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000-886 IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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000-886 exam Dumps Source : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

Test Code : 000-886
Test appellation : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation
Vendor appellation : IBM
: 152 actual Questions

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IBM IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1

Tivoli are alive Monitoring services Launched with the aid of IBM | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM is neatly everyday for its developments in high-performance computing, eco-friendly computing, commercial enterprise server and cloud computing alike. large Blue does not seem to be taking any breaks and, now not lengthy after disclosing plans for the introduction of yet one other incredibly powerful and environmentally pleasant supercomputer (the Blue Waters), it has now offered yet one other development, this time in the enviornment of cloud computing features. This development, wide-spread because the Tivoli monitoring platform, will allow medium-sized businesses to more efficiently deal with as many as 500 monitored substances.

"With digital suggestions because the lifeblood of more groups, even the smallest groups or divisions disagree with the statistics middle's functionality mission-essential," Al Zollar, generic supervisor of IBM Tivoli, said. "With this unique service, IBM is providing their smartest information focus application through which agencies opt for and pay for what they need. or not it's so effortless that they call most corporations can mark in for it on Monday and gain it operating through Friday. The simplicity is addition to their service administration portfolio."

The respective supplies that the Tivoli monitoring platform can tackle are everything from operating systems to applications and contraptions at once linked to the monitored community. The Tivoli is an on-demand service that immediately detects verve outages and bottlenecks, instantly notifying the IT supervisor and infrequently even resolving observed issues devoid of the want for consumer involvement. The service helps Linux, AIX, HP-UX and Microsoft home windows operating programs, and every Tivoli Monitoring functions should be dedicated and preconfigured.

experience although the carrier would require a monthly fee, no software licensing is required. The set-up payment expenses $6,500 and contracts can furthermore cover time intervals of 90 days to a few years. The "touchless" agent-less Tivoli Monitoring 6.2.1. (which monitors instruments and device software) starts at $44 per thirty days per node, with the agent-primarily based OS and software monitoring altenative costing $fifty eight per node each month.

IBM Spectrum | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Spectrum is the brand the dealer gave to its storage software in 2015, when it moved six products beneath the Spectrum umbrella.

The six items IBM Spectrum items consist of hurry up, Scale, Virtualize, control, present protection to and Archive.

IBM Spectrum accelerate is obstruct storage in response to IBM's XIV storage expertise. it might scale as much as tens of petabytes of potential and be deployed on commodity servers, XIV or within the cloud. it's attainable for buy as software or as cloud service with IBM SoftLayer.

IBM Spectrum Scale acts as a ply pane to manage policy-based mostly statistics stream. it's according to IBM's universal Parallel File gear technology. it's purchasable for buy as stand-alone utility, bundled on IBM hardware because the IBM Elastic Storage Server or as a cloud carrier.

IBM Spectrum Virtualize is storage virtualization utility formerly referred to as IBM SAN extent Controller. It allows storage capability from assorted storage systems to be pooled so elements corresponding to compression and auto tiering may furthermore be spread throughout every storage ability, and for administration from a separate place.

IBM Spectrum ply is management software that runs in IBM's cloud for virtualized, cloud and application-described storage. It provides users with performance monitoring and skill planning for on-premises storage.

IBM Spectrum protect is a backup and healing product primarily based formerly referred to as IBM Tivoli Storage supervisor. It can furthermore be used with actual, virtual or cloud storage.  It gives snapshots, multi-site replication and catastrophe recuperation administration.

IBM Spectrum Archive software become previously called Linear Tape File device and enables access to IBM tape drives the usage of a 1:1 mapping of file folders to tape drives. It eliminates the want for separate management software for archival storage and amenities movement of information between production and archival potential.

Discovering chance-aware identity and entry management | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Discovering probability-aware identity and entry controlFebruary 7, 2014  |  by means of Veronica Shelley Share Discovering possibility-aware identification and entry administration on Twitter share Discovering threat-mindful identity and access management on fb share Discovering threat-mindful id and entry management on LinkedIn find out about identity and access management as a Strategic company Driver at Pulse 2014

nowadays’s hastily-altering, borderless company world and the cell/cloud momentum are breaking down the natural perimeter, forcing us to examine safety differently. possibly your company is imposing unique access policies and controls for mobile users, otherwise you’re relocating purposes into the cloud. Or most likely you’re opening up your traffic to external clients to exploit unique enterprise fashions. As cloud, cellular and other IT consumerization traits swipe hold, agencies exigency to seem to be beyond common id and access management (IAM) strategies and set into outcome safety options designed for existing and rising traits.

