabled to view it.

skill level: basis                          popularity: active

economical: $one hundred twenty five (shortest music)               

abstract:for people who supply everyday administration of installed SUSE Linux industry Server networks.

initial necessities:You must flood Novell's CLA examination ($125). choose from CLA 11 LPI, CLA eleven, and CLA 10.

On February ninth, 2010, Novell and the Linux knowledgeable Institute introduced a global partnership to standardize their entry-stage Linux certification courses on LPIC-1. under the phrases of the contract, each and every qualified LPIC-1 holders will find a artery to drill for Novell CLA certification devoid of additional tests or expenses.

be positive to snare a peer at the CompTIA Linux+ certification for an analogous association.

carrying on with necessities:every so often, Novell practising functions may besides require you to snare an examination to retain present on the newest solutions and applied sciences. These tests are regarded a relentless Certification Requirement (CCR), which retain your edge up to date and maintain your certification helpful in the industry.

See each and every Novell Certifications

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Novell Joins OpenCourseWare Consortium to drive Linux, IT working towards | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

via PR Newswire

Article score:

March 19, 2007 07:00 PM EDT


a hundred twenty five

SALT LAKE metropolis, BrainShare(R) 2007, March 19 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Novell nowadays announced it has joined the OpenCourseWare Consortium, a worldwide initiative of larger schooling associations designed to create open educational content material the usage of a shared mannequin. Novell is among the many first industrial organizations to participate within the OpenCourseWare Consortium, becoming a member of the likes of MIT, Harvard legislation faculty, and a few other leading universities each and every over. Novell besides launched these days its first certification focused on the Linux* computing device, reflecting transforming into interest in open supply alternate options to present proprietary pcs. subsequently, Novell(R) consumers benefit critical modern practising tools for maximizing the price of their Novell investments.

"within the spirit of the open supply application mannequin, the OpenCourseWare Consortium is a collaboration of over 100 institutions international working to advertise the free and open digital booklet of lofty first-rate educational materials, geared up as classes," observed John Dehlin, director of the OpenCourseWare Consortium. "It is barely becoming that Novell, a frontrunner in open source and a pioneer in IT practising, is among the first industry organisations to subsist a piece of the Consortium. They warmly welcome Novell to the OpenCourseWare Consortium, and hope this serves as a mannequin for more industrial agencies to share their potential within the schooling enviornment."

The OpenCourseWare Consortium has three fundamental desires. First is to lengthen the attain and affect of opencourseware by encouraging the adoption and adaptation of open tutorial materials around the globe. second is to foster the construction of further opencourseware initiatives. eventually, the consortium goals to subsist positive the lengthy-time era sustainability of opencourseware projects through settling on the right artery to enhance effectiveness and in the reduction of costs. Novell may subsist contributing an preliminary 10 training lessons below the terms of its membership within the Consortium, starting from customary-purpose introductory lessons on Linux to extra really expert classes concentrated on migration to Novell's Linux and Open commercial enterprise Server systems. Novell's opencourseware library is institute at .

"Contributing to the open schooling neighborhood is vital to their mission," talked about MaryJo Swenson, vp of Novell practising services. "We necessity individuals with no vicissitude the usage of Novell products. by increasing the attain of open education into the corporate world, they will compass hundreds of people interested in advancing their potential and competencies."

additionally on the training entrance, Novell these days launched its Novell certified Linux computer Administrator 10 program. This certification will validate the abilities of administrators managing Novell's award-profitable SUSE(R) Linux commercial enterprise laptop. With expanding traction in the market around the Linux desktop, the brand modern certification will supply purchasers self assurance they could obtain the abilities they necessity to maximize the cost of Linux desktops of their environment.

For greater details on the OpenCourseWare Consortium initiative, gratify visit .

For greater suggestions on Novell's certification programs, including the brand modern Novell licensed Linux computing device Administrator program, gratify talk over with .

