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: 39 actual Questions
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Many IT departments acquire implemented software solutions that ebb past fundamental transaction and analytical processing. These packages contain models that narrate certain records behaviors, and these fashions devour existing information to peer if these patterns of statistics habits exist. in that case, operational programs can exhaust this tips to bear selections. a superb instance of here is fraud detection. IT facts engineers exhaust analytics on historical information to verify when fraud befell, code this birthright into a mannequin, and installation the model as a carrier. Then, any operational materiel can invoke the model, rush it present facts and acquire a model “ranking” that represents the likelihood that a transaction could exist fraudulent.
The universal term for these unusual applications is synthetic intelligence (AI). They consist of a composite of search, optimization and analytics algorithms, statistical analysis concepts and template methods for ingesting statistics, executing these ideas and making the results available as features called models. The subset of AI that deals with mannequin introduction and implementation is from time to time known as computing device researching (ML).computer discovering and synthetic Intelligence
IT departments location into effect ML and AI options within the broader context of their information and processing footprint. this is constantly depicted as the following four-layer hierarchy.
Layer 1: The information.
this accretion incorporates the information allotted throughout the business. It contains mainframe and allotted information akin to product and income databases, transactional statistics and analytical information in the data warehouse and any massive information applications. It too may additionally encompass consumer, vendor and organisation statistics, perhaps at far off sites, and even extends to public facts such as twitter, information feeds and survey outcomes. one other viable source of information is server efficiency logs that involve resource usage background.
notice that these statistics exist across different hardware systems together with on-premises and cloud-primarily based. As such, quite a few facts points can exist in distinctive types and codecs (e.g. text, ASCII, EBCDIC, UTF-eight, XML, images, audio clips, and so on.). in addition, at this plane will exist hardware and application that manage the information, together with excessive-pace records loaders, records purge and archive procedures, location up-and-subscribe processes for information replication, in addition to these for medium backup and recuperation and catastrophe healing planning.
Layer 2: The Analytics Engines.
during this layer exist a composite of hardware and utility that executes trade analytics against the data layer. There are several customary gamers during this area. They consist of:
just as the statistics layer happens throughout numerous hardware systems and distributed sites, so will the analytics engines layer. The predominant office of this accretion is to deliver an optimized facts access layer towards the underlying facts as a carrier for AI and operational applications.
Layer three: The laptop studying Platform.
IT implements laptop discovering software during this layer. It accesses the information through one or greater of the analytics engines. it is in this layer that IBM gives you its newest offering, Watson laptop gaining lore of for z/OS (WMLz). WMLz provides a simple computing device getting to know workflow including birthright here steps:
statistics scientists recognize that one of the vital superior advantages of machine learning is to bear exhaust of the outcomes in operational methods; for example, having an ML mannequin anatomize fiscal statistics to assess the probability of fraud. This capability that you're going to achieve ideal efficiency in the event you set up ML within the hardware ambiance the location transaction processing occurs. for a lot of colossal businesses this capacity the IBM zServer environment.
Layer four: machine discovering options.
Now that they acquire the computer learning platform purchasable as ML capabilities, they can create mixed AI/ML options that invoke these functions. IBM has several competent-made solutions for this accretion, including here:
Let’s occupy a deeper dive into how Watson computer getting to know on Z (WMLz) works and what capabilities it could actually provide.
Key performance warning signs (KPIs). WMLz doesn't inherently comprehend what performance factors are famous to you. although, as soon as these KPIs are defined (either by a consumer or through imposing one of the most laptop gaining lore of options stated above), WMLz can anatomize KPI records to search correlations. for instance, when one KPI (say, I/O towards a famous database) goes up, one other KPI (say CPU utilization) might too ebb up as smartly. As an additional instance, a few KPIs could exist behaviorally identical, so WMLz can cluster them as a gaggle and effect additional analysis across organizations. WMLz can too check KPI baseline behaviors in line with time-of-day, time zone of transactions or seasonal endeavor.
Anomaly Detection. as soon as correlations are create out, WMLz can issue opposite effects and record them as anomalies. In their I/O illustration above, an anomaly would exist reported if I/O in opposition t a faultfinding database accelerated however CPU usage lowered.
pattern consciousness. As with many desktop getting to know engines, WMLz will spy for patterns among KPIs and statistics identifiers. as an instance, CPU may additionally boost when processing confident classes of transactions.
KPI prediction. An extension of simple KPI processing, WMLz can exhaust the past behaviors of companies of KPIs to predict the long run. believe their I/O illustration once once again. The product may additionally detect that confident transactions circle into extra numerous everyone the course through a specific time period, and these transactions consume greatly extra CPU cycles. The product might too then predict future CPU spikes.
Batch workload evaluation. Many IT stores acquire a huge contingent of batch processing it is tightly scheduled and contains job and resource dependencies. Some jobs ought to wait for their predecessors to complete, some exhaust colossal shared substances (akin to tape drives or tough point hardware) and a few are so useful resource-intensive that then can't exist performed on the equal time. WMLz can anatomize the workload statistics, including aid usage, and supply suggestions for balancing resources or tuning elapsed times.
