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: 105 real Questions

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IBM expostulate Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the engage 

analysis emphasizes an investigation of the issue and necessities, as opposed to an answer. for example, if a brand new on-line buying and selling rig is preferred, how will it's used? What are its functions?

"analysis" is a broad time period, optimum certified, as in requirements analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented analysis (an investigation of the locality objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in application and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in site of its implementation. as an instance, an outline of a database schema and utility objects. Design ideas frequently exclude low-stage or "obvious" particulars—glaring to the conjectural consumers. eventually, designs can besides be applied, and the implementation (comparable to code) expresses the proper and finished realized design.

As with analysis, the time period is most suitable qualified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

valuable evaluation and design were summarized in the phrase achieve the correct aspect (evaluation), and achieve the ingredient prerogative (design).


UNICOM Nabs Versant for Object-Oriented Databases | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

UNICOM increased into the article oriented database facts realm this month when it announced plans to purchase Versant, a publicly traded developer of a number of object-oriented databases, for roughly $32 million.

established in 1988 as expostulate Sciences Corp., Versant turned into an early proponent of expostulate oriented databases, which hold records as objects. expostulate database administration techniques (ODBMS) deliver performance merits over relational database administration programs (RDBMS) in powering functions that are written in expostulate oriented languages and require storing of tangled objects.

Versant’s first product turned into the Versant expostulate Database (VOD), which begun to gain steam in the early Nineties and is still actively developed nowadays. VOD runs on Unix, Linux, and home windows working programs, and excels at working functions with extravagant concurrency and performance necessities such as buying and selling structures, telecom community management techniques, airline and revolve reservation techniques, and risk evaluation for banks, in keeping with the Wikipedia entry on Versant.

Versant changed its identify to Versant expostulate know-how in 1993, went public on the NASDAQ change in 1996, and altered its identify to Versant Corp. in 1999. In 2004, it obtained rhymester application, the German developer of an ODBMS referred to as FastObjects. In 2008 Versant obtained an extra ODBMS, known as db40, which is an open source ODBMS project headquartered in 2000 via Carl Rosenberger.

these days, Versant continues to promote and enhance VOD, FastObjects, and db40. The company has struggled to generate sales over the last a number of years, as revenues suffer dropped from $25.3 million in 2008 to about $16.three million final yr. The enterprise, which is based mostly in Redwood city, California, has remained ecocnomic, despite the fact, and continues to develop new utility and are seeking for new shoppers and OEM partnerships with ISVs.

Versant’s board accepted the sale to UNICOM. The deal requires Versant shareholders to be paid $eleven.50 per typical share, a 17 percent top rate on Versant’s closing expense on September 28. The transaction is anticipated to complete earlier than the conclusion of Versant’s existing quarter ending January 31, 2013. Versant is free to are seeking choice offers through October 29.

“This merger will bring top rate price and liquidity to Versant’s shareholders. Versant is jubilant to associate with UNICOM to proceed to expand the enterprise’s market management position,” stated Versant president and CEO Bernhard Woebker in a statement.

The sentiment changed into echoed through Corry Hong, founder, president, and CEO of Mission Hills, California-based UNICOM, who celebrated that Versant’s Redwood city and Hamburg workplaces “will multiply their current presence in both California and Germany.”

UNICOM has obtained a few utility companies over the closing several years, including SoftLanding systems, a developer of alternate management utility for the IBM i server.

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UNICOM Loses enchantment of SoftLanding Lawsuit

SoftLanding declares Sale on New IBM i package

UNICOM Loses in court docket, Forces SoftLanding valued clientele to upgrade

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Frenemies: a quick history of Apple and IBM Partnerships | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

although Apple and IBM suffer had their share of fights over the years, this week's deal isn't their first pairing.

IBM Apple Merger

Steve Jobs battled a yoke of tech opponents, however within the early 80s, his ire changed into generally directed at IBM. The professional squabble dates returned to as a minimum 1981 with Apple's "Welcome, IBM. critically" advert, and apparently ended just the day past with a joint agreement to deliver IBM's commercial enterprise utility to iOS instruments later this 12 months. but whereas the organizations suffer certainly clashed over the closing 30 years, the day gone by's pairing changed into not the first time these two behemoths suffer teamed up.