About Novell

Novell, Inc. supplies infrastructure application for the Open business. they are a pacesetter in business-wide operating systems in accordance with Linux and open supply and the safety and methods administration services required to operate mixed IT environments. They back their purchasers minimize can charge, complexity and chance, allowing them to headquarters of attention on innovation and increase. For extra suggestions, talk over with .

be aware: Novell and SUSE are registered emblems, and BrainShare is a registered carrier imprint of Novell, Inc. within the u.s. and other international locations. *Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. each and every different third-celebration emblems are the property of their respective house owners.

Novell, Inc.

CONTACT: Bruce Lowry of Novell, +1-415-383-8408, or [email protected];or Rebecca Paquette of SHIFT Communications, +1-617-681-1249, or[email protected]

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Novell Joins OpenCourseWare Consortium | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Novell Joins OpenCourseWare Consortium commercial enterprise solutions provider Novell has joined the OpenCourseWare Consortium (OCWC), the industry announced this week. OCWC is an initiative among the many greater education community to promote the structure and implementation of open-supply schooling materials.

"within the spirit of the open supply software mannequin, the OpenCourseWare Consortium is a collaboration of over one hundred associations global working to promote the free and open digital ebook of extreme exceptional tutorial substances, geared up as courses," mentioned John Dehlin, director of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, in a organized observation. "It is just fitting that Novell, a leader in open source and a pioneer in IT training, is among the many first industrial enterprises to subsist piece of the Consortium. They warmly welcome Novell to the OpenCourseWare Consortium, and hope this serves as a mannequin for greater industrial organisations to share their competencies within the schooling area."

Novell, for its half, talked about that promotion open supply is "essential" to its mission. The company said it'll accomplish a contribution 10 practising lessons to OCWC, including introductory lessons on Linux and quite a lot of classes on Linux and Open industry Server migration.

In connected news, Novell additionally announced the Novell certified Linux laptop Administrator 10 software for SUSE Linux industry computer.

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Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

Pass 4 positive 050-720 dumps | 050-720 actual questions |

Novell Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

This vendor-neutral Certification is Offered By:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You necessity JavaScript enabled to view it.

Skill Level: Foundation                          Status: Active

Low Cost: $125 (shortest track)               

Summary:For individuals who provide day-to-day administration of installed SUSE Linux Enterprise Server networks.

Initial Requirements:You must pass Novell's CLA exam ($125). choose from CLA 11 LPI, CLA 11, and CLA 10.

On February 9th, 2010, Novell and the Linux Professional Institute announced an international partnership to standardize their entry-level Linux certification programs on LPIC-1. Under the terms of the agreement, each and every qualified LPIC-1 holders will absorb the occasion to apply for Novell CLA certification without additional exams or fees.

Be positive to check out the CompTIA Linux+ certification for a similar arrangement.

Continuing Requirements:From time to time, Novell Training Services may require you to snare an exam to retain current on the latest solutions and technologies. These exams are considered a Continuing Certification Requirement (CCR), which retain your skills up-to-date and retain your certification valuable in the marketplace.

See each and every Novell Certifications

Vendor's page for this certification

Novell Certified Linux Professional Exam: preliminary GNU and Unix Commands | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

With an eye toward passing the Novell Certified Linux Professional Exam, this chapter focuses on the basic GNU and Unix commands.

This chapter is from the reserve 

The NCLP practicum requires you to absorb a mastery of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server. Before you can absorb a mastery of any one specific implementation, however, you must first know and understand the basics of the operating system. This chapter does not focus on any specific testing objectives for the practicum, but provides you with the core set of skills that you must know in order to subsist able to travail effectively with any Linux implementation.

This chapter covers the following course objectives:

  • Accessing the Command Line (3036)

  • Introduction to Command Shells (3036)

  • Understanding Command Syntax and Special Characters (3036)

  • Executing Commands at the Command Line (3036)

  • Common Command Line Tasks (3036)

  • Piping and Redirection (3036)

  • Changing Directories and Listing Directory Contents (3036)

  • Creating, Viewing, and Appending Files (3036)

  • Copying and stirring Files and Directories (3036)

  • Creating Directories (3036)

  • Deleting Files and Directories (3036)

  • Using grep to Search File Content (3036)

  • Understanding Regular Expressions (3036)

  • Introduction to Linux Text Editors (3036)

  • Using Command Line Editors to Edit (3036)

  • Using Desktop Editors to Edit Files in the Linux System (3036)

  • View Processes from the GUI and the Command Line Interface (3036)

  • Multiuser Processes and Multitasking in the Linux System (3036)

  • Monitor Processes (3038)

  • This chapter contains a powerful deal of content, and it is imperative that you understand and are snug with each and every of it before stirring on. It cannot subsist stressed enough that the commands, utilities, and skills discussed in this chapter lay the foundation upon which each and every Linux administration is built.