You want an hazard-mindful IAM approach that helps you “believe relish an attacker“, ferreting out weaknesses and highlighting entry anomalies so you can proactively ply security vulnerabilities earlier than calamity strikes. This course positions your company to enhanced deal with some thing the long hasten brings while furthermore addressing the latest protection, privacy and compliance necessities.

As huge security breaches continue to beget headlines, it’s pellucid that your corporation’s security is only as effective as its weakest hyperlink – people. with a view to present protection to the brand unique extended enterprise, you exigency an IAM solution that centralizes guidelines and controls over people’s access while furthermore presenting visibility to “who has entry to what” throughout every materials — both in the cloud and on-premises. a flexible, smart IAM retort becomes the key line of defense for the multi-perimeter solid and an impressive compel for enterprise improvement on several tiers. With the remedy know-how in vicinity, that you would be able to slouch your company toward sustainable compliance, decreased possibility, greater provider tiers and lessen operational prices.

Fall Out Boy and Elvis Costello at Pulse Palooza 2014!

Fall Out Boys at IBM Pulse 2014

Fall Out Boys at IBM Pulse 2014

Pulse Palooza skill introduced

have you registered yet for Pulse 2014? If now not, what are you looking forward to! conclude you know that in addition to remarkable networking, hearing from industry thought leaders and discovering the course to exhaust cloud as a boom engine to your company…you’re additionally invited to a non-public rock concert a well-behaved course to gain you ever rockin’ the nighttime away!

imagine being entertained by now not one, however TWO headline acts. First up, the Grammy-nominated troop plunge Out Boy, cleanly off of two bought-out excursions for their #1 album, shop Rock and Roll.

Hailing from Chicago, plunge Out Boy—Patrick Stump (vocals/guitar), Pete Wentz (bass), Joe Trohman (guitar) and Andy Hurley (drums)—has regarded on the cover of Rolling Stone and other prestigious publications. they've performed on Saturday evening live, The nowadays demonstrate, america’s obtained ability, The Voice, Late nighttime with Jimmy Fallon, The Tonight betray with Jay Leno, Conan, The Late array with David Letterman, Jimmy Kimmel reside and many extra.

Elvis Costello at IBM Pulse 2014

Elvis Costello at IBM Pulse 2014

Up subsequent? not anything other than the rock legend and icon, Elvis Costello! From the enduring “Pump It Up” to “Alison” to “day by day I Write the publication,” each music is a hit…and straight recognizable!

Elvis Costello has followed his musical curiosity in a profession spanning greater than 30 years. he's in every probability finest frequent for his performances with The points of interest, The Imposters and for live performance appearances with pianist Steve Nieve. youngsters, he has additionally entered into acclaimed collaborations with Burt Bacharach, The Brodsky Quartet, Paul McCartney, Swedish mezzo-soprano Anne Sofie von Otter, guitarist bill Frisell, composer Roy Nathanson, The Charles Mingus Orchestra, listing producer and songwriter T Bone Burnett and Allen Toussaint.

So score pumped and score ready to rock – here is one evening you're going to now not exigency to omit! And it every takes vicinity in one of the extraordinary song venues within the nation these days: the MGM majestic garden enviornment.

  • Tuesday, February 25th
  • MGM majestic garden enviornment
  • 7:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m.
  • food and drinks provided.
  • observe: Pulse Palooza is protected in your buy of a full conference move, exhibitor circulate, dev@Pulse move, and Tuesday day flow. additional guest passes will furthermore be bought for $a hundred on-website throughout open registration hours. money expense will not be accepted.

    IBM acknowledges that the days of “historic-trend” IAM – with its focus on inside consumer provisioning and separate sign-on to applications inner the firewall – are long gone for good. IAM solutions now should control resources in the datacenter and in the cloud, while supplying identity functions to basically any gear (akin to desktops, tablets and smartphones) and protecting an eye on compliance necessities.