Take AIMJust 10 years after the primary salvo become fired between Apple and IBM, the two joined with Motorola in 1991 to strengthen a common for the PowerPC structure that could depart towards the Microsoft-Intel Wintel alliance. The Apple-Intel-Motorola (intention) group took IBM's power instruction set architecture and grew to become it into a customer-pleasant edition that become manufactured through IBM and Motorola and utilized in Apple's Macintosh line from 1994 to 2006, when Apple - to which Jobs back in 1997 - transitioned to Intel-based mostly machines.

"or not it's been ten years when you account that their transition to the PowerPC, and they believe Intel's expertise will abet us create the most efficient own computers for the subsequent ten years," Jobs said in asserting the movement.

From OS to Oh NoIn the late 80s, Apple become engaged on an object-oriented operating gadget, codenamed crimson. but it was having main issue pulling complete of it together. within the wake of the purpose alliance, Apple turned to IBM for suggestions, and crimson changed into reborn as a joint job called Taligent with IBM's Joe Guglielmi at the helm.

The Taligent construction team worked away for 2 years, eventually switching from an object-oriented OS to an object-oriented programming ambiance that would drudgery on any modern OS. however regardless of advocate from Hewlett-Packard, Taligent complete but fizzled by means of the mid-90s. Guglielmi left the company for Motorola in 1995, and after his successor, Dick Guarino, died of a heart assail later that year, Taligent grew to be just yet another IBM subsidiary. It was formally dissolved in 1998.

Bullet and a TargetAfter being spurned by Microsoft on an expostulate linking and embedding challenge, Apple approached IBM about engaged on it collectively in 1992. It resulted within the OpenDoc be aware-processing program and browser but failed to suffer what it took to prance against Java. When he lower back to Apple, Jobs "put a bullet through [OpenDoc's] head," as he noted.

The Enemy of My EnemyIn the last twenty years, Apple and IBM suffer taken sever paths. IBM jettisoned its laptop enterprise and focused firmly on the business, making headlines alongside the manner for its ersatz intelligence drudgery on Watson. Apple, in the meantime, grew to become a customer darling, with clients lining as much as nab the business's latest phones and drugs. with the aid of coming lower back together, although, Apple delves additional into the enterprise with a partner it is universal in that space, whereas IBM receives to present up products with a inevitable "cool" aspect and faucet into the Apple mystique.

For greater, prefer a witness at Apple and IBM Bury the Hammer and IBM and Apple intimate enterprise.


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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1

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Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, allotment 1 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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June 1, 2011

This article was contributed by Neil Brown

Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad exhaust of some techniques from the bailiwick of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to exhaust these object-oriented techniques receive tiny advocate or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to achieve really cool things, and equally the flexibility to achieve really stupid things, and it isn't always transparent at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must witness to established drill to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established drill is not always as simple as one might like and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that pains on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional progression on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which upshot an object-oriented style of programming.

Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic lore of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to be institute elsewhere on the web.

Over two weeks they will witness for patterns in just two areas: method dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their transparent simplicity they lead to some loaded veins for investigation. This first article will focus on method dispatch.

Method Dispatch

The great variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to intimate that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit like "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you come by down to details people can find they suffer very different ideas. While what it means to be "oriented" might not be clear, what they connote by an "object" does seem to be uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both state and behavior. An expostulate is like a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members refer to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These duty members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

The most obvious passage to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which prefer a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for method "foo" in expostulate "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the preeminent pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a tiny later.

As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect complete the methods for a particular class of objects into a sever structure, sometimes known as a "virtual duty table" or vtable. The expostulate then has a lone pointer to this table rather than a sever pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

This then leads to their first pattern - a simple vtable being a structure which contains only duty pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the expostulate type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two duty pointers each of which prefer a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four duty pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples panoply an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the expostulate (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not complete of which are vtables of some sort. There are besides several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but achieve not suffer particularly helpful names.

Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to witness for fascinating patterns. In particular they can witness for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of expostulate exhaust in Linux.