    Course Objectives Covered

  • Accessing the Command Line (3036)

  • Introduction to Command Shells (3036)

  • Understanding Command Syntax and Special Characters (3036)

  • Executing Commands at the Command Line (3036)

  • Common Command Line Tasks (3036)

  • Piping and Redirection (3036)

  • To understand the command line and travail there effectively, you must understand the processes that are taking place. Within Linux, the shell is the command interpreter. It takes commands that a user gives, processes them (or sends them to the commandeer utility/interacts with the kernel), and formats the finished results for the user. Thus, the shell is the mediator between the operating system and the user. Not only can it interpret commands, but it can besides exploit redirection (input and output), filename generation, some programming, variable substitution, piping, and a host of other services.

    A number of different shells (interpreters) are available, and different vendors comprehend different combinations of choices with their operating systems. The simplest of each and every is the Bourne shell (sh), which is one of the earliest ones created for the Unix platform and offers the smallest number of features. The Korn shell (ksh) was one of the first to expand upon, and deviate from, sh, and it includes a larger number of options. The Bourne Again shell (bash) took many of the features from Korn, and some modern ones, and combined them with sh, while trying to reduce deviations. The Z shell (zsh) is the largest shell of each and every and added a total modern set of features to the Korn shell.

    Not to subsist overlooked are shells created to accomplish the environment more friendly to those familiar with the C programming language. The first of these was the C shell (csh), which added C-like features to the interpreter and deviated greatly from the Bourne shell. It has been expanded upon by Tom's C shell (tcsh) .

    As a generalization, every vendor includes more than one shell for the user to choose from, but rarely achieve they comprehend each and every the available shells. In many versions, there are three prevalent shells:

    Additionally, there are often two links within the operating system so that if a user attempts to exercise sh, they are really given bash, and if they attempt to exercise csh, they are really given tcsh.


    All shells reside in the /bin directory and the default can subsist specified for the user in the user's /etc/passwd file entry.

    There are slight deviations in the artery each shell carries out its tasks, but each and every perform a core set of functions. Throughout this section, they will peer at the core functions for each and every shells and argue differences as they apply.

    Command-Line Interaction

    When a command is entered, the shell must determine if the command is for it (internal) or not (external). If the command is an internal one, it does the processing and sends the output back without further interaction being needed. If the command cannot subsist institute within the shell itself, it is assumed to subsist an external utility (such as ls, cat, cal, and so on). The command syntax for external commands is always assumed to be

    {program name} {option(s)} {argument(s)}

    Although it is always assumed that there are three components to the command, there necessity not be. The simplest command to give is simply the cognomen of the utility, for example:


    This will recur an output similar to

    Desktop sample snapshot01.gif snapshot02.gif

    In this case, only the program cognomen was given, and no options. This results in a listing of each and every files within the present directory being shown in the default format. An option can subsist specified to change the parade to include/exclude information and/or change the format of the display. An sample would be

    ls -l

    This changes the output to

    total 34 drwx------ 5 root root 1024 Jul 19 16:34 Desktop -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Jul 19 16:48 sample -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif

    Here, the program cognomen has been specified (ls), as well as an option to exercise with it (-l) to change the listing to the "long" format.


    It is primary to understand that whitespace must always subsist used to part the parameters from one another. Whitespace can subsist either a space character or a tab character.

    If the command were given as ls-l, an mistake message would subsist generated because there is no utility by the cognomen of ls-l, and the interpreter would not subsist able to distinguish the program cognomen from the option.

