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Test Code : 000-974
Test designation : Power Systems Technical advocate for i
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: 173 true Questions

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IBM Power Systems Technical Support

IBM energy gadget S922: Rack Server Overview and perception | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

See the total checklist of proper rack server vendors

bottom line:

The IBM energy systems S922 server is designed from the ground up for facts intensive workloads relish databases or analytics. it will possibly aid a couple of key industry facts-intensive scenarios, together with mainstream purposes, leading-edge HPC workloads and evolving synthetic intelligence (AI) initiatives.

shoppers seeking fundamental compute power may quiet exist conscious of this key fact: POWER9 options are the foundation of the realm’s first and third fastest supercomputers, the U.S. offshoot of energy’s climax and Sierra installations.

IBM power servers attend to beget a more robust can charge of entry than x86 machines. youngsters, in line with a study by course of Quark + Lepton, IBM vitality methods operating IBM I utility beget 60% lower total charge of possession than home windows/SQL Server or X86 based Oracle programs. IBM’s pitch is that there are limits to what commodity architectures can do.

youngsters, if you are expecting surges eminent and don’t beget elbowroom for downtime, licensing prices, or occasional crashes an improved commercial enterprise structure could exist required.

Product description:

The S922 is a 1 or 2 socket server that presents a wide selection of core configurations and as much as four TB of reminiscence. Chip core speeds on the 4-core are 2.eight to 3.8GHz, on the eight core are three.four to three.9 GHz and on the ten core are 2.9 to three.eight GHz. the one socket edition offers up to 6 PCIe ( 2 x Gen4 and four x Gen3) slots and the two socket version offers up to 9 slots (3 more Gen4 slots). One slot is used by means of a mandatory Ethernet adapter. reckoning on what is connected, up to three of those slots could exist reserved for other functions. IBM i is simply supported on the 6 cores and 8 core processors and is restricted to four cores of IBM i with a application tier of P10.

vigor systems are wide-spread for their RAS (resiliency, availability, serviceability) elements. IBM POWER9-based mostly techniques are referred to to deliver as much as 10X sooner bandwidth acceleration and 50% more desirable memory bandwidth than related x86 solutions. They also alleviate the newest in information transfer applied sciences, including PCIe four.0 and novel NVLink and OpenCAPI interfaces. This new server era comes together with twice the reminiscence footprint than POWER8. adjustments within the reminiscence subsystem and the utilize of the latest DIMMs extend cost/performance.


number of processors:

up to 2

Processors supported:

IBM POWER9 Scale-Out SMT8 processor (12-core, 10-core, 8-core, 4-core choices)

Cores per processor:

4, eight,10 cores per socket

maximum processor frequency/cache:

3.9 GHz/512k L2 and 10 MB L3

I/O growth slots:

the one socket edition offers up to 6 PCIe ( 2 x Gen4 and four x Gen3) slots and both socket version gives as much as 9 slots (3 extra Gen4 slots). One slot is used by course of a compulsory Ethernet adapter. reckoning on what is attached, up to a few of these slots could exist reserved for other functions.

One front USB 3.0 ports – Two rear USB 3.0 ports – Two HMC 1 GbE RJ45 ports – One system port with RJ45 connector – 1x USB 3.0 entrance, 2x USB 3.0 rear, 2x HMC 1 GB Eth RJ45 ports, one device port with RJ45 connector, 2x exorbitant speed 25 Gb/s ports

optimum memory/# slots/pace:

as much as four TB/32 IS RDIMM slots/as much as 2666 Mhz

highest Persistent reminiscence:


Storage controller:

S922/S924 has two inside direct connected storage connectors, an NVMe card and a SAS card


The electronic services web portal is a lone web entry factor that replaces the numerous entry points historically used to access IBM internet capabilities and support. This internet portal allows you to gain simpler entry to IBM resources for assistance in resolving technical issues. The newly enhanced My methods and top class Search services originate it even simpler for electronic carrier Agent-enabled shoppers to song system stock and locate pertinent fixes.

My techniques provides constructive reviews of installed hardware and application the usage of counsel accumulated from the techniques by course of IBM digital service Agent. experiences can exist create for any paraphernalia linked to the client's IBMid. top rate Search combines the characteristic of search and the value of digital service Agent counsel, presenting advanced search of the technical steer knowledgebase.