MLC can permeate pattern analysis and value discount. Some IBM software license fees are billed monthly, and the license amount may additionally depend upon optimum CPU utilization birthright through height intervals. WMLz can anatomize CPU usage throughout time, search patterns and bear predictions and recommendations for application license permeate reduction.Watson laptop discovering for z/OS — points
IBM’s Watson desktop getting to know for z/OS allows IT its choice of pile environments to boost fashions including IBM SPSS Modeler. These environments aid statistics scientists by using notebooks, facts visualization tools and wizards to hasten the construction manner. several short-delivery application templates are too included within the toolset for common company necessities akin to fraud detection, load approval and IT operational analytics. The latest version of WMLz (version 2.1.0) contains champion for Ubuntu Linux on Z, java APIs, simplified Python materiel management and several different facets.
fascinated readers should soundless reference the links below for greater certain technical assistance.
# # #
See everyone articles by means of Lockwood LyonREFERENCES
laptop researching and synthetic Intelligencehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_learning
records and AI on IBM Zhttps://www.ibm.com/analytics/z-analytics
the exhaust of Anaconda with Spark — Anaconda 2.0 documentationhttps://doctors.anaconda.com/anaconda-scale/spark/
Watson computer studying - Overviewhttps://www.ibm.com/cloud/computer-learning
Watson laptop gaining lore of - Resourceshttps://www.ibm.com/cloud/laptop-researching/substances
IBM closing week launched a unusual version of net content supervisor, an IBM i-supported server retort designed to permit non-technical clients to create, publish, and supersede content for websites and portals, with out the aid of IT specialists. IBM says the edition 7 release of the application (which formerly went by the designation Lotus web content material supervisor) is simpler to exhaust and creates extra compelling websites than before.
net content manager is designed to aid with everyone facets of website introduction and management, including each static and dynamic websites. For authors, it offers templates for getting basic web sites, together with wikis and blogs, up and operating within minutes. clients access these tools from an internet browser, simplifying working towards. No HTML abilities is required to create net pages when they exhaust the EditLive! prosperous-textual content editor that IBM partnered with Ephox to carry to the product with version 6.1, which became launched two years in the past.
The application offers clients the capacity to create and centrally maneuver assorted connected websites through the exhaust of website libraries. here's an competencies for global groups that should acquire versions of internet sites in discrete languages. The utility too comprises a customizable workflow mannequin for managing the content material lifecycle; supports net-primarily based allotted Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) and WebDAV-supported construction materiel dote Dreamweaver; and uses cascading trend sheets (CSS). further features, dote aid for web site personalization, search capabilities, and integration with current trade content management (ECM) repositories comparable to IBM’s FileNet, bear the utility significant in an commercial enterprise environment.
With version 7, IBM has made several alterations designed to foster easier and faster web site introduction, together with user interface improvements, unusual website templates, and authoring kinds. IBM has brought champion for tagging and rankings, in order to provide web sites extra of an interactive facebook-like aptitude. The application for creating blogs and wikis has too been stronger, IBM says.
IBM additionally more desirable net content management’s website analytics, which are used for inspecting the conduct of site company. IBM says the enhancements will assist clients optimize their websites, and acquire probably the most out of their sales campaigns with the aid of enhancing conversion fees.
version 7 (the application was as soon as referred to as location of travail net content management) additionally comprises assist for virtualization, so they can enable valued clientele to hasten net content material supervisor by itself dedicated server instance.
web content material supervisor runs alongside WebSphere application Server. IBM supports the application on more than a few servers, together with IBM i, Unix, home windows, and Linux. The application comes with the Cloudscape database, however optionally can aid a relational database, together with DB2/four hundred, DB2 LUW, DB2 for z/OS, SQL Server, and the Oracle database.
For more suggestions, notice IBM united states application Announcement 211-094.
Lotus internet content material instrument gets easy-to-Use HTML Editor
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WebSphere Portal, Lotus Connections consist of unusual net 2.0-trend web page builder and portal web page template advent capabilities
IBM has unveiled unusual models of its portal and net content management utility apps designed to provide government corporations the potential to bring more efficient services to residents.
IBM WebSphere Portal version 6.1.5 software, contains unusual net 2.0-style page builder and portal page template introduction capabilities that bear it less demanding for non-technical individuals to control the net portal, IBM officers referred to.
IBM additionally announced a few municipalities and executive companies which acquire deployed the WebSphere Portal and Lotus web content material administration software to securely present essential suggestions and talk both internally and externally using a number of web 2.0 equipment.
IBM Lotus Connections companionable capabilities for WebSphere Portal has been superior to permit builders to bring gauge companionable networking elements into the portal internet event. IBM has improved custom web site analytics that will too exist used with third party software. designated charts, graphs and facts can show a lot of granular facts, similar to how regularly a page or selected characteristic is accessed. This category of suggestions can aid net web page developers at everyone times optimize their clients’ portal experiences.
IBM Lotus net content administration, edition 6.1.5 utility will too be used to create, hold and deliver trade content across intranet, extranet, information superhighway, and portal websites. The unusual edition contains templates that permit users greater without leisurely embed capabilities, such as blogs and wikis, into a portal. better integration with IBM FileNet, IBM content manager, and IBM Lotus Quickr utility gives clients less demanding and greater relaxed access to a wider diversity of content material sources. the brand unusual internet content material Integrator feature enables for content material consumption from any content material repository and third-birthday party sites capable of producing feeds, officers talked about.
IBM has too created different unusual industry toolboxes that assist organizations tailor their portals to serve consumers in other industries, together with banking, assurance, and health care.
a number of government businesses are the exhaust of IBM’s portal and internet content material administration software together with the metropolis of Helsinki (Finland), l. a. County, the USANuclear Regulatory commission, and Finnish Defence Forces, officers stated.
l. a. County has standardized the WebSphere Portal and Lotus web content administration application for its external national web page, and for the offshoot of health national and company portal. The county's solution was recently diagnosed through the country wide affiliation of Counties for reinforcing access to and birth of county assistance and capabilities to its parts.