    So this 12 months’s Pulse give protection to will insert “the unique puss of IAM”, IBM protection IAM options redesigned to champion convey access functions safely, successfully and price-readily to interior and external clients within security and compliance instructions. Their unique threat-aware IAM solutions bring smart id and entry assurance and profit valued clientele to evade insider threats and identity fraud, swipe keeping of cloud, mobile and gregarious interactions, and simplify identification silos and cloud integrations. The options give a key line of protection of the commercial enterprise’s numerous perimeters.

    be taught from wonderful periods

    As at every times, the best spokespeople are their customers, who’ll clarify of their personal phrases how IBM IAM solutions champion them address not most effective their protection but their enterprise challenges. These businesses will talk about how their IAM infrastructure has opened unique doors of break through strengthening protection and assisting their company goals.


    click on here to be taught extra about Pulse 2014 convention


    as an example, relate Session #IAM-1826 Extending on-line access for nowadays’s company needs to learn the course WestJet, Canada’s most preferred airline, revamped their consumer notification tactics with IBM options. WestJet wanted to lengthen its attentive customer provider, exceptionally when flights gain to be cancelled or delayed, via sending personalised, suggestions-generated messages to customers by course of e-mail or textual content. WestJet teamed with IBM to reinvent its shuttle notification tactics and, in consequence, dramatically stronger customer satisfaction and traffic success.

    different shoppers, equivalent to Whirlpool, Republic features, and Getnet, will additionally share their reports on how IBM IAM options not most effective bolstered their security pose however supported unique enterprise initiatives. And their IBM consultants and partners will focus on tips to improvement from their newest IAM solutions, including their able-to-go entry management home equipment, redesigned security id supervisor UI, and their unique listing services offerings.

    hands-on tips on IAM gear optimization and integration, inspiring consumer success reviews, and insights from safety pundits – you’ll locate every of it at the 2014 Pulse protect experience. Don’t leave out it!

    take a search for at even more classes

    nevertheless now not certain about attending Pulse? swipe a search for at every of the different periods within the id & entry administration: business, cellular and Cloud track:

