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000-634 protest Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2
Vendor name : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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IBM protest Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the rigor and necessities, as opposed to a solution. as an example, if a new online trading gadget is favored, how will it's used? What are its functions?

"evaluation" is a huge term, most responsible certified, as in requirements analysis (an investigation of the necessities) or object-oriented analysis (an investigation of the belt objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual respond (in application and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in status of its implementation. for instance, an silhouette of a database schema and application objects. Design concepts frequently exclude low-degree or "obtrusive" particulars—obtrusive to the reputed buyers. finally, designs may too subsist applied, and the implementation (reminiscent of code) expresses the genuine and comprehensive realized design.

As with evaluation, the term is highest property certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

useful analysis and design were summarized within the phrase carry out the revise aspect (evaluation), and carry out the component revise (design).

UNICOM Nabs Versant for Object-Oriented Databases | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

UNICOM increased into the thing oriented database records realm this month when it announced plans to purchase Versant, a publicly traded developer of a few object-oriented databases, for roughly $32 million.

situated in 1988 as protest Sciences Corp., Versant turned into an early proponent of protest oriented databases, which store statistics as objects. protest database management methods (ODBMS) convey performance advantages over relational database management systems (RDBMS) in powering functions that are written in protest oriented languages and require storing of intricate objects.

Versant’s first product was the Versant protest Database (VOD), which began to benefit steam in the early Nineties and continues to subsist actively developed nowadays. VOD runs on Unix, Linux, and home windows working methods, and excels at running functions with lofty concurrency and efficiency requirements akin to trading systems, telecom community management techniques, airline and resort reservation programs, and risk evaluation for banks, based on the Wikipedia entry on Versant.

Versant changed its identify to Versant protest technology in 1993, went public on the NASDAQ change in 1996, and altered its name to Versant Corp. in 1999. In 2004, it bought poet software, the German developer of an ODBMS called FastObjects. In 2008 Versant got one other ODBMS, called db40, which is an open supply ODBMS undertaking based in 2000 via Carl Rosenberger.

today, Versant continues to sell and enhance VOD, FastObjects, and db40. The enterprise has struggled to generate income over the ultimate a yoke of years, as revenues gain dropped from $25.three million in 2008 to about $16.three million final yr. The business, which is based mostly in Redwood metropolis, California, has remained profitable, despite the fact, and continues to strengthen new application and are seeking for new consumers and OEM partnerships with ISVs.

Versant’s board accepted the sale to UNICOM. The deal requires Versant shareholders to subsist paid $eleven.50 per tolerable share, a 17 % premium on Versant’s closing cost on September 28. The transaction is expected to complete earlier than the conclusion of Versant’s latest quarter ending January 31, 2013. Versant is free to searching for option deals through October 29.

“This merger will carry premium value and liquidity to Versant’s shareholders. Versant is worked up to accomplice with UNICOM to proceed to extend the business’s market management place,” cited Versant president and CEO Bernhard Woebker in a statement.

The sentiment become echoed by course of Corry Hong, founder, president, and CEO of Mission Hills, California-based UNICOM, who stated that Versant’s Redwood city and Hamburg places of toil “will boost their current presence in both California and Germany.”

UNICOM has bought a few application organizations over the final a number of years, together with SoftLanding systems, a developer of exchange management application for the IBM i server.

connected studies

UNICOM Wheels and deals for two Public companies

UNICOM Acquires ITSM and z/OS utility companies

UNICOM Loses enchantment of SoftLanding Lawsuit

SoftLanding announces Sale on New IBM i package

UNICOM Loses in courtroom, Forces SoftLanding clients to upgrade

UNICOM Acquires Macro four, Sees i OS Synergy with SoftLanding equipment

SoftLanding programs got by CICS professional Unicom systems

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Frenemies: a quick tradition of Apple and IBM Partnerships | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

even though Apple and IBM gain had their participate of fights through the years, this week's deal is not their first pairing.

IBM Apple Merger

Steve Jobs battled a number of tech rivals, however within the early 80s, his ire become largely directed at IBM. The skilled squabble dates again to at the least 1981 with Apple's "Welcome, IBM. seriously" ad, and reputedly ended simply the day before today with a joint constrict to bring IBM's commerce software to iOS gadgets later this 12 months. but whereas the corporations gain certainly clashed over the closing 30 years, yesterday's pairing was no longer the primary time these two behemoths gain teamed up.