    The options, as well as the arguments, are optional and never required. To complete the example, an dispute can besides subsist used with the command:

    ls -l *.gif

    This will result in the following display:

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif


    Alternatively, the dispute can subsist used without the options, infatuation this:

    ls *.gif

    The number of arguments that can subsist given is not limited to one. Although there may subsist limitations on the number of parameters an individual utility will accept, typically you can string multiple requests together. For example, instead of specifying

    ls -l sa*

    as one command and then following it with

    ls -l *.gif

    you can accomplish the identical operation with

    ls -l sa* *.gif

    The result of the operation becomes

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Jul 19 16:48 sample -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif

    If the number of arguments you are giving becomes too long to subsist easily readable on the command line, or if you simply want to demolish up the entry a bit, you can exercise the backstroke character to signify that you are continuing from one line to the next. For example

    ls -l sa* \ *.gif

    If you were giving hundreds of such arguments, you would exercise the backstroke following each entry to part each. This would accomplish entry easier to view and the command would not execute until the Enter key is pressed without being preceded by a backstroke. For example

    ls -l sa* \ *.gif \ *.ead \ *.txt \ *.doc Connecting Commands

    In each and every the examples thus far, the Enter key is used to inform the shell that you absorb given a command that needs to subsist processed. You are not, however, limited to giving the shell only one command at a time.

    Multiple commands, not connected to one another in any way, can subsist given on the identical line as long as the semicolon (;) is used to connect them. For example, it is practicable to notice each and every the files in the current directory and the current date by giving the following two commands in succession:

    ls date

    These are unrelated commands in that the output of the second has absolutely nothing to achieve with the output of the first. You can combine them on a sole command line with a semicolon between the two and obtain the identical result:

    ls ; date

    The semicolon is a special character signaling that multiple commands are on the identical line. This character allows you to demolish the whitespace rule on both sides of it (ls;date) while giving you the identical result.

    If the commands achieve absorb something in common—the output of one is to become the input of the next—they are connected using a pipe (|). For example, if a list of files within a directory is too long to fit on one screen, you can view a screen at a time by using this command:

    ls -l | more

    Here the output of the ls -l command becomes the input of the more command. If the first piece of the entire command line fails, the second piece cannot possibly subsist executed.


    Wildcards are characters used to signify other characters that the shell fills in. The two most common wildcard characters are the asterisk (*) and question imprint (?). Although they are often confused, their meanings are different and can lead to completely different results.

    The asterisk is used to signify any and all; anything and nothing; alpha and omega. For example

    ls s*

    will find each and every entries (files and directories) within the current directory starting with the epistle "s" and having any number of characters following—including none. practicable results it could generate in the parade include

    s sa sam samp sampl sample samples samples.gif

    Note that it finds "s" alone, and "s" with any number of entries following it. In contrast, the question imprint is a placeholder for one character, and only one character. Using the identical file possibilities, the following command

    ls s?

    will only find entries (files and directories) in the current directory starting with the epistle "s" and having only one character following. The resulting parade generated is


    If you want to find only five-letter entries dawn with "s", the command to exercise would be

    ls s????

    To recap, the asterisk means each and every or none, and the question imprint always means one. These two wildcards are not mutually exclusive, and can subsist used in combination with one another as the necessity arises. For example, to find only files with three-letter extensions, regardless of the filename, the command would be

    ls *.???

    To muddy the waters a bit, you can besides exercise brackets ([]) to specify practicable values. each and every the practicable values must reside within the brackets and are used individually. The following sample will find each and every entries that start with either "d" or "e" and absorb an unlimited number of characters following:

    ls [de]*

    To find only three-character entries that start with "d" or "e", the command would become

    ls [de]??

    The number of characters within the brackets can subsist virtually unlimited. Therefore, if you wanted to find each and every entries that start with a lowercase epistle instead of a number (or other character), you could exercise "[abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz]". However, because this is a range, a much simpler artery to signify it would subsist "[a-z]":

    ls [a-z]*

    The ranges necessity not subsist a complete set (though complete sets are easier to specify), and can jump around if needed. For example, if you only want to peer for entries that drop within the sweep from "d" to "t", you could exercise either "[defghijklmnopqrst]" or "[d-t]". If the entry could subsist between the two values upper- and lowercase, you can either exercise "[DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTdefghijklmnopqrst]" or "[D-Td-t]".