    BNSF Railway’s circulation from Oracle/solar to IBM id and access controlHow conclude you migrate 45,000 users to a brand unique id and entry administration platform after ten years of the usage of a closely custom-made solar/Oracle Waveset IAM answer? via heedful and thorough evaluation, a well-deliberate migration strategy, and the information of an experienced methods integrator, BNSF Railway successfully moved to the IBM IAM platform in a comparatively brief length of time. This venture concentrated on migrating to a unique IBM IAM suite of technologies with out dropping any of the capabilities that had been developed in the Oracle/Waveset IAM products over a ten-12 months duration. To reduce charge and abbreviate the timeline, a key priority turned into to set in compel the unique gadget with minimal custom evolution the usage of handiest “out-of-the-field” capabilities. Come hearken to this compelling record of how one IBM customer finished its goals using the IBM answer. subject matters will consist of approach, challenges and greatest practices. tips and hints for a success IAM/SAP Integration The forty-yr alliance between IBM and SAP has resulted in lots of a hit implementations, including mobile and cloud computing. This session covers one illustration: Whirlpool’s in-depth id and access management and SAP integration project, which offers comfy entry to the enterprise’s ERP equipment. next, Ingo Dressler from IBM will talk about SAP integration elements with IBM’s IAM products, including a course to tackle the challenges of position-based mostly entry manage and SAP authorization. id Governance and Administration: the residence conclude they proceed next? over the past few years, groups gain invested in duty administration, id governance, consumer provisioning and lifecycle management capabilities with a purpose to gain ply over users and their access to IT components. where conclude they proceed subsequent with these investments? as an example, over eighty% of organizational counsel resides in unstructured data codecs (Microsoft office files, and so on). File programs and SharePoint farms gain grown continuously over the ultimate decade, and the allotted nature of unstructured information skill that entry has now not been centrally managed. The fruits is that they haven't any visibility into who has entry to what, and how they’re getting entry. during this panel session, they can ascertain organizational needs to augment visibility into every users and their entitlements, and to govern their access across applications and services. IBM, together with two ready for IBM safety Intelligence partners, ILANTUS and STEALTHbits, will present insights into how id and entry analytics are assisting agencies govern clients’ entry to applications and even gain visibility into the zone of unstructured facts. Demonstrating Governance, risk and Compliance in your Mainframe Mainframes host mission-critical corporate counsel and construction functions for many fiscal, healthcare, executive and retail agencies that require totally secure techniques and regulatory compliance. Demonstrating compliance in your trade will furthermore be complicated and failure to conform may cease up in vulnerabilities, audit screw ups, loss of recognition, protection breaches, and even device shutdown. How are you able to simplify enforcement of protection policy and most preempt practices? How can you automate security monitoring, risk detection, remediation and compliance reporting? How are you able to demonstrate governance, possibility and compliance in your mainframe? find out how your concurrent mainframe can aid you to conform to traffic regulations, reduce prices and present protection to your traffic whereas helping cloud, cellular, gregarious and ample statistics environments. mind the gap: Bridging online access in distributed Environments In strictly regulated industries, managing access rights and preferences for federated users, specially very significant customer populations, whereas protecting compliance can be daunting. We’ll talk about challenges linked to cozy person authentication and authorization for essential online functions. Then, expense Vanmaele of SecurIT, an IBM protection traffic associate, will record how their TrustBuilder solution can champion in filling the pocket with a federation hub the exhaust of federation proxy and bridging performance. id and entry administration for the internet of issues… Are You able? Analysts call that billions of instruments should be related to the “internet of issues” through 2020, including net services and mobile contraptions. security governance and entry ply will require innovation and out-of-the-container considering. in this session, Getnet, a Brazilian fiscal capabilities issuer, will share their strategy to actual entry ply and labor hour enforcement integration with the IAM platform. Then Aruba Networks, an IBM traffic companion, will talk about how their ClearPass network access management retort built-in with IBM security entry supervisor for cellular helps rein in the complexity of BYOD and mobile entry. the mixing provides conclusion-to-end control, from contraptions becoming a member of the network, gaining separate sign-on into the net atmosphere after which getting access to internet resources. This aids integration with mobile gear administration (MDM) methods (e.g., FiberLink’s Maas360), bettering net useful resource access possibility choices with the aid of including extra device posture-specific attributes. Integrating identification management with Cloud functions wondering what companies are doing with identify integration to/from the cloud? Cloud identities are tremendously multi-faceted. corporations are using open, necessities-based mostly tips on how to provision, separate signal-on (SSO) and govern consumer access to traffic and SaaS purposes. Cloud provider suppliers are embarking on providing APIs to profit developers construct and install SaaS. Many groups are maturing the adoption of IAM as a hosted service. This interactive session will deliver key insights into the three objective entry elements to the usage of identification as a key protection control for cloud integration. Lighthouse security group, an IBM protection company accomplice, will share their experiences provisioning clients to entry industrial SaaS (Google Apps). IBM will share experiences offering cloud infrastructure using SoftLayer and SSO to SaaS (e.g., Microsoft workplace 365). Extending online entry for these days’s traffic demandsWhen is identity and access administration greater than only a protection answer? When it helps simplify operations, enable company manner and pressure expanded income. during this panel dialogue, Kevin Minshull, retort Architect at WestJet airlines, discusses the airline’s cell rollout strategy based on integrating IBM WebSphere solutions, including DataPower and API management. Then Patrick Wardrop, IBM protection retort Architect, and Jason Keeneghan, IBM security access Product manager, will clarify how WebSphere DataPower can amalgamate with IBM security access supervisor to construct protection gateways that present protection to web, cellular, and API traffic and assist unique enterprise models. IBM security identity manager WebServices and listing Integrator Are you caught with the default GUIs offered with IBM safety id manager (ISIM) for information entry and control? fully now not! This