Take AIMJust 10 years after the primary salvo changed into fired between Apple and IBM, the two joined with Motorola in 1991 to boost a common for the PowerPC structure that could depart towards the Microsoft-Intel Wintel alliance. The Apple-Intel-Motorola (purpose) crew took IBM's energy instruction set architecture and turned it into a client-pleasant version that became manufactured by IBM and Motorola and used in Apple's Macintosh line from 1994 to 2006, when Apple - to which Jobs returned in 1997 - transitioned to Intel-based machines.

"it subsist been ten years because their transition to the PowerPC, and they believe Intel's technology will champion us create the most efficient own computers for the next ten years," Jobs noted in asserting the circulate.

From OS to Oh NoIn the late 80s, Apple become working on an object-oriented working device, codenamed red. nevertheless it become having challenge pulling it everything together. within the wake of the plane alliance, Apple grew to become to IBM for information, and purple was reborn as a joint undertaking called Taligent with IBM's Joe Guglielmi at the helm.

The Taligent evolution team worked away for two years, eventually switching from an object-oriented OS to an object-oriented programming environment that could toil on any modern OS. however despite pilot from Hewlett-Packard, Taligent everything but fizzled by means of the mid-90s. Guglielmi left the company for Motorola in 1995, and after his successor, Dick Guarino, died of a heart assault later that 12 months, Taligent grew to become simply a different IBM subsidiary. It turned into officially dissolved in 1998.

Bullet and a TargetAfter being spurned with the aid of Microsoft on an protest linking and embedding undertaking, Apple approached IBM about working on it together in 1992. It resulted in the OpenDoc word-processing software and browser but did not gain what it took to depart in opposition t Java. When he back to Apple, Jobs "put a bullet through [OpenDoc's] head," as he spoke of.

The Enemy of My EnemyIn the ultimate 20 years, Apple and IBM gain taken sunder paths. IBM jettisoned its computing device company and focused firmly on the business, making headlines along the course for its synthetic intelligence toil on Watson. Apple, in the meantime, grew to become a buyer darling, with shoppers lining as much as nab the company's newest telephones and pills. via coming lower back collectively, though, Apple delves further into the enterprise with a colleague it truly is intimate in that area, whereas IBM receives to proffer up items with a inevitable "cool" factor and tap into the Apple mystique.

For greater, check out Apple and IBM Bury the Hammer and IBM and Apple imply company.

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 2

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MET CS 770 Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Last updated: November 13, 2002 Recent updates are often in red.

Contacting Eric Braude changed if this is red Materials changed if this is red Forums changed if this is red Overview changed if this is red Grading changed if this is red Project Organization changed if this is red Homework and Due Dates changed if this is red        Phase 3 Required Background changed if this is red Learning Objectives changed if this is red Syllabus and Dates for Classes changed if this is red Overview

A major engineering problem today is the predictable evolution of responsible software-intensive systems. The object-oriented paradigm is an principal piece of such development.

Object-oriented methods can subsist divided into languages, distribution, and analysis and design. There change in the language category, particularly Java and C#. Distribution includes the utilize of vendor libraries of classes and too distributed objects as specified by the protest Management Group etc.  Basic to the entire enterprise, however, are analysis and design, which has remained remarkable stable for years. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design includes the overall goals of the protest paradigm, the selection of classes, the relationships among them, and their utilization to implement systems.

Required Background

A erudition of C++ or Java (MET CS 565) and software engineering methods (MET CS 673) are required.   It is preferable to gain taken Design Patterns (MET CS 665).

Materials and references

The recommended textbook is “Applying UML and Patterns: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, and the Unified Process ” by Larman (Prentice Hall) 2nd edition, Published July 2001, 627 pages, ISBN 0130925691.  This is the first time that this instructor has used this book, and it is not transparent how much the book will subsist used.

The instructor will provide notes for everything classes.