NULL duty pointers

The first observation is that some duty pointers in some vtables are allowed to be NULL. Clearly trying to muster such a duty would be futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an explicit test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to justify is the incremental progress reason. Because of the passage vtable structures are initialized, adding a new duty pointer to the structure definition causes complete existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is viable to add a caller of the new method before any instance supports that method, and suffer it check for NULL and accomplish a default behavior. Then as incremental progress continues those vtable instances which necessity it can come by non-default methods.

A recent case is confide 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent confide 42ab616afe8844 defines that method for a particular device. This is simply the most recent case of a very common theme.

Another common judgement is that inevitable methods are not particularly meaningful in inevitable cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an preempt oversight when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() duty in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically suffer NULL for the create() duty (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

A final judgement that vtables sometimes hold NULL is that an ingredient of functionality might be being transitioned from one interface to another. A righteous case of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a new method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the Big kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when complete drivers and filesystems had been converted to exhaust unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

A slightly more subtle case of this is read() and aio_read(), besides in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to advocate asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to be no goal of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not apropos such as special filesystems like procfs and sysfs. So it is still the case that only one of each pair necessity be defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

Though there seem to be several different reasons for a NULL duty pointer, almost every case is an case of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful method case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to revert an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would be to prefer the kernel lock and then muster the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to argue a default.

With that in mind, a tiny reflection suggests that if the real goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would be to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C gauge assures us that uninitialized members of a structure achieve come by set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to be initialized multiple times with only the final value taking upshot and that this allows simple setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

#define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the minuscule cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any bailiwick can easily be chosen when the bailiwick is first created, and automatically included in every exhaust of the structure.

Not only are meaningful defaults simple to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the duty pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and fork rather than to fabricate an circuitous duty call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not gardenvariety practice. In the more common case when the duty pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a squander of code space and a squander of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can fabricate complete muster sites a tiny bit smaller and simpler.

In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a method can be seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the deportment of the lower even driver rather than simply giving the driver license to behave in whatever passage is most suitable. This may not always be an expensive mistake, but it is still best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a transparent pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes be NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the muster sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

The observant reader will suffer noticed a cavity in the above logic denouncing the exhaust NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well be justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an case of such a case for their examination.

One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a name in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is sever from the inode because a lone file can suffer multiple names (so an "inode" can suffer multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the name to usher the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems achieve not necessity this flexibility. They treat names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to maneuver case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations appear to be righteous candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might be appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a yoke of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to argue whether the common default should be used, or whether the duty should be called. As the flag bailiwick is likely to be in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often be not needed at all, this avoids a reminiscence fetch in a sharp tangy path.

So they find that the one case where using a NULL duty pointer to argue a default could be justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to argue that the default method is requested.

Members other than duty pointers

While most vtable-like structures in the kernel hold exclusively duty pointers, there are a significant minority that suffer non-function-pointer fields. Many of these appear on the surface quite arbitrary and a few closer inspections intimate that some of them result of penniless design or bit-rot and their removal would only ameliorate the code.

There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides real value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most generic profile in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables suffer string names, some suffer numeric names, and it is often called something different like "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is still a name. In the present case there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

The "list", while allotment of the same functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying belief here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to be usable, it must be registered in some passage so that it can be found. Further, once it has been institute it must be viable to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

There seem to be nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding tenacious patterns there would be a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to be treated as the primary maneuver on a particular implementation of an interface and to suffer an "owner" pointer which can be used to come by a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

So the pattern they find here is that a structure of duty pointers used as a "vtable" for expostulate method dispatch should normally hold only duty pointers. Exceptions require transparent justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and viable other fields such as a name and a list pointer. These fields are used to advocate the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will be treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often be declared as a const structure and so could even be stored in read-only memory.

Combining Methods for different objects

A final common divergence from the "pure vtable" pattern that they perceive in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the duty is not always the same expostulate type. In a simple vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each duty is exactly that data structure. What judgement could there be for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more fascinating than others.

The simplest and least fascinating explanation is that, for no transparent reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For case complete functions in struct fb_ops prefer a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this choice and it is unlikely to fuddle developers. It is only a problem for data miners like your author who necessity to filter it out as an extraneous pattern.