Helsinki uses WebSphere Portal and Lotus web content material management to give citizens with a portal that allows them to converse and trade counsel, entry the city’s fitness carrier, and reserve appointments.
The portal journey is enhanced via IBM course Server and trade carrier Bus, which provides advanced e-services for the residents of Helsinki and surrounding cities, IBM officers said.
Rutrell Yasin is is a shrink know-how author for GCN.
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This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine and is brought to you by InfoQ & IEEE Computer Society.
Embedded analytics and statistics for colossal data acquire emerged as an famous topic across industries. As the volumes of data acquire increased, software engineers are called to champion data analysis and applying some benign of statistics to them. This article provides an overview of tools and libraries for embedded data analytics and statistics, both stand-alone software packages and programming languages with statistical capabilities. I spy forward to hearing from both readers and prospective column authors about this column and the technologies you want to know more about. —Christof Ebert
Big data has emerged as a key concept both in the information technology and the embedded technology worlds.1 Such software systems are characterized by a army of heterogeneous connected software applications, middleware, and components such as sensors. The growing usage of cloud infrastructure makes available a wealth of data resources; smart grids, knowing vehicle technology, and medicine are recent examples of such interconnected data sources. We’re producing approximately 1,200 exabytes of data annually, and that design is only growing.2,3 Such a massive amount of unstructured data presents immense and mounting challenges for trade and IT executives.
Big data is defined by four dimensions: volume, source complexity, production rate, and potential number of users. The data needs to exist organized to transform the countless bits and bytes into actionable information—the sheer abundance of data won’t exist helpful unless they acquire ways to bear sense out of it. Traditionally, programmers wrote code and statisticians did statistics. Programmers typically used a general-purpose programming language, whereas statisticians plied their trade using specialized programs such as IBM’s SPSS (Statistical Package for the companionable Sciences). Statisticians pored over national statistics or market research usually only available to select groups of people, whereas programmers handled large amounts of data in databases or log files. colossal data’s availability from the cloud to virtually everybody changed everyone that.
(Click on the image to enlarge it)
As the volumes and types of data acquire increased, software engineers are called more and more often to effect different statistical analyses with them. Software engineers are dynamic in gathering and analyzing data on an unprecedented scale to bear it useful and grow unusual trade models.1 As an example, consider proactive maintenance. They can continuously monitor machines, networks, and processes to immediately detect irregularities and failures, allowing us to remedy them before damage occurs or the system comes to a standstill. This reduces maintenance costs in both material cost as well as human intervention. Often, processing and making sense of data is just partake of a bigger project or is embedded in some software, configuration, or hardware optimization problem. Luckily, the community has responded to this exigency by creating a set of tools that bring some of statisticians’ magic to programmers—in fact, these are often more powerful than traditional statistics tools because they can handle volumes that are scales of magnitudes larger than customary statistical samples.Technologies for Embedded Analytics and Statistics
There’s a wealth of software available for performing statistical analysis; Table 1 shows the most celebrated ones. They disagree in the statistical sophistication required from their users, ease of use, and whether they’re primarily stand-alone software packages or programming languages with statistical capabilities.
With the exception of D3, everyone entries in the table provide facilities for carrying out advanced statistics, such as multivariate and time-series analysis, either by themselves or via libraries. Each one, though, has a particular focus that will better suit working on a given target problem. Python’s Pandas package, for instance, has expedient champion for time-series analysis because partake of it was written to cater to such analysis regarding fiscal data.The Python Statistics Ecosystem
The most celebrated general-purpose programming language for doing statistics today is Python. It’s always been a favorite for scientific computation, and several excellent Python tools are available for doing even complex statistical tasks. The fundamental scientific library in Python is NumPy. Its main addition to Python is a homogeneous, multidimensional array that offers a host of methods for manipulating data. It can integrate with C/C++ and Fortran and comes with several functions for performing advanced mathematics and statistics. Internally, it primarily uses its own data structures, implemented in native code, so that matrix calculations in NumPy are much faster than equivalent calculations in Python. SciPy, which builds on top of NumPy, offers a number of higher-level mathematical and statistical functions. SciPy deals again with NumPy’s arrays; these are fine for doing mathematics but a bit cumbersome for handling heterogeneous data with possibly missing values. Pandas solves that problem by offering a springy data structure that allows easy indexing, slicing, and even merging and joining (similar to joins between SQL tables). One attractive setup involves using iPython, an interactive Python shell with commandline completion, nice history facilities, and many other features that are particularly useful when manipulating data. Matplotlib can then visualize the results.
The World Bank is a trove of information, and it makes a lot of its data available over the Web. For more sophisticated analysis, the public can download data from the World Bank’s Data Catalog or access it through an API. The most celebrated dataset is the World evolution Indicators (WDI). WDI contains, according to the World Bank, “the most current and accurate global evolution data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates.” WDI comes in two downloadable forms: Microsoft excel and commaseparated values (CSV) files. (Because Microsoft excel files aren’t suitable for programmatic analysis, they deal with the CSV files here.)
Figure 1. A program for calculating World evolution Indicators correlations using Python. The program collects the top 30 most measured indicators, calculates the Spearman pairwise correlations, and shows the results graphically.