session indicates a arms-on strategy and examples of how to leverage the unique ISIM WebServices using protection listing Integrator (SDI) to operate typical ISIM projects. it will betray the strategies and steps crucial to create this extra ISIM interface. additionally, this presentation will speak in regards to the unique WebServices, and provide a top plane view of the capabilities that can be establish to you. finally, it's going to array integration with third-birthday celebration gear and the combination with IBM Tivoli directory Integrator (TDI). fighting Insider Threats with Privileged identity controlIBM protection Privileged identity supervisor secures, automates and audits using privileged identities to profit thwart insider attacks and enrich protection. Martin Schmidt from IBM will clarify how current Tivoli id supervisor shoppers can with ease add the retort to their current environment with no wholesale improve to IBM safety identification manager, taking handicap of enhanced control over privileged and shared accounts. learn how to avoid insider threats and identity fraud with safety Privileged identification manager. chance-conscious identity and entry administration for a Multi-Perimeter worldIn today’s open and interconnected commercial enterprise, natural perimeters are being extended to embody cell, cloud, gregarious entry and guidance interactions. To beget matters worse, many organizations puss the growing can charge and risk of managing assorted identity and access controls devoid of the necessary safety intelligence to address those challenges. They exigency the means to cozy id and access across the wide diversity of commercial enterprise and information superhighway materials from any device, any provider and any supply. be a piece of IBM during this session to evaluation the next era entry and identity administration needs and the retort patterns purchasable these days to allow quick adoption of mobile, cloud, and gregarious transformation. 2020 imaginative and prescient: id and entry administration for the subsequent Decade one of the crucial fastest-growing corporations on the earth, Cognizant has over 50 delivery centers global and over one hundred sixty,000 personnel. during this session, William Doyle, Cognizant affiliate vice chairman protection, felony and risk programs, will contend how Cognizant offers its users—including personnel, companies, and customers—with included access inside the IBM protection identity management framework, and how they are adapting to ongoing protection requirements. Then Sridhar Muppidi, Chief know-how Officer for IBM security, will focus on the future of identification and access management and the course IBM’s threat-conscious IAM options will address emerging safety needs. raise Your id and access administration retort with Integrations from Key IBM expertise partners be a piece of a panel of IBM expertise partners to learn about unique and enjoyable identification and entry management (IAM) integrations that gain been validated during the ready for IBM safety Intelligence program. IBM technology companions Aruba Networks, Prolifics, OnWire Consulting group, and SafeNet will talk about how their integrations with key areas of the IBM security portfolio enhance retort cost for shoppers. The panel dialogue will cowl extraordinary authentication, cell, cloud, and safety intelligence exhaust cases. comfortable mobile Transactions: Weakest link or safest bet? The frequent adoption of cell computing is forcing agencies to ascertain unique methods to at ease cellular entry for their shoppers and personnel. youngsters, as a substitute of being the weakest link in network defenses, could cellular know-how basically be more comfy than natural computing through 2014? cozy cell transactions are a key a piece of enabling both client interaction with your business, and a mobile workforce. This comprises realizing the risks worried in offering mobile access to business-important supplies, and the course to innovatively manipulate that risk to permit differentiated mobile access to purposes and data. this benign of graded gain faith mannequin could be according to device risk, consumer gain faith or transactional context. This spans each worker access in BYOD situations, as well as purchaser entry to enterprise apps. This session will contend these patterns and record a solution strategy the usage of Trusteer and IBM security access manager for cell. identity management and Analytics sit down with one of IBM’s id administration consultants to contend premier practices and techniques for administration of users, including privileged users, roles and rights. entry managementJoin this session for an interactive dialogue on presenting relaxed access and authenticating users; and implementing proactive entry guidelines on cloud, gregarious and mobile collaboration channels. Mainframe safetyjoin us for a casual dialogue on the course to augment the effectivity and manageability of mainframe structures, the residence a lot of your corporation’s mission-essential functions, creation systems, and classified traffic information dwell. including ample Brother to IBM security identification manager IBM safety identification manager offers complete id management and traffic separate signal-on capabilities for privileged clients. however the verity is that many businesses don’t know what privileged users are really doing as soon as they access enterprise servers. The quickly-becoming style of session pastime recording is addressing this want. with the aid of recording keyword-searchable video and undertaking logs of every person action on each server, a completely unique stage of IT protection and compliance is possible. be piece of us as they contend how Fortune 500 companies and different businesses are including “massive brother” session recording capabilities to their networks in an distress to capture video of every on-monitor endeavor performed with the aid of interior privileged clients and remote providers gaining access to home windows and Unix/Linux servers. We’ll talk about how adding a key phrase-searchable session recording subsystem to IBM protection id supervisor can aid obviate protection breaches, velocity forensic investigations and ease regulatory compliance. holding The Skies Clear: Intelligently Monitoring & maintaining IT assets across the Cloud We regularly communicate of the migration from physical servers, to virtualization, to hybrid cloud deployments, to affecting wholly into the universal public cloud. but the fact is that they are the exhaust of every of those applied sciences to allow traffic nowadays. It’s this mixture of environments that gifts a significant security challenge. How will they beget certain that they now gain the preempt degree of protection controls active in each and every atmosphere? conclude they gain enough visibility in each of these environments that will plunge in keeping with various compliance frameworks? will they gain ample insight to optimize operations, or to cease today’s advanced threats? during this session, we’ll focus on how can they leverage the gear they gain at hand today to address these challenges. We’ll discover–in accordance with recent advancements and precise world event–where these gear are heading in the next few years. Tags: Cloud | Cloud protection | IBM Pulse | identity and access management (IAM) | cellular protection | Technical & Product Veronica Shelley