“it's a transparent option in case you beget already got an established IBM AIX atmosphere and want to preserve compatibility and retain performance. There are similar options now which may well exist capable of secure you to three nines for 1/2 the fees,” talked about a Senior manager of IT within the manufacturing industry. 

Key markets and utilize circumstances:

IBM vigour techniques S922 server quite simply integrates into a company’s cloud & cognitive mode and offers sophisticated fee efficiency for mission vital workloads.

POWER9 is designed from the ground up for data intensive workloads relish databases or analytics


20 core, 512 GB, $37,222. The utility is expensive.

“it's a product with exorbitant efficiency, effectivity and monetary indices within the IT market,” observed an applications Engineering in the education trade. "Deployment is awfully effortless, however took greater than three months. It proved cost effective in the end.”


IBM energy S922

Max Processor Frequency

three.9 GHz/512k L2 and 10 MB L3

Max Persistent reminiscence


kind ingredient


Max Processors

2 POWER9 Scale-Out SMT8

Max reminiscence

four TB

Max Storage

four TB



Key Differentiator

good processing power

IBM Rational Developer for vigour techniques application - vigour paraphernalia for i - application Subscription and advocate Renewal sequence | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Tech Mahindra transforms datacenter with IBM assist | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Tech Mahindra transforms datacenter with IBM supportBangalore: Tech Mahindra these days announced it is working with IBM to aid Tech Mahindra’s clients migrate their most worrying workloads to IBM POWER9. This multi-yr relationship is designed to speed up power systems adoption for IBM and beef up Tech Mahindra’s choices around virtualization, data core transformation and high-performance computing.

Tech Mahindra is an IBM enterprise accomplice and assists shoppers with migrations to power-based mostly options. currently, a huge Australian retailer chose Tech Mahindra for records middle transformation with vitality programs. This successful transformation created a grand groundwork for its company purposes corresponding to SAP purposes and databases. in addition, a big Asian telecom company utilized Tech Mahindra skills in managing vigour device environments.

Tech Mahindra‘s wealthy journey with vitality programs datacenter design, construct, migration and managed capabilities, coupled with the newest energy improvements, will influence in advent of power methods-based mostly solutions relish automated appliance based mostly migrations for new vigour techniques, SAP HANA migration and AI/ big data options to aid customers transform mission-crucial workloads easily.

The next-era power methods Servers comprehend IBM’s new POWER9 processor with the newest IO subsystem technology to accelerate the most information-intensive workloads. With PCIe four.0, OpenCAPI 2.0, and subsequent-generation NVIDIA NVLink, POWER9-primarily based solutions present pretty much 10x the reminiscence bandwidth of competitive processors1, so Tech Mahindra purchasers who migrate to POWER9 could exist located to peer efficiency gains that accelerate workloads such as abysmal gaining scholarship of and AI.

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Offsite's 12-acre data heart to advocate I-94 corridor tech growth | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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The Tech IPOs Delivering the Most for Investors | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Until recently, few people outside the corporate IT department had heard of Zoom Video Communications Inc., a specialist in videoconferencing software for companies. Still, the company, which counts tens of thousands of industry customers, overshadowed better-known Pinterest Inc., which claims some 265 million monthly users of its online pinboards, when the two companies made their debuts on the stock market...

Without More Government advocate for R&D, Solar Power’s Future Looks Cloudy | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Editor’s Picks

The Dawn of Solar Windows

Power From Commercial Perovskite Solar Cells Is Coming Soon

Illustration of solar panels stretching out to mountains and blue sky Illustration: Eddie Guy

Winter’s arrival in England adds an unpleasant chill to already dreary, drizzly days. I wasn’t surprised at the resigned temper in the conference elbowroom as graduate students and postdocs shuffled in for their weekly lab meeting in November 2011. Many of us hailed from balmier climates—California, Spain, Italy, the Caribbean islands. They were entire here, amid the dreaming spires of Oxford University, to learn from Professor Henry Snaith, an up-and-coming scientist studying brand new materials for solar power. The goal of this work, and that of hundreds of other research groups entire over the world, was to create new alternatives to today’s silicon-based solar photovoltaics. Without such efforts, the extraordinary solar power revolution could soon peter out.