Other references:

  • The Unified Modeling Language User pilot by Booch et al (Prentice Hall) ISBN0-201-57168-4
  • The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch Addison-Wesley Pub Co; ISBN: 020130998X
  • Design Patterns by Gamma et al
  • Object-Oriented Software Engineering by I Jacobson
  • Object-Oriented Analysis & Design by G. Booch
  • Modeling the world in data by S. Schlaer and S. Mellor
  • Modeling the world in states by S. Schlaer and S. Mellor
  • The Unified mode draft
  • Object-oriented Analysis by P. Coad and E. Yourdon
  • Object-oriented Design by P. Coad and E. Yourdon
  • Object-oriented Programming by P. Coad and A Nicola
  • Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric Braude
  • Learning Objectives

    Students will subsist able to …

  • … analyze problems from an protest perspective
  • … create OO designs which are ready for coding
  • … implement a pilot OO project
  • Grading

    The course will consist of homework and a project, weighted as follows:

    1.      Homework:                  30%

    2.      Project:                        70%

    There are three phases for the project, graded as follows:

  • phase 1 (problem statement):                            1/9
  • phase 2 (analysis):                                             2/9
  • phase 3 (design):                                               1/3
  • phase 4 (implementation and faultfinding review): 1/3
  • Parts are evaluated equally unless otherwise stated.

    Late homework is not accepted unless there is a intuition why it was impossible for you. If there is such an impossibility, the toil will subsist graded on a pass/fail basis.

    Project Organization

    You will subsist required to submit an analyzed, designed and implemented project according to the deadlines shown in the schedule. circumstantial requirements will follow.

    With the instructor’s permission, it may subsist possible to substitute everything or piece of the project with an investigation of tools for OOA&D such as Rational Rose or Together.  This will require a circumstantial evaluation and an investigation of how these tools are being used extensively in a particular company.

    Teams two are permitted, and will subsist evaluated at a higher standard. everything members must know everything parts.

    You will subsist required to give a presentation on at least two of the phases in your project.


    This syllabus is theme to about 15% modification.

    The order of topics will subsist driven by the notes, which the instructor will hand out, not by the textbook. The textbook will serve as background and reference.

    Wk. Date Topic Text



    Times are approximate.  view “date homework due” section for final dates

    1 9/3
  • Review Syllabus
  • Review Software evolution Process
  • Notes 0-1 Phase 1 assigned 2 9/10
  • Introduction, Overview, and Goals of Design
  • UML as required
  • Extreme programming and refactoring
  • Notes 1-3 3 9/17
  • Requirements I: utilize Cases
  • Notes 13 piece 1 Presentations;

    Assign facet 2

    4 9/24
  • Requirements II: Sequence Diagrams
  • Notes 13 piece 2 Phase 1 due; 5 10/1
  • Requirements III:  Completing Domain Classes
  • Writing circumstantial Requirements
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 13 piece 3

    Larman 10

    6 10/8 Notes 14 piece 1 Assign facet 3 7 10/22 To subsist determined Presentations; facet 2 due; 8 10/29
  • Review Design Patterns as required
  • Discussion of Tools
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 4-6 9 11/5
  • Frameworks
  • Review Student Designs
  • Presentations on architectures 10 11/12
  • Design Topics
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 14 piece 2 Assign facet 4

    Phase 3 due

    11 11/19 Presentations on circumstantial designs 12 11/26
  • Detailed Design
  • Review Student Designs
  • Presentations 13 12/3
  • Implementing OO designs
  • Shlaer-Mellor
  • Presentation of results (1 of 2) 14 12/10
  • Presentations on Finished Applications
  • Phase 4 due Presentation of results (2 of 2)
  • Notes are from Software Design (Braude, to subsist published by Wiley in March 2002)
  • ** Applying UML and Patterns: … (Larman)
  • Dates Homework is due

    Num-ber Name Due date Project facet 1 9/24 1 “Design Issues” 9/17 1 3.4 (Pass Fail) 9/17 Project facet 2: (10/2/2002


    1.Attach first a copy of your facet 1.  Respond specifically to whatever comments I may gain made on your facet 1.   You can write these directly on the copy.


    Show the sequence diagrams for at least the two utilize cases you gain introduced.  Key them to the utilize case steps, which you should number.3.List requirements by “domain class” paragraphs, including

    — The testable functionality that the application will definitely accomplish

    –What you would enjoy to gain the application accomplish if time permits

    Criterion: a. Requirements clearly written. (A = very transparent description of application’s goals; no detail omitted)

    4.Provide a class diagram for your project consisting of everything of the domain classes as well as the domain packages that you will use.


    b. Clarity and completeness Sufficiency of key classes for committed requirements and utilize cases (A = very transparent class meanings; no domain class missing no other domain classes required)

    g. Economy (A = no redundancy at everything in the class model)

    Here are some typical improvements.