    WW Market aspect manager, IBM security

    Veronica Shelley is the international marketing manager for the IBM security identity and access management (IAM)... 10 Posts comply with on What’s new
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  • Share this text: Share Discovering hazard-mindful id and entry management on Twitter share Discovering risk-aware identity and entry administration on fb share Discovering danger-aware identification and access administration on LinkedIn extra on Cloud protection IT engineer configuring a hybrid cloud deployment. ArticleMoving to the Hybrid Cloud? beget inescapable It’s cozy by Design Security professionals developing a  draw to reduce cybersecurity complexity. ArticleBreak through Cybersecurity Complexity With unique suggestions, no longer greater tools Illustration of hybrid cloud concept. ArticleSucceed in your Cloud Migration With a cozy Hybrid Cloud strategy Executives discussing cybersecurity risk in a board room. ArticleBoard directors Can’t gain the funds for to ignore Cybersecurity risk

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    IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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    Software offers on-demand datacenter automation solution. | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Press Release Summary:

    Tivoli® Provisioning Manager v3.1 enables users to create, customize, and utilize best-practice automation workflows to respond to changing market needs. On-demand automation solution offers prebuilt workflows that provide control and configuration of vendors' products. Software furthermore includes auto-discovery of datacenter resources, integration with Tivoli Configuration Manager, and datacenter change and configuration management capabilities.

    Original Press Release: IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager V3.1 Helps Automate Your Datacenter At a glance

    IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager V3.1 offers the following benefits:

    Allows IT become more agile by simplifying and enabling rapid change to infrastructure resources to profit meet the needs of the on exact business.

    Helps reduce datacenter administration costs, improve server utilization, and reduce infrastructure management complexity by automating manual and repetitive datacenter change management tasks.

    Helps you effectively deploy both simple and complicated applications by understanding software dependencies using Autonomic Computing technology, Solution Installation framework.

    Automates process steps, enabling desired situation management and providing audit records of changes to datacenter assets.

    Helps lower implementation costs and drive a quick ROI by utilizing existing hardware, software, storage, and network devices with out-of-the-box best-practice workflows and unique intuitive GUI.

    Helps reduce security exposures by tracking and applying security patches to datacenter servers.

    For ordering, contact:

    Your IBM representative, an IBM traffic Partner, or IBM Americas convoke Centers at 800-IBM-CALL (Reference: YE001).


    In today's traffic environment, being able to respond to changing market needs is a prerequisite to being competitive. However, the delivery of unique products and services often drives up IT costs in the contour of unique applications, IT infrastructure, and champion staff. As a result, companies gain been forced to be more selective in their traffic pursuits, often forgoing projects that would gain required changes to IT infrastructure. unique on exact automation solutions from IBM profit companies leverage their existing IT assets to become more agile and responsive to the business.

    IBM Tivoli® Provisioning Manager allows you to create, customize, and quickly utilize best-practice automation workflows. Prebuilt workflows provide control and configuration of many vendors' products, while customized workflows can implement your company's datacenter best practices and procedures. Additional automation workflows can be obtained from the IBM Orchestration and Provisioning Automation Library (OPAL), an online repository where customers, traffic Partners, and ISVs can publish and share workflows for automation. The IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager furthermore includes DB2 Universal Database® Enterprise Server Edition V8.2 with Fix Pack 7A, IBM Tivoli Directory Server 5.2, and components of IBM WebSphere® Application Server V5.1.1.3

    New in V3.1

    Improved auto-discovery of datacenter resources

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    Provided Common Datacenter Model (DCM)

    Reserved resources, allowing you to reserve desired resources

    Discovered "drift"

    Datacenter change and configuration management capabilities

    Planned availability dates

    May 10, 2005: Electronic software delivery

    May 20, 2005: Media (Passport Advantage)

    June 3, 2005: Media (Build to Order)

    Related Thomas Industry Update Thomas For Industry

    GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the engage 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. delight be sensible that this is not a paltry task.