A slight divergence on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions prefer a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily be defined to prefer a struct rfkill and simply to ensue the ->data link itself. This divergence is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably fuddle developers as well as data miners and so should be avoided.

The next divergence in seen for case in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These prefer an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the expostulate they belong to are singletons. There is only one lively platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is allotment of the global state and so does not necessity to be included in the arguments of any functions.

Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very fascinating they are left with two that achieve serve to display us something about expostulate exhaust in the kernel.

quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the transparent primary expostulate (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these new structures add new operations. In each case the new operations profile a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't complete act on the same expostulate simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the fit may not be flawless - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the belief of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very near to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

Once they know to be on the lookout for mixins like these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to be alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they institute where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already suffer their own "operations" structure. When an expostulate has a great number of operations that are apropos and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into sever vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a minuscule set of dedicated operations.

So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often institute in the kernel and appears to be quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

The last pattern which explains non-uniform duty targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops complete appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

There is a tenacious hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may suffer a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which complete of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to be loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to achieve that, and it is probably the same mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to achieve in each case.

In drill that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are besides primary differences and being able to encode those differences in sever vtables can be helpful. Sometimes minuscule symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored like the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can fabricate the code a lot more readable.

While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally proper that the contradictory extreme is not model either. The struct page in Linux does not suffer a vtable pointer at complete - in allotment because they want to hold the structure as minuscule as viable because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

It is clearly viable to suffer operations structures attached to a parent of the target expostulate - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so transparent that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the profit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the profit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

As there are several vtable structures where any given duty pointer could be stored, the actual choice is in many cases tiny more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to be largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For case in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to prefer a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to be in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to comprise them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not prance them complete there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are still a lot of them and removing the "d_op" bailiwick could reclaim 5% of the reminiscence used by that structure (on x86-64).

With two exceptions, every lively filesystem only has a lone dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations like "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one lively per super-block. So it would seem that the operations in dentry_operations could be moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems exhaust different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily be made in per-superblock versions of these operations. achieve these cases justify the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

Directly embedded duty pointers

Finally it is preempt to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where duty pointers are stored directly in the expostulate rather than in a sever vtable structure. This pattern can be seen in struct request_queue which has nine duty pointers, struct efi which has ten duty pointers, and struct sock which has six duty pointers.

The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an expostulate (in most cases) so if more than one duty pointer is needed, a vtable would reclaim space. The cost of a vtable is an extra reminiscence reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable besides has a cost of flexibility. When each expostulate needs exactly the same set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a necessity to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded duty pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the comment with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

/* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

So where objects are not very populous, where the list of duty pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded duty pointers are used instead of a sever vtable.

Method Dispatch Summary

If they combine complete the pattern elements that they suffer institute in Linux they find that:

Method pointers that operate on a particular ilk of expostulate are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can besides appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may be selectable independently of the ground ilk of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" expostulate when doing so avoids the necessity for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the expostulate when there are few method pointers, or they necessity to be individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely hold anything other than duty pointers, though fields needed to register the expostulate class can be appropriate. Allowing these duty pointers to be NULL is a common but not necessarily model technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they suffer institute that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It besides contains concepts not normally institute in object-oriented languages such as delegating expostulate methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence fabricate it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second allotment of their examination of expostulate oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and argue the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to perceive where each is most appropriate.

    (Log in to post comments)

    MET CS 770 Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Last updated: November 13, 2002 Recent updates are often in red.

    Contacting Eric Braude changed if this is red Materials changed if this is red Forums changed if this is red Overview changed if this is red Grading changed if this is red Project Organization changed if this is red Homework and Due Dates changed if this is red        Phase 3 Required Background changed if this is red Learning Objectives changed if this is red Syllabus and Dates for Classes changed if this is red Overview

    A major engineering problem today is the predictable progress of trustworthy software-intensive systems. The object-oriented paradigm is an primary allotment of such development.