The WDI CSV bundle is a 42.5-Mbyte zipped archive. After downloading and unzipping it, you’ll notice that the main file is called WDI_Data.csv. A expedient course to acquire an overview of the file contents is to examine it interactively. Because we’ll exist using Python, the best course to interact with the tools that we’ll exhaust is by launching a session of iPython, and then loading the data:
In : import pandas as pd
In : data = pd.read_csv(“WDI_Data.csv”)
The result, in data, is a DataFrame containing the data. contemplate of a DataFrame as a two-dimensional array with some extra features that allow for easy manipulation. In a DataFrame, data is organized in columns and an index (corresponding to the rows). If they enter
In : data.columns
we’ll acquire an output that shows the names of the columns: the country name, the code for that country, an indicator name, and an indicator code. These are followed by columns for each year from 1960 to 2012. Similarly, if they enter
In : data.index
we’ll notice that the data contains 317,094 rows. Each row corresponds to the values of one particular indicator for one country for the years 1960 to 2012; years without values in a row bespeak no measurement in that year for that indicator in that country. Let’s notice first, how many indicators there are
In : len(data[‘Indicator Name’].unique())Out: 1289
and second, how many countries there are
In : len(data[‘Country Name’].unique())Out: 246
Now they acquire a problem to solve: Are the indicators independent among themselves, or are some of them related to others?
Because they measure indicators by year and by country, they must more precisely define the problem by de-ciding which parameters to retain as constant. In general, they acquire the best statistical results as their samples increase. It makes sense then to rephrase the problem: For the year in which they acquire most measurements, are the most measured indicators independent among themselves, or as some of them related to others? By “most measured indicators,” they signify those that acquire been measured in more countries. It turns out that they can find the retort to the question in about 50 LOC. design 1 contains the complete program.
Lines 1–10 are imports of the libraries that we’ll exist using. Line 11 reads the data. In line 13, they give the number of most measured indicators that they would dote to examine. In line 15, they find the zero-based position of the first column with yearly measurements. After that, we’re able in line 17 to find the column with the most measurements (the year 2005). They then remove everyone data for which measurements aren’t available. In lines 20–26, they acquire the most measured indicators.
The actual statistical calculations start from line 28, where they prepare a table of ones to hold the result of the correlation values between each pair of indicators. In the loop that follows, they reckon each pairwise correlation and store it in the table they prepared. Finally, in lines 41–52, they pomp the results on screen and save them to a PDF file (see design 2). They occupy trust to reverse the upright order of the correlation matrix so that the most famous indicator comes on the top of the matrix (lines 41 and 49).
The diagonal has impeccable correlation—as it should, because we’re examining the same indicators. In addition to that, they achieve notice that there are indicators that correlate with each other—some positively, even strongly so, and some negatively or very negatively.
Figure 2. World evolution Indicators correlations matrix with Python created from the program in design 1.More Advanced Components in the Python Ecosystem
As Python has attracted interest from the research community, several specialized tools acquire emerged. Among them, Scikit-learn builds on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib and offers a comprehensive machine-learning toolkit. For very colossal datasets that ensue a hierarchical schema, Python offers PyTables, which are built on top of the HDF5 library. This is a fiery topic, and DARPA awarded US$3 million in 2013 to Continuum Analytics as partake of the XDATA program to develop further Python data analytics tools. You can await the ecosystem to preserve evolving steadily over the next few years.The R Project for Statistical Computing
R is a language for doing statistics. You can contemplate of Python bringing statistics to programmers and R bringing statisticians to programming. It’s a language centered on the efficient manipulation of objects representing statistical datasets. These objects are typically vectors, lists, and data frames that delineate datasets organized in rows and columns. R has the customary control rush constructs and even uses ideas from object-oriented programming (although its implementation of object orientation differs considerably from the concepts they find in more traditional object-oriented languages). R excels in the variety of statistical libraries it offers. It’s unlikely that a statistical test or course isn’t already implemented in an R library (whereas in Python, you might find that you acquire to roll out your own implementation). To acquire an credence of what it looks like, design 3 shows the same program as design 1 and adopts the same logic, but using R instead of Python. design 4 shows the results.
Figure 3. A program similar to that in design 1 that calculates World evolution Indicators correlations using R.Combining, Federating, and Integrating Embedded Analytics Technologies
The examples they give in this article are typical of the course different applications can exist merged to handle colossal data. Data flows from the source (in some raw format) to a format acceptable to their statistical package. The package must acquire some means of manipulating and querying data so that they can acquire the data subsets that they want to examine. These are matter to statistical analysis. The results of the statistical analysis can exist rendered in textual contour or as a figure. They can effect this process on a local computer or via the Web (in which case data crunching and processing is performed by a server, and parameters, results, and figures ebb through a Web browser). This is a powerful concept, because a host of different settings, from an ERP framework to car diagnostic software, can export their data in simple formats dote CSV—in fact, they would notice a warning note whenever they encounter a piece of software that doesn’t allow exporting to anything but closed and proprietary data formats.
To anatomize your data in any course you will, you must first acquire access to it. So you should by everyone means select technologies that facilitate the exchange of data, either by simple export mechanisms or via suitable calls, for instance through a comfort (representational situation transfer) API.
Data is getting bigger everyone the time, so you must investigate whether the instrument you’re considering will exist able to handle your data. It’s not necessary for you to exist able to process everyone the data in main memory. For instance, R has the colossal reminiscence library, which lets us handle huge datasets by using shared reminiscence and memory-mapped files. Also, bear confident that the software package can handle not only colossal input but too colossal data structures: if table sizes are limited to 32-bit integers, for instance, you won’t exist able to handle tables with 5 million entries.