Henry—he insists on being called by his first name—is not your tolerable physics prof. A former rugby player at Cambridge University, he’s energetic, athletic, and competitive. He once took the lab team skiing in the Alps and beat us down every run. And he is a brilliant scientist with a spooky intuition about how materials behave at the nanoscale, in the realm of atoms and electrons.

Henry Snaith Photo: Oxford PV Perovskite Champion: Oxford professor Henry Snaith cofounded Oxford PV to commercialize high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

Still, on that bleak day, Henry’s designation wasn’t widely known in the academic world. That lab meeting proved to exist a turning point in his career—and in the development of solar power.

At the meeting, Mike Lee, one of my fellow graduate students, described a startling discovery. At Henry’s behest, he had flown to Japan to track down a chemical recipe that Tsutomu Miyasaka’s lab, at Toin University of Yokohama, had invented for making a novel character of photovoltaic cell.

Back at Oxford, Mike experimented with variants on the Miyasaka formula. Working late one night, he accidentally flipped two of the chemical concentrations. The surprising result, Mike told us, was a solar cell that was more than 10 percent efficient—that is, it was able to transfigure more than 10 percent of the sun’s energy striking it into electricity.

Compared with the record efficiency for a silicon solar cell, which then hovered around 25 percent, Mike’s cell was unremarkable. But it was a major leap for a material not already in commercial use, and there was a limpid path to improve the efficiency to 20 percent and possibly much higher.

The material Mike had tweaked to such theatrical effect is known as a perovskite. Perovskites are a big class of compounds that beget the crystal structure AMX3. In perovskites used for solar cells, A is typically an organic molecule, M is a metal, and X is a halogen.

Although various perovskites are create in nature, what Mike fabricated at Oxford was a synthetic perovskite that combined inorganic atoms, as is usual in natural perovskites, with an organic polymer. High-efficiency solar cells are normally made entirely of inorganic materials such as silicon, which beget a nearly faultless crystalline structure that is crucial for their performance. Organic polymers are commonly used in plastics, but they beget historically been considered inefficient and unreliable as solar materials.

Mike’s hybrid exploited the best elements of its inorganic and organic constituents. relish silicon, it naturally forms near-perfect crystals. relish organic materials, it could exist produced at low temperatures, making it feasible to deposit the material on flexible, lightweight materials such as plastic or ultrathin metal mesh.

By contrast, making a traditional silicon solar cell requires expensive paraphernalia and towering temperatures that rule out the utilize of supple substrates. Once produced, silicon cells must exist encased in massive protective sheets of glass.

After Mike’s results were published, the news sparked a solar R&D gold rush. Scientists from around the world beget since pushed up the efficiency of perovskite solar cells faster than that of any other solar technology in history, reaching nearly 24 percent for a pure-perovskite cell [PDF] and 28 percent for a tandem silicon-perovskite cell by the conclude of 2018. Researchers believe perovskite efficiency could top 35 percent in the coming years.

Without substantially more support—at least double today’s levels—these promising new technologies could well remain lab-bench novelties.

Meanwhile, the installation of traditional solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has grown enormously. In 2008, solar PV worldwide stood at just 15 gigawatts; in 2018, it topped 500 GW. And yet, for entire that extraordinary growth, solar power quiet meets less than 3 percent of electricity claim worldwide.

In the not-so-distant future, solar power could become ubiquitous. Rather than manufacturing heavy, rigid solar panels that are limited in how cheaply and widely they can exist deployed, the solar industry could instead print supple rolls of high-efficiency solar coatings. By midcentury, entire cityscapes could exist wrapped in these electricity-generating solar materials.

Realizing that future will weigh in commercializing new PV materials, including perovskites, that already exist in the lab or as prototypes but quiet require extensive pains to bring to market. These other solar PV materials comprehend organic and quantum-dot solar PV cells, which now boast efficiencies of roughly 16 percent and 17 percent, respectively. They beget the potential to exist even more many-sided than perovskite and shun the gamut of the color and transparency spectrum.