    Most room for improvement

    1.      sequel your domain names specific to your application; e.g., PetStoreTransaction, FootballGame, FootballTeam rather than Transaction or Game or Team.

    2.      utilize the “entities” section correctly.  This applies when there are specific entities that the application is required to have. It does not include entities that will subsist created at runtime that you can’t specify entirely at requirements time.

    3.      Many internal classes gain corresponding GUI classes.  For example, PetStoreAccount entities may gain their data from a PetStoreAccountGUI entity.  Specify the latter in its own category rather than under PetStoreAccount.

    4.      In your requirements, distinguish between the initiator and the burden of functionality.

    For example, under “Courses” a functionality might subsist “12.1.5 The application shall subsist able to panoply the catalog description of each course in the following format …”  (Corresponds to class Course).  Under the “Course GUI” paragraph an event might subsist “When the panoply course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.”  Under the “Student GUI” paragraph an event might subsist “When the panoply course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.” Etc.

    Do not notify “12.1.5 When the panoply course button is pressed on the Course GUI, the application can panoply the catalog description of each course in the following format …”  Otherwise you will gain a maintenance nightmare and a needy mapping to the design and implementation.


    Room for improvement

    1. Most







    objects are not sensitive to events unless they are GUI objects.  Buttons are examples.  Many objects gain functionality that may subsist invoked as a result of an event on an

    other object.  For example, a customer’s information may subsist displayed when the button is clicked.  But “display” is a duty of Customer: Any one of clients can invoke it, some event-sensitive and others not.  The protest with (direct) event reaction is the button, not the customer.

    2. In your requirements document, don’t notify “The customer shall include a name …” (which is peculiar English).  Instead: “The application shall maintain the name of customers ….”

    3. Distinguish between objects and protest aggregates.  For example, you could gain a “Customers” requirements paragraph with functionality such as “App shall subsist able to ship a customer profile to the central database.”  This will correspond to a class Customer.  You could too gain a “Customer List”  paragraph with functionality such as “It shall subsist possible to add new customers …”  This will correspond to a class such as CustomerList.

    4. Don’t squander words. In particular, give a sentence or two under each paragraph that adds value.


    1.4 Customers

    This section describes the requirements for customers.


    1.4 Customers

    The application shall track the customers of the video store as follows. …


    10/22 3 Clown problem 10/9/02

    Draw a class model for an application for drawing human figures.  The picture shown is a typical product of the application.  The figures are always neck-upward; mouths are always lines, necks always rectangles, etc. – the shapes that materialize in the figure.  Assume that the commerce will never change — but they want to subsist able to easily upgrade the shop’s capability within these constraints (e.g., draw necks with various colors, new kinds of margin lines).  The class model should sequel motif drawing convenient (e.g., allowing the retrieval of previously constructed motif parts). panoply attributes or operations whenever they clarify your solution.  include useful abstractions (but to extend the current business).

    There is no requirement to remove into account the GUI for the application (icons, menu’s etc.)

    Here is a scenario:

    The user … pulls onto the monitor “abeLincolnFace14” (which excludes the ears and neck)

    … adds “ear123” on the left by dragging to its vicinity and releasing

    The application places ear123 in a revise position

    The user invokes the “complete with suitable parts” command.

    The application

    … completes the motif with a neck and hat that it considers most suitable.

    … creates an ear on the right, complete with matching position, interior texture and color, and styles of margin lines

    Criteria: a. completeness relative to requirements (A = sufficient classes for requirements, including confiscate generalizations)

    b. economy of classes (A = no more than necessary for requirements)

    10/29 4 14.1 – 14.6 11/5 see more below see below

    Project facet 3: Due 11/12

    1.  Attach a copy of your facet 2 as graded by me, with specific responses to whatever comments I may gain made on your facet 2.

    2. Provide a class diagram for your project, showing inheritance and aggregation.  panoply key methods, key dependencies, and inheritance and aggregation.   utilize your packages and Facades to avoid a sole overwhelming figure.