    Object-oriented methods can be divided into languages, distribution, and analysis and design. There change in the language category, particularly Java and C#. Distribution includes the exhaust of vendor libraries of classes and besides distributed objects as specified by the expostulate Management Group etc.  Basic to the entire enterprise, however, are analysis and design, which has remained remarkable stable for years. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design includes the overall goals of the expostulate paradigm, the selection of classes, the relationships among them, and their utilization to implement systems.

    Required Background

    A lore of C++ or Java (MET CS 565) and software engineering methods (MET CS 673) are required.   It is preferable to suffer taken Design Patterns (MET CS 665).

    Materials and references

    The recommended textbook is “Applying UML and Patterns: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, and the Unified Process ” by Larman (Prentice Hall) 2nd edition, Published July 2001, 627 pages, ISBN 0130925691.  This is the first time that this instructor has used this book, and it is not transparent how much the engage will be used.

    The instructor will provide notes for complete classes.

    Other references:

  • The Unified Modeling Language User usher by Booch et al (Prentice Hall) ISBN0-201-57168-4
  • The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch Addison-Wesley Pub Co; ISBN: 020130998X
  • Design Patterns by Gamma et al
  • Object-Oriented Software Engineering by I Jacobson
  • Object-Oriented Analysis & Design by G. Booch
  • Modeling the world in data by S. Schlaer and S. Mellor
  • Modeling the world in states by S. Schlaer and S. Mellor
  • The Unified method draft www.rational.com
  • Object-oriented Analysis by P. Coad and E. Yourdon
  • Object-oriented Design by P. Coad and E. Yourdon
  • Object-oriented Programming by P. Coad and A Nicola
  • Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric Braude
  • Learning Objectives

    Students will be able to …

  • … analyze problems from an expostulate perspective
  • … create OO designs which are ready for coding
  • … implement a pilot OO project
  • Grading

    The course will consist of homework and a project, weighted as follows:

    1.      Homework:                  30%

    2.      Project:                        70%

    There are three phases for the project, graded as follows:

  • phase 1 (problem statement):                            1/9
  • phase 2 (analysis):                                             2/9
  • phase 3 (design):                                               1/3
  • phase 4 (implementation and captious review): 1/3
  • Parts are evaluated equally unless otherwise stated.

    Late homework is not accepted unless there is a judgement why it was impossible for you. If there is such an impossibility, the drudgery will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

    Project Organization

    You will be required to submit an analyzed, designed and implemented project according to the deadlines shown in the schedule. circumstantial requirements will follow.

    With the instructor’s permission, it may be viable to substitute complete or allotment of the project with an investigation of tools for OOA&D such as Rational Rose or Together.  This will require a circumstantial evaluation and an investigation of how these tools are being used extensively in a particular company.

    Teams two are permitted, and will be evaluated at a higher standard. complete members must know complete parts.

    You will be required to give a presentation on at least two of the phases in your project.

    Syllabus:

    This syllabus is subject to about 15% modification.

    The order of topics will be driven by the notes, which the instructor will hand out, not by the textbook. The textbook will serve as background and reference.

    Wk. Date Topic Text

    chapters

    Project

    Times are approximate.  perceive “date homework due” section for final dates

    1 9/3
  • Review Syllabus
  • Review Software progress Process
  • Notes 0-1 Phase 1 assigned 2 9/10
  • Introduction, Overview, and Goals of Design
  • UML as required
  • Extreme programming and refactoring
  • Notes 1-3 3 9/17
  • Requirements I: exhaust Cases
  • Notes 13 allotment 1 Presentations;

    Assign angle 2

    4 9/24
  • Requirements II: Sequence Diagrams
  • Notes 13 allotment 2 Phase 1 due; 5 10/1
  • Requirements III:  Completing Domain Classes
  • Writing circumstantial Requirements
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 13 allotment 3

    Larman 10

    6 10/8 Notes 14 allotment 1 Assign angle 3 7 10/22 To be determined Presentations; angle 2 due; 8 10/29
  • Review Design Patterns as required
  • Discussion of Tools
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 4-6 9 11/5
  • Frameworks
  • Review Student Designs
  • Presentations on architectures 10 11/12
  • Design Topics
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 14 allotment 2 Assign angle 4

