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000-634 remonstrate Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test cognomen : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 72 real Questions

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IBM IBM remonstrate Oriented Analysis

Analyst difficult Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant record | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, ny -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM today announced that Gartner, Inc. has located IBM in the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant document of the article Oriented evaluation and Design equipment space. in response to the report*, Gartner estimates that IBM has greater than 50 p.c of the market partake versus its two nearest competitors who mixed grasp 30 % or greater of the market.

model-driven evolution helps utility construction teams understand, doc and communicate the company system of application and systems construction to present structure resilience previous to making replete scale evolution investments, and to define a carrier oriented architecture roadmap leading to enterprise transformation.

IBM's leadership within the remonstrate Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools market for 2H06-2H07 is the influence of a comprehensive portfolio of offerings which back groups consume fashions or patterns to power their software development, including:

-- IBM Rational application Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational systems Developer -- IBM's award-winning mannequin-driven evolution tools, according to Eclipse, to assist construction groups create powerful applications; -- endured aid of Microsoft environments via IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's commitment to presenting a utility evolution platform that goals a wide sweep of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere company Modeler -- the outcomes of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- supports company routine analysis to shut the gap between an company's traces of company and their evolution organization's understanding of the company drivers; -- IBM Rational statistics Architect -- an business information modeling and database design tool that additionally helps clients map facts belongings to each and every different to more with ease create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's evaluation of the OOA&D positions IBM in the leaders quadrant which they consider confirms their approach around mannequin-driven construction," said Danny Sabbah, established supervisor, Rational utility, IBM. "IBM's mannequin-pushed equipment support geographically distributed software construction groups to discourse their designs and necessities visually, getting rid of the risk of mission failures as a result of mis-conversation resulting from language and cultural boundaries."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions providers along two dimensions: completeness of vision, and skill to execute on that imaginative and prescient. For 2006, remonstrate Oriented analysis and Design tools are neatly into mainstream consume attaining 20 percent to 50 p.c of the target viewers: counsel architects, analysts and developers. according to the document, most groups believe converted to OOA&D methods and tools in live performance with enforcing provider oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a rapid explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

ultra-modern intelligence builds on IBM's management in assisting customers govern their application and methods building. IBM changed into recently named the worldwide market partake chief within the software edifice and venture and portfolio administration application industry according to complete utility profits for 2005 for the fifth consecutive 12 months, in keeping with independent analyst enterprise Gartner Inc. according to the independent document**, IBM became the main market partake supplier in total software income with 25.4 percent market share, greater than double the percentage of its nearest competitor.

For extra advice, consult with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

about the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 by means of Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical illustration of a marketplace at and for a particular time period. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how certain companies measure against standards for that market, as described with the aid of Gartner. Gartner doesn't recommend any dealer, product or service depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and doesn't propound know-how clients to elect only those companies placed in the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is intended totally as a analysis device, and is not conjectural to live a selected ebook to motion. Gartner disclaims flawless warranties, categorical or implied, with recognize to this research, including any warranties of merchantability or health for a selected aim.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for remonstrate Oriented evaluation and Design (OOA&D) tools, 2H06-2H07 file changed into authored by means of Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market records record is entitled "Market Share: application edifice and project and Portfolio administration, worldwide, 2005" authored with the aid of Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


What Apple, Inc. gets from its original iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 

Editorial

Apple's newly announced mobile partnership with IBM has been greeted through a few analysts and pundits as being each "not that sizable a deal," or conversely, the histrionic reversal of an extended standing contention. each are wrong, birthright here's why. No sizable deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster offered probably the most least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has massive commercial enterprise penetration while postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 had been to each and every purchase an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they were planning to buy as a result of the IBM deal, it might imply a couple of half a p.c to CY15 profits."

Munster additionally offered a broad interpretation of the "exclusive partnership" both agencies targeted, writing, "we are expecting IBM to ultimately tender similar options on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar fashion provided a dim view of IBM's company apps and flatly estimated that "iOS cloud features from IBM may not happen," concluding that "neither business could live significantly plagued by the different. it live simply no longer that massive a deal."