Still, the frenzy in academic circles surrounding the efficiency of a fingernail-size sliver of material has very runt to Do with designing and manufacturing a commercial product that will survive outside for decades, as current silicon panels do. Far more investment is needed to commercialize advanced PV technologies. Although the U.S. Congress and the Trump administration beget increased federal funding for advanced PV R&D in each of the terminal two years, the fiscal year 2019 allotment of US $72 million for PV R&D is less than what it was during President Obama’s first term and will not exist nearly enough to advocate the commercialization of these exciting new technologies. In Europe and Asia, government funding and private investment in advanced solar beget been similarly gradual to materialize. Private investors, meanwhile, appear to exist waiting for more government advocate for research, development, and demonstration. Without substantially more support—at least double today’s levels—these promising new technologies could well remain lab-bench novelties.

Neglecting innovation could exist disastrous for solar power’s long-term prospects. Limited to existing technology, the percentage of power that they secure from solar could stagnate, failing to substantially displace fossil fuels and handicapping the transition to antiseptic energy.

This gloomy outlook may appear counterintuitive. After all, the world is experiencing a solar boom, fueled by the falling charge of conventional silicon PV. Between 2008 and 2018, the charge of such panels plummeted from more than $4 per watt to less than 30 U.S. cents per watt. If you extrapolate from recent progress, you might assume that solar needs no major technological improvements to continue its meteoric ascent.

But mere extrapolation misses an vital fact: As the amount of solar power on the grid increases, installing even more solar PV becomes economically unattractive and technically complicated. It’s a matter of supply and demand.

As the amount of solar power on the grid increases, installing even more solar PV becomes economically unattractive and technically complicated.

Think about a region in which solar power penetration is already high, such as California. Because every solar panel pumps out electricity when the sun is overhead, rising solar PV generation can flood the power grid in the middle of the day, creating an oversupply of electricity. Later, when the sun sets and customer claim peaks during dinnertime, solar electricity is in short supply.

As a result of the mismatch in supply and demand, the value of electricity plunges in the daytime, when solar power is abundant, and spikes in the evening, when solar power is scarce. Therefore, as more solar is installed, the value to the power system of installing yet another solar panel, to provide even more supply during periods of surplus, rapidly declines. This phenomenon is known as value deflation.

California, an early adopter of solar power, provides a cautionary specimen of value deflation. In 2018, solar generated over 15 percent [PDF] of the state’s electricity overall, and on some particularly sunny afternoons, it supplied over half.

As a result, the wholesale charge of electricity at midday would plunge, occasionally going negative. When that happened, suppliers would pay customers to accept their electricity, because it’s cheaper to Do that than to shut down and restart production. The drop in charge reflected the glut of solar power on the grid.

Screenshot of the Interactive: The World’s Most Efficient Photovoltaic Cells Credit: IEEE Spectrum/NREL. Infographic: Josh Romero Efficiency Experts: This interactive chart tracks progress in record-breaking PV cells as certified by the world’s leading solar research labs.

Having a big amount of solar power on the grid also means that whenever that generation falls off sharply—such as when the sun sets or when a thick bank of clouds rolls in—other power plants beget to swiftly ramp up to meet customer demand. These plants parch fuel idling on standby, and they also suffer wear and rend from constant cycling. The resulting costs are real, but they don’t complicated up in the sticker charge of solar panels.

graphic link to interactiveInteractive: The World’s Most Efficient Photovoltaic Cells

Batteries and other forms of energy storage can soak up some of the excess supply. Battery prices continue to fall, while new battery technologies continue to exist rolled out. More capable smart grids will originate it easier to match intermittent solar supply with customer demand. But those trends probably won’t exist enough to enable today’s solar technology to deliver value greater than its cost.

Thanks to its ambitious mandates, California continues to install more solar power. But at a global scale, countries—especially in the developing world—will exist unable to deliver affordable energy to customers if they install more solar than is economically justified.

For solar power to remain economical will require its cost to plunge faster than its value. For the foreseeable future, the cost of solar based on existing silicon PV technology will continue to fall. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy set a target cost for utility-scale solar in the United States of just 3 cents per kilowatt-hour by the year 2030, roughly half its cost in 2017.

But the problem, as my collaborator Shayle Kann and I argued in a 2016 paper in Nature Energy, is that even halving the cost of traditional solar PV won’t exist enough. Even then, the cost would quiet exist roughly double the even needed to outpace value deflation.