    Some more examples follow:

    The Path Statement and Other Variables

    When you enter a command at the command prompt and the shell cannot find it internally, it must peer for a utility by that cognomen externally. It does this by searching directories specified in the PATH variable, in the order they are listed, until it finds the first match. If no match is institute after each and every listed directories absorb been searched, the result is an mistake message ("command not found").

    There are several primary things to know about the path:

  • You can view your path by using the reecho command:

  • echo $PATH
  • The path does not, by default, comprehend the present directory. Thus you can create an executable file in your home directory, notice it right before you (with ls), and when you nature its name, you will subsist told that the command cannot subsist found. To circumvent this, you can give the replete path to the file, add your home directory to your PATH variable, perambulate the file to a directory in the path statement, or add the present directory variable (.) to the PATH variable.

  • Entries within the path are separated by colons (:).

  • The order of the PATH search should always comprehend the most common directories where executables can subsist institute first (the bin directories) and the user-specific directories (if any) at the end.

  • To add another directory to your path, you can redefine the entire statement, or simply append the modern directory with the command

    PATH=$PATH:{new directory}

    Thus to add the directory /home/edulaney to the path, the command would be


    Or you can add a variable that signifies you always want the directory you are currently working in to subsist searched for the utility:



    For security reasons, it is always recommended that you not comprehend the current directory in your path. If you must achieve so, however, it should subsist at the halt of the PATH statement—as shown in the preceding example—not at the beginning.

    For example, if your current PATH is equal to

    /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/root/bin:/usr/local/bin:/ usr/bin

    then you want the modern PATH to peer like

    /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/root/bin:/usr/local/bin:/ usr/bin:./

    and not


    because the directories are always searched in the order they display in PATH.

    Common Variables

    Any variable that exists can parade its values using the following syntax:

    echo ${variable name}

    Thus the command

    echo $MAIL

    will interpret the mail directory, $HOME the home directory, and so on. To notice a complete list of the environmental variables that are defined, you can exercise two commands—env and set. Although the displays can disagree slightly (environmental variables only versus local variables), for the most piece the output of env is a subset of the output of set. Some of the variables that can parade comprehend the following:

  • HOME—The directory you start in, and where you halt up when typing cd without any other parameters

  • LINES—Number of lines within the parade before pausing (more)

  • LOGNAME—The username under which the current user is logged in

  • PWD—The present working directory, or where you are now

  • SHELL—Which interpreter you are using

  • TERM—The nature of terminal, or emulation, in use

  • USER—This rarely differs from LOGNAME but can if the user is switching authorization levels with commands such as su

  • NOTE

    As a general rule, predefined system variables are always in uppercase.

    You can change the value of variables as needed, or add your own to subsist referenced in programs or at the command prompt. For example, to create a modern variable called TODAY, exercise the following syntax:


    You can now notice the value of the variable by using the command

    echo $TODAY

    The result will subsist Wednesday. If you now exercise the command


    the variable will display there. However, if you exercise the following command, it will not:


    The variable has been created locally, and can subsist referenced locally. In order for it to subsist accessible in subroutines and child processes, you must perambulate it from local status into the environment, and this is accomplished via the export command:

    export TODAY

    This moves the variable to where it can subsist institute in the environment, as well as locally, and accessed by subroutines and child processes. The variable, and its value, will subsist available for the duration of the session, and lost when you log out. To accomplish the value permanent, you must add the entry to a profile.

    To change the value of the variable, simply define its modern value:


    Because it has already been exported, this necessity not subsist done again, and the modern value will apply locally as well as in the environment. Should it subsist necessary to remove a variable, you can exercise the unset command.