    3. panoply at least one additional model that completes your design.


    a. Clarity of the model (A = very transparent class meanings; very transparent organization; no unnecessary details)

    b. Adequacy of class model for effecting the requirements.  (A= circumstantial enough to clearly allow an implementation that satisfies the requirements.)

    g. Completeness **** of models to specify the entire design. (A=right models selected; clearly no gaps in description)

    Most room for improvement

    1. If you utilize a data flood diagram, bespeak the data types that flow.

    2. If you utilize a data flood diagram, bespeak the functionality at each processing node.

    3. In the interest of clarity, panoply the relationships among the packages.  You can employ <<uses>> relationships.  Omit the classes from such a figure.

    Room for improvement

    1. In this course they did not give meaning to solid lines with arrows.  define what you add up to by them, or don’t utilize them.

    2. subsist specific about associations: carry out you add up to two-way aggregations?

    3. You gain introduced a class whose name does not bespeak a transparent purpose and which is not a domain class.  define it’s purpose.

    A microscopic room for improvement

    1. …..

    Project facet 4:     Due 12/10

    Section 1 Attach Phases 2 and 3. Response to my comments on facet 3. ( not graded, but required)

    Section 2 panoply representative input and output.

    Section 3 define the application of everything of the steps covered in the notes — define if they did not apply.

    (criterion: a. Clarity and completeness — A = everything apropos steps thoroughly implemented where applicable and explained where not)

    Section 4 Provide a complete class diagram and other confiscate model(s), pile on the models you submitted for facet 3.

    (criterion: b. clarity and completeness — A = very clearly chosen and arranged models)

    Section 5 Account of the degree to which you accomplished your requirements as given in facet 2.  tickle mention to them by number (e.g., 11.3.5).

    (criterion: g. degree of accomplishment.  A = excellent functional capabilities for a graduate course)

    Section 6. Source code.

    (d. criterion: clarity — A = extremely transparent layout & code; each piece easily traceable to the corresponding design element)

    Please …

    note that your class diagrams and code must subsist consistent;

    indicate everything differences with prior design decisions;

    indicate everything sections using numbered tabs (e.g., Post-it notes)

    Forums — past and present

    Fall 2001

    Fall 2002 email to the group is:

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, piece 2 | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps needs you!

    Without subscribers, LWN would simply not exist. tickle consider signing up for a subscription and helping to hold LWN publishing

    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first piece of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined mode dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where sunder vtables were eschewed in preference for storing duty pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second principal aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The configuration that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most enjoy subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" nature inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will muster this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the conduct that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can subsist said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can subsist establish in the Linux kernel, and everything can subsist seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but too the least flexible, is to declare a union as one ingredient of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained vacuous until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is too fairly clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra territory to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not look enjoy a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will subsist the identical size and will subsist large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will view shortly. The second is a actual problem and the generic ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 evolution progression this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u too added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate remembrance to store its own structure without any requisite to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to subsist solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first rigor is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always status the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of nature safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to gain optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to utilize the list_entry() macro to fulfill the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to utilize this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the peculiar name. This rehearse lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the identical functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more nature safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second rigor was that the filesystem had to subsist responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer subsist allocated by common code as the common code did not gain enough information to allocate the revise amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more territory that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer territory called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a sunder structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it too required writing more error-handling code. too there was remembrance used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra remembrance dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often requisite to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra remembrance dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad utilize of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is quiet in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the identical purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only course to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data nature by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could subsist converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effectual vehicle to interlard these three patterns they carry out not panoply the plenary scope of any of them so it is useful to behold further afield and view what else they can learn.

    A survey of the utilize of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide sweep of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a wee fixed number of subtypes of the base nature and there is microscopic expectation of more being added. A simple illustration of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file assign information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the disagreement encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the identical information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever subsist extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal nature has a different nature of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to subsist the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not transparent whether these examples should subsist considered as the identical pattern as the original struct inode. carry out they really depict different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one nature with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not champion variant types at everything except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to deal everything usages of union as a configuration of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to sequel a choice. So the respond is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they muster it as long as they know where to utilize each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly panoply that when everything of the variants are understood by a sole module, then a union is a very confiscate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to mention to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely sunder pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The utilize of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an illustration of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so facile to classify. It would probably subsist objective to notify that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can subsist very useful but they can too lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you behold at a void pointer, enjoy looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is enjoy a "goto destination" command - almost purposeless without reading lots of context.