    It’s worth taking a brief search for at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a compass of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best course to assume about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to be used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must be installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The champion for the GSSAPI is made possible in the directory server through the introduction of a unique SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms conclude exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO champion would be GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the exhaust of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not exhaust them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a touchstone interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can be plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on stealthy key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a separate programming interface. This is shown in motif 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can be confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a ample difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An case is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can exhaust Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide champion for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to inspirit developers to exhaust the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that exhaust SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos evolution team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not labor in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another profit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a ample benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication course than Kerberos, because it can easily be plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should be able to exhaust it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide stalwart authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide stalwart authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos furthermore offers the skill to add privacy champion (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can furthermore be used to provide stalwart authentication and privacy champion for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as piece of the Solaris simple Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as piece of the Solaris simple Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name



    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)


    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)


    Kerberos version 5 champion (Root)


    Kerberos version 5 champion (Usr)


    Kerberos version 5 champion (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you discharge a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you exhaust rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you leave to access the other machine. Transparently means that you conclude not exigency to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets gain inescapable attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can be forwardable (which means that it can be used on another machine without a unique authentication process), or postdated (not convincing until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently espy the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for every subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution focus (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. assume of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. relish a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for alien countries, but for remote machines or network services. relish passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets gain limited lifetimes. The dissimilarity is that Kerberized commands notice that you gain a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t gain to discharge the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a convincing ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for every sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps beget it emerge that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can allot tickets. A principal can be a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal appellation is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can be a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can furthermore be the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can exhaust lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her customary user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can exhaust two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/ and lucy/


    A realm is a logical network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the identical master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must be defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must involve a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should accommodate at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution focus (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a obstruct of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, every encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to gain a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may be an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system furthermore runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are every on the identical machine, but they can be separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms be configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should be applied to every realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a separate frail link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to swipe when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the altenative of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as piece of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will gain to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may seem relish a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the leisure of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very petite security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server be installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC be configured with the identical plane of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher obstruct Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators refer to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will be DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption type for the KDC. The type of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). pick the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can be used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may be up to 1024 characters long and can involve any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an case of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key appellation 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is well-known that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the exhaust of the -s dispute to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not be shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall conduct for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters record locations of various files and ports to exhaust for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally conclude not exigency to be changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may be adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The touchstone port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to champion older clients that noiseless exhaust the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE noiseless listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to gain users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the chance of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should be lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the era of time from when a ticket is issued that it may be renewed (using kinit -R). The touchstone value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may be set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can allot a ticket. In the case of users, it is the identical as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may be defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should be used only if the realm will accommodate temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will gain to constantly be renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals conclude not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer exigency access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may be defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may be used to ensure that only stalwart cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not be able to exhaust words establish in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a well-behaved course to obviate users from creating paltry passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which gain a password policy association, so it is well-behaved practice to gain at least one simple policy associated with every principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may furthermore be used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may be substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf case with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. every rights reserved. # exhaust is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs affecting -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by exhaust of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every separate administrator in the ACL file. This feature should be used with distinguished care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to be broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a inescapable administrator only needs to be allowed to gain read-access to the database then that person should not be granted full admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for every privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for every privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should be added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users gain separate /admin principals to exhaust only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would gain two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only be used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the chance of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may be differentiated by the instance piece of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is touchstone practice in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to be /admin instances and others to gain no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to gain administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only be used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not be granted any administrative privileges, it will be treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the identical user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # every rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given full administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file be tightly controlled and that users be granted only the privileges they exigency to discharge their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the identical course that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always be used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to be used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always be extracted from the KDC on the identical machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, swipe distinguished keeping in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could exhaust these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to exhaust Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to exhaust the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package ( Another safe course is to residence the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for large installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure course available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm exigency to gain their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time confine (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure course to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). espy the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time be synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service assault on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to be outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then obviate anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must furthermore be secured, including the exhaust of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can be applied to some or every of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must be used to beget up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and convincing values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that gain been used by the principal that cannot be reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must be used before it can be changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can be used before it must be changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can be set as a group and stored as a separate policy. Different policies can be defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length be set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes be required. Most people watch to pick easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a well-behaved conception to at least set up policies to inspirit slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the exhaust of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may be helpful in some environments, to compel people to change their passwords periodically. The era is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they score back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to obviate password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users pick long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character confine allows one to pick a tiny sentence or simple to recollect phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is possible to exhaust a dictionary file that can be used to obviate users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy be in outcome for every principals in the realm.