IBM's existing cell company apps and cloud services actually don't look able to dramatically boosting Apple's iOS income on their personal. but this is not what the corporations introduced. as a substitute, both described "exclusive" plans to toil together to "seriously change commercial enterprise mobility through a original nature of enterprise apps."

As stated in greater detail beneath, the language both corporations consume in describing their partnership indicates that it is not merely an endeavor to promote just a few agencies an extra thousand iPads. Apple and IBM believe massive dreams in intellect.

Apple and IBM believe a lot of background as shut allies

on the identical time, Apple and IBM aren't working together for the first time. We're a very long methods from 1982, when IBM entered the original microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple in the tower "welcomed" IBM to the laptop market (under), as a a suitable deal bigger competitor.

It subsequently portrayed sizable Blue as a 1984 sizable Brother in 1984 with its iconic original advert for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its clients even more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2nd and much more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded laptop users marching themselves off a cliff.

by means of the late 80s, IBM had lost manage of the workstation to Microsoft on its own, and failed to win it back with its proprietary design for brand spanking original PS/2 techniques. whereas IBM sold notebooks and drugs that competed in opposition t Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads in the Nineteen Nineties, flawless the route through that decade Apple and IBM in reality aligned to toil together in several fundamental initiatives.

The purpose Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's energy RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that turned into used in Macs starting in 1994 and carrying on with into 2006.

Apple moreover collaborated with IBM to help "Macintosh application features" to host PowerPC Mac software on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX by itself elevated End Apple community Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent assignment teamed Apple's future plans for "red," a brand original OS intended to supplant device 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for office OS. It intended to further a original OS microkernel able to assisting Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed remonstrate oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' subsequent. Taligent primarily aimed to replica subsequent and steal away Jobs' early supporters (together with IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple decided to purchase subsequent because the basis for its superior original Mac OS X in its place.

Kaleida Labs turned into a 3rd elevated profile partnership between Apple in IBM in the early Nineties, aimed at making a hobble platform, scriptable multimedia construction platform. The collaboration effectively raided Apple's QuickTime crew of skill and spent tens of tens of millions of greenbacks earlier than collapsing in failure in 1996. Its role became supplanted by using Macromedia Director, and then by the net, chiefly via plugins relish Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships in the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' next in 1996 additional helped to align the enterprise with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open supply software. In 2005 IBM offered its pc business to Lenovo. It increasingly threw its lead in the back of Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it offered as a Microsoft office competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's research assistance features performed a examine that supplied employees with MacBook execs instead of home windows machines. worker remarks mentioned comments including, "this may free us from the windows stranglehold," and "I believe been a upright pc stalwart for two+ many years, but after making an attempt Vista, i'm able for a metamorphosis."

The subsequent 12 months, IBM ported its Informix information Server to OS X Server and introduced plans to carry Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's trade) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS platforms.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of business apps for iOS, and changed into actually one of the crucial first App deliver builders to involve the platform in 2008 before Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App keep.

IBM targets huge information on the sizable platform

The great information of the original partnership between Apple and IBM therefore is neither that they are actually working together for the primary time, nor that IBM offers some apps for iOS instruments. What's original is the evidently emphasized exclusivity of the relationship, and the longer term direction for original iOS apps, management tools and cloud services.

IBM already gives Android cellphone back roughly on par with iPhone, and Android pill lead it is just about the same as its iPad's. It additionally offers assist for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, home windows mobile, windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's original apps will completely target iOS youngsters.

That makes sense because IBM may live promoting and leasing iOS devices, however moreover because IBM can now focus on developing native apps for the one platform it is already being greatly used in the enterprise, devoid of spending loads of elements checking out and keeping back for a wide array of OS models and APIs and a bewildering sweep of hardware gadgets.

In parallel with the edifice of Apple's iOS platform over the eventual seven years, IBM has moved far from selling office apps (abandoning its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to as an alternative focus on offering managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and management services, in addition to "huge statistics" evaluation.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud functions for purchasers (corresponding to Amazon internet capabilities) and additionally presents deepest cloud functions, where IBM sells the consumer servers they then personal and operate. machine can then again live leased from and/or managed onsite by route of IBM.