You may exist wondering whether simply replacing silicon with a cheaper, more efficient PV material can really decipher solar’s value deflation problem. After all, the panels picture only a portion of the total costs of a solar installation. But new, higher-efficiency materials can originate an outsize incompatibility to solar project economics. Higher efficiencies enable the installation to pump out more power with fewer panels. And fewer panels means less land, labor, and related equipment. This math applies to utility-scale plants as well as rooftop installations.

In India, where my company, ReNew Power, is the largest owner of solar and wind power plants, higher-efficiency and lower-cost solar panels could transform project economics. When they budget the costs of a solar farm, the solar panels are by far the largest capital cost—and therefore are the biggest driver of their monetary recrudesce and the charge at which they are able to sell renewable energy. Other costs such as construction labor or installation materials are substantially cheaper than in the developed world. In 2018, India surpassed the United States as the world’s second-largest market for solar power, behind only China, and advanced solar panel technologies could turbocharge its renewable revolution.

photo Photo: Chandan Khanna/AFP/Getty Images India’s Solar Boom: Technicians install solar panels near New Delhi. India is now the world’s second-largest market for solar power, behind only China.

Lower costs and higher efficiencies aren’t the only advantages. Because they’re supple and lightweight, perovskites and other emerging technologies could extend solar into new applications. Perovskites, for example, could exist quickly sprayed and rolled onto supple substrates, much as newspapers are spooled through high-volume printing presses. The ease of transporting solar rolls rather than rigid panels would reduce shipping costs. And once a solar roll reaches its destination, the skill to unroll and install it with minimal paraphernalia would further slash the cost.

Cheap, lightweight solar coatings could also enable rooftop solar power for people in the developing world who currently live under roofs too flimsy to advocate traditional silicon panels. And in urban centers around the world, semitransparent solar coatings could exist wrapped around skyscrapers and other edifice facades. Because new solar materials can remove on a range of colors and transparencies, building-integrated PV could enhance, rather than constrain, an architect’s palette—imagine power-generating stained glass. [For more on the potential of these building-incorporated solar materials, survey “The Dawn of Solar Windows.”]

Today, solar panel manufacturing is dominated by Chinese companies, and many of these companies reinvest less than 1 percent of their revenue into R&D—a paltry sum.

The problem with realizing this vision of ubiquitous solar power is that the investment required to commercialize the breakthrough technologies isn’t proximate to where it needs to be. Today, solar panel manufacturing is dominated by Chinese companies, and many of these companies reinvest less than 1 percent of their revenue into R&D—a paltry sum. The R&D they Do conduct focuses on incremental improvements to their existing silicon products.

Indeed, most people in the industry view today’s silicon solar panels as the conclude point of more than a half century of innovation. Rather than investing in new technologies, they focus on ruthless cost cutting. If you’re a homeowner looking to install solar panels on your roof, that fierce competition works in your favor. But if you’re a policymaker considering the long-term prospects for renewable energy, that shortsightedness is worrisome.

Outside investment in solar power R&D, whether from private investors or government funding, is similarly scarce. There’s an unhappy history that can’t exist ignored. Many venture capitalists who invested in solar startups in the late 2000s collectively lost billions of dollars [PDF] after cheap imports began flooding the market. Few private investors these days beget the appetite for betting on new solar technologies.

One failed startup, Solyndra, gained notoriety for losing half a billion U.S. taxpayer dollars, after it defaulted on a federally guaranteed loan in 2012. The ensuing partisan furor over Solyndra led the U.S. Department of Energy’s annual funding for PV R&D to plunge from over $200 million in President Obama’s first term to just $50 million in his second term.

Far more public funding will exist needed to scale up promising technologies from the lab bench to the marketplace. The Trump administration has been unwilling to fund commercial-scale demonstration projects or manufacturing facilities for advanced solar PV technologies. Advanced solar funding is also stagnant in Europe, Japan, and South Korea. Only China’s government, a relative newcomer to PV research, is sharply ramping up its funding [PDF]. So despite the breathtaking potential of new technologies such as perovskites, the odds are stacked against their commercial debut.

Henry Snaith knows that tall barriers stand in the course of an upstart that aims to challenge the paramount player in any industry. But that hasn’t stopped him from trying. In 2010 he cofounded a startup, Oxford PV, which this year plans to bring its first tandem perovskite-solar cells to market. Henry’s approach—to add a perovskite layer to an ordinary silicon solar cell, without altering the production process—is an evolution en route to a revolution.

photo Photo: Oxford PV

Market Ready: Oxford PV specializes in tandem perovskite-silicon solar cells, which Look relish ordinary silicon solar cells but produce more power.