    The following is an case password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of veteran keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This case creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to every user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of veteran keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference weigh value indicates how many principals are configured to exhaust the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to every unique principals that are not given the identical password as the principal appellation when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should be made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups be done over a network, then these backups should be secured either through the exhaust of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the identical traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always be kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should be continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can be modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should gain read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that every Kerberos applications exhaust to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. furthermore refer to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the conduct of many Kerberos client tools. Each tool may gain its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that exhaust the appdefaults section, exhaust the identical options; however, they might be set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can gain their conduct modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.


    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.


    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. refer to the man page for complete information. However, there are several enthralling security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of exhaust and strict security tends to scrawny in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection be re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a unique ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can be used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to deceptive in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can be used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should be used to circle on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not champion encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user appellation is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the identical as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to be included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory be removed. The Kerberized versions gain the added profit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can furthermore exhaust Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients exhaust a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should be re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the identical vogue as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.


    Kerberized rcp can be used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already gain a convincing TGT before using rcp if they wish to exhaust the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always exhaust the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.


    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the touchstone Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the touchstone Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a unique Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.


    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the identical as described above for telnet (there is no exigency for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to exhaust the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection plane used for the data transfer can be set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection plane to private for every data transfers. The ftp client program does not champion or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. every ftp client options are passed on the command line. espy the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can augment the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can be securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can be secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to be managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to profit ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that record the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the circumstantial information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an well-known step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both gain the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create unique principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you gain a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line tool from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that supervene fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To be a DNS client, a machine must hasten the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a separate program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that exigency to know machine names. The resolver’s duty is to resolve users’ queries. To conclude that, it queries a appellation server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a appellation server.

    The following case shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain nameserver nameserver

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain appellation in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the cease of the domain name. beget certain that you press recrudesce immediately after the ultimate character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only appellation servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. appellation server entries gain the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS appellation server. The resolver queries these appellation servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more circumstantial information of what the resolv.conf file does, refer to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm appellation = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain appellation =

  • Master KDC =

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online profit URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you start this configuration process, beget a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You exigency to change the realm names and the names of the servers. espy the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = admin server = } [domain_realm] = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and every domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. espy the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s exigency affecting ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm appellation definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key appellation 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will be prompted for the database Master Password. It is well-known that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm appellation is not required if the realm appellation is equivalent to the domain appellation in the server’s appellation space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains every principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might search for similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the skill to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match every admin principals. This default could be a security risk, so it is more secure to involve a list of every of the admin principals. espy the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its remonstrate identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism appellation remonstrate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 diffie_hellman_1024_0 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/ gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism appellation remonstrate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/ gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 diffie_hellman_1024_0
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain appellation (FQDN) must be entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain appellation in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/ Entry for principal kadmin/ with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/ Entry for principal changepw/ with kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you gain added every of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start


    You cease the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To conclude this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line case is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/ Principal "host/" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/ Enter password for principal root/ password Re-enter password for principal root/ password Principal "root/" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to be used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/ kadmin: Entry for principal host/ with ->kvno 3, encryption type DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you gain added every of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to be hasten by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would exigency to be done for the server. However, you may want to exhaust this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/ Password for root/ passwd
  • Check and verify that you gain a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results betray that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you exigency to verify the completion of every of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/

    The case given here assumes a separate domain. The KDC may reside on the identical machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to swipe into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to search for at what is required to be configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is touchstone interface that enables you to exhaust a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for every operations during the connection.

    The first particular discussed is the unique identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will espy in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must discharge the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, refer to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To discharge the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and score the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the remedy suffix for your directory server.

    You exigency to conclude this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*) dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is well-known to beget exhaust of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you gain from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you exigency to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you exigency to discharge pattern matching to espy if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an case GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an case using ldapmodify to conclude this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To discharge this test, type the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and retort the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should be the identical as without the -o option.

    If you conclude not exhaust the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an error occurs.

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