    Among those variables present and definable are those that present the prompt. The prompt is the visual message from the shell that tells you it is ready for input. The default prompts include

  • $ as the ultimate character for Bourne, BASH, and Korn shells

  • % as the ultimate character for C shell and Z shell

  • > as the ultimate character for tcsh

  • The primary prompt is either the variable PS1 or prompt, based on which shell you are using. In bash, a typical value for PS1 is

    [\u@\h \W]\$

    Dissected into its components, PS1 is equal to the following:

  • The left bracket ([)

  • The cognomen of the current user

  • The at symbol (@)

  • The cognomen of the current host

  • A space

  • The present working directory

  • The right bracket (])

  • The dollar note ($)

  • An sample of this prompt would be

    [edulaney@server7 home]$

    The backstroke (\) character is used to signify that a special value should subsist used. Different values that can subsist used for the prompt comprehend those shown in Table 3.1.

    Variables to Define the Prompt




    Current date


    Name of host to first period


    New line








    Current directory


    History number


    Command number


    Default prompt—$ for criterion users, and # for root


    An actual backstroke (literal)


    ABC (the value of that text, or any text given)

    Looking at the variables on the system, you will find that more than PS1 exists. For example, earlier in this chapter, they discussed ending a line with a backstroke to signify that you are not finished entering input yet. If they peer at the sequence of events, and comprehend prompts, it would peer infatuation this:

    [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -l *.gif \ > *.fig \ > *.bmp

    Note that the prompt changed from PS1 to a greater-than note (>). If it had stayed PS1, you would not know that it was still accepting input, so it changed from the primary prompt to a secondary prompt to signify the change in mode. The prompt represented (by default) by the greater-than note is PS2. Its value can subsist changed from the default to any value you want, including each and every the special values given in the earlier table. Within most shells, there are three to four layers of prompts.

    By now you've realized that the dollar note ($) is used to signify a variable; when you absorb a variable named EXAMPLE, you view its contents by examining $EXAMPLE. Three other variables exist for a shell that can subsist useful in determining your environment.

  • The first—$$—will interpret the process ID number of the shell now running:

  • echo $$
  • The second—$?—will interpret the results of the ultimate command that you ran in terms of whether it was successful (0) or not (1). For example, the ls utility accepts an option of -F that will differentiate between directories and files by putting a slash behind the cognomen of directories. The ls utility does not absorb a -z option. Given this knowledge, the following sequence shows how $? can subsist utilized, and includes the prompts and output of each operation:

  • [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -F Desktop\ sample snapshot01.gif snapshot02.gif [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $? 0 [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -z ls: invalid option -- z [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $? 1
  • The third variable—$!—will interpret the process ID number of the ultimate child process started in the background. If no child processes absorb been started in the background, the result will subsist empty. For this discussion it is useful to know that placing an ampersand (&) at the halt of the command will execute the command in the background. For example

  • [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $! [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -F & [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $! 19321 [edulaney@server7 home]$
  • In the first instance, no job had been sent to the background, so the returned value was empty. A job was then sent to the background, and its process ID number could subsist institute by echoing $!.


    One of the most difficult components of the shell to understand is often the exercise of quotes. There are a few rules to recollect to accomplish understanding the concept easier:

  • There are three types of quotes—double quotes ("), sole quotes ('), and back quotes (´). Each has a different and part meaning. Double quotes are used to disable each and every characters except ', \, and $. sole quotes disable each and every characters except the back quote. The back quote substitutes the value for a command.

  • Quotes must always subsist used in even numbers. If you give an odd number, the shell believes that you absorb not finished with input yet and waits for more.

  • You can mix and match different types of quotes and embed them within one another.

  • Let's examine each rule in order. If you absorb a file named sample of the worlds best cigars, and you give this command:

    cat sample of the worlds best cigars

    The cat utility will first try to open a file named sample, then one named of, followed by four other files: the, worlds, best, cigars. The whitespace between the words is interpreted as delimiters between different files. In order to subsist able to notice the file, the command must subsist changed to

    cat "sample of the worlds best cigars"

    The double quotes cancel the default significance of the whitespace and allow the value between them to subsist interpreted as a sole entry. The double quotes cancel the significance of most special characters, but not all. For example, suppose there is a variable named sample that is equal to 25:

    echo $EXAMPLE

    This will recur "25". Likewise, the following will besides recur "25":

    echo "$EXAMPLE"

    And the following will recur "$EXAMPLE":

    echo '$EXAMPLE'

    The sole quotes Go above and beyond the double quotes and besides cancel out the significance of the dollar sign.

