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: 105 actual Questions

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IBM remonstrate Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented evaluation and Design | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the booklet 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the vicissitude and necessities, in preference to an answer. as an instance, if a recent online trading gear is desired, how will it subsist used? What are its services?

"analysis" is a large time period, surest qualified, as in requirements evaluation (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in software and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, rather than its implementation. for example, a description of a database schema and application objects. Design concepts regularly exclude low-degree or "evident" particulars—glaring to the intended consumers. eventually, designs can subsist implemented, and the implementation (akin to code) expresses the proper and complete realized design.

As with analysis, the term is optimal qualified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

positive analysis and design had been summarized within the phrase Do the appropriate aspect (evaluation), and Do the element remedy (design).

Python GUI Programming initiatives using Tkinter and Python three - Simpliv | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Object-Oriented evaluation And Design — Introduction (half 1) | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The conception Of Object-Orientation

Object-orientation is what’s called a programming paradigm. It’s now not a language itself however a group of ideas it's supported by many languages.

in case you aren’t prevalent with the ideas of object-orientation, you may prefer a glance on the epic of Object-Oriented Programming.

If every thing they Do in these languages is object-oriented, it capacity, we're oriented or focused around objects.

Now in an object-oriented language, this one gigantic application will in its set subsist crack up aside into self contained objects, basically infatuation having a few mini-classes, every remonstrate representing a different a piece of the software.

and every remonstrate consists of its personal information and its own logic, and that they communicate between themselves.

These objects aren’t random. They signify the way you speak and assume concerning the vicissitude you are trying to remedy for your actual life.

They signify issues infatuation personnel, images, pecuniary institution bills, spaceships, asteroids, video phase, audio files, or whatever thing exists for your application.

Object-Oriented analysis And Design (OOAD)

It’s a structured system for analyzing, designing a gadget with the aid of applying the article-orientated ideas, and strengthen a group of graphical gadget fashions during the construction life cycle of the application.

OOAD within the SDLC

The application existence cycle is usually divided up into degrees going from summary descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

The earliest ranges of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.

The inequity between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

In evaluation developers work with users and district experts to define what the gadget is meant to do. Implementation particulars are purported to subsist in general or completely left out at this phase.

The aim of the analysis piece is to create a mannequin of the device regardless of constraints reminiscent of applicable technology. this is usually completed via expend situations and abstract definition of the most faultfinding objects using conceptual model.

The design angle refines the evaluation mannequin and applies the necessary technology and other implementation constrains.

It makes a speciality of describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should occupy the entire particulars required so that programmers can set in constrain the design in code.

They’re most useful performed in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t performed as soon as, they can revisit and refine these steps at every sole times.

Object-Oriented analysis

within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: define what does the software requisite to do, and what’s the vicissitude the utility trying to solve.
  • Specify necessities: portray the necessities, usually, the usage of expend cases (and scenarios) or consumer studies.
  • Conceptual model: determine the significant objects, refine them, and contour their relationships and habits and draw them in a simple diagram.
  • We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the ultimate one. These are already explained in element in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis section identifies the objects, their relationship, and conduct using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).

    whereas in design section, they portray these objects (by creating classification diagram from conceptual diagram — continually mapping conceptual model to ilk diagram), their attributes, habits, and interactions.

    besides making expend of the utility design ideas and patterns which can subsist coated in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is supplied with the aid of the output of object-oriented evaluation. but, analysis and design may additionally ensue in parallel, and the results of 1 undertaking may moreover subsist used by means of the different.

    within the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the courses and their relationships the usage of classification diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects the expend of sequence diagram.
  • observe utility design concepts and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visible illustration of the courses you want. And birthright here is where you procure to subsist in fact certain about object-oriented ideas infatuation inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects allows you to superior uphold in mind the obligations of the distinctive objects, the behaviors they requisite to have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many different diagrams they will expend to model the gadget from distinctive views; interactions between objects, constitution of the gadget, or the habits of the system and how it responds to routine.