The partnership exceptionally outlined, "IBM's massive records and analytics capabilities, with the vigour of more than one hundred,000 IBM industry and belt consultants and utility developers behind it," could live used to "create apps that can transform specific elements of how businesses and personnel toil the consume of iPhone and iPad."

One style of IBM's sizable records analytics has regarded over the eventual two holiday browsing seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (below) that most browsing was being completed on iOS devices--even earlier than the media become manipulated to record that Apple had sprint out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung had been "taking over" cell instruments.

the following 12 months, IBM's analytics revealed that the divide had grown even stronger, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for 5 instances the orders of Android clients. The media's handwringing about Apple flawless the route through in 2013 had temporality affected the enterprise's stock expense, however wasn't affecting the outcomes that count within the machine market.

The capacity to as it should live determine these styles of tendencies--devoid of the statistics being contaminated via lack of information or wishful thinking--is severely faultfinding to enterprise clients. That explains why the partnership's announcement described original apps powered by means of such analytics as "enabling businesses to achieve original ranges of efficiency, effectiveness and client pride."

As Apple noted, IBM has "centered the realm's deepest portfolio in massive information and Analytics consulting and expertise capabilities in keeping with experiences drawn from greater than forty,000 records and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans analysis and construction, options, software and hardware, and includes greater than 15,000 analytics consultants, four,000 analytics patents, 6,000 industry respond business partners, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who're assisting consumers consume huge facts to radically change their agencies."

iWork commercial enterprise

Apple has its own iWork apps for miniature business and training clients, it currently received Microsoft's office cellular apps (at the moment completely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to enhance "a brand original nature of 'made-for-enterprise apps' focused on selected industry considerations or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, commute and transportation, telecommunications and assurance, among others, for you to become accessible tower this topple and into 2015."

in preference to just being some original App deliver titles listed by IBM, the companies believe outlined that IBM should live selling Apple's iOS as a portion of its personal MobileFirst platform, which will "convey the features required for an end-to-end enterprise skill, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale device administration, security and integration."

additionally, "more suitable mobile management contains a personal app catalog, records and transaction security services, and productivity suite for flawless IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. besides on-premise software options, flawless these capabilities can live obtainable on Bluemix--IBM's edifice platform on the IBM Cloud marketplace."IBM is offering the entire issues Apple has never been very first rate at or shown a entire lot pastime in doing itself

That means IBM is offering flawless the things Apple hasn't ever been very suitable at or proven lots pastime in doing itself, from selling consultation and assist functions, to edifice and protecting server infrastructure and custom apps for valued clientele. That comprises enhancing AppleCare for enterprise users with "on-web page carrier delivered through IBM."

IBM is additionally offering "equipment deliver, activation and management services for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options." those once again are the sorts of functions that HP and Dell had been historically lots superior than Apple at offering for the laptop trade.

With BYOD, Apple acquired its foot in the door and iOS instruments grew to live extensively adopted by route of enterprise and govt clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can toil on turning its cell devices into an enterprise volume play.

Apple, IBM are thinking large

up to now, the market looks to believe considered Apple and IBM as an glaring risk to BlackBerry, which certainly does believe plenty left to lose: 72 million subscribers as of the first quarter of 2014. iPhones believe taken a painful bite out of BlackBerry's enterprise earnings, however iPads goal some thing different: ordinary PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple probably promoting handiest an further '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 via some original IBM apps in particular puzzling. Apple sort of certainly plans to aggressively target business workstation sales--a considerable market--with its submit-laptop cell devices. Tim cook addresses the iPad's broadly mentioned skills to eclipse laptop sales at every possibility.