In the examples above, the alert reader will acquire noticed that we’ve spent more code manipulating the data to bring it to the confiscate format for statistical analysis than on the statistical analysis per se, which was provided anyway by functions already written for us. Their examples were by far trite, so these ratios of preprocessing to actual processing might acquire been especially top-heavy, but the examples highlight the fact that data manipulation is usually as famous (and demanding) as the analysis. In effect, actual proficiency in R and NumPy/SciPy doesn’t arrive from mastery of statistics but from knowing how to travail efficiently with the data structures they offer. And this is essentially travail for programmers, not statisticians. Further reading is available elsewhere.4-7
Figure 4. World evolution Indicators correlations matrix with R.References
1C. Ebert and R. Dumke, Software Measurement, Springer, 2007.2K. Michael and K.W. Miller, eds., Computer, vol. 46, no. 6, 2013.3T. Menzies and T. Zimmermann, eds., IEEE Software, vol. 30, no. 4, 2013.About the Authors
Panos Louridas is a consultant with the Greek Research and Technology Network and a researcher at the Athens University of Economics and Business. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Christof Ebert is managing director at Vector Consulting Services. He’s a senior member of IEEE and is the editor of the Software Technology department of IEEE Software. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article first appeared in IEEE Software magazine. IEEE Software's mission is to build the community of leading and future software practitioners. The magazine delivers reliable, useful, leading-edge software evolution information to preserve engineers and managers abreast of rapid technology change.
In theory, software version numbers should exist about as scintillating as as serial numbers, house numbers, channel numbers, or Vehicle Identification Numbers. You don’t acquire much more mundane than the rehearse of keeping track of a software package’s major and minor editions by assigning decimal numbers to them.
Except…version numbers long ago stopped being version numbers. Software companies started using them as marketing weapons. They tried varying methods of assigning identities to applications, such as naming them after years. They decided that numbers were too dry and substituted letters and words that were meant to exist more evocative. I’m not embarrassed to admit I find ’em fascinating enough to write this article.
I cheerfully admit to using the broadest viable definition of version number in this story–hey, I’m going to argue names that don’t involve numbers at all. I know that developers soundless exhaust more formal, traditional software versioning naming conventions behind the scenes. (Windows Vista, for instance, is officially version 6.0 of Windows; Technologizer is on version 20593, but don’t search information from me to define why.)
For no particular reason, I’m going to write this as a FAQ. Even though there’s an dreadful lot about this topic which I just don’t know…When did version numbers arrive into use?
I wish I could Tell you–actually, I’m hoping that someone reading this will exist able to. I achieve know that the FORTRAN II programming language came along in 1958, so software developers having been using numbers to preserve track of software versions for more than half a century. By the early 1970s, Unix’s developers were keeping track of its evolution using “edition” numbers–second edition, third edition, and so on–which referred to the revisions to the Unix manual.
I’m not confident if there was a era when version numbers weren’t widely used for personal computer software, but if so, it wasn’t long. When I got into computers in 1978, gauge version numbers and point releases (such as Radio Shack’s famously unusable TRS-DOS 2.1) were already partake of the culture.What’s the highest version number ever?
I’m confident that someone will top this within moments of the time I click “Publish” to propel this myth onto the site, but the highest version number I know of belongs to Broderbund’s The Print Shop 23, a product which (A) has been around for 27 years; (B) has received almost-yearly updates; and (C) uses a traditional version number instead of a year or other identifier.
The modern version of the Broderbund company seems to specialize in elder-statesman software: It too publishes PrintMaster Platinum 18, Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing 20, and Calendar Creator 12. It too offers something called ClickArt 1.2 Million, but in that case I’m pretty confident that the number doesn’t mention to the version.
Honorable runner-up to The Print Shop for highest version number: the legendary text editor Emacs, which has reached version 22.3.What’s the greatest version number ever?
That’s easy–at least if you search information from me. It’s 5.1. Which is, of course, the version number of WordPerfect 5.1–a DOS word processor so famous, respected, and durable that it’s identifiable by its version number solitary two decades after it first appeared…and people soundless want to exhaust it. I don’t know of a separate person who remembers it who considers it to acquire anything but extremely positive connotations. (WordPerfect acknowledged it was a magical number by releasing a Windows version of WordPerfect 5.1, too–even though it doesn’t bear a total lot of sense to apply a point-release version number from a product for one platform to a version for another.)
Runner up for best version number: 3.11. As in 1993’s Windows for Workgroups 3,11, one of the best versions of any operating system ever released. (I’m convinced that it’s the supposedly minor versions of Windows that are the most significant–any edition with anything after the decimal point shows that it benefited from bug fixes.) The 3.11 in WfW 3.11 must exist the most eminent two-decimal-place version number ever–and yes, I miss the era when Microsoft (or any software company) would location mighty marketing muscle behind version 3.11 of anything .Did Windows 95 start the credence of using years instead of version numbers?
Nope–it’s a far older vanity than that. The earliest instance I’m alert of is Fortran 66–no relation that I know of to Sergio Mendes and Brasil 66–an update to what was even then a venerable programming language. One of the first operating systems I ever used was an alternative TRS-80 OS called NewDOS/80. Adobe released Illustrator 88. (There was a WordStar 2000, but it probably doesn’t count–it was released in 1985, and presumably intended to sound futuristic.)