    It’s at every sole times about determining the birthright diagram for the remedy need. build positive to understand which diagrams could subsist advantageous when brooding about or discussing a condition that isn’t clear.

    system modeling and the diverse models they are able to expend may subsist mentioned next.

    equipment Modeling

    device modeling is the method of developing models of the system, with every mannequin representing a different perspectives of that device.

    probably the most faultfinding aspect a couple of device mannequin is that it leaves out aspect; It’s an summary representation of the equipment.

    The models are continually according to graphical notation, which is almost always in keeping with the notations within the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other models of the system infatuation mathematical mannequin; a particular gear description.

    fashions are used during the analysis system to attend to elicit the necessities, birthright through the design process to portray the gear to engineers, and after implementation to doc the gadget structure and operation.

    distinctive perspectives

    We may additionally increase a model to characterize the device from distinctive perspectives.

  • external, the set you model the context or the ambiance of the system.
  • interaction, the set you mannequin the interplay between components of a system, or between a gear and other programs.
  • Structural, the set you mannequin the solid of the equipment, or the structure of the information being processed by using the device.
  • Behavioral, the set you model the dynamic conduct of the system and how it respond to activities.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language eddy into the ordinary modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, besides the fact that children, probably the most diagrams which are ordinary are:

  • Use case diagram: It indicates the interplay between a gear and it’s ambiance (users or methods) inside a specific condition.
  • type diagram: It indicates the discrete objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It suggests the interactions between the different objects in the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a equipment.
  • State machine diagram: It suggests how the device reply to exterior and inside movements.
  • pastime diagram: It indicates the flow of the facts between the tactics in the equipment.
  • that you would subsist able to Do diagramming work on paper or on a whiteboard, as a minimum within the initial tiers of a mission. however there are some diagramming tools on the way to aid you to attract these UML diagrams.

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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 1

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    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Who does this thing? Does it occupy any benefit? If I Do this, will my boss assume that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? occupy these thoughts ever near to your mind when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

    It is moreover possible that you occupy tried designing some piece of software before, but you found that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might occupy had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and simple to read.

    In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you occupy failed terminal time.

    What Will You Learn?
  • Why your terminal design attempt failed
  • How to handle your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software development process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the inequity between functions and variables
  • You will not subsist overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might vow after reading the terminal line. "No remonstrate oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They every sole know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not build you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not build you a obliging software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).


    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the very as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I scholarly about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just scholarly everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I moreover noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked infatuation such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not resolve it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I scholarly about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a chilly thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will near up with code using your designs (which will build you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling utensil that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and procure rich infatuation Bill Gates. Awesome.


    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, simple to extend, and simple to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a epoch of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I scholarly subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to proper every sole things together until very late.

    Still, I notice people struggling with these concepts, unable to proper things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending every sole this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should subsist a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will partake some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can expend in your next project.

    Introduction to Software development Process Models

    We every sole expend some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I expend is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and call them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software development process models that I occupy studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you Do every sole the things in the very exact sequence as written above. First, every sole the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics bid us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may occupy heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not infatuation the final product, then every sole the pains (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software development process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile development processes.

    The concept of iterative development is simple. Software development is organized into a string of diminutive projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the remain of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic inequity between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now expend iterative development process models, as the understanding is to minimize blow (months vs. weeks).

    Why I requisite to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something infatuation that: I design everything in the dawn and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the remain user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will occupy to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is significant to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for every sole the requirements at the beginning. build a particular design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should expend an iterative development process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not faultless and will subsist changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the significance of process models in object-oriented design. I moreover mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In piece 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most significant object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 handicap of OOP that every developer would treasure to occupy in his or her code