    Examining everything the different uses that void pointers can subsist Put to would subsist well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their utilize in data inheritance. The illustration they will utilize to define this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it facile to synthesize simple text files enjoy some of those in /proc. The "seq" piece of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a sole line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data territory of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward illustration of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base nature and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private territory which is a void pointer and it can subsist used by clients of seq_file to add extra condition to the file. For illustration md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private territory of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a sole pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to mention to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private territory itself. This certainly seems enjoy a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a sole pointer would subsist a squander - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you behold at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To sequel it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being enjoy a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to subsist stored is a pointer, it can subsist stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a sole pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they view a void pointer being used it may not subsist obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally subsist embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure quiet has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private utilize by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will subsist realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a shroud device which stores your filesystem might subsist realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't requisite to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would subsist embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which utilize this field, one appears to result that purpose while the other two utilize it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to subsist used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately transparent that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is transparent is that an apparently "private" void pointer can subsist intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they gain seen in two different circumstances, they may not subsist used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly profound examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a behold at struct page may subsist interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden fairly due to historical baggage. This illustration is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux remembrance is divided into pages, and these pages are Put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to respond kmalloc() requests. Others are simply piece of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to subsist used. Each of these different utilize cases could subsist seen as a subtype of the generic class of "page", and in most cases requisite some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the identical struct page describing it, so if the effectual nature of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of remembrance change over time - the nature of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many nature systems are designed assuming that the nature of an protest is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very actual requisite for nature mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first plane of subtyping there are only a wee number of different subtypes as listed above; these are everything known to the core remembrance management code, so a union would subsist exemplar here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over everything three, thus hiding the actual structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in utilize has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private territory that can subsist used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the identical size and this is one of them. Most users of this territory actually store a pointer here and gain to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and gain this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative illustration of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can subsist used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to subsist increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a plenary understanding of it they will again requisite to explore a microscopic bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly poignant going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second utilize is the data inheritance embedding that they gain already discussed. The third is enjoy it but importantly different. This third utilize is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The utilize of an embedded anchor enjoy struct list_head can subsist seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a sole protest can gain several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to consider of this sort of embedding more enjoy a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can subsist mixed-in to other objects, an capricious number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the being of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not subsist shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every protest with an independent being will gain a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more categorical struct kref. When an protest is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could subsist buried quite deeply. For illustration a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in gyrate subsist embedded in a structure for some specific device) does gain a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These gain no reference counter, gain no independent being and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when Put this way, it is useful to remember that a sole protest cannot gain two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to gain two counters enjoy s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only configuration of multiple inheritance that can toil is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It too means that, when designing a data structure, it is principal to consider about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should gain its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an protest in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an principal disagreement with void pointers is that it is relatively facile to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to subsist a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() duty is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to subsist allocated by the lowest plane device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode illustration from above which has an alloc_inode() mode in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() champion functions. The first of these is used when the previous utilize of a piece of remembrance is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when they know that the remembrance was previously used for some other inode. They view this identical pattern of an initializer duty sunder from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can subsist recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.


    In exploring the utilize of mode dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns look to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost everything data inheritance could subsist implemented using structure embedding, unions provide actual value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very principal and the talent to delegate methods to a related protest can subsist valuable.

    We too find that there are patterns in utilize with microscopic to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may gain an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can occasions confusion, and could nearly always subsist replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to bespeak default conduct is similarly a needy selection - when the default is principal there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is too a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to actual problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to encourage help their mind, and pursue the latter to encourage help the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might subsist of interest to some.

  • As inodes now utilize structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not subsist necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can subsist extended both through "void pointer" and a limited configuration of "union" data inheritance. define how seq_open_private() allows this structure to too subsist extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an illustration by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". consider submitting a patch if this appears to subsist an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a protest to accommodate fields that not everything users are interested in. This can bespeak that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can subsist represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could subsist a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more generic utilize of the proposed open() mode for inodes might encourage here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an protest model that would meet everything the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very principal reasons. The first is that I continually dash across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't add up to that you gain the talent to transform that erudition into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I view many data-processing shops ship COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and hope miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and establish that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second intuition for the stress on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people enjoy language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's Put Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must champion the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to subsist defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and conduct (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an protest born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks new to the protest world are in attendance, I often utilize the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the protest (which I reliance supports a gnaw operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation name and its input parameter types (the revert type, if any, is not piece of the operation's signature).