    Going in another direction

    echo 'date'

    will recur "date". Substituting the sole quotes for back quotes will absorb a different result:

    echo ´date´

    will recur the results of the date command. An alternative to the back quotes in the newer shells is to site the command within parentheses and treat it as a variable. Thus the date can subsist echoed as in the preceding sample with the command:

    echo $(date)

    If you fail to exercise an even number of any quote set, PS1 is replaced by PS2, and continues to subsist so until the total number of quotes used (each set) is an even number. This can subsist useful when you absorb a lengthy entry you want to demolish into lines during entry. The following sample includes the prompts and besides shows the exercise of one set of quotes (back quotes) within another (double quotes):

    [edulaney@server7 home]$ EXAMPLE="Hi, the date > and time now > are ´date´." [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $EXAMPLE Hi, the date and time now are Thu Aug 10 11:12:37 EDT 2000 [edulaney@server7 home]$

    In many instances, the quotes necessity to subsist mixed and matched. One of the biggest problems you will encounter, however, is that special characters accomplish it difficult to parade them as output. For example, assume the halt result of an reecho operation to be

    Karen says "Hi"

    If you exercise the command

    echo Karen says "Hi"

    the result will be

    Karen says Hi

    The shell interprets the quotation marks as significance that the text within them should subsist taken as a sole entry. The shell performs the operation given it, and loses the quotes in the process. To obtain around this, you must exercise the backslash (\) character to override the default significance of the quotes:

    echo Karen says \"Hi\"

    Note that the backslash—literal—character must precede each incidence of the quotes, and is always only generous for the character immediately following it.

    Command History

    The bash shell keeps a list of commands that you give it and allows you to reuse those commands from the list rather than needing to retype them each time. From the command line, you can exercise the up and down arrows to scroll through recent commands. You can besides enter two bangs (!!) to rerun the very ultimate command you gave.

    Typing history shows each and every the commands that are stored, with an incrementing number on the left. Typing a sole bang and one of those command numbers will rerun that command, as in !205.


    Instead of seeing the entire history list, you can choose to notice only the most recent entries by following the history command with the number of lines you want to see, infatuation this:

    history 5 history 10

    Alternatively, you can nature a bang followed by a set of characters and the shell will rerun the most recent command starting with those characters. For example


    will rerun the most recent command that started with ls.

    Important variables for history are

  • HISTFILE—Points to the file holding the history of commands. By default, it is .bash_history in each user's home directory.

  • HISTSIZE—The number of entries to retain each session.

  • HISTFILESIZE—Identifies the number of command history entries to subsist carried over from one session to another (letting you Run commands in this session that you ran in the previous one).

  • NOTE

    An internal alias for history, fc, besides exists and can subsist used to recall and rerun commands as well.

    Command Aliasing

    Although a plethora of commands and utilities are available within the operating system and shell, you can create aliases that accomplish more sense to you, or that shorten the number of characters you absorb to type. For example, if you are familiar with working with the command line of Windows-based operating systems, you are accustomed to typing dir to notice what files are there. A similar operation in Linux is practicable with ls -l. It is practicable to create an alias so that when you nature dir, it is ls -l that runs using the following syntax:

    alias dir="ls -l"

    The syntax is always the alias followed by the actual command that will Run when the alias is entered, separated by the equal note (=). In rare instances, you can obtain away with not using the quotation marks around the aliased entry, but as a general rule, they should always subsist used.


    For aliases to survive a session, they should subsist added to the .bashrc file within a user's home directory. If you achieve not apportion them within a file that is executed upon login (thus re-creating them), the created aliases are lost when you log out.

    Other Features and Notes

    The Linux command line has a number of other features that should not subsist overlooked. Although they are not complicated enough to warrant a section of their own, it is useful to know of their existence:

  • When typing a command, you can press the Tab key after entering a few characters and the shell will attempt to complete the cognomen of the command you were typing.

  • The command-line history can subsist edited to alter commands before running them again. The default editor in bash is emacs, and in zsh it is vi. Editors are discussed later in this chapter, in the section "Working with vi."