  • To learn more about remonstrate oriented programming visit here.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, piece 1 | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad expend of some techniques from the sphere of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to expend these object-oriented techniques receive petite uphold or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to Do really chilly things, and equally the flexibility to Do really slow things, and it isn't always lucid at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must hunt to established drill to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established drill is not always as simple as one might infatuation and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that pains on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional string on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which outcome an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic learning of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to subsist found elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will hunt for patterns in just two areas: method dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their discrete simplicity they lead to some rich veins for investigation. This first article will focus on method dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The large variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to suggest that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit infatuation "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you procure down to details people can find they occupy very different ideas. While what it means to subsist "oriented" might not subsist clear, what they subsist of value by an "object" does seem to subsist uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both condition and behavior. An remonstrate is infatuation a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members mention to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These office members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious way to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which prefer a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for method "foo" in remonstrate "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the dominant pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a petite later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect every sole the methods for a particular class of objects into a separate structure, sometimes known as a "virtual office table" or vtable. The remonstrate then has a sole pointer to this table rather than a separate pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a unadulterated vtable being a structure which contains only office pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the remonstrate type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two office pointers each of which prefer a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four office pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples panoply an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the remonstrate (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not every sole of which are vtables of some sort. There are moreover several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but Do not occupy particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to hunt for acute patterns. In particular they can hunt for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of remonstrate expend in Linux.

    NULL office pointers

    The first observation is that some office pointers in some vtables are allowed to subsist NULL. Clearly trying to call such a office would subsist futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an categorical test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to warrant is the incremental development reason. Because of the way vtable structures are initialized, adding a recent office pointer to the structure definition causes every sole existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is possible to add a caller of the recent method before any instance supports that method, and occupy it check for NULL and achieve a default behavior. Then as incremental development continues those vtable instances which requisite it can procure non-default methods.

    A recent case is confide 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent confide 42ab616afe8844 defines that method for a particular device. This is simply the most recent case of a very common theme.

    Another common reason is that certain methods are not particularly meaningful in certain cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an appropriate oversight when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() office in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically occupy NULL for the create() office (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final reason that vtables sometimes contain NULL is that an element of functionality might subsist being transitioned from one interface to another. A obliging case of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a recent method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the broad kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when every sole drivers and filesystems had been converted to expend unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle case of this is read() and aio_read(), moreover in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to uphold asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to subsist no aim of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not pertinent such as special filesystems infatuation procfs and sysfs. So it is still the case that only one of each pair requisite subsist defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there seem to subsist several different reasons for a NULL office pointer, almost every case is an case of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful method case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to recur an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would subsist to prefer the kernel lock and then call the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to bespeak a default.

    With that in mind, a petite reflection suggests that if the actual goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would subsist to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C standard assures us that uninitialized members of a structure Do procure set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to subsist initialized multiple times with only the final value taking outcome and that this allows simple setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the diminutive cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any sphere can easily subsist chosen when the sphere is first created, and automatically included in every expend of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults simple to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the office pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and offshoot rather than to build an indirect office call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not proper practice. In the more common case when the office pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a blow of code space and a blow of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can build every sole call sites a petite bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a method can subsist seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the conduct of the lower plane driver rather than simply giving the driver license to behave in whatever way is most suitable. This may not always subsist an expensive mistake, but it is still best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a lucid pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes subsist NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the call sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will occupy noticed a cavity in the above logic denouncing the expend NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well subsist justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an case of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a cognomen in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is separate from the inode because a sole file can occupy multiple names (so an "inode" can occupy multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the cognomen to guide the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems Do not requisite this flexibility. They handle names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to handle case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations expose to subsist obliging candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might subsist appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a couple of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to bespeak whether the common default should subsist used, or whether the office should subsist called. As the flag sphere is likely to subsist in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often subsist not needed at all, this avoids a memory fetch in a torrid path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL office pointer to bespeak a default could subsist justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to bespeak that the default method is requested.

    Members other than office pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel contain exclusively office pointers, there are a significant minority that occupy non-function-pointer fields. Many of these expose on the surface quite arbitrary and a few closer inspections suggest that some of them result of indigent design or bit-rot and their removal would only ameliorate the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides actual value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most general figure in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables occupy string names, some occupy numeric names, and it is often called something different infatuation "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is still a name. In the present case there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while piece of the very functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying understanding here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to subsist usable, it must subsist registered in some way so that it can subsist found. Further, once it has been found it must subsist possible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There seem to subsist nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding tough patterns there would subsist a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to subsist treated as the primary handle on a particular implementation of an interface and to occupy an "owner" pointer which can subsist used to procure a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of office pointers used as a "vtable" for remonstrate method dispatch should normally contain only office pointers. Exceptions require lucid justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and possible other fields such as a cognomen and a list pointer. These fields are used to uphold the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will subsist treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often subsist declared as a const structure and so could even subsist stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common divergence from the "pure vtable" pattern that they notice in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the office is not always the very remonstrate type. In a unadulterated vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each office is exactly that data structure. What reason could there subsist for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more acute than others.