    Good programming rehearse encourages developers to declare everything attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. motif 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The motif uses a common eggshell metaphor to relate the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could behold enjoy this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { revert true; } public long calcTotalValue() { revert 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { revert orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { revert orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = new Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a gain and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common rehearse to provide these accessor-type operations for everything attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to subsist a JavaBean, it would gain to gain "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the mode code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try shroud exists at the finish of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console panoply to freeze so that you can view the results.

    If you nature in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite evolution utensil or from the command prompt with

    javac //* to compile it java order //* to dash it

    you should gain results that behold enjoy this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0


    Going forward, I plight you will view no code samples with class, operation, or assign names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can too gain what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would depart right after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any actual instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic illustration of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an protest is created with the New keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused illustration is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level assign can subsist used to store information that everything instances of that class may access. This assign might be, for example, a count of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that everything instances might requisite to reference.

    Java and intricate Types (Java Reference Types)

    A intricate type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to subsist declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must subsist defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then subsist used to store actual protest instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder protest is created, a message can subsist sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the talent to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will view that toil is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous sage suggested, just saw that a language requires everything to subsist packaged in classes doesn't add up to that the class design will subsist robust, let lonely correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the utilize of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of nature Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer protest in Java would behold enjoy this:


    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy course of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures gain no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more principal later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this book depend heavily on classes and the messaging that takes status between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should subsist done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its talent to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should carry out so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, everything attributes of a class should subsist declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can cover how it derives its assign values. If the orderTotal assign is stored in the Order object, the corresponding gain operation defined previously looks enjoy this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would subsist invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = New Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the assign orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding gain operation for orderTotal within Order will behold enjoy this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } revert totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains everything the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will subsist invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = new Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class quiet has an orderTotal attribute. However, you gain hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the identical (hey, I gain an orderTotal that you can inquire of me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they carry out commerce has changed and now they must derive orderTotal enjoy this). This kindhearted of resiliency is one of the compelling commerce reasons to utilize an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited intuition for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a transparent distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will subsist responsible for implementing everything of the mode code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no mode or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, utilize the mode code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may pick to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each nature of inheritance should subsist scrutinized and used in the confiscate setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The base class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The base class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with microscopic or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a large number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the base class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the frangible base class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not tarry common as the commerce evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the conduct of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the identical operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming gain gained tremendous momentum.

    As this book evolves, keeping in mind the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will subsist helpful. Examples of both constructs will subsist presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to remove edge of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you gain two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would quiet gain an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize everything attributes and operations defined in Order. This will subsist done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the talent to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may too add completely new conduct if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being responsible for the mode code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface subsist specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous illustration with Order, let's assume that this system will accommodate many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that requisite the talent to expense themselves. remember from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is microscopic or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to reckon tax, to reckon an extended price, and to reckon a total price. Let's muster the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and allot them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the missive I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual conduct of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must include the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for everything of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any mode code for some of the operations, you quiet must gain the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the identical time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The New Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will carry out for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could notify that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in name but too in signatures) but proffer variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the talent of two different classes each to gain an operation that has the identical signature, while having two very different forms of mode code for the operation. Note that to remove edge of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must subsist involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the identical name as another routine will occasions a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might gain an operation with the identical signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application remove edge of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this book is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will subsist a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each nature of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will subsist an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the ancestor class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would bow the identical benefits and subsist implemented in the identical fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and subsist able to add new products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can sequel calcEOQ() polymorphic. To carry out this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an ancestor class can subsist treated as an instance of that ancestor class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a sound type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will champion an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to reckon the tolerable economic order quantity for everything products the company sells. To carry out this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to gain each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } revert totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory gain a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? remember the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an ancestor class can subsist treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which protest should gain its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a new nature of Product—say, Organ—it will subsist totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will quiet gain a collection of Product types, but it will gain four different ones instead of three, each of which will gain its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the protest in question will subsist identified and the revise "variety" of the operation will subsist invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.

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