"We continue to accept as upright with that the pill market will surpass the computing device market in dimension inside the next few years and they accept as upright with that Apple should live an immense beneficiary of this trend," prepare dinner brought up in the enterprise's April revenue name."We proceed to consider that the pill market will surpass the pc market in dimension in the following few years and they dependence that Apple might live a major beneficiary of this vogue " - Tim cook

Apple already has no issue promoting fleets of tens of thousands of iPhones and iPads to company, executive and education consumers. it might only necessity IBM's support to target the everyday laptop for mass eradication throughout the enterprise, pushed the consume of imaginative, exclusive native apps able to radically altering how groups consume know-how. Apple's description of IBM makes it very clear it is precisely what each groups draw to achieve.

On its original iPad business web page, the business states "Apple and IBM are working collectively to convey iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to firms around the globe. Their unique world partnership will convey a original class of apps that connect users to sizable data and analytics birthright on their iOS devices with greater ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cell business by using combining the exponential power of corporate data with the world's most fulfilling mobile expertise."

In its original press release Apple cited, "IBM's 5,000 cellular experts were on the forefront of mobile commercial enterprise innovation. IBM has secured greater than four,300 patents in cellular, social and safety, that believe been included into IBM MobileFirst solutions that allow enterprise shoppers to radically streamline and accelerate cell adoption, back corporations interact greater individuals and seize original markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in protection in the past decade, has more than 6,000 security researchers and developers in its 25 security labs international that toil on constructing commercial enterprise-class solutions."

Apple's own routine in acquisitions (in addition to in patents) has commonly centered the speedy implementation of differentiating elements and technologies (such as finger id, the custom silicon in the A7 chip, and contours ranging from Siri to kisser awareness to iTunes Radio to App store enhancements).

by route of partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage backyard expertise in protection, social and cell deployment with out distracting itself from its core competency in edifice hardware, utility and structures.

And now, a warning

looking back, the historical partnerships between Apple and IBM didn't believe an excellent music record. Taligent and Kaleida were total screw ups, whereas PowerPC didn't sustain with the tempo of the stronger market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony did not exactly transform the trade on any platform.

however modern-day Apple and IBM partake Little in ordinary with their archaic incarnations within the 1990s. Apple is now no longer handiest very a hit and ecocnomic, however has a digital lock on mobile business products, and in specific devices with a complicated native app edifice platform (as adverse to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform developed as an simple Java VM).

where Microsoft once ruled the commercial enterprise and partnered with a sequence of organizations that shut Apple out, it's now frantically trying to maintain the fame quo for windows (whilst its clients reject Microsoft's latest direction) as it flip flops between strategic directions in different markets.

From closing year's "contraptions and features" plan, which above flawless did not sell instruments, to its newest nebulous cloud routine that did not in fact articulate a specific approach at all, Microsoft is presently presiding over a stagnant market for accepted PCs that just about each market research company sees as being overtaken with the aid of pills, and specifically Apple's iPad.

That fact highlights another reality: considering that the iPad's debut in 2010, advertising corporations believe deliberately framed it as a gap equipment with out a feasible influence on notebook market, using selected statistics teased into conclusions that always flattered Microsoft even with the facts involved.

With an immense ally in IBM helping to promote its products, Apple will likely kisser much less brazenly deceptive media insurance denying the now clear and obvious shift occurring as time-honored PCs are replaced and augmented by greater cell--and plenty less complicated to manage--post computer instruments.


The plight of (pretty much) ‘Serverless Computing’ | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The definition of cloud computing may well live nebulous, but its plight is apparent. as an alternative of filling a warehouse with servers and paying people to control them, a corporation can pay a cloud computing issuer for computing supplies on exact and pay handiest for what it definitely makes consume of.

This prospect lured groups starting from startups to great corporations to stodgy executive companies onto cloud offerings from Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and others. those now smartly-established features may maintain corporations from buying and managing physical servers, but they Do not rather deliver on the dream of paying handiest for what you employ.

functions relish Amazon’s EC2 nevertheless require you to choose—and pay for—a certain quantity of computing supplies, together with reminiscence and community ability. that you may dial these components up or down as exact to your internet application alterations. however that might soundless proceed away you with much less computing energy than you want for a unexpected or unanticipated spike in traffic, leaving your app less conscious of users. So, many cloud customers comply with pay for more substances than they mechanically want.