    Phase 3 due

    11 11/19 Presentations on circumstantial designs 12 11/26
  • Detailed Design
  • Review Student Designs
  • Presentations 13 12/3
  • Implementing OO designs
  • Shlaer-Mellor
  • Presentation of results (1 of 2) 14 12/10
  • Presentations on Finished Applications
  • Phase 4 due Presentation of results (2 of 2)
  • Notes are from Software Design (Braude, to be published by Wiley in March 2002)
  • ** Applying UML and Patterns: … (Larman)
  • Dates Homework is due

    Num-ber Name Due date Project angle 1 9/24 1 “Design Issues” 9/17 1 3.4 (Pass Fail) 9/17 Project angle 2: (10/2/2002

    )

    1.Attach first a copy of your angle 1.  Respond specifically to whatever comments I may suffer made on your angle 1.   You can write these directly on the copy.

    2.

    Show the sequence diagrams for at least the two exhaust cases you suffer introduced.  Key them to the exhaust case steps, which you should number.3.List requirements by “domain class” paragraphs, including

    — The testable functionality that the application will definitely accomplish

    –What you would like to suffer the application accomplish if time permits

    Criterion: a. Requirements clearly written. (A = very transparent description of application’s goals; no detail omitted)

    4.Provide a class diagram for your project consisting of complete of the domain classes as well as the domain packages that you will use.

    Criteria:

    b. Clarity and completeness Sufficiency of key classes for committed requirements and exhaust cases (A = very transparent class meanings; no domain class missing no other domain classes required)

    g. Economy (A = no redundancy at complete in the class model)

    Here are some typical improvements.

    Most margin for improvement

    1.      fabricate your domain names specific to your application; e.g., PetStoreTransaction, FootballGame, FootballTeam rather than Transaction or Game or Team.

    2.      exhaust the “entities” section correctly.  This applies when there are specific entities that the application is required to have. It does not comprise entities that will be created at runtime that you can’t specify entirely at requirements time.

    3.      Many internal classes suffer corresponding GUI classes.  For example, PetStoreAccount entities may come by their data from a PetStoreAccountGUI entity.  Specify the latter in its own category rather than under PetStoreAccount.

    4.      In your requirements, distinguish between the initiator and the gist of functionality.

    For example, under “Courses” a functionality might be “12.1.5 The application shall be able to panoply the catalog description of each course in the following format …”  (Corresponds to class Course).  Under the “Course GUI” paragraph an event might be “When the panoply course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.”  Under the “Student GUI” paragraph an event might be “When the present course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.” Etc.

    Do not snarl “12.1.5 When the panoply course button is pressed on the Course GUI, the application can panoply the catalog description of each course in the following format …”  Otherwise you will suffer a maintenance nightmare and a penniless mapping to the design and implementation.

    5.

    Room for improvement

    1. Most

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    objects are not sensitive to events unless they are GUI objects.  Buttons are examples.  Many objects suffer functionality that may be invoked as a result of an event on an

    other object.  For example, a customer’s information may be displayed when the button is clicked.  But “display” is a duty of Customer: Any one of clients can invoke it, some event-sensitive and others not.  The expostulate with (direct) event reaction is the button, not the customer.

    2. In your requirements document, don’t snarl “The customer shall comprise a name …” (which is irrational English).  Instead: “The application shall maintain the name of customers ….”

    3. Distinguish between objects and expostulate aggregates.  For example, you could suffer a “Customers” requirements paragraph with functionality such as “App shall be able to send a customer profile to the central database.”  This will correspond to a class Customer.  You could besides suffer a “Customer List”  paragraph with functionality such as “It shall be viable to add new customers …”  This will correspond to a class such as CustomerList.

    4. Don’t squander words. In particular, give a sentence or two under each paragraph that adds value.

    NOT:

    1.4 Customers

    This section describes the requirements for customers.

    BUT

    1.4 Customers

    The application shall track the customers of the video store as follows. …

    1.