    The simplest and least acute explanation is that, for no discrete reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For case every sole functions in struct fb_ops prefer a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this choice and it is unlikely to discombobulate developers. It is only a problem for data miners infatuation your author who requisite to filter it out as an extraneous pattern.

    A slight divergence on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions prefer a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily subsist defined to prefer a struct rfkill and simply to follow the ->data link itself. This divergence is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably discombobulate developers as well as data miners and so should subsist avoided.

    The next divergence in seen for case in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These prefer an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the remonstrate they belong to are singletons. There is only one lively platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is piece of the global condition and so does not requisite to subsist included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very acute they are left with two that Do serve to bid us something about remonstrate expend in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the discrete primary remonstrate (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these recent structures add recent operations. In each case the recent operations figure a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't every sole act on the very remonstrate simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the proper may not subsist faultless - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the understanding of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very proximate to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to subsist on the lookout for mixins infatuation these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to subsist alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they found where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already occupy their own "operations" structure. When an remonstrate has a large number of operations that are pertinent and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into separate vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a diminutive set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often found in the kernel and appears to subsist quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The terminal pattern which explains non-uniform office targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops every sole appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a tough hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may occupy a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which every sole of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to subsist loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to Do that, and it is probably the very mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to Do in each case.

    In drill that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are moreover significant differences and being able to encode those differences in separate vtables can subsist helpful. Sometimes diminutive symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored infatuation the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can build the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally apt that the antithetical extreme is not ideal either. The struct page in Linux does not occupy a vtable pointer at every sole - in piece because they want to uphold the structure as diminutive as possible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly possible to occupy operations structures attached to a parent of the target remonstrate - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so lucid that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the profit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the profit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given office pointer could subsist stored, the actual choice is in many cases petite more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to subsist largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For case in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to prefer a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to subsist in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to include them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not trip them every sole there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are still a lot of them and removing the "d_op" sphere could deliver 5% of the memory used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every lively filesystem only has a sole dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations infatuation "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one lively per super-block. So it would seem that the operations in dentry_operations could subsist moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems expend different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily subsist made in per-superblock versions of these operations. Do these cases warrant the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded office pointers

    Finally it is appropriate to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where office pointers are stored directly in the remonstrate rather than in a separate vtable structure. This pattern can subsist seen in struct request_queue which has nine office pointers, struct efi which has ten office pointers, and struct sock which has six office pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an remonstrate (in most cases) so if more than one office pointer is needed, a vtable would deliver space. The cost of a vtable is an extra memory reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable moreover has a cost of flexibility. When each remonstrate needs exactly the very set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a requisite to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded office pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the comment with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of office pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded office pointers are used instead of a separate vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine every sole the pattern elements that they occupy found in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular ilk of remonstrate are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can moreover appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may subsist selectable independently of the basis ilk of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" remonstrate when doing so avoids the requisite for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the remonstrate when there are few method pointers, or they requisite to subsist individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely contain anything other than office pointers, though fields needed to register the remonstrate class can subsist appropriate. Allowing these office pointers to subsist NULL is a common but not necessarily ideal technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they occupy found that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It moreover contains concepts not normally found in object-oriented languages such as delegating remonstrate methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence build it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second piece of their examination of remonstrate oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and dispute the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to notice where each is most appropriate.

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    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very significant reasons. The first is that I continually race across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't subsist of value that you occupy the skill to transform that learning into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I notice many data-processing shops send COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and expect miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and found that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second reason for the accent on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people infatuation language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's set Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must uphold the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to subsist defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and conduct (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an remonstrate born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks recent to the remonstrate world are in attendance, I often expend the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the remonstrate (which I reliance supports a champ operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation cognomen and its input parameter types (the recur type, if any, is not piece of the operation's signature).