Still, Windows 95 remains the most eminent product with a year in its name, and it started a trend which continues to this day, But it fell victim to multiple delays that left it being released on August 24th, 1995, well over halfway through the year. With the exception of tax packages–whose version names mention to the tax year in question–I can’t imagine anyone releasing a product today named after a year that’s already winding down. In fact, I’m surprised that Microsoft didn’t rename the OS as Windows 96 before shipping it.
For obvious reasons, the industry seems to acquire settled on using years only for products that are updated annually or nearly so. I avow that year-based names helpfully Tell you roughly when a product was released–but they soundless bear me contemplate of Airport 1975.
(Illustrator 88 box borrowed from Publicious.)What was with the designation Windows XP?
Back in 2001, Microsoft said the XP stood for “Experience,” and that it symbolized “the flush and extended user experiences Windows and Office can offer by embracing Web services that span a broad range of devices.” Pretty awe-inspiring! I’m not privy to the discussions that led to the moniker, but I suspect that the company thought that both traditional version numbers and years felt dry and stale. Maybe it was motivated by some of the same thinking that led Intel to supersede a processor called the 80486 with one known as the Pentium.
The XP designation proved only moderately influential. In 2002, Macromedia released a product called Studio MX, which was replaced by a product with the belt-and-suspenders designation Studio MX 2004. AMD released the Athlon XP CPU, which struck me as a naming faux pas at the time, since it suggested a link with Windows XP that didn’t exist sounded dote AMD was saying the chip wasn’t a expedient proper for other OSes. And today, Adobe offers [a product which many people, including me, mistakenly believe is called] Creative Suite CS4 (the “CS” stands for “Creative Suite” and is therefore wholly unneccessary).
My only objection to names dote Windows XP is that they don’t give you a clue about a product’s relation to its predecessors and descendants. In the ultimate eleven years, Microsoft has released Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, and Windows Vista, and is about to ship Windows 7. Thousands of years from now, technology historians are going to acquire distress figuring out what was released when, and may even believe that Windows 98 was the ninety-first release following Windows 7.Speaking of Vista, what was up with that name?
As with Windows XP, Microsoft went for a version identifier that was meant to evoke an emotional response rather than preserve track of its relationship to previous versions. The “Vista” in “Windows Vista” meant to convey that the OS was “Clear, Confident, Connected,” Microsoft explained.
Setting aside the question of whether Vista was clear, confident, and connected, the designation is as far as Microsoft or anyone else has gotten from old-style version identifiers. It’s more Pepsi Jazz than Coke Zero, and I’m not so confident that its expansive-but-elusive quality wasn’t a minor contributing factor to Vista’s impoverished reputation.And Windows 7?
Well, in principle, giving a software product a version number that really is a version number isn’t a colossal decision–it’s just a statement of fact. But considering that Windows 7 is the first version of Windows with a straightforward version number since Windows NT 4.0 back in 1996, the moniker is a meaningful statement of some sort. I’m not confident if Microsoft has articulated publicly why it chose to drop the non-number naming convention it used for Windows XP and Vista, but the obvious explanation would exist that it’s trying to position Win 7 as a low-key, high-value OS that delivers more than it promises–a sort of anti-Vista. The lucky connotations of the number 7 probably don’t injure either.
Also, “Windows Vista II” wouldn’t acquire made anybody happy.Remind me again how Microsoft determined that Windows 7 is the seventh version of Windows? I can’t acquire the math to work.
According to Microsoft’s accounting, these acquire been the major versions of Windows:
Windows 1.0Windows 2.0Windows 3.0Windows 95, 98, SE, and Me–all of which signify as Windows 4.0Windows 2000–which was Windows 5.0Windows Vista–which was Windows 6.0Windows 7.0That sounds pretty darn arbitrary–I mean, it doesn’t consider Windows XP to acquire been a major version of Windows.
Tell me about it. Did I mention that the official version number of Windows 7 is…Windows 6.1?
Enough about Windows already. Any thoughts about Apple’s OS X?
Its numbering is remarkably conservative, and I’m not confident why. OS X 10.0 (the successor to System 9, but based on NeXTStep) came out in 2001, and in the eight years since, the OS has only wriggled its course up to OS X 10.5. (Version 10.6 is due in September.) It’s dependable that Apple releases fairly frequent upgrades with healthy-but-not-overwhelming quantities of unusual features, but just about any other software company on the planet would acquire gotten to version 14 or so by now. It leaves me wondering what, if anything, would acquire Apple to roll over the version number to 11–and, if it did, whether it would summon the product OS X 11.0 or OS XI 11.0.
Of course, most Mac fans mention to OS X iterations not by version numbers but by their cat-themed codenames–OS X 10.5 is Leopard, and OS X 10.6 will exist Snow Leopard. Apple started making the codenames into official monikers for the shipping versions in 2002 with OS X 10.2, too known as Jaguar. It’s an fascinating approach, but the company is running out of wild cats to designation versions after. I’m not confident if it’ll ever release a Cougar (it may not dote the alternative definition) or Lion (which may sound too much dote Lyin’). But OS X Lynx soundless seems dote a expedient possibility, and I’m personally rooting for OS X Ocelot.
OS X is too noteworthy for turning the version number into the very designation of the product. I’m not confident if anyone’s done that before.Are there other examples of conservatism in version numbering?
Open-source projects, more often than not, are admirably restrained–maybe because they’re not under the same marketing pressures as commercial software. The Linux kernel has been around for nineteen years and has only reached version 22.214.171.124; the HandBrake video transcoder is at version 0.9.3 after more than six years.