    10/22 3 Clown problem 10/9/02

    Draw a class model for an application for drawing human figures.  The picture shown is a typical product of the application.  The figures are always neck-upward; mouths are always lines, necks always rectangles, etc. – the shapes that appear in the figure.  Assume that the trade will never change — but they want to be able to easily upgrade the shop’s capability within these constraints (e.g., draw necks with various colors, new kinds of edge lines).  The class model should fabricate pattern drawing convenient (e.g., allowing the retrieval of previously constructed pattern parts). present attributes or operations whenever they clarify your solution.  comprise useful abstractions (but to extend the current business).

    There is no requirement to prefer into account the GUI for the application (icons, menu’s etc.)

    Here is a scenario:

    The user … pulls onto the monitor “abeLincolnFace14” (which excludes the ears and neck)

    … adds “ear123” on the left by dragging to its vicinity and releasing

    The application places ear123 in a correct position

    The user invokes the “complete with suitable parts” command.

    The application

    … completes the pattern with a neck and hat that it considers most suitable.

    … creates an ear on the right, complete with matching position, interior texture and color, and styles of edge lines

    Criteria: a. completeness relative to requirements (A = enough classes for requirements, including preempt generalizations)

    b. economy of classes (A = no more than necessary for requirements)

    10/29 4 14.1 – 14.6 11/5 see more below see below

    Project angle 3: Due 11/12

    1.  Attach a copy of your angle 2 as graded by me, with specific responses to whatever comments I may suffer made on your angle 2.

    2. Provide a class diagram for your project, showing inheritance and aggregation.  present key methods, key dependencies, and inheritance and aggregation.   exhaust your packages and Facades to avoid a lone overwhelming figure.

    3. present at least one additional model that completes your design.

    Criteria:

    a. Clarity of the model (A = very transparent class meanings; very transparent organization; no unnecessary details)

    b. Adequacy of class model for effecting the requirements.  (A= circumstantial enough to clearly allow an implementation that satisfies the requirements.)

    g. Completeness **** of models to specify the entire design. (A=right models selected; clearly no gaps in description)

    Most margin for improvement

    1. If you exhaust a data flow diagram, argue the data types that flow.

    2. If you exhaust a data flow diagram, argue the functionality at each processing node.

    3. In the interest of clarity, present the relationships among the packages.  You can employ <<uses>> relationships.  Omit the classes from such a figure.

    Room for improvement

    1. In this course they did not give sense to solid lines with arrows.  clarify what you connote by them, or don’t exhaust them.

    2. be specific about associations: achieve you connote two-way aggregations?

    3. You suffer introduced a class whose name does not argue a transparent purpose and which is not a domain class.  clarify it’s purpose.

    A tiny margin for improvement

    1. …..

    Project angle 4:     Due 12/10

    Section 1 Attach Phases 2 and 3. Response to my comments on angle 3. ( not graded, but required)

    Section 2 present representative input and output.

    Section 3 clarify the application of complete of the steps covered in the notes — clarify if they did not apply.

    (criterion: a. Clarity and completeness — A = complete apropos steps thoroughly implemented where applicable and explained where not)

    Section 4 Provide a complete class diagram and other preempt model(s), pile on the models you submitted for angle 3.

    (criterion: b. clarity and completeness — A = very clearly chosen and arranged models)

    Section 5 Account of the degree to which you accomplished your requirements as given in angle 2.  tickle refer to them by number (e.g., 11.3.5).

    (criterion: g. degree of accomplishment.  A = excellent functional capabilities for a graduate course)

    Section 6. Source code.

    (d. criterion: clarity — A = extremely transparent layout & code; each allotment easily traceable to the corresponding design element)

    Please …

    note that your class diagrams and code must be consistent;

    indicate complete differences with prior design decisions;

    indicate complete sections using numbered tabs (e.g., Post-it notes)

    Forums — past and present

    Fall 2001

    Fall 2002 email to the group is: 770F02@yahoogroups.com


    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the engage 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very primary reasons. The first is that I continually race across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't connote that you suffer the faculty to transform that lore into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I perceive many data-processing shops send COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and anticipate miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and institute that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second judgement for the emphasis on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people like language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's set Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must advocate the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to be defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and deportment (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an expostulate born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks new to the expostulate world are in attendance, I often exhaust the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the expostulate (which I trust supports a bite operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation name and its input parameter types (the revert type, if any, is not allotment of the operation's signature).