Worse, these virtual servers soundless require consumers to Do lots of actual preservation, says Donald F. Ferguson, cofounder and CTO of video-streaming business Seeka tv and a professor of computing device science at Columbia college. for example, shoppers necessity to install safety updates and verify them to live certain they don't damage latest facets. Ferguson, who spent many years as a software architect for businesses together with Dell and Microsoft and helped create IBM’s application server WebSphere, says this consumes more time than you might consider. "for many projects, they would spend 20 p.c of their time managing cloud environments," he says.

it truly is why Seeka tv depends on a burgeoning routine to cloud computing that eliminates digital servers. The theory goes by the paradoxical identify of serverless computing. So-referred to as serverless services Do in fact dependence on servers. The change is that users don't exploit the servers. as a substitute of renting and managing digital servers, easily add the code you necessity to run, or the records you necessity to store, and pay for the substances you actually use. For the developer, the server is almost invisible.

Ferguson says about ninety nine percent of Seeka tv's code runs on serverless platforms. That’s reduced the time spent managing the cloud ambiance to almost zero, he says.

It’s not simply startups the usage of serverless. Motorola solutions uses serverless computing for some of its toil with legislation enforcement and public safeguard purchasers, says govt Andrew Sinclair. "Serverless services permit us to spend extra time on constructing original facets and less time on provisioning and managing servers," he says.

Cloud management enterprise Cloudability saw a nearly seven-fold enhance in serverless utilization amongst its clients in the remaining quarter of 2017, in comparison with the prior quarter, based on a report the company released past this 12 months. "everybody knows about serverless, and everyone is brooding about the spot to consume it," says Craig Lowery, research director at business evaluation enterprise Gartner.

'characteristic as a carrier'

Serverless computing has been around for years, however only recently has it develop into manageable to create complete applications in keeping with it. during the eventual decade, programmers believe shifted extra of the code for working purposes from servers to either your mobilephone or your browser. Many builders would opt for not to maintain servers for the few things that cannot sprint on the user’s device, relish facts storage and password authentication. The earliest serverless services, which were designed to exploit specific tasks, helped builders outsource these sorts of things. Amazon's storage carrier S3, as an instance, allows you to upload data devoid of caring about how many servers it live stored on, and pay most efficacious for what you employ. Twilio presents a provider that lets developers consume its computing infrastructure to ship textual content messages to clients, with out setting up or configuring selected servers. a newer service called Auth0 handles tasks relish password verification.

the first wave of serverless computing proved common with app developers, but builders soundless needed middling servers for lots of their customized code. That modified in 2014 with the launch of "characteristic-as-a-provider" choices relish Hook.io and Amazon Lambda, which permit developers to add miniature chunks of their own code, and pay simplest for the computing supplies that code consumes. That made it practicable for agencies relish Seeka television to dependence virtually solely on serverless computing.

counting on serverless computing presents challenges. For one, developers must write utility differently than in the event that they planned to sprint an software on a desktop or common cloud provider. and some capabilities, together with Amazon Lambda confine the size of a code equipment, that means builders of tremendous functions necessity to divide them into items. That’s complicated for present purposes, so serverless is more flawless for creating original applications which are built with this sort of modularity in intellect.

efficiency can moreover live an issue for serverless computing. a standard, server-based mostly software usually runs continuous, able to reply any question from a user. but services relish Lambda cease working code that isn't in consume and most efficacious load it lower back into reminiscence when it live obligatory. that may unhurried response time for users. further delays strengthen as distinctive serverless components discourse with one one more over a network. Sinclair says Motorola options shies far from serverless computing for purposes that necessity short responses after lengthy intervals of status of being inactive.

That potential there'll at flawless times live a market for extra established cloud computing services, says Mango Capital founder Robin Vasan, who has invested both in serverless organizations relish Netlify and businesses that tender equipment for managing greater common cloud functions. "I mediate serverless is the long run, however it's now not the future for everything," he says. "no longer each characteristic should soundless reside in a serverless framework."