On the other hand, I’m soundless confused by the course the same basic office suite is marketed both as StarOffice 9.0 and OpenOffice.org 3.1. And Google’s Chrome browser is an open-source project, but a mere five months after version 1.0 left beta, the company released a version 2.0 that other developers might acquire called a 1.1 or 1.5.Is there a funniest version number of everyone time?
Yes. Or at least a funniest numbering system. The one used by Donald Knuth’s TeX typesetting language. To quote Wikipedia:
Since version 3, TeX has used an idiosyncratic version numbering system, where updates acquire been indicated by adding an extra digit at the End of the decimal, so that the version number asymptotically approaches π. This is a reflection of the fact that TeX is now very stable, and only minor updates are anticipated. The current version of TeX is 3.1415926; it was ultimate updated in March 2008. The design was frozen after version 3.0, and no unusual feature or fundamental change will exist added, so everyone newer versions will contain only bug fixes. Even though Donald Knuth himself has suggested a few areas in which TeX could acquire been improved, he indicated that he firmly believes that having an unchanged system that will bear the same output now and in the future is more famous than introducing unusual features. For this reason, he has stated that the “absolutely final change (to exist made after my death)” will exist to change the version number to π, at which point everyone remaining bugs will become features.
That’s nerd humor, I know, but version numbers are inherently nerdy, so it’s only appropriate.Is it rank luck for a product to achieve release number 13?
I’m not confident if they know–has anyone ever been valorous enough to sell a version 13 of anything? Relatively few applications acquire reached version 12 and therefore been faced with the question of what to summon the next upgrade. Microsoft’s code-name for what became Office 2007 was Office 12; it didn’t startle anyone in the least when the code-name for the next version was Office 14.
Corel has arrive closer to integrity here than any other company I know–it called the thirteenth editions of CorelDraw and WordPerfect “X3,” for 10+3, then continued the approach with CorelDraw X4 and WordPerfect X4. May both products flourish long enough that Corel has to design out what to summon the 666th versions.Are any other version numbers rank luck?
Yes. The sluggish and buggy Windows Millennium Edition (aka Windows Me) turned out to exist the least-loved version of Microsoft’s OS. (At least until Vista came along–although Vista has defenders and WinMe, as far as I know, doesn’t.) And Lotus SmartSuite Millennium Edition turned out to exist the ultimate actual upgrade to a venerable product. (IBM soundless sells it as SmartSuite 9.8, but is too embarrassed to summon it Millennium Edition.) On the other hand, Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office 2000 didn’t look to exist jinxed. Lesson: The total credence of the millennium being exciting got customary quick–and the cuter the version number, the more dangerous.Do version numbers lie?
Sure–or they’ve been known to stretch the truth, at least. For instance, back in 1993, Microsoft Word for Windows made a much leap forward from version 2.0 to 6.0–which conveniently location it at numeric parity with archrival WordPerfect 6.0. In 2002, Netscape went directly from 4.8 from 6.0–coincidentally matching archrival Internet Explorer 6.0. Digital Reaearch’s DOS clone DR-DOS premiered with version 3.41 (making it sound more advanced than MS-DOS 3.3) and skipped 4.0 because MS-DOS 4.0 was a flop.
In the hardware arena, Psion followed up its celebrated succession 3 PDA with the succession 5 palmtop–Psion was worried that Asian cultures consider the number 4 to exist unlucky.Will version numbers ever ebb away?
Not in terms of their exhaust by software developers; it’s simply mandatory that programmers preserve track of each version of an application, and there’s no rational course to achieve it except to allot each one a number. But as traditional software gives course to Web-based services that roll out unusual features continuously rather than in occasional outbursts, version numbers just aren’t what they used to be. I acquire no credence what to summon the current version of Gmail, for instance.
So I’m guessing that version numbers will eventually ebb the course of dot-matrix printers–they’re too useful to visage dependable extinction, but most of us will sort of forget they soundless exist. I’d prize to exist proven wrong, though. I may not exist around in 2086, but I’d dote to contemplate that Broderbund will be–and that it’ll exist releasing The Print Shop 100…126 Comments Read more: Nostalgia
But Jobs' keynote, which was peppered with callouts to smartphone heavyweights BlackBerry, Nokia and Palm, may acquire been a finger premature.
Venturing into the mobile phone market is unusual ground for Jobs and Co., and though mobile experts and device users alike correspond that the iPhone is one hot-looking phone, it is not yet equipped with the guts to acquire it through the enterprise door. Nevertheless, some experts admit that a few may sneak their course into the corporate office.
At the same time, iPhone may exist too much for the typical consumer. In order to exist successful, experts say, the iPhone has to shudder its identity juncture and direct at either consumers or mobile professionals. It's not going to survive trying to reign in both markets.
There's no arguing that ultimate year was the year for slick unusual devices to atomize through enterprise walls. BlackBerry had its Pearl, Motorola had the Q, Nokia had the E60, Samsung came through late in the year with the BlackJack, and Cingular hit the ground running with the 8525. But the iPhone, with its touch-screen and music player, isn't quite at that plane -- yet. Especially with a expense tag that reaches up to $600.
iPhone uses Cingular's EDGE network and Wi-Fi for Internet connectivity, and supports POP and IMAP email services. It can pomp flush HTML email and receive Yahoo! Email with complete propel functionality. According to the Radicati Group, a technology research firm, that may not exist enough connectivity to captivate corporate users.