Here’s how Oxford PV’s tandem device works. Silicon solar cells harvest energy from the infrared section of sunlight’s spectrum, but they’re not so considerable in the visible and ultraviolet. The chemical composition of perovskites can exist tweaked to target optimal absorption of a particular section of the spectrum. So a carefully tuned perovskite absorbs energy in the visible and ultraviolet, leaving infrared light to pass through to the silicon layer below. With such a perovskite layer, commercial silicon solar panels sustain an efficiency boost of about a third. Although Oxford PV is currently out in front, other startups in the United States, Europe, and Asia are racing to snare up.

In the near term, Oxford PV could woo traditional solar panel manufacturers to utilize its technology to boost their panel efficiencies. The fact that the enhanced panels will Look and act relish existing panels maximizes their chance of market acceptance. And the evolutionary approach will alleviate startups bring perovskite technology up to commercial specs without having to compete with paramount silicon technology.

Even so, manufacturers beget their work slice out for them. They will exigency to hone the process for producing perovskites at towering volume and quality. In addition, they must demonstrate that the perovskite will terminal multiple decades; silicon PV panels beget warranties of 20 years or more. They will also beget to complicated that their products don’t leak toxic lead, a chemical constituent of the most efficient perovskites.

All of this will exist easier if perovskite makers associate forces with silicon solar manufacturers, taking edge of existing methods of sealing panels, manufacturing them at scale, and stress testing them in harsh environments.

Once firms relish Oxford PV beget refined their skill to manufacture perovskite layers for tandem devices, they can whirl to pure-perovskite devices that are flexible, lightweight, and aesthetically pleasing.

Although perovskites are currently the leading alternative solar cell materials, other promising materials, including organic and quantum-dot materials, are being actively investigated and rapidly improved. In the long run, a panoply of solar materials could tender a huge range of color, transparency, and flexibility, as well as unmatched efficiency.

But they aren’t there yet. Most of the private funding for perovskite startups has been raised by Oxford PV, which has pulled in about $99 million, according to Crunchbase. A handful of other startups beget sprouted around the world, including Saule Technologies in Poland and Swift Solar in the United States—both of which are led by former graduate students and postdocs of Henry Snaith. They are racing to commercialize flexible, lightweight solar coatings. Yet these and other companies visage a chilly private investment climate and massive barriers to breaking into a solar industry dominated by silicon behemoths.

In addition to paltry private funding, government advocate is also desperately needed, so that startups can secure far enough in developing their technologies to convince major manufacturers and outside investors to confederate with them. One priority is to fund advanced solar R&D more generously, so that academic scientists around the world can work on making more efficient, longer-lasting solar cells from breakthrough materials. In addition, policymakers should advocate research into the manufacturing techniques and paraphernalia needed to translate lab inventions into viable products. A final priority is to fund commercial-scale demonstration projects that private investors might find too risky.

The United States, for example, could kick-start solar innovation by increasing funding to the Department of Energy’s Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO), which funds breakthrough solar R&D, as well as ARPA-E, which makes farsighted investments in energy-related technologies. Many SETO and ARPA-E teams subsequently raise private funding. The U.S. government should also invest in manufacturing research at facilities such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and alleviate build shared manufacturing facilities, staffed by experts, to alleviate firms commercialize their technologies domestically.

Currently, U.S. solar manufacturers beget a tiny participate of the global solar market, which is dominated by China. President Trump’s strategy to bring back manufacturing has been to erect trade barriers. But the main effect of that policy is to raise the cost of deploying solar in the United States; it’s unlikely to stimulate much investment in domestic manufacturing. Investments in innovation, on the other hand, would give U.S. firms a leg up, and in the coming decades superior U.S. products could supplant outdated ones.

It will probably remove many companies relish Oxford PV to improve the odds of commercializing new solar technologies. Fortunately, there is no shortage of considerable ideas out there. To gain its massive potential, solar will require those ideas to win the advocate they deserve. 

This article is adapted from Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet (MIT University Press, 2018).

Varun Sivaram is chief technology officer of ReNew Power, India’s largest renewable energy company.

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