Ferguson admits that serverless computing is rarely birthright for each difficulty, however says the kinds of efficiency concerns that Vasan describes are hardly ever an issue for Seeka television. Its code is used commonly satisfactory that Amazon Lambda hardly, if ever, has to nigh it down.

in the meantime, an ecosystem of tools is emerging to assist with the challenges of serverless computing. Motorola solutions uses a carrier called Twistlock to monitor protection of its serverless code, as an example.

Lowery and Ferguson liken serverless computing these days to "object-oriented programming," which made it less complicated for software builders to reuse code, in the Nineteen Eighties. It took time for builders to study the original approach, and for the equipment and other substances to mature. by means of the Nineteen Nineties, notwithstanding, it grew to live the default, however not exclusive, routine to programming. They feel serverless will comply with an analogous path.

"Any software that may moreover live made serverless, may live made serverless," Lowery says. "If it may not toil as serverless, then you definately'd study other options."

Ferguson's college students are already there. He soundless teaches students to build utility the consume of strategies other than serverless computing. "nevertheless it looks relish i'm punishing the students," he says. "as a result of serverless is so a lot less demanding."

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000-634 remonstrate Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test cognomen : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 72 real Questions

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2

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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester status CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working information of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the repercussion of remonstrate paradigm on software evolution activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key remonstrate technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who kisser a transition to remonstrate technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior information of object-oriented programming or information of remonstrate paradigm. general computer fluency and general information of issues associated with software and software evolution are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will live conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will live refined in to the detailed design smooth providing an occasion for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students spend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to consume the tool. Not using the CASE toll will develop it almost impossible to undergo hands-on flawless the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2

    Outline:

    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to live addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the edifice blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and consume casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and consume casesConstructing consume case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to live addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to live addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of consume casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining consume casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to live addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using status diagramsConcurrency, lively objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent status diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the necessity of status diagramsConstructing status diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to live addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other significant topics to live covered in this course:What to hope from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective consume of inheritance and polymorphism and their repercussion on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Conceptual Model (Part 2) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Conceptual Model

    Once we’ve some consume cases or user stories, the next thing they can Do is create a conceptual model of their system. It simply means you’re identifying the most significant objects.

    You shouldn’t live worried about software remonstrate birthright now, but more generically what are the things in the application that they necessity to live cognizant of.

    Things relish product, item, shopping cart, order, invoice, paycheck, spaceship, asteroid, level, that’s what we’re identifying here. Some of them will become actual classes and software object, but not flawless of them.

    The Process

    So, we’re going to identify those objects, start to refine them, and then draw them in a simple diagram. And they can moreover present the relationship and interactions between them.

    An Advice

    Creating a simple conceptual model for most applications is not and should not live a long process. A few hours spent on this is usually more than enough.

    Don’t worry about perfection. First time through it will live incomplete, and that’s absolutely unostentatious to miss out even significant objects, things that you will ascertain later on during programming.

    1. Identifying Objects

    What they Do is to start collecting their consume cases, user stories, and any other written requirements together.

    Now, they are going to identify the most significant parts of their software; the most significant things, or objects.

    Objects will live in form of nouns. Those are the candidate objects, some of them will live actual objects in the system, and the repose won’t, as you’ll notice later.

    Identifying objects

    You are just identifying the objects, you don’t resolve or arbitrator them. They moreover don’t worry about missing one, at the first spin, you may miss some objects, which is normal.

    2. Refining Objects

    After underlying on your candidate objects, you start refining them, you start choosing your actual objects that will live in the system. So, to Do that, …

    Refining objects
  • Remove any duplicates. They may find same objects with different names, but they actually stand for the same thing.
  • You may necessity to combine some objects, or, even splitting them into some other objects.
  • You may identify an assign as an remonstrate instead.
  • You may identify a conduct as an remonstrate instead.
  • An assign is a property or characteristic of the object. For example, when they instruct “A car is red”, red here is a property for the car, which is the actual object.

    A conduct is something an remonstrate can Do (responsibility). For example, when they say, “A bird can fly”, coast here is a behavior, while the bird is the actual object.