    Good programming drill encourages developers to declare every sole attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. design 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The design uses a common eggshell metaphor to portray the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could hunt infatuation this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { recur true; } public long calcTotalValue() { recur 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { recur orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { recur orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { recur orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = recent Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a procure and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common drill to provide these accessor-type operations for every sole attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to subsist a JavaBean, it would occupy to occupy "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the method code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try screen exists at the remain of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console panoply to freeze so that you can notice the results.

    If you ilk in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite development utensil or from the command prompt with

    javac //* to compile it java order //* to race it

    you should procure results that hunt infatuation this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0


    Going forward, I promise you will notice no code samples with class, operation, or mention names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can moreover occupy what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would recede birthright after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any actual instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic case of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an remonstrate is created with the recent keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused case is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level mention can subsist used to store information that every sole instances of that class may access. This mention might be, for example, a weigh of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that every sole instances might requisite to reference.

    Java and intricate Types (Java Reference Types)

    A intricate type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to subsist declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must subsist defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then subsist used to store actual remonstrate instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder remonstrate is created, a message can subsist sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the skill to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will notice that work is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous epic suggested, just adage that a language requires everything to subsist packaged in classes doesn't subsist of value that the class design will subsist robust, let alone correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the expend of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of ilk Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer remonstrate in Java would hunt infatuation this:


    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy way of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures occupy no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more significant later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this bespeak rely heavily on classes and the messaging that takes set between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should subsist done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its skill to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should Do so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, every sole attributes of a class should subsist declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can cloak how it derives its mention values. If the orderTotal mention is stored in the Order object, the corresponding procure operation defined previously looks infatuation this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { recur orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would subsist invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = recent Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the mention orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding procure operation for orderTotal within Order will hunt infatuation this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } recur totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains every sole the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will subsist invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = recent Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class still has an orderTotal attribute. However, you occupy hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the very (hey, I occupy an orderTotal that you can put a question to me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they Do commerce has changed and now they must derive orderTotal infatuation this). This kind of resiliency is one of the compelling commerce reasons to expend an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited reason for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a lucid distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will subsist answerable for implementing every sole of the method code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no method or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, expend the method code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may choose to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each ilk of inheritance should subsist scrutinized and used in the appropriate setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The basis class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The basis class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with petite or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a large number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the basis class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the frangible basis class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not remain common as the commerce evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the conduct of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the very operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming occupy gained tremendous momentum.

    As this bespeak evolves, keeping in mind the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will subsist helpful. Examples of both constructs will subsist presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to prefer handicap of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you occupy two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would still occupy an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize every sole attributes and operations defined in Order. This will subsist done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the skill to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may moreover add completely recent conduct if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being answerable for the method code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface subsist specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous case with Order, let's assume that this system will contain many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that requisite the skill to charge themselves. recall from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is petite or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to calculate tax, to calculate an extended price, and to calculate a total price. Let's call the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and assign them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the note I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual conduct of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must include the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for every sole of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any method code for some of the operations, you still must occupy the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the very time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The recent Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will Do for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could vow that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in cognomen but moreover in signatures) but present variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the skill of two different classes each to occupy an operation that has the very signature, while having two very different forms of method code for the operation. Note that to prefer handicap of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must subsist involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the very cognomen as another routine will antecedent a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might occupy an operation with the very signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application prefer handicap of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this bespeak is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will subsist a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each ilk of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will subsist an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the forebear class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would relent the very benefits and subsist implemented in the very fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and subsist able to add recent products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can build calcEOQ() polymorphic. To Do this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an forebear class can subsist treated as an instance of that forebear class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a valid type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will uphold an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to calculate the indifferent economic order quantity for every sole products the company sells. To Do this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to procure each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } recur totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory occupy a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? recall the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an forebear class can subsist treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which remonstrate should procure its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a recent ilk of Product—say, Organ—it will subsist totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will still occupy a collection of Product types, but it will occupy four different ones instead of three, each of which will occupy its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the remonstrate in question will subsist identified and the remedy "variety" of the operation will subsist invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.

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