  • When you press the Enter key, the shell first scans the command line and determines what elements it has been given by looking for whitespace. It next replaces wildcards with any apposite filenames. Following that, it strips each and every quotes and substitutes variables. Lastly, it substitutes any embedded commands and then executes the entry.

  • The test utility can subsist used in conjunction with $? to test almost anything. For example, to notice if a file exists and is readable, exercise this combination:

  • test -r snapshot01.gif echo $?

    Complete syntax for each and every the test options can subsist institute by typing man test.

  • Two less-than signs (<<) are known simply as "here" and signify that processing is to wait until the string following them is given as a PS2 prompt on a line by itself. For example

  • cat << litter

    will accept input at a PS2 prompt until the string "litter" is entered on a line by itself.

  • SUSE Linux users nervous as Novell explores options | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Novell reportedly apportion itself on the market ultimate week, leaving SUSE Linux Enterprise users unsure about the lot of that open source operating system and other Novell products.

    If the report in The Wall Street Journal is true, the bidding kicks off two months after Waltham, Mass-based Novell's board turned down Elliott Partners $2 billion buyout offer. At that time, Novell said the price was inadequate, and it would explore other options, including stock buy-backs, cash dividends and more alliances.

    A Novell spokesman provided no comment.

    In the stand for time, Novell ultimate week released SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 Service Pack 1.

    Still, the questions around the vendor's prospects absorb SUSE Linux users wondering what will become of the products they built their infrastructure on.

    David O'Berry, a consultant and CIO for South Carolina Department of Probation, became a Master Novell Certified Engineer in the 1990s and has watched the company struggle since then.

    "Novell is getting very proximate to irrelevance," O'Berry said. "It's no longer the battleship it once was, and the company seems to subsist very confused right now. I'm frustrated at their want of aptitude to execute on roadmaps and plans for the future."

    O'Berry runs about 50 SUSE Linux servers said he was relieved when Novell turned down Elliot's offer, but worries about the integrity of other potential buyers.

    "When you absorb a consortium of private investors or private equity firms looking at a technology company, you know they diagram to cleave it apart and suck the cash out. They don't dependence about the technology itself," O'Berry said. "I never thought I'd hear myself pronounce this -- because I don't contemplate the company that provides the needle should besides provide the drugs - but someone infatuation Microsoft or IBM needs to step in and snare over."

    Microsoft would subsist a logical suitor, he said, because the company already collaborates with Novell and SUSE Linux interoperates with Microsoft management offerings.

    But other IT pros absorb given up on SUSE; O'Berry said he is one of the few he knows still using it in the field.

    David Reynolds, IT manager with the Rhode Island Blood headquarters in Providence, uses Linux but hasn't used SUSE Linux since 2003 and he besides worked with Novell's flagship Netware network operating system.

    "[SUSE Linux is] a dying OS I'm afraid," Reynolds said. But, as a Linux fan, he wants someone to rescue Novell. "If someone can find value in Palm, there's hope for anyone I guess." (In late April, Hewlett Packard announced plans to buy Palm, the handheld device pioneer, for $1.2 billion.)

    But, since Novell's legacy industry has fallen on hard times , the SUSE industry unit is its focus, so users shouldn't subsist nervous about losing it, said John Locke, President of the Seattle-based open source IT services hard Freelock Computing.

    "While I really don't contemplate SUSE is at risk, the other Linux desktop software projects might be," Locke said.

    Novell is the steward of many Linux desktop applications, including Evolution, a Linux equivalent to Outlook; F-Spot, a photo manager; Tomboy, a sticky note application; Banshee, a music player/manager; and Mono, an open source implementation of the .NET platform.

    It besides offers the collaboration product GroupWise, which competes with Microsoft Exchange.

    "Novell has done some tremendously primary travail in making desktop Linux as generous as or better than Windows and Mac, as well as doing a lot to promote interoperability," Locke said. "I would hope whoever purchases Novell sees the instant of continuing to back these projects -- the entire Linux community benefits from this work, and it's largely paid for by the success of SUSE."

    Let us know what you contemplate about the story; email Bridget Botelho or result @BridgetBotelho on Twitter

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