    Good programming drill encourages developers to declare complete attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. pattern 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The pattern uses a common eggshell metaphor to report the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could witness like this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { revert true; } public long calcTotalValue() { revert 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { revert orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { revert orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = new Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a come by and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common drill to provide these accessor-type operations for complete attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to be a JavaBean, it would suffer to suffer "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the method code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try block exists at the cessation of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console panoply to freeze so that you can perceive the results.

    If you ilk in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite progress tool or from the command prompt with

    javac order.java //* to compile it java order //* to race it

    you should come by results that witness like this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0

    NOTE

    Going forward, I plight you will perceive no code samples with class, operation, or refer names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can besides suffer what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would depart prerogative after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any real instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic case of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an expostulate is created with the New keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused case is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level refer can be used to store information that complete instances of that class may access. This refer might be, for example, a weigh of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that complete instances might necessity to reference.

    Java and tangled Types (Java Reference Types)

    A tangled type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to be declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must be defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then be used to store actual expostulate instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder expostulate is created, a message can be sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the faculty to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will perceive that drudgery is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous tale suggested, just aphorism that a language requires everything to be packaged in classes doesn't connote that the class design will be robust, let lonely correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the exhaust of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of ilk Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer expostulate in Java would witness like this:

    myCustomer.calcTotalValue();

    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy passage of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures suffer no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more primary later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this engage rely heavily on classes and the messaging that takes site between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should be done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its faculty to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should achieve so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, complete attributes of a class should be declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can cloak how it derives its refer values. If the orderTotal refer is stored in the Order object, the corresponding come by operation defined previously looks like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would be invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = New Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the refer orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding come by operation for orderTotal within Order will witness like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } revert totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains complete the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will be invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = new Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class still has an orderTotal attribute. However, you suffer hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the same (hey, I suffer an orderTotal that you can anticipate me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they achieve trade has changed and now they must derive orderTotal like this). This kindhearted of resiliency is one of the compelling trade reasons to exhaust an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited judgement for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a transparent distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will be answerable for implementing complete of the method code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no method or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, exhaust the method code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may pick to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each ilk of inheritance should be scrutinized and used in the preempt setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The ground class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The ground class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with tiny or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a great number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the ground class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the delicate ground class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not sojourn common as the trade evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the deportment of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the same operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming suffer gained tremendous momentum.

    As this engage evolves, keeping in intelligence the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will be helpful. Examples of both constructs will be presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to prefer edge of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you suffer two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would still suffer an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize complete attributes and operations defined in Order. This will be done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the faculty to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may besides add completely new deportment if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being answerable for the method code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface be specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous case with Order, let's assume that this system will hold many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that necessity the faculty to price themselves. recollect from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is tiny or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to reckon tax, to reckon an extended price, and to reckon a total price. Let's muster the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and apportion them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the note I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual deportment of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must comprise the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for complete of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any method code for some of the operations, you still must suffer the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the same time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The New Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will achieve for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could snarl that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in name but besides in signatures) but present variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the faculty of two different classes each to suffer an operation that has the same signature, while having two very different forms of method code for the operation. Note that to prefer edge of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must be involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the same name as another routine will antecedent a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might suffer an operation with the same signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application prefer edge of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this engage is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will be a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each ilk of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will be an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the forefather class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would relent the same benefits and be implemented in the same fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and be able to add new products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can fabricate calcEOQ() polymorphic. To achieve this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an forefather class can be treated as an instance of that forefather class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a telling type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will advocate an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to reckon the mediocre economic order quantity for complete products the company sells. To achieve this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to come by each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } revert totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory suffer a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? recollect the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an forefather class can be treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which expostulate should come by its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a new ilk of Product—say, Organ—it will be totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will still suffer a collection of Product types, but it will suffer four different ones instead of three, each of which will suffer its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the expostulate in question will be identified and the correct "variety" of the operation will be invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.



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    References :


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