    You don’t believe to consume a lot of time refining your objects, don’t stare for perfection, it’s unostentatious to encounter some mistakes, or miss up some objects that will live figured out through the process.

    3. Drawing Objects

    What you necessity to Do now is using your pencil and paper, just draw the conceptual model by box flawless objects.

    There are some tools you may use, but for now, a pencil, and piece of paper are more than enough.

    Conceptual model 3. Identifying remonstrate Relationships

    You start witness the relationships between your objects.

    It’s very obvious that these objects will interact with each other. For example, a customer can spot an order, a student can enroll in a course, an admin can update a post, and so on.

    Drawing a line between objects, and writing the relationship verbs is enough to denote there is a relationship.

    Define remonstrate relationships 4. Identifying remonstrate Behaviors

    Behaviors are the things (verbs) the remonstrate can do, or, in other words, the responsibilities of an object, that will become the methods in their remonstrate class.

    So, they can proceed back to the consume case or a user story, and stare for verbs and verb phrases to pick responsibilities.

    Identifying remonstrate behaviors (responsibilities)

    Things relish verifies items, provides payment and address, process sale, validate payment, substantiate order, provide order number, check order status, and forward order details email.

    Now, not flawless of these will become behaviors, some will live combined, some will necessity to live split apart, and some will just not live needed or live replaced by something else, but they are a suitable starting point.

    Assigning responsibilities Whose Responsibility Is This?

    What isn’t always obvious is where these responsibilities belong, particularly if they move different objects. It’s because the consume case describes what initiates a behavior, not necessarily who’s liable to perform that behavior.

    So, even though it’s the customer who wants to know the status of the order, it’s the responsibility of the order to check it’s status. The customer should hope the order remonstrate to report it’s own status.

    When you hope whose responsibility is this? Always bethink that an remonstrate should live liable for itself.

    The Generic Verbs

    We can change the generic verb provide to set and score instead to develop it clear for what they are trying to do.

    The “System” Object

    Now, here’s another issue that often comes up. It’s common to notice phrases relish “system” validates payment or “system”will forward the customer an email at consume cases, and that can lead to people creating a system remonstrate and putting a huge amount of responsibilities in it.

    These phrases really stand for that some portion of this system validates payment, some portion of this system will forward an email, and it’s their job to figure out what portion of the system should live liable for that behavior.

    The God Object

    If you believe an remonstrate that has a lot of responsibilities, chances are, you are doing it wrong.

    You may necessity to re-think about the responsibility of each object, and divide the responsibilities among the objects. bethink that an remonstrate should live liable for itself as much as possible.

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) Cards

    Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) is another technique for organizing the objects.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, portion 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first portion of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined routine dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where sunder vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second significant aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most relish subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" nature inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will convoke this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the conduct that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can live said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can live establish in the Linux kernel, and flawless can live seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but moreover the least flexible, is to declare a union as one component of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained blank until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is moreover sort of clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every original filesystem implementation needs to add an extra domain to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not look relish a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will live the same size and will live great enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will notice shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 evolution series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u moreover added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only designate reminiscence to store its own structure without any necessity to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to live solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always spot the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of nature safety and makes it harder to order fields in the inode to score optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to consume the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to consume this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the rare name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a original container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more nature safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to live liable for allocating the inode - it could no longer live allocated by common code as the common code did not believe enough information to designate the reform amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As celebrated earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding original filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more domain that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer domain called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and designate a sunder structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced original problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it moreover required writing more error-handling code. moreover there was reminiscence used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra reminiscence dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often necessity to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra reminiscence dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad consume of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is soundless in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only route to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux involve files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data nature by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could live converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an efficacious vehicle to interject these three patterns they Do not panoply the replete scope of any of them so it is useful to stare further afield and notice what else they can learn.