"The messaging and Internet connectivity features of the iPhone, along with its expense tag, look to position the device more appropriately in the enterprise market," according to Radicati. "However, they believe that in its current form, the iPhone will fail to meet the needs of most enterprises."
In its present form, iPhone lacks wireless propel email champion for Microsoft Exchange and IMB Lotus Domino, which is a key requirement for companies accustomed to real-time email, contact and calendar synchronization.
"Seems to me that the expense tag and want of 3G are a problem when you compare it with the low-cost smartphones dote BlackJack, 8525, etc.," said Kathryn Weldon, analyst with Current Analysis.
Weldon is quick to note, however, that BlackBerry maker Research In Motion Ltd.'s stock dropped once the iPhone was announced, indicating that a expedient portion of the world sees Apple as a worthy foe in the smartphone market.
"In the short term, I wouldn't await everyone the executive types who buy BlackBerrys to ebb out and buy the iPhone in droves," Weldon said. "Considering it's soundless not lucid what plane of email synchronization, champion for third-party mobile trade process applications, or centralized configuration and management are available, it's soundless too early."
Avi Greengart, senior analyst with Current Analysis, location it more bluntly."At this time, there is absolutely no case for enterprise exhaust of the iPhone," he said. "It won't view or edit Office docs. It doesn't champion secure corporate email. It doesn't acquire a hard keyboard -- the error correction software it uses is methodical and rather spectacular for casual messaging, but that's not the same as physical keys that provide tactile feedback when you press them. You can't add software to it to manage inventory, enter orders, or provide your physicians with drug information."
Still, Greengart admits the iPhone is pretty sweet when it comes to devices.
"The iPhone is an innovative, addictive, expensive closed system that does what it does extraordinarily well," he said. "But that's it."
Ultimately, it will exist the folks using the iPhone who determine whether or not it will aid them in their day-to-day travail lives. Jack Gold, president and founder of research and analysis firm J.Gold Associates, said there are a number of Apple and Mac true out there who could occupy iPhone to much heights.
"There's going to exist a fringe factor," Gold said. "There's diehard 'I prize Apple, I detest Microsoft' folks out there."
Apple's want of establishment in the mobile phone market could, however, preserve it on the outskirts until iPhone proves itself a viable competitor to the other glossy smartphones, Gold said.
"If they're going to bring something dote this into the marketplace, they acquire to meet the expectations of the users," he said. "Apple is not a formed entity here, so they acquire to show me they can achieve it."In a recent Technology Flash, Gold wrote: "In the past, most high-end phones acquire been sold to trade users who were willing to pay for a fancy phone with capabilities they wanted. But these users almost universally demand connectivity to corporate systems, especially propel email and Outlook integration. How well the iPhone does at integrating to these systems remains to exist tested. And although the iPhone will likely integrate and sync well with the MAC, very few businesses hasten on MACs; so if it doesn't achieve a expedient job with PCs, Apple has a colossal problem."
Tony Arroyo, senior distributed technology engineer at MetLife and a self-proclaimed device junkie, said the iPhone is "intriguing and downright gorgeous," adding that "it sounds dote it's everything people wanted the Newton to be."
Arroyo said the iPhone could exist seen as a viable trade instrument if Apple succeeds in a few key areas:
Arroyo said it is a "great thing" that the iPhone has an Intel CPU and runs MacOS X, but he illustrious that both expense and the limited list of carriers -- at first, iPhone will exhaust Cingular's network exclusively -- could exist hindrances. Running GSM was a expedient conclusion because of its worldwide coverage, he said.
"I contemplate Apple has a ways to ebb to atomize into the corporate side," Arroyo said. "They exigency to travail on the services side piece." He later said that, with the expansive iPod-like music player in the iPhone, "liability could exist an issue with users who acquire music – corporations don't want to exist sued by the RIAA."
Greengart said that, over time, the iPhone could evolve and eventually some enterprise-class features might emerge.
"However, even then you may acquire a tough time convincing IT managers and corporate accounting to buy widescreen iPods for employee use," Greengart said, "so the more likely scenario is that employees purchase the devices on their own and then search information from IT to enable mobile email on them, once that is possible. Of course, if Apple opens up the iPhone for corporate application development, then anything is possible."
Weldon too said that the iPhone may exist able to fill a void in the market for converged consumer and trade devices. She illustrious that most corporate device users soundless exhaust a BlackBerry for mobile email, a divide phone, and an iPod for music. Merging everyone three into one device may hit a sweet spot for some.
"I'm not confident how many trade execs or mobile professionals exigency this plane of convergence, though, especially at a $600 expense point," she said. "On the other hand, if they are shelling out corporate bucks for device and data plans for everyone three applications -- data, voice and music -- it would certainly cost them a lot more cumulatively."
In a recent report, the Radicati Group suggested that the iPhone, as a consumer device, is far too advanced and pricey, and enterprise users will lament its want of basic wireless messaging and collaboration features.
"We await the iPhone to suffer initial tough demand among Apple aficionados and tech-savvy prosumers, but only qualify demand from the universal public," Radicati said. "Sales growth will not mirror the success of the iPod but instead proceed at a more measured pace that reflects the device's cost and practicality."
Still, Radicati indicated that it doesn't believe iPhone will exist Apple's ultimate stab at the phone market. It expects that Apple will remedy some of iPhone's shortcomings in future releases.
"There is no question that the iPhone is an impressive device," Radicati said. "However, Apple's constant innovation will favor us to occupy a wait-and-see approach for unusual products in the iPhone family."
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CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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