    A survey of the consume of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide sweep of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a miniature fixed number of subtypes of the basis nature and there is Little expectation of more being added. A simple specimen of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file assign information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the dissimilarity encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever live extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal nature has a different nature of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to live the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should live considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really depict different subtypes of a basis type, or is it just one nature with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at flawless except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to deal flawless usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to develop a choice. So the respond is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they convoke it as long as they know where to consume each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly present that when flawless of the variants are understood by a sole module, then a union is a very commandeer mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely sunder pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The consume of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an specimen of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so simple to classify. It would probably live objective to instruct that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can live very useful but they can moreover lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you stare at a void pointer, relish looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is relish a "goto destination" command - almost mindless without reading lots of context.

    Examining flawless the different uses that void pointers can live do to would live well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one original usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it difficult to recognize their consume in data inheritance. The specimen they will consume to intricate this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it simple to synthesize simple text files relish some of those in /proc. The "seq" portion of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a sole line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a original seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data domain of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward specimen of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the basis nature and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private domain which is a void pointer and it can live used by clients of seq_file to add extra status to the file. For specimen md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private domain of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a sole pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private domain itself. This certainly seems relish a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a sole pointer would live a consume - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you stare at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To develop it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being relish a union of every different practicable pointer type. If the value that needs to live stored is a pointer, it can live stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a sole pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they notice a void pointer being used it may not live obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally live embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure soundless has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private consume by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will live realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a obstruct device which stores your filesystem might live realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't necessity to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would live embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which consume this field, one appears to succeed that end while the other two consume it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to live used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can live intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they believe seen in two different circumstances, they may not live used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly profound examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a stare at struct page may live interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden sort of due to historical baggage. This specimen is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux reminiscence is divided into pages, and these pages are do to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to respond kmalloc() requests. Others are simply portion of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to live used. Each of these different consume cases could live seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases necessity some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the efficacious nature of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of reminiscence change over time - the nature of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many nature systems are designed assuming that the nature of an remonstrate is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very real necessity for nature mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first smooth of subtyping there are only a miniature number of different subtypes as listed above; these are flawless known to the core reminiscence management code, so a union would live pattern here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over flawless three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in consume has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private domain that can live used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this domain actually store a pointer here and believe to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and score this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative specimen of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can live used, and where the list of practicable subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to live increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a replete understanding of it they will again necessity to explore a Little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly nosy going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second consume is the data inheritance embedding that they believe already discussed. The third is relish it but importantly different. This third consume is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The consume of an embedded anchor relish struct list_head can live seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a sole remonstrate can believe several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they involve the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to mediate of this sort of embedding more relish a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can live mixed-in to other objects, an capricious number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not live shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every remonstrate with an independent existence will believe a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more categorical struct kref. When an remonstrate is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could live buried quite deeply. For specimen a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn live embedded in a structure for some specific device) does believe a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These believe no reference counter, believe no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when do this way, it is useful to bethink that a sole remonstrate cannot believe two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to believe two counters relish s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can toil is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It moreover means that, when designing a data structure, it is significant to mediate about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should believe its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an remonstrate in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really original and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an significant dissimilarity with void pointers is that it is relatively simple to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to live a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the birthright conclusion early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing original instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally designate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to live allocated by the lowest smooth device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode specimen from above which has an alloc_inode() routine in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous consume of a piece of reminiscence is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when they know that the reminiscence was previously used for some other inode. They notice this same pattern of an initializer function sunder from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can live recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the consume of routine dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns look to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost flawless data inheritance could live implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very significant and the capacity to delegate methods to a related remonstrate can live valuable.

    We moreover find that there are patterns in consume with Little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may believe an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can antecedent confusion, and could nearly always live replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to witness default conduct is similarly a indigent preference - when the default is significant there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is moreover a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to back help their mind, and pursue the latter to back help the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might live of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now consume structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not live necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was celebrated in the text, struct seq_file can live extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. intricate how seq_open_private() allows this structure to moreover live extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an specimen by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". consider submitting a patch if this appears to live an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a remonstrate to accommodate fields that not flawless users are interested in. This can witness that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can live represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could live a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general consume of the proposed open() routine for inodes might back here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an remonstrate model that would meet flawless the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

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